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Sample records for week in-situ enhancement

  1. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, T. [CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States); Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K. [Surtek, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Enhanced in situ aerobic bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharfe, K. [CleanEARTH Solutions Ltd., Concord, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    An enhanced in situ aerobic bioremediation process was described. The process used microbe supporting emulsifications to enhance bioavailability as well as to attenuate microbe competition and boost microbial production. Microbes were added prior to application and rapidly initiated bioremediation once applied to impacted areas. The microbe supporting emulsifiers were metabolically active. The study showed that exposed surface areas increased as hydrocarbon masses were divided, which in turn increased the water/substrate interface where microbial action occurred. Nutrients were used to ensure that crowding and waste accumulation were attenuated in order to ensure that the speed of growth and reproduction progressed exponentially. Water-carrying bacteria, enzymes and nutrients were adsorbed to the soil's particle surface and then diffused between particles. The sequestered hydrocarbons were then emulsified and removed in order to be bioremediated. It was concluded that biological catalysts were used to increase microbial activity and to trigger anabolic responses in microbes. Details of a biocatalyst laboratory solution analysis were also included. tabs., figs.

  3. Enhancing in situ bioremediation with pneumatic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major technical obstacle affecting the application of in situ bioremediation is the effective distribution of nutrients to the subsurface media. Pneumatic fracturing can increase the permeability of subsurface formations through the injection of high pressure air to create horizontal fracture planes, thus enhancing macro-scale mass-transfer processes. Pneumatic fracturing technology was demonstrated at two field sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Tests were performed to increase the permeability for more effective bioventing, and evaluated the potential to increase permeability and recovery of free product in low permeability soils consisting of fine grain silts, clays, and sedimentary rock. Pneumatic fracturing significantly improved formation permeability by enhancing secondary permeability and by promoting removal of excess soil moisture from the unsaturated zone. Postfracture airflows were 500% to 1,700% higher than prefracture airflows for specific fractured intervals in the formation. This corresponds to an average prefracturing permeability of 0.017 Darcy, increasing to an average of 0.32 Darcy after fracturing. Pneumatic fracturing also increased free-product recovery rates of number 2 fuel from an average of 587 L (155 gal) per month before fracturing to 1,647 L (435 gal) per month after fracturing

  4. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Technology Capsule report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration was conducted...

  5. Contrast enhanced MRI findings of ductal carcinoma in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to describe characteristic contrast enhanced MR mammographic findings of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and also DCIS with microinvasion. From January 2000 to July 2005, 32 women with 33 lesions affected by DCIS or DCIS with microinvasion underwent contrast enhanced MRI, and they were then retrospectively evaluated. All the patients had previously undergone mammography and ultrasonography. All the findings of mammography, ultrasonography (US), and MRI were analyzed by using an ACR BI-RADS lexicon. All 33 cases were enhanced on the enhanced MR images. A smooth margined homogeneous enhanced mass was seen in the two (2/33) cases, and nonmass enhancement was seen in 31 (31/33) cases. Among the non-mass enhancement, focal enhancement (7/31), ductal enhancement (5/31), segmental enhancement (9/31), and regional enhancement (10/31) were observed. On the kinetic study, a wash-out pattern (10/33), a plateau pattern (20/33), and a persistent pattern (3/33) were demonstrated. No significant differences were noted between the pure and microinvasive DCIS. There is no significant difference between pure and microinvasive DCIS. However, contrast enhanced MR images can demonstrate occult foci, multifocal lesion and the tumor extent of DCIS on mammogram or ultrasonogram

  6. IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration...

  7. IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC., - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration...

  8. Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate ampersand Treat (E ampersand T), and Pump ampersand Treat (P ampersand T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios

  9. The ductal carcinoma in situ in contrast enhanced dynamic MR mammography: Morphology and signal enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The detectability with magnetic resonance mammography (MR-M) of non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), its morphology, and patterns of contrast enhancement were studied. Material and methods: A total of 849 MR-M examinations were performed in 741 patients using a dynamic, contrast-enhanced FLASH 3D sequence at 1.0 T. Surgical breast biopsies were obtained in 332 cases. Histological work-up confirmed 164 carcinomas, including 20 DCIS. Results: Of 20 DCIS, 14 were correctly diagnosed by MR-M on the basis of focal increase of signal intensity. In two cases (10%), no increase of signal intensity was observed. In another three cases (15%), multifocal enhancement lead to a false-negative diagnosis. In one case (5%), DCIS was a random finding in a patient diagnosed and treated for adjacent phylloides tumour. The sensitivity of MR-M was 70%. 4 (20%) of the DCIS did not show microcalcifications at conventional mammography and were only detected at MR-M. The sensitivity of conventional mammography also amounted to 70%. However, the combination of both imaging methods increased sensitivity to 90%. (orig./AJ)

  10. An integrated numerical and physical modeling system for an enhanced in situ bioremediation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater contamination due to releases of petroleum products is a major environmental concern in many urban districts and industrial zones. Over the past years, a few studies were undertaken to address in situ bioremediation processes coupled with contaminant transport in two- or three-dimensional domains. However, they were concentrated on natural attenuation processes for petroleum contaminants or enhanced in situ bioremediation processes in laboratory columns. In this study, an integrated numerical and physical modeling system is developed for simulating an enhanced in situ biodegradation (EISB) process coupled with three-dimensional multiphase multicomponent flow and transport simulation in a multi-dimensional pilot-scale physical model. The designed pilot-scale physical model is effective in tackling natural attenuation and EISB processes for site remediation. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed system is effective in modeling the EISB process, and can thus be used for investigating the effects of various uncertainties. - An integrated modeling system was developed to enhance in situ bioremediation processes

  11. Enhancement of in situ microbial remediation of aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Brockman, F.J.; Streile, G.P.; Cary, J.W.; McBride, J.F.

    1993-11-30

    Methods are provided for remediating subsurface areas contaminated by toxic organic compounds. An innocuous oil, such as vegetable oil, mineral oil, or other immiscible organic liquid, is introduced into the contaminated area and permitted to move therethrough. The oil concentrates or strips the organic contaminants, such that the concentration of the contaminants is reduced and such contaminants are available to be either pumped out of the subsurface area or metabolized by microorganisms. Microorganisms may be introduced into the contaminated area to effect bioremediation of the contamination. The methods may be adapted to deliver microorganisms, enzymes, nutrients and electron donors to subsurface zones contaminated by nitrate in order to stimulate or enhance denitrification. 4 figures.

  12. Application Research of Enhanced in-situ micro-ecological Remediation for Oil Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the oil content in soil contaminated by the exploitation of oil field in Zhongyuan District that was then recovered for use has been realized in this paper, through the enhanced in-situ micro-ecological remediation method that is micro-ecological remediation technique, by which the cultivation of alfalfa is combined with the regulation of soil environmental factors by means of the enhanced in-situ microbial communities companied with physical and chemical means. The experimental results showed that the oil contents in the contaminated soil with the average 2898.25 mg/kg can be reduced to about 99.37% after the in-situ micro-ecological remediation after the above mentioned recovery for 99 days, which demonstrated the effectiveness of the in-situ micro-ecological remediation methods for oil contaminated soil in this district, meanwhile, the practical and feasible application of these methods have been explored in this paper.

  13. Enhancing the design of in situ chemical barriers with multicomponent reactive transport modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the need for systematic control of field-scale performance in the emplacement and operation of in situ chemical treatment barriers; in particular, it addresses the issue of how the local coupling of reaction kinetics and material heterogeneities at the laboratory or bench scale can be accurately upscaled to the field. The authors have recently developed modeling analysis tools that can explicitly account for all relevant chemical reactions that accompany the transport of reagents and contaminants through a chemically and physically heterogeneous subsurface rock or soil matrix. These tools are incorporated into an enhanced design methodology for in situ chemical treatment technologies, and the new methodology is demonstrated in the ongoing design of a field experiment for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) project at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The ISRM design approach, which systematically integrates bench-scale and site characterization information, provides an ideal test for the new reactive transport techniques. The need for the enhanced chemistry capability is demonstrated by an example that shows how intra-aqueous redox kinetics can affect the transport of reactive solutes. Simulations are carried out on massively parallel computer architectures to resolve the influence of multiscale heterogeneities on multicomponent, multidimensional reactive transport. The technology will soon be available to design larger-scale remediation schemes

  14. IPCS: An integrated process control system for enhanced in-situ bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, there has been little or no research related to process control of subsurface remediation systems. In this study, a framework to develop an integrated process control system for improving remediation efficiencies and reducing operating costs was proposed based on physical and numerical models, stepwise cluster analysis, non-linear optimization and artificial neural networks. Process control for enhanced in-situ bioremediation was accomplished through incorporating the developed forecasters and optimizers with methods of genetic algorithm and neural networks modeling. Application of the proposed approach to a bioremediation process in a pilot-scale system indicated that it was effective in dynamic optimization and real-time process control of the sophisticated bioremediation systems. - A framework of process control system was developed to improve in-situ bioremediation efficiencies and reducing operating costs

  15. Changes in normal and abnormal colony formation of thyroid cells in vivo, when transplanted at 1 day or 6 weeks after X-irradiation in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cells were given 5.5 Gy X-rays in situ and transplanted after 1 day or after 6 weeks to form colonies in fat pads. The colony-forming efficiency unexpectedly decreased by a factor of about 2 with this increase in delay time before transplantation. In addition, there was a concomitant marked increase above the control levels in the proportion of new structures of thyroid origin containing abnormal follicles. These quantitative and qualitative increases in injury may be related to the gradual expression of thyroid abnormalities following irradiation in situ, and they may have implications for the recovery of functional tissue subunits in other organs. (author)

  16. The ductal carcinoma in situ in contrast enhanced dynamic MR mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To define the value of contrast-enhanced MR mammography in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). In a group of 35 patients with DCIS, the results of MR imaging were compared to histopathology and immunohistochemistry in a retrospective study. In 35 patients with DCIS, a signal enhancement was found in 25 cases (72%). In 15 of these cases, the signal time curve was typical for malignancy. The other 10 patients had non-specific signal curves. Six of 35 patients (11%) had no enhancement within the tumour region. Four of 35 patients (11%) had bilateral diffuse signal increase, and regions of DCIS could not be identified clearly. Three DCIS were visualised exclusively by MR mammography. The configuration of signal enhancement was sharp (32%), unsharp (48%) or dendritic (20%). DCIS of the comedo type showed a significantly higher enhancement than the non-comedo type. A significant correlation between the grade of vascularisation in immunohistochemistry and signal enhancement in MR mammography could not be demonstrated. Dynamic MR mammography does not reliably visualise DCIS. (orig.)

  17. Observations of in-situ generated gravity waves during a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Gerrard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Observations of in-situ generated atmospheric gravity waves associated with a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE are presented. Two sets of gravity waves are observed by molecular-aerosol lidar in conjunction with the early December 2000 STE event above Sondrestrom, Greenland. The first set of gravity waves shows downward phase progression with a vertical wavelength of ~8 km while the second set shows upward phase progression with a vertical wavelength of ~9 km. With estimates of the background wind fields from synoptic analyses, the various intrinsic gravity wave parameters of these two wave structures are found. The observed waves compare well to numerical modeling predictions, though the potential observation of a downward propagating wave would be unexpected.

  18. In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert T. (Livermore, CA); Jackson, Kenneth J. (San Leandro, CA); Duba, Alfred G. (Livermore, CA); Chen, Ching-I (Danville, CA)

    1998-01-01

    An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating.

  19. Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathe, Mandar; Xu, Dikai; Hsieh, Tien-Lin; Simpson, James; Statnick, Robert; Tong, Andrew; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-12-31

    This document is the final report for the project titled “Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture” under award number FE0012136 for the performance period 10/01/2013 to 12/31/2014.This project investigates the novel Ohio State chemical looping gasification technology for high efficiency, cost efficiency coal gasification for IGCC and methanol production application. The project developed an optimized oxygen carrier composition, demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and completed cold-flow model studies. WorleyParsons completed a techno-economic analysis which showed that for a coal only feed with carbon capture, the OSU CLG technology reduced the methanol required selling price by 21%, lowered the capital costs by 28%, increased coal consumption efficiency by 14%. Further, using the Ohio State Chemical Looping Gasification technology resulted in a methanol required selling price which was lower than the reference non-capture case.

  20. Microbial and Chemical Enhancement of In-Situ Carbon Mineralization in Geological Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matter, J.; Chandran, K.

    2013-05-31

    Predictions of global energy usage suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere unless major changes are made to the way energy is produced and used. Various carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are currently being developed, but unfortunately little is known regarding the fundamental characteristics of CO{sub 2}-mineral reactions to allow a viable in-situ carbon mineralization that would provide the most permanent and safe storage of geologically-injected CO{sub 2}. The ultimate goal of this research project was to develop a microbial and chemical enhancement scheme for in-situ carbon mineralization in geologic formations in order to achieve long-term stability of injected CO{sub 2}. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of CO{sub 2}-mineral-brine systems were systematically performed to develop the in-situ mineral carbonation process that utilizes organic acids produced by a microbial reactor. The major participants in the project are three faculty members and their graduate and undergraduate students at the School of Engineering and Applied Science and at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University: Alissa Park in Earth and Environmental Engineering & Chemical Engineering (PI), Juerg Matter in Earth and Environmental Science (Co-PI), and Kartik Chandran in Earth and Environmental Engineering (Co-PI). Two graduate students, Huangjing Zhao and Edris Taher, were trained as a part of this project as well as a number of graduate students and undergraduate students who participated part-time. Edris Taher received his MS degree in 2012 and Huangjing Zhao will defend his PhD on Jan. 15th, 2014. The interdisciplinary training provided by this project was valuable to those students who are entering into the workforce in the United States. Furthermore, the findings from this study were and will be published in referred journals to disseminate the results. The list of the papers is given at the end of the report for reference.

  1. Field test for treatment verification of an in-situ enhanced bioremediation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to a leakage from a 12-inch pressurized diesel steel pipe four years ago, an area of approximately 30,000 square meters was contaminated. A pilot study applying the technology of in-situ enhanced bioremediation was conducted. In the study, a field test kit and on-site monitoring equipment were applied for site characterization and treatment verification. Physically, the enhanced bioremediation study consisted of an air extraction and air supply system, and a nutrition supply network. Certain consistent sampling methodology was employed. Progress was verified by daily monitoring and monthly verification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capabilities of indigenous microorganisms to biodegrade the petroleum hydrocarbons with provision of oxygen and nutrients. Nine extraction wells and eight air sparging wells were installed. The air sparging wells injected the air into geoformation and the extraction wells provided the underground air circulation. The soil samples were obtained monthly for treatment verification by a Minuteman drilling machine with 2.5-foot-long hollow-stem augers. The samples were analyzed on site for TPH-diesel concentration by a field test kit manufactured by HNU-Hanby, Houston, Texas. The analytical results from the field test kit were compared with the results from an environmental laboratory. The TVPH concentrations of the air extracted from the vadose zone by a vacuum blower and the extraction wells were routinely monitored by aaction wells were routinely monitored by a Foxboro FID and Cosmos XP-311A combustible air detector. The daily monitoring of TVPH concentrations provided the reliable data for assessing the remedial progress

  2. Photonic Crystal Biosensor with In-Situ Synthesized DNA Probes for Enhanced Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shuren [Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Zhao, Y. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Weiss, Sharon [Vanderbilt University, Nashville

    2013-01-01

    We report on a nearly 8-fold increase in multi-hole defect photonic crystal biosensor response by incorporating in-situ synthesis of DNA probes, as compared to the conventional functionalization method employing pre-synthesized DNA probe immobilization.

  3. Enhanced utilization of oxidants for in situ chemical oxidation of chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Namgoo

    Potentially viable strategies were sought for enhanced utilization of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and Fenton's reagent during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). An innovative concept of controlled release of oxidant was introduced and organic-coated, completely or partially microencapsulated KMnO4 (MEPP) particles (874 +/- 377 mum) were created to serve a material that can be specifically targeted to a contaminant source zone. Paraffin wax was employed as the coating material because it is biodegradable, inert to KMnO4, insoluble in water and yet soluble in hydrophobic contaminants such as perchloroethylene (PCE). KMnO4 was released very slowly into water, but the oxidant was rapidly released into PCE. The estimated times for 90% release of the oxidant were 1.6 months, 19.3 years, and 472 years for paraffin wax to KMnO4 mass ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 5:1, respectively. The MEPP particles preferentially accumulated at the PCE-water interface, and the KMnO4 was rapidly released into PCE (wax completely dissolved. These findings suggest that enhanced contact between the target contaminant and the locally high concentrations of KMnO 4 could be achieved at the interfacial region between PCE and water. Fenton's oxidative destruction was investigated for aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene; BTEX) present as dissolved and adsorbed phases, and chlorinated hydrocarbon (PCE) present mostly as dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) (>93% of total PCE mass) in batch reactors (soil: solution = 1 g/L). An enhanced mass removal was observed by combining 300 mM H2O2, 2 mM Fe(III) and 2 mM N-(2-hydroxyethyl)iminodiacetic acid (HEIDA) at near-neutral pH. The PCE degradation was maximal at 600 mM H2O2, 5 mM Fe(III) and 5 mM HEIDA at pH 3. The observed BTEX mass removal rate constants (3.6--7.8 x 10-4 s-1) were compared to the estimated ones (4.1--10.1 x 10-3 s-1) using a semi-quantitative kinetic model. The model sensitivity analyses indicate that iron oxides and soil organic matter could play important roles in the non-specific losses of both H 2O2 and ·OH. These findings suggest that system design could be optimized with respect to process variables in remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater with Fenton's reagent.

  4. CNTs in situ attached to ?-Fe2O3 submicron spheres for enhancing lithium storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guo; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Qiu, Peiyu; Sun, Rongjin; Yin, Ting; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-01-14

    In this work, we developed a facile hydrothermal method for synthesis of hybrid ?-Fe2O3-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) architectures (?-Fe2O3-CNTs-1 and ?-Fe2O3-CNTs-2). The CNTs are in situ attached to the ?-Fe2O3 submicron spheres and form three-dimensional network robust architectures. The increase in the amount of CNTs in the network ?-Fe2O3-CNTs architectures will significantly enhance the cycling and rate performance, as the flexible and robust CNTs could ensure the fast electron transport pathways, enhance the electronic conductivity, and improve the structural stability of the electrode. As for pure ?-Fe2O3 submicron spheres, the capacity decreased significantly and retained at 377.4 mAh g(-1) after 11 cycles, and the capacity has a slightly increasing trend at the following cycling. In contrast, the network ?-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 electrode shows the most remarkable performance. At the 60th cycle, the capacity of network ?-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 (764.5 mAh g(-1)) is 1.78 times than that of ?-Fe2O3 submicron spheres (428.3 mAh g(-1)). The long-term cycling performance (1000 cycles) of samples at a high current density of 5 C showed that the capacity of ?-Fe2O3 submicron spheres fade to ?37.3 mAh g(-1) at the 400th cycle and gradually increased to ?116.7 mAh g(-1) at the 1000th cycle. The capacity of network ?-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 maintained at ?220.2 mAh g(-1) before the 400th cycle, arrived at ?326.5 mAh g(-1) in the 615th, cycle and retained this value until 1000th cycle. The network ?-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 composite could significantly enhance the cycling and rate performance than pure ?-Fe2O3 submicron spheres composite. PMID:25490394

  5. In-situ monitoring of potential enhanced DNA related processes using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (EQCM-D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Xueling; Heiskanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The effect of applied potential pulses on DNA functionalization (thiolated single stranded DNA) and hybridization processes has been monitored in-situ on gold surfaces using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (EQCM-D). The applied potentials were chosen with respect to the potential of zero charge (Epzc) of the gold surfaces: a positive potential to attract the negatively charged DNA molecules and a negative potential to enhance the vertical alignment due to electrostatic repulsion. The obtained results clearly show that both DNA modification and hybridization are strongly enhanced by applying potential pulses. Based on the EQCM-D results, we present a model to explain the influence of the potential pulsing. Aside fromthe effect of applied potentials on DNA related processes, this work also demonstrates the versatility of the combination of electrochemistry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation in facilitating real-time in situ monitoring of such processes.

  6. Enhanced spectroscopic gas sensors using in-situ grown carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, A.; Cole, M. T.; Hopper, R. H.; Boual, S.; Warner, J. H.; Robertson, A. R.; Ali, S. Z.; Udrea, F.; Gardner, J. W.; Milne, W. I.

    2015-05-01

    In this letter, we present a fully complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible microelectromechanical system thermopile infrared (IR) detector employing vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) as an advanced nano-engineered radiation absorbing material. The detector was fabricated using a commercial silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process with tungsten metallization, comprising a silicon thermopile and a tungsten resistive micro-heater, both embedded within a dielectric membrane formed by a deep-reactive ion etch following CMOS processing. In-situ CNT growth on the device was achieved by direct thermal chemical vapour deposition using the integrated micro-heater as a micro-reactor. The growth of the CNT absorption layer was verified through scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The functional effects of the nanostructured ad-layer were assessed by comparing CNT-coated thermopiles to uncoated thermopiles. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy showed that the radiation absorbing properties of the CNT adlayer significantly enhanced the absorptivity, compared with the uncoated thermopile, across the IR spectrum (3 ?m-15.5 ?m). This led to a four-fold amplification of the detected infrared signal (4.26 ?m) in a CO2 non-dispersive-IR gas sensor system. The presence of the CNT layer was shown not to degrade the robustness of the uncoated devices, whilst the 50% modulation depth of the detector was only marginally reduced by 1.5 Hz. Moreover, we find that the 50% normalized absorption angular profile is subsequently more collimated by 8°. Our results demonstrate the viability of a CNT-based SOI CMOS IR sensor for low cost air quality monitoring.

  7. A competitive photoelectrochemical assay for estradiol based on in situ generated CdS-enhanced TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongxia; Liu, Yixin; Yan, Tao; Li, Yueyun; Cao, Wei; Wei, Qin; Du, Bin

    2015-04-15

    A novel and simple photoelectrochemical (PEC) bioassay protocol for estradiol was proposed based on in situ generated CdS-enhanced TiO2 film via competitive strategy. The CdS was generated in situ by immediately dropping S(2-) onto the Cd(2+)-functionalized titanium phosphate nanoparticles (TiP@Cd(2+)). The TiO2 photoactive sensing film with countless active sites was obtained by calcination and further explored for estradiol (E2) capture. The TiP@Cd(2+) was used as labels and immobilized through affinity-specific binding with E2 on the surface of the electrode. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved by using porous TiP nanoparticles as carriers to load a large amount of Cd(2+) and further for more CdS production through the S(2-) deposition. What's more, the photocurrent of CdS generated on the electrode surface could be significantly amplified by the coupling of CdS and TiO2, which could enhance the excitation and photo-to-electric conversion efficiency. Through the application of a competitive binding assay, the proposed biosensor showed high sensitivity with a detection limit down to 2pg/mL. This simple and fast PEC E2-sensing approach offers great promise to extend its application for the assay of small molecules of biomedical, food and environmental interest. Additionally, the strategy of employing in situ generated narrow-band gap semiconductors paves a new way for PEC sensing. PMID:25530540

  8. Enhanced catalytic performance of carbon supported palladium nanoparticles by in-situ synthesis for formic acid electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shikui; Li, Guoqiang; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The development of facile, surfactant-free strategy for the scale-up production of catalysts with superior performance for energy science is an interesting challenge. Pd/C is synthesized using an in-situ method from PdO/C for formic acid electrooxidation based on the reducibility of formic acid. The morphology, composition and electrocatalytic properties are investigated using transmission electronmicroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, linear scan voltammograms (LSV) and chronoamperometry. The in-situ synthesized Pd nanoparticles show better distribution and smaller average particle size than the normally synthesized Pd/C, which indicates that the well-known Ostwald ripening is most limited in the synthesis process. The electrochemical measurements show that the Pd/C catalyst exhibits enhanced performance towards formic acid electrooxidation. For example, the peak current of the Pd/C catalyst is approximately three times that of the homemade Pd/C catalyst and twice as high as that of the commercial Pd/C catalyst in the LSV test. The in-situ synthesized Pd/C catalyst has potential application for direct formic acid fuel cells, and the in-situ route should be an effective strategy to synthesize high performance catalysts.

  9. IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column returned to aerobic conditions, but the concentration later returned to below the clean-up level. Speciation analysis was conducted on soil collected from the treated column after rebound testing. The experimental results show that: (a) The mass of uranium resolubilized in more than four months of column testing was much lower than the amount precipitated. (b) The majority of the uranium was precipitated in the first few inches of the treated column. The majority of the uranium precipitated was associated with iron oxides or in other immobile/sequestered phases. It is important to contrast this result with the results reported by Bryan (2003) who shows that most of the uranium associated with contaminated aquifer solids at Fernald under the existing natural attenuation/pump and treat with reinjection conditions is carbonate bound. Carbonate bound forms are traditionally seen as fairly mobile, but may not be under a calcite/dolomite saturated condition. Fernald is currently conducting further studies to investigate the mobility of the carbonate bound forms. (c) Though reoxidation concentrations from the bench-scale column exceeded 30 {micro}g/L for a time, they later returned to below this value. Effluent concentrations from the treated column are expected to over predict full-scale concentrations for reasons discussed in depth in the text. Finally, these results must be viewed in light of the site's ongoing pump-and-treat with reinjection system. There is reason to believe that although the pump-and-treat technology is currently effectively controlling the uranium plume and reducing the groundwater concentration, it may not be able to reach the treatment standard of 30 {micro}g/L within an economical operating lifetime and then maintain that concentration without rebound. This study suggests that Enhanced Anaerobic Reductive Precipitation can change the speciation and thus reduce the mobility of uranium at the site and expedite closure.

  10. In Situ Chemical Oxidative Polymerization Preparation of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Graphene Nanocomposites with Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kongli; Chen, Guangming; Qiu, Dong

    2015-05-01

    Three different in situ chemical oxidative polymerization routes, that is, (A) spin-coating and subsequent liquid layer polymerization, (B) spin-coating followed by vapor phase polymerization, and (C) in situ polymerization and then post-treatment by immersion in ethylene glycol (EG), have been developed to achieve poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/reduced graphene oxide (PEDOT/rGO) nanocomposites. As demonstrated by scanning electron microscopic and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic techniques, PEDOT has been successfully coated on the surface of the rGO nanosheets by each of the three preparation routes. Importantly, all of the nanocomposites display a greatly enhanced thermoelectric performance (power factors) relative to those of the corresponding neat PEDOT. PMID:25644023

  11. SETTING DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR THERMALLY ENHANCED, IN SITU REMEDIATION PROJECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The design and implementation of an in-situ technology requires an up-front and clear understanding of the remedial objectives of the technology application and the data that will be collected to track the progress of remediation and to assess the ultimate success of in-sit...

  12. Enhanced quantum yield of nitrogen fixation for hydrogen storage with in situ-formed carbonaceous radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weirong; Xi, Haiping; Zhang, Meng; Li, Yajun; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Xi

    2015-03-21

    NH3 is a potential hydrogen energy carrier. Here we use alcohols as hole scavengers to investigate the nitrogen photofixation mechanisms including direct and indirect electron transfer processes. The t-butanol system exhibited the highest quantum yield of 36.1%, ascribing to the in situ-formed indirect electronic transmitter ?CO2(-). PMID:25704549

  13. Label-free in-situ monitoring of protein tyrosine nitration in blood by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Ting; Li, Da-Wei; Cao, Yue; Long, Yi-Tao

    2015-07-15

    A novel label-free method for the in-situ monitoring of protein tyrosine nitration (PTN) was explored based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Benefiting from the relative weak binding ability of sulfate to silver surface, the Raman signals of nitrated peptides were boosted well with sulfate-aggregated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The distinction of the SERS spectra between non-nitrated peptides and nitrated peptides was obtained by directly comparing SERS bands at 330-400cm(-1), allowing the rapid identification of PTN. Furthermore, without any pretreatments, the established method was successfully applied in the rapid in-situ dynamic monitoring of the mimic hemin-catalyzed PTN process in synthetic peptide, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and original human blood serum samples. The results indicated that the proposed approach could be a promising in-situ label-free tool for observing PTN process, which may be quite helpful to deeply understand the mechanism of post-translation modification. PMID:25703723

  14. In situ nitrogen-doped graphene grown from polydimethylsiloxane by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chundong; Zhou, Yungang; He, Lifang; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Hong, Guo; Wu, Qi-Hui; Gao, Fei; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Wenjun

    2013-01-21

    Due to its unique electronic properties and wide spectrum of promising applications, graphene has attracted much attention from scientists in various fields. Control and engineering of graphene’s semiconducting properties is considered to be the key of its applications in electronic devices. Here, we report a novel method to prepare in situ nitrogen-doped graphene by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) as a solid carbon source. Based on this approach, the concentration of nitrogen-doping can be easily controlled via the flow rate of nitrogen during the CVD process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the nitrogen atoms doped into graphene lattice were mainly in the forms of pyridinic and pyrrolic structures. Moreover, first-principles calculations show that the incorporated nitrogen atoms can lead to p-type doping of graphene. This in situ approach provides a promising strategy to prepare graphene with controlled electronic properties.

  15. Emulsion compression and coalescence under enhanced gravity studied with in-situ microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, T.; Slot, J.J.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Hoeijmakers, H.W.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of experiments and numerical calculations of compression and coalescence in a monodisperse oil-in-water emulsion upon centrifugation. A custom-built setup allows in-situ monitoring of a rotating bilayer of emulsion droplets using an optical microscope. The oil volume fraction in a compressed layer of oil droplets stabilized against coalescence was measured experimentally as a function of time for different radial accelerations. The sedimentation was simulated using CFD i...

  16. Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: In situ FTIR investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalyst on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO2 is produced as the final product during the reaction process. Highlights: ? Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI photocatalysts showed enhanced photocatalytic activity. ? Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. ? CO2 was produced as the final product during the reaction process. ? The high efficiency of charge separation was mainly ascribed to the hybrid effect. - Abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalysts on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irf benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO2 is determined as the final product during the reaction process.

  17. Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: In situ FTIR investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yu [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Zhao, Qidong [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Yuan, Deling; Hou, Yang [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Shaomin, E-mail: shaomin.liu@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2012-11-30

    Graphical abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalyst on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} is produced as the final product during the reaction process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI photocatalysts showed enhanced photocatalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} was produced as the final product during the reaction process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high efficiency of charge separation was mainly ascribed to the hybrid effect. - Abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalysts on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} is determined as the final product during the reaction process.

  18. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities of Ag3PO4/MWCNT nanocomposites fabricated by facile in situ precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ag3PO4/MWCNT composites were facilely fabricated via in situ precipitation method. • Ag3PO4/MWCNT composites exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • Ag3PO4/MWCNT composites showed good photostability compared with Ag3PO4 particles. • Possible photocatalytic mechanism under visible-light irradiation was proposed. - Abstract: The Ag3PO4/MWCNT nanocomposites were facilely fabricated via in situ precipitation method by adding (NH4)2HPO4 into the mixture of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and AgNO3 solution under stirring. The as-prepared Ag3PO4/MWCNT nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area (BET) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The TEM results showed that the Ag3PO4 nanoparticles were distributed on the surface of MWCNT uniformly with an average diameter of 70 nm, indicating excellent loading result. The photocatalytic activities of Ag3PO4/MWCNT nanocomposites were investigated by degrading methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) under visible-light irradiation. It was found that the Ag3PO4/MWCNT nanocomposite exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance with enhanced photocatalytic efficiency and good photostability compared with bare Ag3PO4. Furthermore, a possible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative degradation was also discussed

  19. Challenges of "going nano": enhanced electrochemical performance of cobalt oxide nanoparticles by carbothermal reduction and in situ carbon coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresser, Dominic; Paillard, Elie; Niehoff, Philip; Krueger, Steffen; Mueller, Franziska; Winter, Martin; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-07-21

    The electrochemical performance of nano- and micron-sized Co(3)O(4) is investigated, highlighting the substantial influence of the specific surface area on the obtainable specific capacities as well as the cycling stability. In fact, Co(3)O(4) materials with a high surface area (i.e. a small particle size) show superior specific features, which are, however, accompanied by a rapid capacity fading, owing to the increased formation of an insulating polymeric surface film that results from transition-metal-catalyzed electrolyte decomposition. The simultaneous coating with carbon of Co(3)O(4) nanoparticles and in situ reduction of the Co(3)O(4) by a carbothermal route yields a CoO-Co-C nanocomposite. The formation of this material substantially enhances the long-term cycling stability and coulombic efficiency of the lithium-ion active material used. Although the metallic cobalt enhances the electronic conductivity within the electrode and remains electrochemically inactive (as revealed by in situ powder X-ray diffraction analysis), it might have a detrimental effect on the long-term cycling stability by catalytically inducing continuous electrolyte decomposition. PMID:24723308

  20. A capillary-based probe for in situ detection of enhanced fluorescence signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, compact, and high sensitivity capillary-based probe for the in situ detection of fluorescence signals with high sensitivity is demonstrated. A home-made single–multi-mode fiber coupler that is coaxially aligned with the capillary-based probe provides for the transmission of excitation light and the collection and transmission of fluorescence. We propose a conceptually straightforward theoretical model to optimize the factors affecting the fluorescence-capture capability of the capillary-based probe. The fluorescence signal detected by fiber-optic spectroscopy non-linearly increases with the length of the capillary-based probe. In addition, the thicker the capillary tube wall is, the less the fluorescence signals determined are. The performance of the proposed probe is evaluated experimentally by measuring the fluorescence spectra of Cy5.5 dye and blue-green algae. The experimental results show that the proposed probe provides more than a ten-fold increase in fluorescence signal compared with direct measurements by a flat-tipped multi-mode fiber probe. The advantages of the capillary-based probe, which include its simple and compact structure, excellent light collection efficiency, requirement of small sample volume, and recoverability of samples, allow its wide application to in situ detection in the medical, forensic, biological, geological, and environmental fields with high sensitivity. (letter)

  1. In-Situ Fabrication of Expanded Graphite-Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite with Enhanced Thermal Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D expanded graphite-carbon nanotube (EG-CNT nanocomposite was prepared by in situ growing CNTs between graphite layers in thermally expanded graphite. The morphology and microstructure of the nanocomoposite were characterized by SEM, TEM, Raman and XRD analyses, respectively. The results show that intimately contacted EG-CNT interface has been formed within the multilayered composite architecture. Furthermore, paraffin was used as a filler to occupy the free spaces of the EG-CNT nanocomposite for thermal application. The as-obtained composite structure is inclined to conduct heat isotropically and shows a thermal conductivity higher than 10 W/m·K at a paraffin loading of 49 wt.%, which indicates that EG-CNT nanocomposite could be promising candidates for thermal management in electronic package.

  2. In-situ formation and immobilization of biogenic nanopalladium into anaerobic granular sludge enhances azo dyes degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xiangchun; Zhang, Xin; Xu, Hengduo

    2015-07-01

    Azo dyes are toxic and recalcitrant wastewater pollutants. An innovative technology based on biogenic nanopalladium (Bio-Pd) supported anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was developed for azo dyes reduction. In-situ formation of Bio-Pd in the AGS was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The Pd associated AGS (Pd-AGS) showed enhanced decolorization rates to the three azo dyes of Congo Red, Evans Blue and Orange II, with the degradation kinetic constants increased by 2.3-10 fold compared to the control AGS in the presence of electron donor formate. Impacts of different electron donors on Orange II decolorization were further investigated. Results showed that formic acid, formate, acetate, glucose, ethanol and lactate could serve as electron and hydrogen donors to stimulate Orange II decolorization by the Pd-AGS, and their activities followed the order: formic acid > formate > ethanol > glucose > lactate > acetate. Most of the Bio-Pd was bound with microbes in the AGS with a small fraction in the extracellular polymer substances (EPS). Transmission Electronic Microscopy analysis revealed that the Bio-Pd formed in the periplasmic space, cytoplasm and on the cell walls of bacteria. This study provides a new concept for azo dye reduction, which couples sludge microbial degradation ability with Bio-Pd catalytic ability via in-situ formation and immobilization of Bio-Pd into AGS, and offers an alternative for the current azo dye treatment technology. PMID:25912251

  3. Steam hydration-reactivation of FBC ashes for enhanced in situ desulphurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabio Montagnaro; Marianna Nobili; Antonio Telesca; Gian Lorenz Valenti; Edward J. Anthony; Piero Salatino [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dipartimento di Chimica

    2009-06-15

    Bed and fly ashes originating from industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) were steam hydrated to produce sorbents suitable for further in situ desulphurization. Samples of the hydrated ash were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and porosimetry. Bed ashes were hydrated in a pressure bomb for 30 and 60 min at 200{sup o}C and 250{sup o}C. Fly ash was hydrated in an electrically heated tubular reactor for 10 and 60 min at 200{sup o}C and 300{sup o}C. The results were interpreted by considering the hydration process and the related development of accessible porosity suitable for resulphation. The performance of the reactivated bed ash as sulphur sorbent improved with a decrease of both the hydration temperature and time. For reactivated fly ash, more favourable porosimetric features were observed at longer treatment times and lower hydration temperatures. Finally, it was shown that an ashing treatment (at 850{sup o}C for 20 min) promoted a speeding up of the hydration process and an increase in the accessible porosity. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Enhancing RHIC luminosity capabilities with in-situ beam piple coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschcovitch,A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Poole, H. J.

    2009-05-04

    Electron clouds have been observed in many accelerators, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). They can limit the machine performance through pressure degradation, beam instabilities or incoherent emittance growth. The formation of electron clouds can be suppressed with beam pipe surfaces that have low secondary electron yield. At the same time, high wall resistivity in accelerators can result in levels of ohmic heating unacceptably high for superconducting magnets. This is a concern for the RHIC machine, as its vacuum chamber in the superconducting dipoles is made from relatively high resistivity 316LN stainless steel. The high resistivity can be addressed with a copper (Cu) coating; a reduction in the secondary electron yield can be achieved with a titanium nitride (TiN) or amorphous carbon (a-C) coating. Applying such coatings in an already constructed machine is rather challenging. We started developing a robotic plasma deposition technique for in-situ coating of long, small diameter tubes. The technique entails fabricating a device comprised of staged magnetrons and/or cathodic arcs mounted on a mobile mole for deposition of about 5 {micro}m (a few skin depths) of Cu followed by about 0.1 {micro}m of TiN (or a-C).

  5. Enhancing RHIC luminosity capabilities with in-situ beam pipe coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron clouds have been observed in many accelerators, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). They can limit the machine performance through pressure degradation, beam instabilities or incoherent emittance growth. The formation of electron clouds can be suppressed with beam pipe surfaces that have low secondary electron yield. At the same time, high wall resistivity in accelerators can result in levels of ohmic heating unacceptably high for superconducting magnets. This is a concern for the RHIC machine, as its vacuum chamber in the superconducting dipoles is made from relatively high resistivity 316LN stainless steel. The high resistivity can be addressed with a copper (Cu) coating; a reduction in the secondary electron yield can be achieved with a titanium nitride (TiN) or amorphous carbon (a-C) coating. Applying such coatings in an already constructed machine is rather challenging. We started developing a robotic plasma deposition technique for in-situ coating of long, small diameter tubes. The technique entails fabricating a device comprised of staged magnetrons and/or cathodic arcs mounted on a mobile mole for deposition of about 5 (micro)m (a few skin depths) of Cu followed by about 0.1 (micro)m of TiN (or a-C)

  6. Semi-continuous in situ magnetic separation for enhanced extracellular protease productionmodeling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerff, M.; Scholz, A.

    2013-01-01

    In modern biotechnology proteases play a major role as detergent ingredients. Especially the production of extracellular protease by Bacillus species facilitates downstream processing because the protease can be directly harvested from the biosuspension. In situ magnetic separation (ISMS) constitutes an excellent adsorptive method for efficient extracellular protease removal during cultivation. In this work, the impact of semi?continuous ISMS on the overall protease yield has been investigated. Results reveal significant removal of the protease from Bacillus licheniformis cultivations. Bacitracin?functionalized magnetic particles were successfully applied, regenerated and reused up to 30 times. Immediate reproduction of the protease after ISMS proved the biocompatibility of this integrated approach. Six subsequent ISMS steps significantly increased the overall protease yield up to 98% because proteolytic degradation and potential inhibition of the protease in the medium could be minimized. Furthermore, integration of semi?continuous ISMS increased the overall process efficiency due to reduction of the medium consumption. Process simulation revealed a deeper insight into protease production, and was used to optimize ISMS steps to obtain the maximum overall protease yield. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 2161–2172. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. FIELD TEST OF CYCLODEXTRIN FOR ENHANCED IN-SITU FLUSHING OF MULTIPLE-COMPONENT IMMISCIBLE ORGANIC LIQUID CONTAMINATION: PROJECT OVERVIEW AND INITIAL RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview and the initial results of a pilot-scale experiment designated to test the use of cyclodextrin for enhanced in-situ flushing of an aquifer contaminated by immiscible liquid. This is the first field test of this technology, terme...

  8. Innovative Protocols for in SITU MTBE Degradation by Using Molecular Probes-An Enhanced Chemical-Bio Oxidation Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-20

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a common technology to cleanup petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater. Sodium percarbonate (SPC) is an oxidant which is activated by iron (Fe) to produce Fenton-like reactions. Western Research Institute, in conjunction with Regenesis and the U.S. Department of Energy, conducted a study that investigated the performance of a 'safe' oxidant, SPC, to cleanup groundwater and soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and associated contaminants (e.g., MTBE). Results from a field pilot test in Frenchglen, Oregon showed VOC concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially within 2 weeks after injecting activated SPC (RegenOx). A protocol was established for determining RegenOx TOD in soils and groundwater. Total oxidant demand tests were necessary to determine the correct dosage of RegenOx to apply in the field and sufficiently degrade the contaminants of concern. Bench studies with RegenOx showed this technology was effective in degrading diesel fuel and 1,4-dioxane. The Fe-silica activator (RegenOx Part B) was tested with another oxidant, sodium persulfate. Bench tests results showed the combination of sodium persulfate and RegenOx Part B was effective in reducing PCE, MTBE, benzene, and n-heptane concentrations in water. Overall, the results of this project indicated that most petroleum contaminants in soil and groundwater can be sufficiently degraded using the RegenOx technology.

  9. Surface-enhanced in-situ Raman-sensor applied in the arctic area for analyses of water and sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomijeca, Anna; Kwon, Yong-Hyok; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2012-06-01

    Investigations on the seafloor in the arctic area are of great scientific interest as well as of progressive economic importance. Therefore, measurements in the water column and of sediments were carried out by applying different analytical methods. In JCR 253 arctic cruise a microsystem diode laser with reflection Bragg grating emitting at 671 nm was introduced and integrated into an optode housing which was laboratory pressure tested up to 200 bar. The connection to the mobile spectrometer is realized through an optical fiber. All performed measurements were carried out on the James-Clark-Ross research vessel during a three week experiment in August 2011. Conventional Raman spectra and SERS spectra of arctic surface water and sediment acquired from locations around 78° N and 9° E will be presented. Selected SERS substrates developed for SERS measurements in sea-water were tested for their capability to detect different substances in the water down to very small (pmol/l) concentrations. Additionally, the applicability of shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) and a combination of SERS with SERDS for analytical applications during sea-trials for in-situ analyses of sea-water and sediments will be discussed.

  10. Optical engineering of uniformly decorated graphene oxide nanoflakes via in situ growth of silver nanoparticles with enhanced plasmonic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang

    2014-12-10

    A nanocomposite of silver-nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide (GO-Ag NPs), enhanced by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect, improved the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). The GO-Ag NPs were fabricated in situ via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) of GO and an aqueous solution of AgNO3. The photoexcited GO accelerated reduction of Ag(+) ions into silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) upon UV irradiation, and the Ag NPs spontaneously deposited on the GO nanoflakes because the numerous functional groups on GO enable efficient adsorption of Ag(+) ions and Ag NPs via electrostatic interactions. The strong coupling between the SPR effect of GO-Ag NPs and incident light offers the probability of improved light absorption and corresponding exciton generation rate with enhanced charge collection, resulting in significant enhancement in short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency (PCE). Therefore, the PCE of PSCs based on poly[4,8-bis(2-ethylhexylthiophene-5-yl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene-2,6-diyl]-alt-[2-(2-ethylhexanoyl)thieno[3,4-b]thiophen-4,6-diyl] and [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester has been substantially elevated to 7.54% from 6.58% by introducing GO-Ag NPs at the indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonic acid interface. In addition, the excellent properties of GO-Ag NPs, including its simple preparation, processability in aqueous solution, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability, make it suitable for the roll-to-roll manufacturing of PSCs. PMID:25389764

  11. Elicitation and in situ adsorption enhanced secondary metabolites production of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. adventitious root fragment liquid cultures in shake flask and a modified bubble column bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, G P; Zhu, C S; Yang, Y Q; Feng, M X; Ma, Z Q; Feng, J T; Zhang, X

    2014-04-01

    The experiments of elicitation and in situ adsorption were conducted in shake flasks and then tested in a modified bubble column bioreactor for enhancing the productions of three active metabolites in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., triptolide, wilforgine and wilforine. Methyl jasmonate was screened out as the elicitor and the non-ionic polymeric ion-exchange resin of Amberlite(®) XAD-7 was used for in situ product removal and protecting the alkaloids from degradation in the medium. In shake flask experiments, 3.55-fold, 49.11-fold, and 10.40-fold of triptolide, wilforgine, and wilforine, respectively, could be recovered from the medium and XAD-7 resin by elicitation and in situ product removal, compared with the control. The modified 10 L bubble column bioreactor had similar productions of the three active metabolites but needed a further optimization of parameters for better growth of adventitious roots. PMID:23943048

  12. Using in-situ polymerization of conductive polymers to enhance the electrical properties of solution-processed carbon nanotube films and fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ranulfo; Pan, Lijia; Fuller, Gerald G; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-07-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composites typically have limited conductivity due to a low concentration of nanotubes and the insulating nature of the polymers used. Here we combined a method to align carbon nanotubes with in-situ polymerization of conductive polymer to form composite films and fibers. Use of the conducting polymer raised the conductivity of the films by 2 orders of magnitude. On the other hand, CNT fiber formation was made possible with in-situ polymerization to provide more mechanical support to the CNTs from the formed conducting polymer. The carbon nanotube/conductive polymer composite films and fibers had conductivities of 3300 and 170 S/cm, respectively. The relatively high conductivities were attributed to the polymerization process, which doped both the SWNTs and the polymer. In-situ polymerization can be a promising solution-processable method to enhance the conductivity of carbon nanotube films and fibers. PMID:24914703

  13. Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

    2007-09-30

    The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific objectives of the project were (1) to determine the prevalence of biosurfactant producers in oil reservoirs, and (2) to develop a nutrient regime that would stimulate biosurfactant production in the oil reservoir.

  14. In situ detection and identification of hair dyes using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurouski, Dmitry; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    Hair is one of the most common types of physical evidence found at a crime scene. Forensic examination may suggest a connection between a suspect and a crime scene or victim, or it may demonstrate an absence of such associations. Therefore, forensic analysis of hair evidence is invaluable to criminal investigations. Current hair forensic examinations are primarily based on a subjective microscopic comparison of hair found at the crime scene with a sample of suspect's hair. Since this is often inconclusive, the development of alternative and more-accurate hair analysis techniques is critical. In this study, we utilized surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to demonstrate that artificial dyes can be directly detected on hair. This spectroscopic technique is capable of a confirmatory identification of analytes with single molecule resolution, requires minimal sample, and has the advantage of fluorescence quenching. Our study reveals that SERS can (1) identify whether hair was artificially dyed or not, (2) determine if a permanent or semipermanent colorants were used, and (3) distinguish the commercial brands that are utilized to dye hair. Such analysis is rapid, minimally destructive, and can be performed directly at the crime scene. This study provides a novel perspective of forensic investigations of hair evidence. PMID:25635868

  15. In situ synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks/carbon nanotube composites with enhanced CO? adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Ge, Lei; Rudolph, Victor; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2014-05-21

    A series of ZIF-8 and hydroxyl-functionalized carbon nanotube (CNT) composites were successfully synthesized by the solvothermal method. The obtained ZIF-8/CNT composites were characterized by XRD, SEM, TGA and N2 adsorption at 77 K. The contents of ZIF-8 and CNTs in the composites were calculated from thermal analysis data. CO2 and N2 adsorption at 273 K on the composites was also investigated and compared. The ZIF-8 particles in the composites exhibit similar crystal structures and morphology to those of pure ZIF-8, but display enhanced thermal stability. The surface areas and pore volumes of the ZIF-8/CNT composites are higher than the values calculated for hypothetical physical mixtures, and the synergetic effect between ZIF-8 and CNTs can be proposed. This phenomenon demonstrates that the incorporation of CNTs into ZIF-8 can facilitate the nucleation and crystallization of ZIF-8. As a result, the composites with an optimal CNT content (3.63 wt%) show improved CO2 adsorption capacity and higher relative selectivity for CO2/N2 compared with pure ZIF-8. PMID:24676235

  16. In situ stimulation vs. bioaugmentation: Can microbial inoculation of plant roots enhance biodegradation of organic compounds?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingsley, M.T.; Metting, F.B. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Seidler, R.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

    1993-06-01

    The use of plant roots and their associated rhizosphere bacteria for biocontainment and biorestoration offers several advantages for treating soil-dispersed contaminants and for application to large land areas. Plant roots function as effective delivery systems, since root growth transports bacteria vertically and laterally along the root in the soil column (see [ 1,2]). Movement of microbes along roots and downward in the soil column can be enhanced via irrigation [1-4]. For example, Ciafardini et al. [3] increased the nodulation and the final yield of soybeans during pod filling by including Bradyrhizobium japonicum in the irrigation water. Using rhizosphere microorganisms is advantageous for biodegradation of compounds that are degraded mainly by cometabolic processes, e.g., trichloroethylene (TCE). The energy source for bacterial growth and metabolism is supplied by the plant in the form of root exudates and other sloughed organic material. Plants are inexpensive, and by careful choice of species that possess either tap or fibrous root growth patterns, they can be used to influence mass transport of soil contaminants to the root surface via the transpiration stream [5]. Cropping of plants to remove heavy metals from contaminated soils has been proposed as a viable, low-cost, low-input treatment option [6]. The interest in use of plants as a remediation strategy has even reached the popular press [7], where the use of ragweed for the reclamation of sites contaminated with tetraethyl lead and other heavy metals was discussed.

  17. The in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery in fractured porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudmand-asli, Alireza; Ayatollahi, S. Shahab; Zareie, Maryam [School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Mohabatkar, Hassan [Department of Biology, School of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Shariatpanahi, S. Farzad [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-08-15

    These experiments aim to investigate the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technique in fractured porous media using etched-glass micromodels. Three identically patterned micromodels with different fracture angle orientation of inclined, vertical and horizontal with respect to the flow direction were utilized. A non-fractured model was also used to compare the efficiency of MEOR in fractured and non-fractured porous media. Two types of bacteria were employed: Bacillus subtilis (a biosurfactant-producing bacterium) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (an exopolymer-producing bacterium). The results show that higher oil recovery efficiency can be achieved by using biosurfactant-producing bacterium in fractured porous media. Further investigation on the effect of the mentioned bacteria on oil viscosity, porous media permeability and wettability suggests that the plugging of matrix-fracture interfaces by an exopolymer is the main reason for the low performance of the exopolymer-producing bacterium. Oil viscosity reduction as well as the reduction of IFT was also found to be the reason for better microbial recovery efficiencies of biosurfactant-producing bacterium in the fractured models. (author)

  18. Strong enhancement of trace mercury removal from aqueous solution with sodium thiosulfate by in situ formed Mn-(hydr)oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xixin; Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yaan; Ma, Jun

    2014-11-15

    The effect of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) on trace mercury removal from aqueous solution by in situ MnOx was investigated. Removal efficiency was studied at different molar ratios of Na2S2O3/Mn (0, 0.264, 0.593 and 1.582) and under changes in Mn dosage, reaction time and pH conditions. Additionally, the ionic strength and the mercury removal amount were examined to evaluate the efficiency of trace mercury removal. The results indicated that the presence of thiosulfate clearly improved removal of mercury from solution, and that increases in the ionic strength enhanced removal in a certain range of thiosulfate concentration. At neutral conditions, the mercury removal amount reached to maximum of 64 ?g/mg. It is proposed that the ability of thiosulfate to reduce some MnOx to Mn(2+) as well as transfer the uncharged mercury species to a negatively charged species [Formula: see text] improved trace mercury removal. The mechanism analysis revealed that ternary complexes or large aggregations may be formed because of surface complexation or electrostatic attraction. PMID:25086412

  19. In situ growing directional spindle TiO2 nanocrystals on cellulose fibers for enhanced Pb(2+) adsorption from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanxiang; Cao, Lixia; Li, Lei; Yang, Chuanfang

    2015-05-30

    TiO2/cellulose nanocomposite was synthesized by in situ generation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocrystals on cellulose fibers (CF) via facile hydrolysis of TiOSO4. Cellulose was intended as a scaffold to immobilize TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), but turned out surprisingly to be also a chemical template that directed the crystal growth. As a result, spindle rutile TiO2 crystals were nicely formed on the surface of cellulose. These crystals were further controlled to disperse uniformly without agglomeration for better use of their surface area to adsorb heavy metals. The TiO2/CF composite showed enhanced adsorption capacity, good regenerability and selectivity for lead (Pb(2+)) removal. In addition, the composite fibers were readily fabricated into a nonwoven filter bed through which dynamic filtration experiment was conducted. A 12-fold increase in filtered bed volume was achieved for TiO2/CF bed compared with pure CF bed before breakthrough took place. This work provides a green pathway for fabricating low cost, high efficiency and engineering application possible nanosorbents for water decontamination. PMID:25723888

  20. Multi tracer test for the implementation of enhanced in-situ bioremediation at a BTEX-contaminated megasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödeke, Stefan; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Wei?, Holger; Fischer, Anko; Vogt, Carsten; Borsdorf, Helko; Schirmer, Mario

    2006-10-01

    At the Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle (UFZ) research site in Zeitz, Germany, benzene contaminates the lower of two aquifers with concentrations of up to 20 mg/l. Since the benzene plume has a minimum length of approximately 1 km, enhanced natural attenuation measures are being considered as a remediation strategy. This study describes the performance and evaluation of a multi-species reactive tracer test using the tracers fluorescein and bromide as conservative tracers and toluene as reactive tracer. Sampling was performed over a period of six months using a detailed network of multilevel sampling wells. Toluene was only slightly retarded in comparison to bromide, whereas fluorescein was retarded considerably stronger. Therefore, it was not possible to use fluorescein as an in situ tracer for the determination of groundwater velocities. The ionic nature of fluorescein is assumed to be the major reason for its retardation. The results show that the infiltration conditions were suitable to produce a wide spreading of the tracer front along the full thickness of the aquifer. Thus, a large aquifer volume can be treated in future enhanced bioremediation measures. The total quantity of infiltrated toluene (24 l) was degraded under sulfate-reducing conditions over a flow path of 50 m. Benzylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite of toluene degradation under sulfate-reducing conditions at this site. The modelling results show that toluene degradation was described more accurately using Monod kinetics than first-order kinetics. Since toluene was only slightly retarded in comparison to bromide, sorption and desorption processes were considered to be negligible.

  1. One-week postoperative patency of lower extremity in situ bypass graft comparing epidural and general anesthesia : retrospective study of 822 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiis, Julie Therese; Jensen-Gadegaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether anesthesia affects graft patency after lower extremity arterial in situ bypass surgery. METHODS: This investigation was a retrospective study using a national database on vascular surgical patients at a single medical institution. We assessed a total of 822 patients exposed to infrainguinal in situ bypass vascular surgery over the period of January 2000 to September 2010. RESULTS: All patients included in the study (age [mean ± SD] 70.8 ± 9.7 years) underwent infrainguinal in situ bypass (n = 885) for lower extremity revascularization under epidural (n = 386) or general (n = 499) anesthesia. Thirty-day mortality (3.4% for epidural anesthesia versus 4.4% general anesthesia; P = 0.414) and comorbidity were comparable in the 2 groups. Graft occlusion within 7 days after surgery was reported in 93 patients, with a similar incidence in the epidural (10.1%) and general (10.8%) anesthesia groups (P = 0.730). When examining a subgroup of patients (n = 242) exposed to surgery on smaller vessels (femorodistal in situ bypass procedures, n = 253), the incidence of graft occlusion was also similar in the 2 groups at 14.0% and 9.4%, respectively (P = 0.262). CONCLUSION: This retrospective study has shown that when graft patency is evaluated 7 days after surgery, anesthetic choice (epidural or general anesthesia) does not influence outcome.

  2. In situ surface hydrogenation synthesis of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with enhanced visible light photoactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Junchao; Hu, Yanjie; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

    2014-07-01

    A novel one-step, vapor-fed aerosol flame synthetic process (VAFS) has been developed to prepare Ti3+ self-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2). The freshly formed TiO2 was in situ surface hydrogenated during the condensation stage by introducing H2 above the flame, and Ti3+ ions were created near the surface of TiO2. The relative content of Ti3+ ions near the surface of TiO2 is estimated to be 8%. Because of the high absorption of visible light and suppression of charge recombination, the photocurrent density and decomposition of MB under visible light irradiation were remarkably enhanced. This study demonstrates a simple, potential method to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with effective photoactivity in visible light.A novel one-step, vapor-fed aerosol flame synthetic process (VAFS) has been developed to prepare Ti3+ self-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2). The freshly formed TiO2 was in situ surface hydrogenated during the condensation stage by introducing H2 above the flame, and Ti3+ ions were created near the surface of TiO2. The relative content of Ti3+ ions near the surface of TiO2 is estimated to be 8%. Because of the high absorption of visible light and suppression of charge recombination, the photocurrent density and decomposition of MB under visible light irradiation were remarkably enhanced. This study demonstrates a simple, potential method to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with effective photoactivity in visible light. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Schematic setup for Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanoparticles is shown in Fig. S1. The BET specific surface and pore-size distribution of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 is shown in Fig. S2. XRD patterns of pristine TiO2 and Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 are shown in Fig. S3. HRTEM image of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with mixture phase is shown in Fig. S4. The photographs of different colors of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with different flow rates of hydrogen are shown in Fig. S5. TEM images of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 samples with different flow rates of carrier gas are shown in Fig. S6. XPS spectrum of O 1s is shown in Fig. S7. Photodegradation of MB in aqueous solutions using Ti3+ self-doped TiO2, pristine TiO2 and P25 as photocatalysts with irradiation of ultraviolet light is shown in Fig. S8. UV-vis spectra of MB aqueous solutions at different times by using Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 as a photocatalyst under the irradiation of visible light is shown in Fig. S9. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00972j

  3. Enhanced Production of Botrallin and TMC-264 with in Situ Macroporous Resin Adsorption in Mycelial Liquid Culture of the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyu Luo; Hongwei Liu; Yuheng Cao; Dan Xu; Ziling Mao; Yan Mou; Jiajia Meng; Daowan Lai; Yang Liu; Ligang Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, an endophytic fungus from the hybrid “Neva” of Populus deltoides × P. nigra, is a high producer of the bioactive dibenzo-?-pyrones botrallin and TMC-264. However, both the botrallin and TMC-264 produced by Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 were retained as both intracellular and extracellular products. The aim of this study was to evaluate an in situ macroporous resin adsorption for enhancement of botrallin and TMC-264 production in mycelial liquid culture...

  4. Large upper tropospheric ozone enhancements above midlatitude North America during summer: In situ evidence from the IONS and MOZAIC ozone measurement network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, O. R.; Stohl, A.; Trainer, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Morris, G.; Pickering, K. E.; Crawford, J. H.; Chen, G.; Cohen, R. C.; Bertram, T. H.; Wooldridge, P.; Perring, A.; Brune, W. H.; Merrill, J.; Moody, J. L.; Tarasick, D.; NéDéLec, P.; Forbes, G.; Newchurch, M. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Turquety, S.; Baughcum, S. L.; Ren, X.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Meagher, J. F.; Spichtinger, N.; Brown, C. C.; McKeen, S. A.; McDermid, I. S.; Leblanc, T.

    2006-12-01

    The most extensive set of free tropospheric ozone measurements ever compiled across midlatitude North America was measured with daily ozonesondes, commercial aircraft and a lidar at 14 sites during July-August 2004. The model estimated stratospheric ozone was subtracted from all profiles, leaving a tropospheric residual ozone. On average the upper troposphere above midlatitude eastern North America contained 15 ppbv more tropospheric residual ozone than the more polluted layer between the surface and 2 km above sea level. Lowest ozone values in the upper troposphere were found above the two upwind sites in California. The upper troposphere above midlatitude eastern North America contained 16 ppbv more tropospheric residual ozone than the upper troposphere above three upwind sites, with the greatest enhancement above Houston, Texas, at 24 ppbv. Upper tropospheric CO measurements above east Texas show no statistically significant enhancement compared to west coast measurements, arguing against a strong influence from fresh surface anthropogenic emissions to the upper troposphere above Texas where the ozone enhancement is greatest. Vertical mixing of ozone from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere can only account for 2 ppbv of the 16 ppbv ozone enhancement above eastern North America; therefore the remaining 14 ppbv must be the result of in situ ozone production. The transport of NOx tracers from North American anthropogenic, biogenic, biomass burning, and lightning emissions was simulated for the upper troposphere of North America with a particle dispersion model. Additional box model calculations suggest the 24 ppbv ozone enhancement above Houston can be produced over a 10 day period from oxidation reactions of lightning NOx and background mixing ratios of CO and CH4. Overall, we estimate that 69-84% (11-13 ppbv) of the 16 ppbv ozone enhancement above eastern North America is due to in situ ozone production from lightning NOx with the remainder due to transport of ozone from the surface or in situ ozone production from other sources of NOx.

  5. In-situ treatment of hydrocarbons contamination through enhanced bio-remediation and two phase extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It happens frequently to find industrial site affected by contamination of subsoil and groundwater with consequent presence of free phase product floating on the water table. The remediation technologies in this case shall be properly selected and coordinated in a way that the interactions between each activities will help to decontaminate the site. The case study deals with an industrial site located near Turin, in Italy, of about 50 hectares of extension where has been found an area of about 4000 square meters with contamination of subsoil and groundwater. The compounds with higher concentrations are petroleum hydrocarbons found both in soil and in groundwater. Another big problem is represented by the presence of a layer of free product floating on the water table with a maximum measured thickness of 70 cm; this situation can be considered in fact one of the major difficulty in management of selected remediation technologies because the complete recover of the free phase is a priority for any kind of remediation system to apply subsequently. The present work is based upon the selection and implementation of a multiple treatment for definitive remediation of subsoil and groundwater. Free product recovery has been faced with a two-phase extraction technology, then for the remediation of subsoil we implemented a bio-venting system to improve biodegradation processes and finally for groundwater treatment we apply an enhanced in situ bio-remediation injecting oxygen rel situ bio-remediation injecting oxygen release compounds directly into the aquifer. To reach these choices we have to pass through a complex activity of investigation of the site made up of more than 40 sampling point, 8 monitoring wells, about 140 analysis on subsoil samples and 10 on groundwater samples and one well used for an aquifer test. The preliminary design of the remediation system was therefore based on an extensive site characterization that included geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with analytical data. After the study of all data acquired during investigations we could select the proper technologies for site remediation but to define correctly all project data we had to implement several laboratory tests to analyse bio-remediation processes, a series of pilot test for two phase extraction and bio-venting and a pilot test to select the best product for the release of oxygen into groundwater. The collection of the necessary parameters for the implementation of full-scale treatment was carried out throughout a period of several months, both with periodical measurements and sampling and with fixed monitoring probes, in order to record the aquifer changes related to contaminant concentrations, geochemical data, etc. At the end of all the tests we proceeded first with implementation of two phase extraction system through a double line of extraction wells that cover the extension of the area interested by the presence of free phase of LNAPL. The use of this technology instead of other more common system for free product recovery, is due to the fact that two phase extraction system results in an efficient recover of LNAPL and in a low extraction of groundwater that means lower treatment costs. Another important characteristic of this technology is that while extracting oil from the water table it extracts also soil gas from subsoil enhancing hydrocarbons bio-remediation through microbial activity. The second step after the complete recover of free product was to proceed with remediation of subsoil. Bio-remediation processes, enhanced by two phase extraction application, were increased with implementation of a bio-venting system made up of two horizontal wells installed along contaminated area. The injection of air through these wells supply oxygen to subsoil providing necessary aerobic conditions for degradation of hydrocarbon compounds. The results of laboratory tests showed that it would be suitable, to further stimulate microbial activity, to supply micro-nutrient compounds, principally nitrogen and phospho

  6. Bacterial-fungal interactions enhance power generation in microbial fuel cells and drive dye decolourisation by an ex situ and in situ electro-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Dios, María Ángeles; del Campo, Araceli González; Fernández, Francisco Jesús; Rodrigo, Manuel; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, María Ángeles

    2013-11-01

    In this work, the potential for sustainable energy production from wastes has been exploited using a combination fungus-bacterium in microbial fuel cell (MFC) and electro-Fenton technology. The fungus Trametes versicolor was grown with Shewanella oneidensis so that the bacterium would use the networks of the fungus to transport the electrons to the anode. This system generated stable electricity that was enhanced when the electro-Fenton reactions occurred in the cathode chamber. This configuration reached a stable voltage of approximately 1000 mV. Thus, the dual benefits of the in situ-designed MFC electro-Fenton, the simultaneous dye decolourisation and the electricity generation, were demonstrated. Moreover, the generated power was effectively used to drive an ex situ electro-Fenton process in batch and continuous mode. This newly developed MFC fungus-bacterium with an in situ electro-Fenton system can ensure a high power output and a continuous degradation of organic pollutants. PMID:24035817

  7. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies

  8. Enhancement of Biodiesel Production from Marine Alga, Scenedesmus sp. through In Situ Transesterification Process Associated with Acidic Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Ga Vin Kim; WoonYong Choi; DoHyung Kang; ShinYoung Lee; HyeonYong Lee

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5%) > solvent quantity (26.7%) > reaction time (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (...

  9. Microwave-assisted in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts and their enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of ciprofloxacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Sun, Shaofang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Yanta Road 126, Xi’an, 710054 (China); Song, Yang; Yan, Xu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Guan, Weisheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Yanta Road 126, Xi’an, 710054 (China); Liu, Xinlin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Shi, Weidong, E-mail: swd1978@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Microwave-assisted in situ growth of RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite was proposed. ? A relatively small particle size with organic-additives free. ? Graphene was formed during the microwave-heating by oxygen capture. ? GB-2 sample exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (3 times over pure BiVO{sub 4}). ? The enhancements of activities result from the effective charge separation. -- Abstract: To improve the photodegradation efficiency for ciprofloxacin (CIP), a new-type microwave-assisted in situ growth method is developed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) -BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts. The as-produced RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts show extremely high enhancement of CIP degradation ratio over the pure BiVO{sub 4} photocatalyst under visible light. Specially, the 2 wt% RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalyst exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (68.2%) in 60 min, which is over 3 times than that (22.7%) of the pure BiVO{sub 4} particles. The enhancement of photocatalytic activities of RGO-BiVO{sub 4} photocatalysts can be attributed to the effective separation of electron–hole pairs rather than the improvement of light absorption.

  10. Microwave-assisted in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-BiVO4 composite photocatalysts and their enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Microwave-assisted in situ growth of RGO-BiVO4 composite was proposed. ? A relatively small particle size with organic-additives free. ? Graphene was formed during the microwave-heating by oxygen capture. ? GB-2 sample exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (3 times over pure BiVO4). ? The enhancements of activities result from the effective charge separation. -- Abstract: To improve the photodegradation efficiency for ciprofloxacin (CIP), a new-type microwave-assisted in situ growth method is developed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) -BiVO4 composite photocatalysts. The as-produced RGO-BiVO4 composite photocatalysts show extremely high enhancement of CIP degradation ratio over the pure BiVO4 photocatalyst under visible light. Specially, the 2 wt% RGO-BiVO4 composite photocatalyst exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (68.2%) in 60 min, which is over 3 times than that (22.7%) of the pure BiVO4 particles. The enhancement of photocatalytic activities of RGO-BiVO4 photocatalysts can be attributed to the effective separation of electron–hole pairs rather than the improvement of light absorption

  11. In situ induced metal-enhanced fluorescence: a new strategy for biosensing the total acetylcholinesterase activity in sub-microliter human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, KeKe; Lu, Lu; Qi, Zongli; Feng, Jingjing; Zhuo, Caixia; Zhang, Yaodong

    2015-06-15

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities (i.e., total AChE) in human blood are biomarkers for theranostic monitoring of organophosphate neurotoxin-poisoned patients. We developed an ultra-sensitive method to detect the total AChE activity in sub-microliter human whole blood based on in situ induced metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF). Both AChE and BChE can catalyze the hydrolysis of the acetylthiocholine (ATCh) substrate and produce positively-charged thiocholine (TCh). TCh can reverse the negatively-charged surface of core-shell Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The negatively-charged fluorescent dye (8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid, HPTS) is then confined to the surface of Ag@SiO2 NPs and generates an enhanced fluorescence signal in situ. Changes in the surface charge of Ag@SiO2 NPs are monitored by Zeta potential, and the MEF effect is confirmed by the measurements of fluorescence time decay. AChE activity has a dynamic range of 0 U/mL to 0.005 U/mL and a detection limit of 0.05 mU/mL. The total AChE activity in the sub-microliter human whole blood could be determined; the results were further validated. Therefore, combining the AChE catalytic reaction with MEF provides a simple, ultra-sensitive, and cost-effective "in situ MEF" approach to determine the total AChE activity in human whole blood sample down to sub-microliters without matrix interferences. The strategy also allows potential usage in other tissues and other fields. PMID:25660508

  12. A surface-enhanced Raman scattering optrode prepared by in situ photoinduced reactions and its application for highly sensitive on-chip detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoyan; Liu, Chunyu; Wang, Hailong; Chen, Gang; Cong, Ming; Song, Wei; Jia, Qiong; Xu, Shuping; Xu, Weiqing

    2014-07-23

    A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active optical fiber sensor combining the optical fiber waveguide with various SERS substrates has been a powerful analytical tool for in situ and long-distance SERS detection with high sensitivity. The design and modification of a high-quality SERS-active sensing layer are important topics in the development of novel SERS-active optical fiber sensors. Here, we prepared a highly sensitive SERS-active optrode by in situ fabrication of a three-dimensional porous structure on the optical fiber end via a photoinduced polymerization reaction, followed by the growth of photochemical silver nanoparticles above the porous polymer material. The fabrication process is rapid (finished within 1 h) and can be on line under light control. The porous structure supports vast silver nanoparticles, which allows for strong electromagnetic enhancement of SERS. Interestingly, the preparation of this SERS optrode and its utilization for SERS detection can all be conducted in a microfluidic chip. The qualitative and quantitative on-chip SERS sensing of organic pollutants and pesticides has been achieved by this SERS optrode-integrated microfluidic chip, and its high detection sensitivity makes it a promising factor in the analysis of liquid systems. PMID:24978908

  13. Enhancement of biodiesel production from marine alga, Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification process associated with acidic catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga Vin; Choi, Woonyong; Kang, Dohyung; Lee, Shinyoung; Lee, Hyeonyong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5%) > solvent quantity (26.7%) > reaction time (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (34.36%) > catalyst (28.62%) > time (19.72%) > temperature (17.32%). The overall biodiesel production appeared to be better using NaOH as an alkaline catalyst rather than using H2SO4 in an acidic process, at 55.07 ± 2.18% (based on lipid weight) versus 48.41 ± 0.21%. However, in considering the purified biodiesel, it was found that the acidic catalyst was approximately 2.5 times more efficient than the alkaline catalyst under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 70 °C (level 2), reaction time of 10 hrs (level 2), catalyst amount of 5% (level 3), and biomass to solvent ratio of 1 : 15 (level 2), respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the acidic solvent, which combined oil extraction with in situ transesterification, was an effective catalyst for the production of high-quantity, high-quality biodiesel from a Scenedesmus sp. PMID:24689039

  14. Enhancement of the sweep efficiency of waterflooding operations by the in-situ microbial population of petroleum reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A.; Stephens, J.O.; Azadpour, A.

    1995-12-31

    Live cores were obtained from five reservoirs using special precautions to prevent contamination by exogenous microorganisms and minimize exposure to oxygen. The depths from which the cores were obtained ranged from 2,705 ft to 6,568 ft. Core plugs were cut radially from live cores, encased in heat-shrink plastic tubes, placed in core holders, and fitted with inlets and outlets. Nutrient additions stimulated the in-situ microbial population to increase, dissolve stratal material, produce gases, and release oil. Reduction in flow through the core plugs was observed in some cases, while in other cases flow was increased, probably due to the dissolution of carbonates in the formation. A field demonstration of the ability of the in-situ microbial population to increase oil recovery by blocking the more permeable zones of the reservoir is currently underway. This demonstration is being conducted in the North Blowhorn Creek Unit situated in Lamar County, Alabama. Live cores were obtained from a newly drilled well in the field and tested as described above. The field project involves four test patterns each including one injector, four to five producers, and a comparable control injector with its four to five producers. Nutrient injection in the field began November 1994.

  15. Enhanced detection of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in fixed tissues by in situ hybridization following tyramide signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Nguyen Thi; Hirai, Takuya; Ngan, Pham Hong; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Fuke, Naoyuki; Toyama, Keiko; Yamamoto, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the sensitivity of biotinyl-tyramide-based in situ hybridization (TISH) method by comparison with chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) methods. This study also determined the effect of fixative and fixation time on the detection of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in paraffin-embedded tissues. Lung samples were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) or 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF) for various times before paraffin embedding. Of 30 paraffin-embedded lung samples, fixed for 1 day in 4% PFA or 10% NBF, 18 (60%) were positive for PRRSV by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR). All 18 lung samples (100%) also were positive for PRRSV by TISH, but only 10 of these 18 specimens (56%) were positive for PRRSV by IHC and CISH. We demonstrated that TISH can detect PRRSV RNA in paraffin-embedded tissues after up to 90 days of fixation. PRRSV nucleic acids and antigens were better preserved in 4% PFA than in 10% NBF. Compared with CISH and IHC testing methods, TISH appeared to be more sensitive for the detection of PRRSV in paraffin-embedded tissues. PMID:25855364

  16. Tunable near infrared to ultraviolet upconversion luminescence enhancement in (?-NaYF4 :Yb,Tm)/CaF2 core/shell nanoparticles for in situ real-time recorded biocompatible photoactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Chen, Guanying; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y; Kesseli, Samuel J; Buchholz, Steven; Li, Zhipeng; Prasad, Paras N; Han, Gang

    2013-10-11

    A family of upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) with a tunable UV enhancement is developed via a facile approach. The design leads to a maximum 9-fold enhancement in comparison with known optimal ?-phase core/shell UCNPs in water. A highly effective and rapid in situ real-time live-cell photoactivation is recorded for the first time with such nanoparticles. PMID:23696330

  17. In situ monitoring of doxorubicin release from biohybrid nanoparticles modified with antibody and cell-penetrating peptides in breast cancer cells using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Khaled; Cho, Hyeon-Yeol; Kim, Kyeong-Jun; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2015-09-15

    In situ monitoring of drug release in cancer cells is very important for real-time assessment of drug release dynamics in chemotherapy. In this study, we report label-free in situ monitoring and control of intracellular anti-cancer drug delivery process using biohybrid nanoparticles based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for the first time. Each biohybrid nanoparticle consisted of gold nanoparticle, cell-penetrating peptide (Tat peptide), and cancer-targeting antibody to increase the efficacy of the anti-cancer drug delivery with specific targeting and increased uptake rate. The doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded biohybrid nanoparticles were showed specific SERS spectra of Dox, specifically immobilized on the target cell membrane and quickly penetrated into the cells when treated on the mixed cell culture condition. The intracellular release of Dox from the biohybrid nanoparticle was continuously monitored with time-dependent change of intracellular SERS signals of Dox. The releasing rate of Dox was successfully controlled with the addition of glutathione on the cells. The anti-cancer effect of intracellular released Dox was confirmed with cell viability assay. With the proposed monitoring system, specific cancer cell targeting and improved uptake of the anti-cancer drug were detected and time-dependent intracellular release of the anti-cancer drug was monitored successfully. The proposed novel in situ monitoring system can be used as a spectroscopic analysis tool for label-free monitoring of the time-dependent release of various kinds of anti-cancer drugs inside cells. PMID:25919810

  18. In situ vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, mass, and composition over the southeast United States during SENEX and SEAC4RS: observations of a modest aerosol enhancement aloft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, N. L.; Brock, C. A.; Angevine, W. M.; Beyersdorf, A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; de Gouw, J. A.; Diskin, G. S.; Gordon, T. D.; Graus, M. G.; Huey, G.; Jimenez, J. L.; Lack, D. A.; Liao, J.; Liu, X.; Markovic, M. Z.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Mikoviny, T.; Peischl, J.; Perring, A. E.; Richardson, M. S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Warneke, C.; Welti, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Ziemba, L. D.; Murphy, D. M.

    2015-02-01

    Vertical profiles of submicron aerosol over the southeastern United States (SEUS) during the summertime from in situ aircraft-based measurements were used to construct aggregate profiles of chemical, microphysical, and optical properties. Shallow cumulus convection was observed during many profiles. These conditions enhance vertical transport of trace gases and aerosol and create a cloudy transition layer on top of the sub-cloud mixed layer. The trace gas and aerosol concentrations in the transition layer were modeled as a mixture with contributions from the mixed layer below and the free troposphere above. The amount of vertical mixing, or entrainment of air from the free troposphere, was quantified using the observed mixing ratio of carbon monoxide (CO). Although the median aerosol mass, extinction, and volume decreased with altitude in the transition layer, they were ~10% larger than expected from vertical mixing alone. This enhancement was likely due to secondary aerosol formation in the transition layer. Although the transition layer enhancements of the particulate sulfate and organic aerosol (OA) were both similar in magnitude, only the enhancement of sulfate was statistically significant. The column integrated extinction, or aerosol optical depth (AOD), was calculated for each individual profile, and the transition layer enhancement of extinction typically contributed less than 10% to the total AOD. Our measurements and analysis were motivated by two recent studies that have hypothesized an enhanced layer of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) aloft to explain the summertime enhancement of AOD (2-3 times greater than winter) over the southeastern United States. In contrast to this hypothesis, the modest enhancement we observed in the transition layer was not dominated by OA and was not a large fraction of the summertime AOD.

  19. In situ vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, mass, and composition over the southeast United States during SENEX and SEAC4RS: observations of a modest aerosol enhancement aloft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Wagner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of submicron aerosol over the southeastern United States (SEUS during the summertime from in situ aircraft-based measurements were used to construct aggregate profiles of chemical, microphysical, and optical properties. Shallow cumulus convection was observed during many profiles. These conditions enhance vertical transport of trace gases and aerosol and create a cloudy transition layer on top of the sub-cloud mixed layer. The trace gas and aerosol concentrations in the transition layer were modeled as a mixture with contributions from the mixed layer below and the free troposphere above. The amount of vertical mixing, or entrainment of air from the free troposphere, was quantified using the observed mixing ratio of carbon monoxide (CO. Although the median aerosol mass, extinction, and volume decreased with altitude in the transition layer, they were ~10% larger than expected from vertical mixing alone. This enhancement was likely due to secondary aerosol formation in the transition layer. Although the transition layer enhancements of the particulate sulfate and organic aerosol (OA were both similar in magnitude, only the enhancement of sulfate was statistically significant. The column integrated extinction, or aerosol optical depth (AOD, was calculated for each individual profile, and the transition layer enhancement of extinction typically contributed less than 10% to the total AOD. Our measurements and analysis were motivated by two recent studies that have hypothesized an enhanced layer of secondary organic aerosol (SOA aloft to explain the summertime enhancement of AOD (2–3 times greater than winter over the southeastern United States. In contrast to this hypothesis, the modest enhancement we observed in the transition layer was not dominated by OA and was not a large fraction of the summertime AOD.

  20. Encapsulation of LiFePO4 by in-situ graphitized carbon cage towards enhanced low temperature performance as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bin; Ding, Zhaojun; Zhang, Jianxin; Feng, Xiaoyu; Yin, Longwei

    2014-08-01

    The severe capacity decay of LiFePO4 at low temperatures (?0 °C) limits its wide applications as cathode materials for energy storage batteries. Creating comprehensive carbon network between particles with improved electronic conductivity is a well known solution to this problem. Here, a novel structured LiFePO4/C composite was prepared by a facile solid state route, in which nanosized LiFePO4 spheres were encapsulated by in-situ graphitized carbon cages. With the enhancement in electronic conductivity (2.15e-1 S cm-1), the composite presented excellent rate performance at room temperature and remarkable capacity retention at -40 °C, with charge transfer resistance much lower than commercial LiFePO4.

  1. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study of TiO2 films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiO2 thin films of 300–400 nm were deposited at low pressure (3 mTorr) and temperature (b). The impact of growth interruptions on the film characteristics was studied by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. The interruptions were carried out by stopping the plasma generation and gas injection once the increase of the layer thickness during each deposition step was about 100 nm. Suitable ellipsometric models were built to account for the structural and optical differences among the layers grown at different stages. When no bias is applied or Vb = ?10 V, the films deposited with and without interruptions are composed of a dense layer near substrate, an intermediate gradient layer and a top roughness layer. But the growth interruptions result in an increase of the dense layer thickness and a decrease of surface roughness. The discrepancy of the refractive index measured by SE between bottom and upper layers can be reduced by growth interruptions or biasing the substrate. In the case of Vb = ?50 V, the film becomes well organized, the top surface appears smoother, and the refractive index can be increased greatly, without significant effect of growth interruptions.

  2. In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Eric P

    2011-05-24

    A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

  3. Usage of waste products from thermal recycling of plastics waste in enhanced oil recovery or in-situ coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, M.; Fink, J.K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    In this contribution a thermal method for crude oil mobilization and in-situ liquefaction of coal is discussed, which will finally yield more organic material, as which has been put in from plastics waste originally into the process. The conversion product from thermal treatment is pumped down into exhausted crude oil reservoirs, where the hydrogen can degrade the residual high viscous oil to cause it to become more prone to flow so that it can be recovered. Such a process will envision two goals: 1. more organic raw material (as crude oil) will be recovered than is initially put in as waste product. 2. atmospheric pollutants from the conversion plant will be trapped in the reservoir, which simplifies the construction of the plant. An analogous process may be performed with coal seams. Coal seams with their high porosity and large specific surface are believed to be in particular useful to filter atmospheric pollutants. Depending on the type of coal the mobilization of organic material by this process may be in the background. (orig./SR)

  4. In situ vaccination with CD204 gene-silenced dendritic cell, not unmodified dendritic cell, enhances radiation therapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunqing; Yi, Huanfa; Yu, Xiaofei; Zuo, Daming; Qian, Jie; Yang, Gary; Foster, Barbara A; Subjeck, John R; Sun, Xiaolei; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Fisher, Paul B; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2012-11-01

    Given the complexity of prostate cancer progression and metastasis, multimodalities that target different aspects of tumor biology, for example, radiotherapy in conjunction with immunotherapy, may provide the best opportunities for promoting clinical benefits in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer. Here, we show that intratumoral administration of unmodified dendritic cells (DC) failed to synergize with fractionated radiotherapy. However, ionizing radiation combined with in situ vaccination with DCs, in which the immunosuppressive scavenger receptor A (SRA/CD204) has been downregulated by lentivirus-mediated gene silencing, profoundly suppressed the growth of two mouse prostate cancers (e.g., RM1 and TRAMP-C2) and prolonged the lifespan of tumor-bearing animals. Treatment of subcutaneous tumors with this novel combinatorial radioimmunotherapeutic regimen resulted in a significant reduction in distant experimental metastases. SRA/CD204-silenced DCs were highly efficient in generating antigen or tumor-specific T cells with increased effector functions (e.g., cytokine production and tumoricidal activity). SRA/CD204 silencing-enhanced tumor cell death was associated with elevated IFN-? levels in tumor tissue and increased tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) cells. IFN-? neutralization or depletion of CD8(+) cells abrogated the SRA/CD204 downregulation-promoted antitumor efficacy, indicating a critical role of IFN-?-producing CD8(+) T cells. Therefore, blocking SRA/CD204 activity significantly enhances the therapeutic potency of local radiotherapy combined with in situ DC vaccination by promoting a robust systemic antitumor immunity. Further studies are warranted to test this novel combinatorial approach for translating into improved clinical outcomes in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:22896667

  5. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MWCNT nanocomposites fabricated by facile in situ precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bo [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Li, Zhongyu, E-mail: zhongyuli@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Changzhou Expansion New Stuff Technology Limited Company, Changzhou 213122 (China); Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022 (China); Xu, Song, E-mail: cyanine123@163.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Han, Dandan; Lu, Dayong [Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MWCNT composites were facilely fabricated via in situ precipitation method. • Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MWCNT composites exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MWCNT composites showed good photostability compared with Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} particles. • Possible photocatalytic mechanism under visible-light irradiation was proposed. - Abstract: The Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MWCNT nanocomposites were facilely fabricated via in situ precipitation method by adding (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} into the mixture of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and AgNO{sub 3} solution under stirring. The as-prepared Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MWCNT nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area (BET) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The TEM results showed that the Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} nanoparticles were distributed on the surface of MWCNT uniformly with an average diameter of 70 nm, indicating excellent loading result. The photocatalytic activities of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MWCNT nanocomposites were investigated by degrading methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) under visible-light irradiation. It was found that the Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MWCNT nanocomposite exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance with enhanced photocatalytic efficiency and good photostability compared with bare Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Furthermore, a possible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative degradation was also discussed.

  6. Cavity-Enhanced Gas Analyzer for In-Situ Sampling of Biogenic Gases and Their Isotopes Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project concerns the novel application of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy to quantify biogenic gases (CH4,...

  7. In situ evaluation of orthodontic elastomeric chains

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina, Baratieri; Cláudia Trindade, Mattos; Matheus, Alves Jr; Thiago Chon Leon, Lau; Lincoln Issamu, Nojima; Margareth Maria Gomes de, Souza; Monica Tirre, Araujo; Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves, Nojima.

    Full Text Available A hipótese testada foi que a exposição dos elásticos em cadeia ao meio bucal altera sua força de tensão. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o comportamento, in situ, de diferentes cadeias elastoméricas quando tensionadas durante 3 semanas. Três tipos de elásticos em cadeia Plastic Chain ( [...] PC), Memory Chain (MC) e Super Slick Chain (SSC) foram inseridos aleatoriamente em 3 dos quadrantes de 13 pacientes com distância fixa de 16 mm e força inicial de 180 g. Foi realizado ensaio de tração em uma máquina de ensaio universal EMIC nos seguintes intervalos: inicial, 1 h, 24 h, 1 semana, 2 semanas e 3 semanas. O teste ANOVA a dois critérios foi aplicado para verificar a influência do material e do tempo na degradação da força. Subsequentemente, foi utilizado o teste ANOVA a um critério e pós-teste de Tukey para identificar diferenças estatísticas (p Abstract in english The hypothesis tested in this study was that intraoral exposure of elastomeric chains alters their tensile strength. For such purpose, it was evaluated the in situ behavior of different elastomeric chains stretched for 3 weeks. Three kinds of elastomeric chains, Plastic chain (PC), Memory chain (MC) [...] and Super slick chain (SSC), were randomly placed in 3 quadrants of 13 patient in a fixed distance of 16 mm and mean initial force of 180 g. Tensile testing was performed in an universal testing machine at different intervals: initial, 1 h, 24 h, 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks. A two-way ANOVA test was performed to identify the influence of both material and time on the force decrease. A subsequent one-way ANOVAtest with the Tukey's post hoc test was used to identify statistically significant intragroup and intergroup remaining force (g and %) differences at 5% significance level. The effect of both the material and the time factors were significant. All groups showed significant force decrease after the 1-h period (23% for PC and 14% for MC and SSC). At the end of the 3-week period, the remaining force was 57% (96 g), 67% (129 g) and 71% (125 g) for PC, MC and SSC, respectively. In conclusion, intraoral exposure of elastomeric chains altered their tensile strength. In general, the greater force decrease occurred within the first hour. The remaining force of the enhanced chains measured at each time interval was greater than the conventional one (PC). After 3 weeks, only the enhanced chains maintained the force applied over 100 g.

  8. Origin of springtime ozone enhancements in the lower troposphere over Beijing: in situ measurements and model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Chan, C.; Considine, D. B.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhao, C.; Thouret, V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Liu, S. C.; Jones, D. B. A.; Steenrod, S. D.; Damon, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ozone (O3) concentrations in the lower troposphere (LT) over Beijing have significantly increased over the past two decades as a result of rapid industrialization in China, with important implications for regional air quality and photochemistry of the background troposphere. We characterize the vertical distribution of lower-tropospheric (0-6 km) O3 over Beijing using observations from 16 ozonesonde soundings made during a field campaign in April-May 2005 and MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft) aircraft measurements over 13 days in the same period. We focus on the origin of LT O3 enhancements observed over Beijing, particularly in May. We use a global 3-D chemistry and transport model (GEOS-Chem CTM) driven by assimilated meteorological fields to examine the transport pathways for O3 pollution, and quantify the sources contributing to O3 and its enhancements in the springtime LT over Beijing. Output from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) CTM is also used. High O3 concentrations (up to 94.7 ppbv) were frequently observed at the altitude of ~1.5-2 km. The CTMs captured the timing of the occurrences but significantly underestimated their magnitude. GEOS-Chem simulations and a case study showed that O3 produced in the Asian troposphere (especially from Asian anthropogenic pollution) made major contributions to the observed O3 enhancements. Contributions from anthropogenic pollution in the European and North American troposphere were reduced during these events, in contrast with days without O3 enhancements, when contributions from Europe and North America were substantial. The O3 enhancements typically occurred under southerly wind and warmer conditions. It is suggested that an earlier onset of the Asian summer monsoon would cause more O3 enhancement events in the lower troposphere over the North China Plain in late spring and early summer.

  9. In situ vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, mass, and composition over the southeast United States during SENEX and SEAC4RS: observations of a modest aerosol enhancement aloft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, N. L.; Brock, C. A.; Angevine, W. M.; Beyersdorf, A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D.; de Gouw, J. A.; Diskin, G. S.; Gordon, T. D.; Graus, M. G.; Holloway, J. S.; Huey, G.; Jimenez, J. L.; Lack, D. A.; Liao, J.; Liu, X.; Markovic, M. Z.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Mikoviny, T.; Peischl, J.; Perring, A. E.; Richardson, M. S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Warneke, C.; Welti, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Ziemba, L. D.; Murphy, D. M.

    2015-06-01

    Vertical profiles of submicron aerosol from in situ aircraft-based measurements were used to construct aggregate profiles of chemical, microphysical, and optical properties. These vertical profiles were collected over the southeastern United States (SEUS) during the summer of 2013 as part of two separate field studies: the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study and the Study of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS). Shallow cumulus convection was observed during many profiles. These conditions enhance vertical transport of trace gases and aerosol and create a cloudy transition layer on top of the sub-cloud mixed layer. The trace gas and aerosol concentrations in the transition layer were modeled as a mixture with contributions from the mixed layer below and the free troposphere above. The amount of vertical mixing, or entrainment of air from the free troposphere, was quantified using the observed mixing ratio of carbon monoxide (CO). Although the median aerosol mass, extinction, and volume decreased with altitude in the transition layer, they were ~10 % larger than expected from vertical mixing alone. This enhancement was likely due to secondary aerosol formation in the transition layer. Although the transition layer enhancements of the particulate sulfate and organic aerosol (OA) were both similar in magnitude, only the enhancement of sulfate was statistically significant. The column integrated extinction, or aerosol optical depth (AOD), was calculated for each individual profile, and the transition layer enhancement of extinction typically contributed less than 10 % to the total AOD. Our measurements and analysis were motivated by two recent studies that have hypothesized an enhanced layer of secondary aerosol aloft to explain the summertime enhancement of AOD (2-3 times greater than winter) over the southeastern United States. The first study attributes the layer aloft to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) while the second study speculates that the layer aloft could be SOA or secondary particulate sulfate. In contrast to these hypotheses, the modest enhancement we observed in the transition layer was not dominated by OA and was not a large fraction of the summertime AOD.

  10. In situ seed baiting to isolate germination-enhancing fungi for an epiphytic orchid, Dendrobium aphyllum (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Xiao-Meng; Sheng, Chun-Ling; Goodale, Uromi Manage; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Gao, Jiang-Yun

    2014-10-01

    Orchid conservation efforts, using seeds and species-specific fungi that support seed germination, require the isolation, identification, and germination enhancement testing of symbiotic fungi. However, few studies have focused on developing such techniques for the epiphytes that constitute the majority of orchids. In this study, conducted in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Yunnan, China, we used seeds of Dendrobium aphyllum, a locally endangered and medicinally valuable epiphytic orchid, to attract germination promoting fungi. Of the two fungi isolated from seed baiting, Tulasnella spp. and Trichoderma spp., Tulasnella, enhanced seed germination by 13.6 %, protocorm formation by 85.7 %, and seedling development by 45.2 % (all P?orchids such as D. aphyllum. PMID:24563211

  11. Resolution of an important discrepancy between remote and in-situ measurements of tropospheric BrO during Antarctic enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Roscoe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric BrO was measured by a ground-based remote-sensing spectrometer at Halley in Antarctica, and BrO was measured by remote-sensing spectrometers in space using similar spectral regions and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS analyses. Near-surface BrO was simultaneously measured at Halley by Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (CIMS, and in an earlier year near-surface BrO was measured at Halley over a long path by a DOAS spectrometer. During enhancement episodes, total amounts of tropospheric BrO from the ground-based remote-sensor were similar to those from space, but if we assume that the BrO was confined to the boundary layer they were very much larger than values measured by either near-surface technique. This large apparent discrepancy can be resolved if substantial amounts of BrO were in the free troposphere during most enhancement episodes. Amounts observed by the ground-based remote sensor at different elevation angles, and their formal inversions to vertical profiles, also show that much of the BrO was often in the free troposphere. This is consistent with the ~5 day lifetime of Bry, from the enhanced BrO observed during some Antarctic blizzards, and from aircraft measurements of BrO well above the surface in the Arctic.

  12. Resolution of an important discrepancy between remote and in-situ measurements of tropospheric BrO during Antarctic enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, H. K.; Brough, N.; Jones, A. E.; Wittrock, F.; Richter, A.; Van Roozendael, M.; Hendrick, F.

    2012-08-01

    Tropospheric BrO was measured by a ground-based remote-sensing spectrometer at Halley in Antarctica, and BrO was measured by remote-sensing spectrometers in space using similar spectral regions and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analyses. Near-surface BrO was simultaneously measured at Halley by Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (CIMS), and in an earlier year near-surface BrO was measured at Halley over a long path by a DOAS spectrometer. During enhancement episodes, total amounts of tropospheric BrO from the ground-based remote-sensor were similar to those from space, but if we assume that the BrO was confined to the boundary layer they were very much larger than values measured by either near-surface technique. This large apparent discrepancy can be resolved if substantial amounts of BrO were in the free troposphere during most enhancement episodes. Amounts observed by the ground-based remote sensor at different elevation angles, and their formal inversions to vertical profiles, also show that much of the BrO was often in the free troposphere. This is consistent with the ~5 day lifetime of Bry, from the enhanced BrO observed during some Antarctic blizzards, and from aircraft measurements of BrO well above the surface in the Arctic.

  13. In situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As management of hazardous materials gains increased attention in the United States, new and more effective technologies are being sought to immobilize and/or destroy the wastes, either in situ for previously disposed wastes or at the waste generation site. The new Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) 1984 and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) 1986, combined with proposed rule making by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is making landfill disposal very costly and is moving in a direction that will severely limit future land disposal. Further, the extended liability associated with future environmental impairment provides a significant corporate incentive to dispose and delist wastes within the plant or waste site boundary. The authors discuss a remedial action process for contaminated soils that is potentially significant in its application to these concerns. Although the process was initially developed to provide enhanced isolation to previously disposed radioactive wastes, recent tests have shown that many hazardous chemical wastes are also destroyed or immobilized as a result of the treatment. The process, in situ vitrification (ISV), was originally developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is more recently being adapted for selected commercial clients for hazardous wastes

  14. Trans-resveratrol self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) with enhanced bioavailability potential: optimization, pharmacokinetics and in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S

    2015-06-01

    Trans-resveratrol (t-RVT) is a potent antioxidant. By virtue of extensive pre-systemic metabolism and existence of enterohepatic recirculation, t-RVT bioavailability is almost zero. The current study aimed to develop self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) using long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) of t-RVT in an attempt to circumvent such obstacles. Equilibrium solubility studies indicated the choice of Lauroglycol FCC as lipid, and of Labrasol and Transcutol P as surfactants, for formulating the SNEDDS. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to select the areas of nanoemulsions, and the amounts of lipid (X1) and surfactant (X2) as the critical factor variables. The SNEDDS were optimized using 3(2) central composite design (CCD) and the optimized formulation (OPT) located using overlay plot. The nanometer size range and high negative values of zeta potential depicted non-coalescent nature of the SNEDDS. Optimized formulation indicated marked improvement in drug release profile vis-à-vis pure drug. Cloud point determination and accelerated stability studies ascertained the stability of OPT. Augmentation in the values of Ka (3.29-fold) and AUC (4.31-fold) indicated significant enhancement in the rate and extent of bioavailability by the OPT compared with pure drug. In situ perfusion (SPIP) studies in Wistar rats construed remarkable enhancement in the absorptivity and permeability parameters of SNEDDS vis-à-vis the pure drug. Successful establishment of level A of in vitro/in vivo correlation substantiated the judicious choice of the in vitro dissolution milieu for simulating the in vivo conditions. The present study, therefore, reports the successful development of SNEDDS with distinctly enhanced bioavailability of t-RVT. PMID:24512464

  15. Radiation induced dehydrochlorination as an in-situ doping technique for enhancement of the conductivity of polyaniline blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our earlier studies we have shown that acid doping in PANI/PVC blends can be achieved by radiation induced HCl release from PVC parts. In order to enhance radiation-induced acid doping process in PANI blends we have prepared solution cast films of PANI with the copolymers of vinylidene chloride with vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride. Homogeneous films obtained from these binary systems as well as from PANI/PVC blends were exposed to gamma rays under ambient conditions. The increase in the conductivity of initially non-conducting films was significant, reaching values of 10-2 S/cm from initial values of 10-7 S/cm upon irradiation to 500 kGy dose. Chemical changes leading to relatively high conductivities were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy by following the changes taking place in 1149 cm-1 and 814 cm-1 bands which are indicative of conductivity and chlorine binding in polyaniline

  16. Radiation induced dehydrochlorination as an in-situ doping technique for enhancement of the conductivity of polyaniline blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodugöz, Hatice; Güven, Olgun

    2005-07-01

    In our earlier studies we have shown that acid doping in PANI/PVC blends can be achieved by radiation induced HCl release from PVC parts. In order to enhance radiation-induced acid doping process in PANI blends we have prepared solution cast films of PANI with the copolymers of vinylidene chloride with vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride. Homogeneous films obtained from these binary systems as well as from PANI/PVC blends were exposed to gamma rays under ambient conditions. The increase in the conductivity of initially non-conducting films was significant, reaching values of 10-2 S/cm from initial values of 10-7 S/cm upon irradiation to 500 kGy dose. Chemical changes leading to relatively high conductivities were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy by following the changes taking place in 1149 cm-1 and 814 cm-1 bands which are indicative of conductivity and chlorine binding in polyaniline.

  17. Label-Free in Situ Discrimination of Live and Dead Bacteria by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haibo; Yang, Danting; Ivleva, Natalia P; Mircescu, Nicoleta E; Schubert, Sören; Niessner, Reinhard; Wieser, Andreas; Haisch, Christoph

    2015-07-01

    Techniques to distinguish between live and dead bacteria in a quantitative manner are in high demand in numerous fields including medical care, food safety, and public security as well as basic science research. This work demonstrates new nanostructures (silver nanoparticles coating bacteria structure, Bacteria@AgNPs) and their utility for rapid counting of live and dead bacteria by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We found that suspensions containing Gram-negative organisms as well as AgNPs give strong SERS signals of live bacteria when generated selectively on the particle surface. However, almost no SERS signals can be detected from Bacteria@AgNPs suspensions containing dead bacteria. We demonstrate successful quantification of different percentages of dead bacteria both in bulk liquid and on glass surfaces by using SERS mapping on a single cell basis. Furthermore, different chemicals have been used to elucidate the mechanism involved in this observation. Finally, we used the Bacteria@AgNPs method to detect antibiotic resistance of E. coli strains against several antibiotics used in human medicine. PMID:26017069

  18. An innovative bioelectrochemical-anaerobic digestion-coupled system for in-situ ammonia recovery and biogas enhancement: process performance and microbial ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    Ammonia (NH4+/NH3) inhibition during anaerobic digestion process is one of the most frequent problems existing in biogas plants, resulting in unstable process and reduced biogas production. In this study, we developed a novel hybrid system, consisted of a submersed microbial resource recovery cell (SMRC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), to prevent ammonia toxicity during anaerobic digestion by in-situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia concentration in the CSTR decreased from 6 to 0.7 g-N/L with an average recovery rate of 0.18 g-N/L(CSTR)/d. Meanwhile, a maximum power density of 0.71±0.5 W/m2 was produced (10 ?). Both current driven NH4+ migration and free NH3 diffusion were identified as the mechanisms responsible for the ammonia transportation. With an increase in initial ammonia concentration and a decrease in external resistance, the SMRC performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative effect on the ammonia transportation. In continuous reactor operation, 112% extra biogas production was achieved due to ammonia recovery. High-throughput molecular sequencing analysis showed an impact of ammonia recovery on the microbial community composition in the integrated system. Results clearly indicate the great potential of the SMRC-CSTR-coupled system for efficient and cost-effective ammonia recovery, energy production and treatment of ammonia-rich residues.

  19. Stability-enhanced indium hexacyanoferrate electrodes: Morphological characterization, in situ EQCM analysis in nonaqueous electrolytes and application to a WO3 electrochromic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a promising transparent counterelectrode system for a WO3 electrochromic device (ECD) on the basis of a stability-enhanced indium hexacyanoferrate (InHCF) electrode and a NaClO4/propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte. Through SEM characterization it was found that clusters of granular InHCF nanoparticles (ca. 80-140 nm) were deposited on ITO substrates in HCl and KCl-stabilized plating solutions, and uniform micrometer thick films with high charge capacity could be obtained. From in situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study, it was discovered that Na+ would enter or move out from the InHCF film in the 'desolvated' form during the redox process in a PC electrolyte. Besides, NaClO4/PC resulted in higher electrochemical activity and reversibility than LiClO4/PC. With these discoveries, a durable WO3-InHCF ECD featuring blue-to-colorless electrochromism was fabricated successfully. The device remained 73.6 and 88.7% of its initial ?T values at 600 and 800 nm after 40,000 rapid and successive coloring/bleaching cycles, respectively. Moreover, the cycling-induced loss of electrochromic performance almost completely restored after 1-month rest and kept unchanged for another month. Thus, the applicability of this nonaqueous InHCF counterelectrode system to ECDs was verified

  20. Characterizing early contrast uptake of ductal carcinoma in situ with high temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements in the reliable diagnosis of preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) are needed. In this study, we present a new characterization of early contrast kinetics of DCIS using high temporal resolution (HiT) DCE-MRI and compare it with other breast lesions and normal parenchyma. Forty patients with mammographic calcifications suspicious for DCIS were selected for HiT imaging using T1-weighted DCE-MRI with ?7 s temporal resolution for 90 s post-contrast injection. Pixel-based and whole-lesion kinetic curves were fit to an empirical mathematical model (EMM) and several secondary kinetic parameters derived. Using the EMM parameterized and fitted concentration time curve for subsequent analysis allowed for calculation of kinetic parameters that were less susceptible to fluctuations due to noise. The parameters' initial area under the curve (iAUC) and contrast concentration at 1 min (C1min) provided the highest diagnostic accuracy in the task of distinguishing pathologically proven DCIS from normal tissue. There was a trend for DCIS lesions with solid architectural pattern to exhibit a negative slope at 1 min (i.e. increased washout rate) compared to those with a cribriform pattern (p < 0.04). This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative analysis of early contrast kinetics at high temporal resolution and points to the potential for such an analysis to impro potential for such an analysis to improve the characterization of DCIS. (note)

  1. NOTE: Characterizing early contrast uptake of ductal carcinoma in situ with high temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S. A.; Fan, X.; Medved, M.; Abe, H.; Shimauchi, A.; Yang, C.; Zamora, M.; Foxley, S.; Olopade, O. I.; Karczmar, G. S.; Newstead, G. M.

    2010-10-01

    Improvements in the reliable diagnosis of preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) are needed. In this study, we present a new characterization of early contrast kinetics of DCIS using high temporal resolution (HiT) DCE-MRI and compare it with other breast lesions and normal parenchyma. Forty patients with mammographic calcifications suspicious for DCIS were selected for HiT imaging using T1-weighted DCE-MRI with ~7 s temporal resolution for 90 s post-contrast injection. Pixel-based and whole-lesion kinetic curves were fit to an empirical mathematical model (EMM) and several secondary kinetic parameters derived. Using the EMM parameterized and fitted concentration time curve for subsequent analysis allowed for calculation of kinetic parameters that were less susceptible to fluctuations due to noise. The parameters' initial area under the curve (iAUC) and contrast concentration at 1 min (C1 min) provided the highest diagnostic accuracy in the task of distinguishing pathologically proven DCIS from normal tissue. There was a trend for DCIS lesions with solid architectural pattern to exhibit a negative slope at 1 min (i.e. increased washout rate) compared to those with a cribriform pattern (p DCIS.

  2. In-situ sonosynthesis of nano N-doped ZnO on wool producing fabric with photo and bio activities, cell viability and enhanced mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadnia, Amir; Montazer, Majid; Rad, Mahnaz Mahmoudi

    2015-08-01

    Here, a simple processing route is introduced for preparation of N-doped nano structure ZnO at 75-80°C using in-situ sonosynthesis method through hydrolysis of zinc acetate at pH?9-10 adjusting with ammonia. Synthesis and fabrication of nano N-doped ZnO were carried out on the wool fabric through impregnation of the fabric in ultrasound bath using different concentrations of zinc acetate followed by curing. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the treated fabrics were assessed against two common pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and the diploid fungus namely Candida albicans. The photo-catalytic activity of nano N-doped ZnO particles on the wool fabric was determined by degradation of Methylene Blue under daylight irradiation. Increasing zinc acetate and prolonged sonication time led to higher photo-catalytic activity as more dye stain degraded from the stained treated fabric under daylight. Higher photo-catalytic activity was observed on the nano N-doped ZnO sonotreated wool fabric having more hydrophilicity. Finally, the treatment indicated no negative effect on the fabric safety while reduced alkaline solubility and yellowness even enhanced the fabric tensile strength. The response surface methodology was also utilized to optimize the wool fabric treatment conditions. PMID:26057020

  3. Characterizing early contrast uptake of ductal carcinoma in situ with high temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, S A; Fan, X; Medved, M; Abe, H; Shimauchi, A; Zamora, M; Foxley, S; Karczmar, G S; Newstead, G M [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave, MC 2026, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Yang, C; Olopade, O I, E-mail: gnewstead@radiology.bsd.uchicago.ed [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave, MC 2115, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2010-10-07

    Improvements in the reliable diagnosis of preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) are needed. In this study, we present a new characterization of early contrast kinetics of DCIS using high temporal resolution (HiT) DCE-MRI and compare it with other breast lesions and normal parenchyma. Forty patients with mammographic calcifications suspicious for DCIS were selected for HiT imaging using T{sub 1}-weighted DCE-MRI with {approx}7 s temporal resolution for 90 s post-contrast injection. Pixel-based and whole-lesion kinetic curves were fit to an empirical mathematical model (EMM) and several secondary kinetic parameters derived. Using the EMM parameterized and fitted concentration time curve for subsequent analysis allowed for calculation of kinetic parameters that were less susceptible to fluctuations due to noise. The parameters' initial area under the curve (iAUC) and contrast concentration at 1 min (C{sub 1min}) provided the highest diagnostic accuracy in the task of distinguishing pathologically proven DCIS from normal tissue. There was a trend for DCIS lesions with solid architectural pattern to exhibit a negative slope at 1 min (i.e. increased washout rate) compared to those with a cribriform pattern (p < 0.04). This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative analysis of early contrast kinetics at high temporal resolution and points to the potential for such an analysis to improve the characterization of DCIS. (note)

  4. [In situ FTIR reflection spectroscopy of molecule probe studies of enhanced IR adsorbtion and response rate to potential on Pd nanoparticles confined].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-xia; Chen, Zuo-feng; Ding, Nan; Sun, Shi-gang

    2004-04-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (nm-Pd) were synthesized in the supercages of Y-zeolite via "ship-in-a-bottle". Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and Nafion were used as bonds respectively to prepare zeolite-modified electrode loading nm-Pd by mixed coat and steped coat. IR optical properties of adsorbed CO (COad) were studied by in situ electrochemical FTIR spectrum on zeolite-modified electrode surface prepared by different bond and coating method. Results display the same enhanced IR absorption of COad and different response rate to potential as well as the ability of electron transfer on PVC and Nafion film. Time-dependent vCOB shift was studied for obtaining the information of response rate to potential and electron transfer ability of PVC and Nafion coating. A larger potential lag on PVC coating electrode and a very small potential lag on Nafion coating film were found, showing that different bond and prepared method affect response rate to potential of zeolite-modified electrode. These findings are significant in understanding special optical performance and the electron transfer mechanism of zeolite-modified electrode. PMID:15766147

  5. In-situ treatment of a mixed hydrocarbon plume through a permeable reactive barrier and enhanced bio-remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater is frequently polluted with mixtures of contaminants that are amenable to different types of remediation. One example is the combination of petroleum hydrocarbons (mostly BTEX) and chlorinated solvents (chlorinated ethenes and propanes), as it occurs in the groundwater beneath the industrial site that is the objective of the present case study. The site is located in Italy near a main river (Arno), which is supposed to be the final recipient of the contamination and where a possible exposure might take place. The aim of the treatment is the plume containment within the site boundaries in order to avoid further migration of the contaminants towards the river. The design of the remediation system was based on an extensive site characterization that included - but was not limited to - the following information: geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with analytical data (i.e. contaminant concentrations). Pilot tests were also implemented in order to collect the necessary parameters for the full-scale treatment design and calibration. The site was contaminated by a mixed plume of more than 30 different contaminants, ranging from BTEX, to MTBE, to PAH, to chlorinated solvents. The concentration peaks were in the order of 1-100 mg/l for each contaminant. Petroleum hydrocarbons are quickly degradable through oxidative mechanisms (especially aerobic biodegradation), whereas fully-chlorinated compounds are only degradable via renated compounds are only degradable via reductive pathways. A mixed plume of both types of contaminants therefore requires a combined approach with the application of different treatment technologies. The remediation strategy elaborated combines a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) in a funnel and gate configuration for the down-gradient plume containment, with the enhanced bio-remediation of the contaminants for the control of the plume boundaries and for the abatement of the concentration peaks. Pilot tests were carried out in order to assess the efficiency and feasibility of such technologies in the site of interest. The article describes the tests that have been carried out and the results achieved, together with the selected treatment train, its design and dimensioning. (authors)

  6. Long-term population dynamics and in situ physiology in activated sludge systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal operated with and without nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, N.; Nielsen, P.H.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the combination of FISH with microautoradiography (MAR) were used in order to study the long-term population dynamics (2.5 years) and the in situ physiology in two parallel activated sludge pilot systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The two systems received the same influent wastewater, but were differently operated (with and without nitrogen removal, respectively). Both systems showed a significant P removal that increased when different substrates (phosphorus (P), acetate and glucose, respectively) were added to the influent wastewater. Rhodocyclus-related bacteria were present in both systems in significant numbers (ranging from 4 to 28%) throughout the whole period. This supports the hypothesis that these bacteria occur in significant numbers in different types of well-operating EBPR activated sludge processes. However, we observed a lower correlation (0.9). The Actinobacteria were the only additional group of bacteria whichshowed a similar degree of correlation to the P content in activated sludge as the Rhodocyclus-related bacteria - but only for the system without nitrogen removal. Significant amounts (less than or equal to12%) of glycogen-accumulating bacteria (GAOs) were detected in the system with nitrogen removal (but not in the other system), but had no, in contrast to previous observations, apparent negative effect on the overall EBPR performance. FISH-MAR indicated that a significant part of the Betaproteobacteria (part of them identified as Rhodocyclus-related bacteria) as well as the Actinobacteria were able to take up P-33(i), [H-3]-acetate and [H-3]-glucose under anaerobic-aerobic conditions. The contribution of anoxic P-33(i) uptake under alternating anaerobic-anoxic conditions was significantly lower. Interestingly, not all Rhodocyclus-related bacteria showed uptake of these three radioactive substrates. This may be due to differences in metabolic state, physiological potential or genotype, not detectable by thepresent probe set for Rhodocyclus-related bacteria. Comparison of the P-33(i), [H-3]-acetate and [H-3]-glucose uptake by activated sludge after different fixation and incubation procedures showed that a part of the observed P-33(i), uptake may have been caused by a combination of a biological and chemical or biologically induced chemical P adsorption.

  7. Enhanced lithium storage in a VO2(B)-multiwall carbon nanotube microsheet composite prepared via an in situ hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel VO2(B)-multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite with a sheet-like morphology was synthesized by a simple in situ hydrothermal process. The morphology and structural properties of the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FE-SEM observations demonstrated that the nanosheets are frequently grown together in the form of bundles composed of numerous nanosheets, each with a smooth surface and a typical length of 300-500 nm, width of 50-150 nm, and thickness of 10-50 nm. Electrochemical measurements were carried out using different discharge cut-off voltages. Electrochemical tests show that the VO2(B)-MWCNT composite cathode features long-term cycling stability and high discharge capacity (177 mAh g-1) in the voltage range of 2.0-3.25 V at 1 C with a capacity retention of 92% after 100 cycles. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) indicate that the VO2(B)-MWCNT composite electrode has very low charge-transfer resistance compared with pure VO2(B), indicating the enhanced ionic conductivity of the VO2(B)-MWCNT composite. The enhanced cycling stability is attributed to the fact that the VO2(B)-MWCNT composite can prevent the aggregation of active materials, accommodate the large volume variation, and maintain good electronic contact. We stnd maintain good electronic contact. We strongly believe that the VO2(B)-MWCNT composite can be considered as a potential cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Electrochemical and in-situ Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic (SERS) study of passive films formed on low-carbon steel in highly alkaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancio, Mauricio

    In reinforced concrete, a passive layer forms because of the alkaline conditions in the pores of the cement paste, where large concentrations of hydroxides create a solution with pH typically between 12 and 14. The corrosion resistance of the material depends on the characteristics and integrity of the passive film; however, currently very limited information is available about the passive films formed on carbon steel under such conditions. This work presents an electrochemical and in-situ Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic (SERS) study of passive films formed on low-carbon steel in highly alkaline environments. More specifically, the study focuses on the characterization of the films formed on ASTM A36 steel reinforcing bar exposed to aqueous solutions that aim to reproduce the chemistry of the environment typically found within the cement paste. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves, galvanostatic cathodic polarization and linear polarization resistance were employed, in addition to in-situ Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). The experimental setup was built in a way that SERS experiments could be performed simultaneously with potentiodynamic polarization curves, enabling a detailed analysis of the formation and reduction of the surface films as a function of applied potential. Three solutions with different pH levels were used for the polarization and SERS experiments, namely 0.55M KOH + 0.16M NaOH ([OH-]=0.71), 0.08M KOH + 0.02M NaOH ([OH-]=0.10) and 0.008M KOH + 0.002M NaOH ([OH-]=0.01). Additional NaOH solutions in which the pH was varied from 13 to 9 and the ionic strength from 10 -5 to 10-1 were prepared for a pilot study using linear polarization resistance. Results show that the features observed in the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves correlated well with the potential arrests observed in the GCP plots as well as with the changes observed in the SERS spectra, providing valuable information about the formation of passive films on carbon steel in each of the environments studied in this research. Although there are key differences among the films formed in the different solutions tested---particularly regarding their thickness and protectiveness---once the film-formation processes had been completed, generally the films were characterized by an inner layer of Fe(II) and an outer layer of Fe(III). A Fe(OH)2-like species appears consistently as dominating the inner Fe(II) layer, while the outer typically composed mostly by gamma-Fe2O3 and/or gamma-FeOOH. Film thickness varied from about 22 nm to 266 nm depending on the pH of the solution, and decreased as pH was reduced.

  9. A facile approach to fabricate halloysite/metal nanocomposites with preformed and in situ synthesized metal nanoparticles: a comparative study of their enhanced catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sankar; Jana, Subhra

    2015-05-01

    A widespread study has been carried out by the researcher during the last few decades to improve the properties and performance of halloysite-based inorganic-organic hybrid nanocomposites (NCs) because of their excellent structural features and characteristic properties. Here, we report the fabrication of halloysite/metal nanocomposites on a large-scale through the immobilization of metal precursors followed by reduction or direct loading of preformed metal nanoparticles (NPs) over the surface of aminosilane modified halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), which in turn develops environmentally benign and low-cost heterogeneous catalysts. Characterization by different physical methods authenticates the successful fabrication of four different HNTs/metal NCs by these two different synthetic approaches, having monodispersed spherical morphology of the metal NPs. The catalytic activity and recyclability of all the NCs have been evaluated considering the reduction of 4-nitrophenol using sodium borohydride as a model reaction, attributed to their almost comparable catalytic efficiency. However, a detailed kinetic study demonstrates the enhanced catalytic activity of in situ synthesized HNTs/Ag among the four NCs, owing to the absence of any capping materials over the surface of NPs. Activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and entropy of activation have been estimated for this reduction reaction. A comparison study of their catalytic activity has been carried out with the reported heterogeneous catalysts, indicating the higher activity of these NCs for the reduction of nitroaromatics. Nevertheless, such an outstanding catalytic efficiency was only observed for HNTs/Au and HNTs/Ag NCs, with no activity of HNTs or aminosilane modified HNTs. PMID:25871741

  10. Enhanced cycle stability of micro-sized Si/C anode material with low carbon content fabricated via spray drying and in situ carbonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Micro-sized Si/C composites were fabricated via. spray drying and carbonization. • Multi-morphology carbon was formed in the Si/C composites. • Si/C composite with 5.6 wt.% C provides significant improved cycling stability. • Multi-morphology carbon plays effective role in improving the electrochemical property. • The method provides potential for mass production of superior Si-based anode materials. - Abstract: Micro-sized Si/C composites with in situ introduced carbon of multi-morphology were fabricated via spray drying a suspension of commercial micro-sized Si and citric acid followed by a carbonization. Different ratios of Si to citric acid were used to optimize the composition and structure of the composites and thus the electrochemical performance. Carbon flakes including crooked and flat ones were well dispersed in between the Si particles, forming Si/C composites. Floc-like carbon layers and carbon fragments were also found to cover partially the Si particles. The Si/C composite with a low carbon content of 5.6 wt.% provides an initial reversible capacity of 2700 mA h/g and a capacity of 1860 mA h/g after 60 cycles at a current density of 100 mA/g as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), which are much higher than those of pristine Si and the Si/C composites with higher carbon content. The mechanism of the enhancement of electrochemical performance of the micro-sized Si/C composite is discussed. The fabrication method and the structure design of the composites offer valuable potential in developing adaptable Si-based anode materials for industrial applications

  11. Enhancing in-situ U-series accessory mineral chronometry to constrain pace and processes of magma accumulation, storage, and eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, A. K.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past decade, deciphering absolute crystallization ages at micro-scales through in-situ U-series dating has spearheaded conceptual changes in the understanding of how magmas evolve en route to the surface. U-Th and U-Pb zircon geochronology by secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) now routinely accesses a continuous age spectrum extending well into the Holocene with ka precision for individual analysis spots ~25 - 40 ?m in diameter. SIMS depth profiling further increases spatial resolution at least tenfold. These developments are epitomized by studies that document multiple generations of zircon growth, predating eruptions by 10's to 100's of ka, as common features in silicic volcanics. Recently, these methods have been enhanced by (1) linking ages to Ti-in-zircon thermometry and trace element or oxygen isotopic fingerprinting; (2) tracking compositional changes with age in accessory minerals sensitive to magma differentiation, such as allanite; and (3) combining U-Th zircon ages with other chronometers, such as (U-Th)/He zircon or 226Ra-230Th-238U plagioclase dating. The emerging picture reveals a wide gamut of processes acting in magma bodies, including piecemeal, compartmentalized magma aggregation, protracted and thermally retrograde crystal storage coupled with magma differentiation, thermal rejuvenation and recycling of crystal mushes and solidified intrusions or magma chamber rinds, and wall rock assimilation. For the future, experimental constraints on accessory mineral-melt partitioning (e.g., Ayers and Luo, 2008: Geochim Cosmochim Acta, v. 72, p. A39) promise to put interpretation of zircon compositions on firmer footing, as is the case for additional accessory mineral saturation calibrations and improved modeling of existing ones (e.g., Harrison et al., 2007: Geology, v. 35, p. 635-638). By the same token, new experimental constraints on U-series element partitioning (e.g., Miller et al., 2007: Am Min, v. 92, p. 1535-1538) should enhance precision and applicability of mineral chronometers. Moreover, analytical advances in high spatial resolution SIMS hold promise for utilizing melt inclusions in zircon as an additional repository for constraining the chemical and thermal evolution of magmas.

  12. Performance enhancements and muscular adaptations of a 16-week recreational football intervention for untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the performance effects and physiological adaptations over 16 weeks of recreational football training and continuous running for healthy untrained premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group [Football group (FG): n=21; running group (RG): n=18; CO: n=14]. Two weekly 1-h training sessions were performed in FG and RG. After 4 and 16 weeks of training VO(2max) was elevated (P<0.05) by 7% and 15%, respectively, in FG, and by 6% and 10%, respectively, in RG. After 16 weeks, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 performance was 33% and 19% better (P<0.05) for FG and 29% and 21% better (P<0.05) for RG than after 4 and 0 weeks, respectively. Peak sprinting speed was 12% higher (21.0 +/- 0.6 vs 18.8 +/- 0.7 km/h; P<0.05) for FG after the training period, whereas no difference was observed for RG. After 4 weeks citrate synthase (CS) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity was 9% and 8%, respectively, higher (P<0.05) than before training in FG with no furtherchanges during the last 12 weeks. In RG, CS increased (P<0.05) by 12% after 4 weeks and no significant increase was observed for HAD. In FG, the number of capillaries per fiber was 18% higher (P<0.05) after 16 weeks (2.44 +/- 0.15 vs 2.07 +/- 0.05 cap/fiber), with no significant difference for RG. No differences were observed between 0 and 16 weeks for CO. In conclusion, recreational women's football leads to significant increases in VO(2max), performance and muscular adaptations throughout a 16-week training period. Thus, football can be used as an activity to elevate the physical capacity of untrained women.

  13. In-situ preparation of N-TiO2/graphene nanocomposite and its enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production by H2S splitting under solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhirud, Ashwini P.; Sathaye, Shivaram D.; Waichal, Rupali P.; Ambekar, Jalindar D.; Park, Chan-J.; Kale, Bharat B.

    2015-03-01

    Highly monodispersed nitrogen doped TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully deposited on graphene (N-TiO2/Gr) by a facile in-situ wet chemical method for the first time. N-TiO2/Gr has been further used for photocatalytic hydrogen production using a naturally occurring abundant source of energy i.e. solar light. The N-TiO2/Gr nanocomposite composition was optimized by varying the concentrations of dopant nitrogen and graphene (using various concentrations of graphene) for utmost hydrogen production. The structural, optical and morphological aspects of nanocomposites were studied using XRD, UV-DRS, Raman, XPS, FESEM, and TEM. The structural study of the nanocomposite shows existence of anatase N-TiO2. Further, the details of the components present in the composition were confirmed with Raman and XPS. The morphological study shows that very tiny, 7-10 nm sized, N-TiO2 nanoparticles are deposited on the graphene sheet. The optical study reveals a drastic change in absorption edge and consequent total absorption due to nitrogen doping and presence of graphene. Considering the extended absorption edge to the visible region, these nanocomposites were further used as a photocatalyst to transform hazardous H2S waste into eco-friendly hydrogen using solar light. The N-TiO2/Gr nanocomposite with 2% graphene exhibits enhanced photocatalytic stable hydrogen production i.e. ~5941 ?mol h-1 under solar light irradiation using just 0.2 gm nanocomposite, which is much higher as compared to P25, undoped TiO2 and TiO2/Gr nanocomposite. The enhancement in the photocatalytic activity is attributed to `N' doping as well as high specific surface area and charge carrier ability of graphene. The recycling of the photocatalyst shows a good stability of the nanocomposites. This work may provide new insights to design other semiconductor deposited graphene novel nanocomposites as a visible light active photocatalyst.Highly monodispersed nitrogen doped TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully deposited on graphene (N-TiO2/Gr) by a facile in-situ wet chemical method for the first time. N-TiO2/Gr has been further used for photocatalytic hydrogen production using a naturally occurring abundant source of energy i.e. solar light. The N-TiO2/Gr nanocomposite composition was optimized by varying the concentrations of dopant nitrogen and graphene (using various concentrations of graphene) for utmost hydrogen production. The structural, optical and morphological aspects of nanocomposites were studied using XRD, UV-DRS, Raman, XPS, FESEM, and TEM. The structural study of the nanocomposite shows existence of anatase N-TiO2. Further, the details of the components present in the composition were confirmed with Raman and XPS. The morphological study shows that very tiny, 7-10 nm sized, N-TiO2 nanoparticles are deposited on the graphene sheet. The optical study reveals a drastic change in absorption edge and consequent total absorption due to nitrogen doping and presence of graphene. Considering the extended absorption edge to the visible region, these nanocomposites were further used as a photocatalyst to transform hazardous H2S waste into eco-friendly hydrogen using solar light. The N-TiO2/Gr nanocomposite with 2% graphene exhibits enhanced photocatalytic stable hydrogen production i.e. ~5941 ?mol h-1 under solar light irradiation using just 0.2 gm nanocomposite, which is much higher as compared to P25, undoped TiO2 and TiO2/Gr nanocomposite. The enhancement in the photocatalytic activity is attributed to `N' doping as well as high specific surface area and charge carrier ability of graphene. The recycling of the photocatalyst shows a good stability of the nanocomposites. This work may provide new insights to design other semiconductor deposited graphene novel nanocomposites as a visible light active photocatalyst. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Raman of GO, XPS of GO, FESEM of GO, undoped TiO2 and N-TiO2, graph of % graphene vs. H2 production, hydrogen evolution of recycled T6 sample, XRD of sample (T6) after three cyles of photocatalytic study

  14. Radiologic Findings of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Arising Within a Juvenile Fibroadenoma: Mammographic, Sonographic and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Breast MRI Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Song, Sung Eun; Bae, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma is an uncommon histologic variant of fibroadenoma that frequently shows a remarkable and rapid growth. The development of a carcinoma within a fibroadenoma, either in situ or invasive, is a rare condition. We encountered a 36-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right breast. The radiologic findings were indicative of a fibroadenoma in the breast. Sonographic guided biopsy using a 14G core needle revealed the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) within the juvenile fibroadenoma. Focal excision was performed and the patient underwent radiation therapy in the right breast after surgery.

  15. Pseudomonas keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Sinha, Rajesh; Singhvi, Arun; Tandon, Radhika

    2006-03-01

    We report a 32-year-old woman who presented with infectious keratitis in the right eye 3 weeks after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). On microbiological investigations, the microorganism isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa that was sensitive to ciprofloxacin. To our knowledge, this is the only case report in the literature of post-LASIK infectious keratitis caused by P aeruginosa. PMID:16631068

  16. Enhancement of decane-SCR-NOx over Ag/alumina by hydrogen. Reaction kinetics and in situ FTIR and UV-vis study.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sazama, Petr; ?apek, Libor; Drobná, H.; Sobalík, Zden?k; D?de?ek, Ji?í; Arve, K.; Wichterlová, Blanka

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 232, ?. 2 (2005), s. 302-317. ISSN 0021-9517 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET400400413 Grant ostatní: European Union(XX) G5RD2001-00595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SCR -NOx * hydrogen effect * Ag clusters * in situ FTIR Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.780, year: 2005

  17. Enhancement of electrical characteristics and reliability in crystallized ZrO2 gate dielectrics treated with in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jhih-Jie; Huang, Li-Tien; Tsai, Meng-Chen; Lee, Min-Hung; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2014-06-01

    The crystallized ZrO2 high-K gate dielectrics treated with in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen using remote N2 and NH3 plasma were investigated, to suppress the capacitance equivalent thickness (CET), leakage current density (Jg), and interfacial state density (Dit). The stress-induced leakage current (SILC) was reduced significantly as well. The tetragonal/cubic phase of ZrO2 was formed by post metallization annealing at a low temperature of 450 °C to offer a high dielectric constant of the gate oxide. The in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen using the remote NH3 plasma contributes to the deactivation of the oxygen vacancies and the well passivation of Dit. Accordingly, a suppressed Jg of 4.79 × 10-5 A cm-2 and Dit of 3.96 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1 were realized in the crystallized ZrO2 gate oxide with a low CET of 1.35 nm. The gate dielectrics were also optically examined by the photoluminescence from the high-K/Si interface, indicating that the Dit is highly correlated with the hydrogen passivation originating from the remote NH3 plasma. The results indicate that in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen is an applicable and effective technique to improve the electrical properties of crystallized gate dielectrics in the advanced metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  18. Enhancement of electrical characteristics and reliability in crystallized ZrO2 gate dielectrics treated with in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallized ZrO2 high-K gate dielectrics treated with in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen using remote N2 and NH3 plasma were investigated, to suppress the capacitance equivalent thickness (CET), leakage current density (Jg), and interfacial state density (Dit). The stress-induced leakage current (SILC) was reduced significantly as well. The tetragonal/cubic phase of ZrO2 was formed by post metallization annealing at a low temperature of 450 °C to offer a high dielectric constant of the gate oxide. The in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen using the remote NH3 plasma contributes to the deactivation of the oxygen vacancies and the well passivation of Dit. Accordingly, a suppressed Jg of 4.79 × 10?5 A cm?2 and Dit of 3.96 × 1011 cm?2 eV?1 were realized in the crystallized ZrO2 gate oxide with a low CET of 1.35 nm. The gate dielectrics were also optically examined by the photoluminescence from the high-K/Si interface, indicating that the Dit is highly correlated with the hydrogen passivation originating from the remote NH3 plasma. The results indicate that in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen is an applicable and effective technique to improve the electrical properties of crystallized gate dielectrics in the advanced metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  19. In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation

  20. In-situ remediation strategy for enhanced microbial de-acidification of geogenic sulphuric acid mining lakes - mesocosmic studies; In situ-Sanierungsstrategie zur Foerderung der mikrobiellen Entsaeuerung von geogen schwefelsauren Bergbaurestseen - Mesokosmosstudien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froemmichen, R.

    2001-07-01

    The author investigated whether neutralisation of acid mining lakes can be enhanced by adding low-cost, complex organic carbon sources. Subjects: Selection of a complex carbon source suited for stimulation of dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction; design and observation of a near-natural landscape compartment (mesocosmos) at different scales as a preparation for the field study; Description of reactions in the mesocosmic lake water and sediment; Assessment of neutralisation equivalents and neutralisation rates on the basis of an identification of reduced iron and sulphur compounds. [German] Die Hypothese, dass durch Zugabe kostenguenstiger komplexer organischer Kohlenstoffquellen in die sedimentnahe Wasserzone eines sauren Tagebaurestsees seeinterne Neutralisierungsprozesse gefoerdert werden, liegt dieser Arbeit zu Grunde. Seeinterne Neutralisationsprozesse, wie die dissimilatorische Eisen- und Sulfatreduktion, fuehren ueber die Akkumulierung von reduzierten Eisen- und Schwefelverbindungen im Sediment zur Alkalinitaetsbildung im Gewaessersystem und im Seewasser zu hoeheren pH-Werten. Daher leiten sich folgende Ziele fuer diese Arbeit ab: - Auswahl einer geeigneten komplexen Kohlenstoffquelle zur Stimulierung der dissimilatorischen Eisen- und Sulfatreduktion - Design und Beobachtung eines naturnahen Landschaftsausschnittes (Mesokosmos) unterschiedlicher Massstabsebenen in Vorbereitung fuer die Fallstudie im Freiland - Beschreibung von Stoffumsetzungen im Seewasser und -sediment der Mesokosmen - Abschaetzung von Neutralisationsaequivalenten und Bestimmung von Neutralisationsraten anhand der Identifizierung reduzierter Eisen- und Schwefelverbindungen. (orig.)

  1. Differentiation of acute and four-week old myocardial infarct with Gd(ABE-DTTA-enhanced CMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzsics Balazs

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standard extracellular cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR contrast agents (CA do not provide differentiation between acute and older myocardial infarcts (MI. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for differentiation between acute and older myocardial infarct using myocardial late-enhancement (LE CMR by a new, low molecular weight contrast agent. Dogs (n = 6 were studied in a closed-chest, reperfused, double myocardial infarct model. Myocardial infarcts were generated by occluding the Left Anterior Descending (LAD coronary artery with an angioplasty balloon for 180 min, and four weeks later occluding the Left Circumflex (LCx coronary artery for 180 min. LE images were obtained on day 3 and day 4 after second myocardial infarct, using Gd(DTPA (standard extracellular contrast agent and Gd(ABE-DTTA (new, low molecular weight contrast agent, respectively. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC histomorphometry validated existence and location of infarcts. Hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining provided histologic evaluation of infarcts. Results Gd(ABE-DTTA or Gd(DTPA highlighted the acute infarct, whereas the four-week old infarct was visualized by Gd(DTPA, but not by Gd(ABE-DTTA. With Gd(ABE-DTTA, the mean ± SD signal intensity enhancement (SIE was 366 ± 166% and 24 ± 59% in the acute infarct and the four-week old infarct, respectively (P Conclusions Late enhancement CMR with separate administrations of standard extracellular contrast agent, Gd(DTPA, and the new low molecular weight contrast agent, Gd(ABE-DTTA, differentiates between acute and late subacute infarct in a reperfused, double infarct, canine model.

  2. Enhancement of electrical characteristics and reliability in crystallized ZrO{sub 2} gate dielectrics treated with in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jhih-Jie; Huang, Li-Tien; Tsai, Meng-Chen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lee, Min-Hung [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Chen, Miin-Jang, E-mail: mjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Center for Emerging Material and Advanced Devices, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); National Nano Device Laboratories, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-01

    The crystallized ZrO{sub 2} high-K gate dielectrics treated with in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen using remote N{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} plasma were investigated, to suppress the capacitance equivalent thickness (CET), leakage current density (J{sub g}), and interfacial state density (D{sub it}). The stress-induced leakage current (SILC) was reduced significantly as well. The tetragonal/cubic phase of ZrO{sub 2} was formed by post metallization annealing at a low temperature of 450 °C to offer a high dielectric constant of the gate oxide. The in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen using the remote NH{sub 3} plasma contributes to the deactivation of the oxygen vacancies and the well passivation of D{sub it}. Accordingly, a suppressed J{sub g} of 4.79 × 10{sup ?5} A cm{sup ?2} and D{sub it} of 3.96 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?2} eV{sup ?1} were realized in the crystallized ZrO{sub 2} gate oxide with a low CET of 1.35 nm. The gate dielectrics were also optically examined by the photoluminescence from the high-K/Si interface, indicating that the D{sub it} is highly correlated with the hydrogen passivation originating from the remote NH{sub 3} plasma. The results indicate that in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen is an applicable and effective technique to improve the electrical properties of crystallized gate dielectrics in the advanced metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  3. Characterisation of vertical BrO distribution during events of enhanced tropospheric BrO in Antarctica, from combined remote and in-situ measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Roscoe, H. K.; Brough, N.; Jones, A. E.; Wittrock, F.; Richter, A.; Roozendael, M.; Hendrick, F.

    2014-01-01

    Tropospheric BrO was measured by a ground-based remote-sensing spectrometer at Halley in Antarctica in spring 2007, and BrO was measured by satellite-borne remote-sensing spectrometers using similar spectral regions and similar Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analyses. Near-surface BrO was simultaneously measured in situ at Halley by Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (CIMS), and in an earlier year near-surface BrO was measured at Halley over a long path by a ground-bas...

  4. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  5. Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas MØller; Treebak, Jonas Thue

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metformin-induced activation of AMPK has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent upon AMPK signaling. Methods: Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given muscle-specific kinase ?2 dead AMPK mice (KD) and wild type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 weeks. Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot analyzes. Results: Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (45%, P

  6. In Situ Cryomodule Demagnetization

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, Anthony C

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of in-situ demagnetization of fully assembled superconducting RF cryomodules is demonstrated. Useful parametric values for demagnetization as well as measured effects on sensitive components within the cryomodule are listed and discussed. A practical arrangement for active compensation of the axial component of magnetic field is described.

  7. Uranium in situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the depressed situation that has affected the uranium industry during the past years, the second Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium In Situ Leaching, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and held in Vienna from 5 to 8 October 1992, has attracted a relatively large number of participants. A notable development since the first meeting was that the majority of the contributions came from the actual operators of in situ leaching uranium production. At the present meeting, presentations on operations in the USA were balanced by those of the eastern European and Asian countries. Contributions from Bulgaria, China, Czechoslovakia, Germany (from the operation in the former German Democratic Republic), the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan represent new information not commonly available. In situ leach mining is defined in one of the paper presented as a ''mining method where the ore mineral is preferentially leached from the host rock in place, or in situ, by the use of leach solutions, and the mineral value is recovered. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Enhancement of growth and structure properties of YBa2Cu3O7-? thin layers by in situ incorporation of gold nano-clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For most hetero-epitactic growth techniques, structural defects due to the lattice misfit, namely tilts, precipitates or holes, turn out to be limiting factors for the successful fabrication of multilayer systems. A new approach of an in situ growth technique dealing with this problem by incorporation of gold nano-clusters is examined. Therefore, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of a high-TC YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) layer onto a strontium titanate (STO) template with a temporary interlayer of gold with a well-defined film thickness is investigated. Within this process, the gold interlayer shows nano-clustering behavior. Effects on the properties of structure like crystallographic or surface features of the ablated YBCO layer by variation of the film thickness of the gold and YBCO layers are presented. Moreover, distribution and clustering behavior of the crystallized gold nano-particles as well as the basic superconducting properties of the layer system are analyzed.

  9. Highly enhanced electrochemiluminescence based on pseudo triple-enzyme cascade catalysis and in situ generation of co-reactant for thrombin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lijuan; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo; Wang, Haijun; Bai, Lijuan

    2014-03-01

    In this work, a novel pseudo triple-enzyme cascade catalysis amplification strategy was employed to fabricate a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor for thrombin (TB) detection. The signal amplification of the proposed aptasensor was based on the synergistic catalysis of glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and hemin/G-quadruplex to generate a co-reactant in situ for the ECL of peroxydisulfate. Gold nanorods (AuNRs) conjugated with GDH and hemin/G-quadruplex were used as the secondary aptamer bioconjugate (TBA II) in this aptasensor. TB was sandwiched between TBA II and a thiol-terminated TB aptamer which self-assembled on the AuNRs-modified electrode. The pseudo triple-enzyme cascade catalysis was completed as follows: firstly, GDH could effectively catalyze the oxidation of glucose to gluconolactone, coupling with the reduction of ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NAD(+)) into ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH). Then, the hemin/G-quadruplex acted as NADH oxidase, could rapidly oxidize NADH into NAD(+) accompanied with the generation of H2O2. Simultaneously, the hemin/G-quadruplex served as the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme that further catalyzed the reduction of H2O2 to generate O2in situ. Then the O2 produced acted as the co-reactant of peroxydisulfate, resulting in significant ECL signal amplification and highly sensitive ECL detection. The proposed aptasensor showed a wide linear range of 0.0001-50 nM with a low detection limit of 33 fM (S/N = 3) for TB determination. The present work demonstrated that the novel strategy has great advantages of sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility, which hold new promise for highly sensitive bioassays applied in clinical detection. PMID:24443720

  10. Two Weeks of Metformin Treatment Enhances Mitochondrial Respiration in Skeletal Muscle of AMPK Kinase Dead but Not Wild Type Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, J. M.; Larsen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Metformin is used as an anti-diabetic drug. Metformin ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity in liver and skeletal muscle. Reduced mitochondrial content has been reported in type 2 diabetic muscles and it may contribute to decreased insulin sensitivity characteristic for diabetic muscles. The molecular mechanism behind the effect of metformin is not fully clarified but inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and also activation of the 5'AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported in muscle. Furthermore, both AMPK activation and metformin treatment have been associated with stimulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. However, a causal relationship in skeletal muscle has not been investigated. We hypothesized that potential effects of in vivo metformin treatment on mitochondrial function and protein expressions in skeletal muscle are dependent upon AMPK signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead alpha(2) (KD) AMPK mice and wild type (WT) littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice. We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems to be unrelated to AMPK, and does not involve changes in key mitochondrial proteins.

  11. Two weeks of metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of AMPK kinase dead but not wild type mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas MØller; Larsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Metformin is used as an anti-diabetic drug. Metformin ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity in liver and skeletal muscle. Reduced mitochondrial content has been reported in type 2 diabetic muscles and it may contribute to decreased insulin sensitivity characteristic for diabetic muscles. The molecular mechanism behind the effect of metformin is not fully clarified but inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and also activation of the 5'AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported in muscle. Furthermore, both AMPK activation and metformin treatment have been associated with stimulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. However, a causal relationship in skeletal muscle has not been investigated. We hypothesized that potential effects of in vivo metformin treatment on mitochondrial function and protein expressions in skeletal muscle are dependent upon AMPK signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead a(2) (KD) AMPK mice and wild type (WT) littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice.We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems to be unrelated to AMPK, and does not involve changes in key mitochondrial proteins.

  12. In situ synthesis of hierarchical flower-like Bi2S3/BiOCl composite with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel BiOCl micro-flower was synthesized by a facile method and used as a precursor to produce Bi2S3/BiOCl composites. The Bi2S3/BiOCl composites, synthesized by in situ etching of BiOCl precursor with thiacetamide (TAA) solution, maintain the hierarchical flower-like structure and exhibit a large surface area. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) were employed to study the structures, morphologies and optical properties of the as-prepared samples. Under visible light (? > 400 nm), the flower-like Bi2S3/BiOCl composite displayed much higher photocatalytic activity than single Bi2S3, BiOCl and 2D plate-like Bi2S3/BiOCl composite for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB). The increased photocatalytic activity of Bi2S3/BiOCl could be attributed to the formation of the heterostructure between Bi2S3 and BiOCl and large surface area of the hierarchical structure, which effectively separate the photoinduced electron–hole pairs and suppress their recombination.

  13. Determination of HER-2 status on FNAC material from breast carcinomas using in situ hybridization with dual chromogen visualization with silver enhancement (dual SISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beraki Elsa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, HER-2 status kits and protocols for chromogen visualization of hybridization signals have come on the market. The first generation using chromogen visualization used single color probes. The second generation, now emerging on the market, uses dual chromogen visualization. The aim of this study has been to test a new dual color chromogen kit (Ventana INFORM HER2 Dual Colour ISH Roche ® and compare the results with our in-house method(s. The material consisted primarily of cytological material from invasive breast carcinomas in 49 women. Dual SISH was done on all 49 cytological and histological specimens. The histological specimens were treated according to the manufacturer?s recommendations. The procedure was modified in several steps in order to adapt it to the cytological material. Hybridization failed in two cytological specimens. Dual SISH showed concordant results on cytological and histological material as to amplified/not amplified. The included cases had the same HER-2 expression in the invasive and the in situ components on histology. Four IDC showed HER-2 amplification (8.5%. Polysomy was found in two cases. All dual SISH results except for one concurred with the results of the in-house method(s (1/47=2.1%. The dual SISH is suitable for cytological examination of HER-2 status. The protocol must be optimized for cytological material.

  14. Solvothermal in situ synthesis of Fe3O4-multi-walled carbon nanotubes with enhanced heterogeneous Fenton-like activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: After purification, the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) act as seeds for Fe3O4 nanoparticles heterogeneous nucleation. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles with diameter range of 4.2–10.0 nm synthesized in situ on the MWCNTs under solvothermal condition. The formed nano Fe3O4-MWCNTs decolorized the Acid Orange II effectively via Fenton-like reaction. Highlights: ? The amount of water tunes size and size distribution of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FNs). ? FNs are homogeneously coated on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). ? FNs have diameters in the range of 4.2–10.0 nm, average grain size of 7.4 nm. ? Fe3O4-MWCNTs are used as a Fenton-like catalyst to decompose Acid Orange II. ? Fe3O4-MWCNTs displayed a higher activity than nanometer-size Fe3O4. -- Abstract: Fe3O4-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Fe3O4-MWCNTs) hybrid materials were synthesized by a solvothermal process using acid treated MWCNTs and iron acetylacetonate in a mixed solution of ethylene glycol and ultrapure water. The materials were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results showed that a small amount of water in the synthesis system played a role in controlling crystal phase formation, size of Fe3O4, and the homogeneous distribution of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles deposited on the MWCNTs. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles had diameters in the range of 4.2–10.0 nm. They displayed good superparamagnetism at room temperature and their magnetization was influenced by the reaction conditions. They were used as a Fenton-like catalyst to decompose Acid Orange II and displayed a higher activity than nanometer-size Fe3O4.

  15. FIELD TEST OF CYCLODEXTRIN FOR ENHANCED IN-SITU FLUSHING OF MULTIPLE-COMPONENT IMMISCIBLE ORGANIC LIQUID CONTAMINATION: COMPARISON TO WATER FLUSHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale field experiment was conducted to compare the remediation effectiveness of an enhanced-solubilization technique to that of water flushing for removal of multicomponent nonaqueous-phase organic liquid (NAPL) contaminants form a phreatic aquifer. This innovative remed...

  16. Significant plasticity enhancement of ZrCu-based bulk metallic glass composite dispersed by in situ and ex situ Ta particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Confinement zone of Ta particles provide a plastic shielding to obstruct shear banding and so as to significantly increase the plasticity of Zr-based BMGC. Evidence of remarkable plasticity improvement of Zr-based BMGC dispersed by the combination of in situ and ex situ Ta particles can be seen from the stress–strain curve (a) as well as the fractured samples of monolithic BMG ((b): brittle fracture) and BMGC ((c): severe plastic deformation). Highlights: ? Shear bands are arrested by the interface of glassy matrix/Ta in the Zr-based BMGCs. ? Ta particles of BMGC distributed as a semi-uniform confinement zone. ? Confinement zone exhibits smaller size than plastic zone of crack-tip in the BMGC. ? Confinement zone of Ta provide a plastic shielding to obstruct shear banding. ? Plasticity can be improved from 0% (monolithic BMG) to 44% plastic strain (BMGC). - Abstract: Using two-step arc melting process and suction casting, the Zr47.3Cu32Al8Ag8Ta4Si0.7-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) rods with ex situ added micro-sized Ta particles have been successfully fabricated. The structure and thermal properties of these BMGCs samples were examined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that these BMGCs with ex situ added Ta exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison with their base alloy counterpart, with relatively higunterpart, with relatively high glass forming ability (GFA). For the mechanical study, the results of compression test show that more than 25% compressive plastic strain and 1800 MPa fracture strength at room temperature can be obtained for the 2 mm diameter rod of the ZrCu-based BMGC ex situ added 6 and 9 vol.% Ta particles, respectively. Images from SEM on the fractured surfaces show that the homogeneously distributed Ta particles (20 ± 8 ?m) would form semi-uniform confinement zones to restrict the shear band propagation. In other words, the inter-particle free space and the size of confinement zone (mean free path of shear bands) is apparently the controlling factor in affecting the plasticity of BMGCs.

  17. Diffusion-tensor imaging as an adjunct to dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for improved accuracy of differential diagnosis between breast ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive breast carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Cao, Kun; Li, Yanling; Li, Xiaoting; Qi, Liping; Tang, Lei; Wang, Zhilong; Gao, Shunyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the value of diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) as an adjunct to dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for improved accuracy of differential diagnosis between breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast carcinoma (IBC). Methods The MRI data of 63 patients pathologically confirmed as breast cancer were analyzed. The conventional MRI analysis metrics included enhancement style, initial enhancement characteristic, maximum slope of increase, time to peak, time signal intensity curve (TIC) pattern, and signal intensity on FS-T2WI. The values of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), directionally-averaged mean diffusivity (Davg), exponential attenuation (EA), fractional anisotropy (FA), volume ratio (VR) and relative anisotropy (RA) were calculated and compared between DCIS and IBC. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent factors for distinguishing IBC and DCIS. The diagnostic performance of the diagnosis equation was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The diagnostic efficacies of DCE-MRI, DWI and DTI were compared independently or combined. Results EA value, lesion enhancement style and TIC pattern were identified as independent factor for differential diagnosis of IBC and DCIS. The combination diagnosis showed higher diagnostic efficacy than a single use of DCE-MRI (P=0.02), and the area of the curve was improved from 0.84 (95% CI, 0.67-0.99) to 0.94 (95% CI, 0.85-1.00). Conclusions Quantitative DTI measurement as an adjunct to DCE-MRI could improve the diagnostic performance of differential diagnosis between DCIS and IBC compared to a single use of DCE-MRI. PMID:25937784

  18. An important discrepancy between remote and in-situ measurements of tropospheric BrO during Antarctic enhancements: is it resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, H. K.; Brough, N.; Jones, A.; Wittrock, F.; Richter, A.; Van Roozendael, M.; Hendrick, F.

    2012-12-01

    Tropospheric BrO was measured by a ground-based remote-sensing spectrometer at Halley in Antarctica, and by a remote-sensing spectrometer in space using similar spectral regions and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analyses. Near-surface BrO was simultaneously measured at Halley by Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry, and in an earlier year over a long path by a DOAS spectrometer. During enhancement episodes, total vertical tropospheric BrO from the ground-based remote-sensor was similar to that from space, but if we assume it to be confined to the boundary layer it is very much larger than that measured by either near-surface technique. This large apparent discrepancy can be resolved if substantial amounts of BrO were in the free troposphere during most enhancement episodes. Amounts observed by the ground-based remote sensor at different elevation angles, and their inversions to vertical profiles, also show that much of the BrO was often in the free troposphere. Large amounts in the free troposphere are consistent with the 5 day lifetime of Bry, with the enhanced BrO observed during some Antarctic blizzards, and with airborne measurements of BrO in the Arctic.

  19. Enhanced central memory cluster of differentiation 8+ and tumor antigen-specific T cells in prostate cancer patients receiving repeated in situ adenovirus-mediated suicide gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUBO, MAKOTO; SATOH, TAKEFUMI; TABATA, KEN-ICHI; TSUMURA, HIDEYASU; IWAMURA, MASATSUGU; BABA, SHIRO; THOMPSON, TIMOTHY C.; OBATA, FUMIYA

    2015-01-01

    The high relapse rate of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy is clinically problematic, and various neoadjuvant therapies aimed at reducing the rate have been examined. A previous study has shown that immune responses are increased in patients treated by adenoviral vector-mediated herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene delivery followed by ganciclovir (GCV) injection. However, details of the immune responses following this form of gene therapy remain unclear. Five patients who agreed to participate in the present phase I/II trial were repeatedly administered GCV intravenously for 2 weeks following intraprostatic injection of HSV-tk. Peripheral blood samples were periodically collected following the treatments, and lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow-cytometry. Intracellular interferon (IFN)-? produced by T cells was further measured in response to prostatic acid phosphatase and NY-ESO-1 overlapping peptides. Central memory (CM) cluster of differentiation 8+ (CD8+) T cells were found to increase markedly during the second round of treatment. In three patients, tumor antigen-specific T cells were clearly increased following HSV-tk + GCV treatment. An increase in prostate cancer antigen-specific T cells and CM CD8+ T cells may contribute to a reduction of relapse rates in prostate cancer patients receiving this form of gene therapy, which shows promise in a neoadjuvant setting. PMID:26137259

  20. Enhanced methanol electro-oxidation over in-situ carbon and graphene supported one dimensional NiMoO4 nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothi, Palani Raja; Kannan, Shanthi; Velayutham, G.

    2015-03-01

    Non-precious NiMoO4 nanorods with carbon and graphene have been designed for methanol oxidation via one pot hydrothermal method. The physicochemical and electrocatalytic features of these catalysts are characterized. Among the three catalysts, carbon modified NiMoO4 shows an enhanced catalytic activity in terms of current density, onset potential, cyclic stability and high tolerance to intermediate towards methanol electro-oxidation. Moreover, the NiMoO4/C catalyst delivers a current density of 49 mA cm-2 at low onset potential of 0.45 V (vs. Hg/HgO) in 1 M KOH and 2.0 M methanol electrolyte. This greater electrocatalytic activity is attributed to the unique 1D microstructure of NiMoO4 nanorods with well distributed carbonaceous material, which enhances the efficient transport of electron/ion kinetics at the electrode and electrolyte interfaces. From this observation, it is concluded that the carbon modified NiMoO4 nanorods could be a promising alternate non-noble electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications.

  1. Tensile properties of in-situ precipitated polydimethylsiloxane networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z.; Y-L. Yue; Zhang, C; Zhang, H; D-H. Zhang; Chen, X.; Y-F. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Tensile propertiesof polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) networks filled with in-situ precipitated silica were investigated. Experimental results showed that increasing the swelling time of cured rubber sheets in tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) solution or elevating the humidity and temperature of precipitation reaction atmosphere can render to a positive reinforcing effect. Moreover the in-situ precipitation method can be used to further enhance the tensile properties of fumed silica filled PDMS networks. ...

  2. Large upper tropospheric ozone enhancements above mid-latitude North America during summer: In situ evidence from the IONS and MOZAIC ozone monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, O.; Stohl, A.; Trainer, M.; Thompson, A.; Witte, J.; Oltmans, S.; Johnson, B.; Merrill, J.; Moody, J.; Morris, G.; Tarasick, D.; Forbes, G.; Nedelec, P.; Fehsenfeld, F.; Meagher, J.; Newchurch, M.; Schmidlin, F.; Turquety, S.; Crawford, J.; Pickering, K.; Cohen, R.; Bertram, T.; Wooldridge, P.; Brune, W.

    2005-12-01

    During the summer 2004 ICARTT study daily ozonesondes were launched from several sites across the eastern USA and Canada, from California to establish the baseline ozone entering the USA, and from northern Michigan to quantify ozone immediately upwind of the high emission regions in eastern North America. Additional ozone profiles across eastern North America were obtained from five instrumented commercial aircraft. The combined datasets provides the most detailed set of ozone measurements ever gathered across mid-latitude North America. To focus on purely tropospheric ozone the FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to quantify and remove the stratospheric contribution to all profiles. Lowest ozone values in the upper troposphere were found above the west coast and north of 44 degrees. Higher values were found along the US east coast and the southeast USA with the highest values above Texas. FLEXPART was used to simulate the transport of passive NOx tracers from anthropogenic emissions in North America, intense biomass burning in Alaska and Canada, and from the locations of millions of actual lightning strikes across the continent. The upper tropospheric ozone enhancements were anti-correlated with the anthropogenic and biomass burning tracers (explained variance of 31% and 27%, respectively), but positively correlated with the lightning NOx tracer with an explained variance of 39%. While the correlations are not exceptionally strong they do imply that the excess upper tropospheric ozone above the southern USA is more likely linked to ozone production from lightning NOx rather than NOx emitted from biomass burning or anthropogenic sources

  3. Green synthesis of Pt-on-Pd bimetallic nanodendrites on graphene via in situ reduction, and their enhanced electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous 3D dendrite-like structure of Pt-on-Pd bimetallic nanostructures supported on graphene were prepared. • The surface of nanostructures was very “clean” because of the surfactant-free formation process and the use of green reagent. • The hetero-nanostructures showed excellent electrocatalytic performance in methanol oxidation. - Abstract: A green synthesis of Pt-on-Pd bimetallic nanodendrites supported on graphene (GPtPdNDs) with a Pd interior and a dendrite-like Pt exterior was achieved using a two-step preparation, mixing graphene and PdCl42? first, then adding PtCl42? and ethanol without any other solvent. The morphology, structure and composition of the thus-prepared GPtPdNDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Because no halide ions (refer in particular to Br-, I?) or surfactant was involved in the synthesis, the prepared GPtPdNDs were directly modified onto a glassy carbon electrode and showed excellent electrocatalytic performance in methanol oxidation without any pretreatments. Moreover, with the special structure of PtPdNDs and the synergetic effects of Pt and Pd and the enhanced electron transfer by graphene, the GPtPdNDs composites exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity and better tolerance to Pt nanoparticles supported on graphene (GPtNPs) and Pt/C for methanol oxidation

  4. A verification of the high density after contrast enhancement in the 2nd week in cerebroischemic lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the indication, it is necessary to make clear the relation among the Stage (time and course), the Strength, the Pathogenesis, and the Effects of the operation in these diseases (SSPE relation). In this report, we focused on the High Density of CT after the contrast enhancement in the cases of ischemic lesions (the High Density was named ''Ribbon H. D.''). Seventeen cases of Ribbon H. D. in fresh infarctions were verified concerning the time of the appearance of the H. D., the features of its location and nature, and the histological findings. The results were as follows: The Ribbon H. D. appeared in the early stage of infarctions, and had its peak density at the end of the 2nd week after the onset. The Ribbon H. D. was mostly located along the cortical line, showing a ribbon-like band. The Ribbon H. D. did not appear in the sharply demarcated coagulation necrosis in the early stage or in the defined Low Density (L. D.) in the late stage of infarctions. Although the Ribbon H. D. shows the extravasation of contrast media, it does not necessarily show the existence of the hemorrhagic infarction. Some part of the Ribbon H. D. changes to a well-defined L. D. and the rest of the part becomes relative isodensity in the late stage. This change corresponds to the change in the incomplete necrosis which is afterwards divided into a resolution with a cystic cavity and the glial replacement in the late stage. In conclusion, it is possible to understand that the Ribbot is possible to understand that the Ribbon H. D. corresponds to the lesion of an incomplete necrosis, with neovascularization, in the early stage of infarctions. Therefore, in addition to the present indication of a by-pass operation (TIA, RIND), this incomplete necrosis (Ribbon H. D.), its surrounding area and just before the appearance of the Ribbon H. D. might be another indication of the operation. (author)

  5. Enhanced thermal and mechanical properties of poly(trimethylene terephthalate-block-poly(tetramethylene oxide segmented copolymer based hybrid nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization via synergy effect between SWCNTs and graphene nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Paszkiewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphene nanoplatelets/single walled carbon nanotubes/poly(trimethylene terephthalate-block-poly(tetramethylene oxide segmented copolymer (GNP/SWCNT/PTT-PTMO hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized via in situ polymerization. A remarkable synergistic effect between GNPs and SWCNTs on improving thermal and mechanical properties of nanocomposites based on segmented block copolymers was observed. Heterogeneous structure of the PTT-PTMO allowed for a better and more uniform distribution of both types of nanoparticles and stabilized the structure in question. This enabled us to observe a so-called ‘synergistic effect’, caused by the use of mixture of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanopletelets, on the enhancement of thermal and mechanical properties of the obtained polymer. In order to ascertain the influence of mentioned carbon nanostructures on the nano-phase-separated structure of the synthesized PTT-PTMO block copolymers, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC and dynamic mechanical thermoanalysis (DMTA measurements were performed. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM and transmission electron microscopic (TEM images of the PTTPTMO nanocomposites displayed that hybrid nanofillers exhibited better distribution and compatibility than SWCNTs and GNPs did individually. The tensile modulus of 0.5SWCNT/0.1GNP/PTT-PTMO composites was 68% higher than that of the PTT-PTMO alone, compared to only a 10 and 28% increase in tensile modulus for 0.3GNP/PTT-PTMO and 0.3SWCNT/PTT-PTMO composites respectively (the highest concentration when single nanofiller was added.

  6. In situ sensitive fluorescence imaging of neurons cultured on a plasmonic dish using fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawa, Keiko; Yasui, Chikara; Hosokawa, Chie; Aota, Hiroyuki; Nishii, Junji

    2014-11-26

    A plasmonic dish was fabricated as a novel cell-culture dish for in situ sensitive imaging applications, in which the cover glass of a glass-bottomed dish was replaced by a grating substrate coated with a film of silver. Neuronal cells were successfully cultured over a period of more than 2 weeks in the plasmonic dish. The fluorescence images of their cells including dendrites were simply observed in situ using a conventional fluorescence microscope. The fluorescence from neuronal cells growing along the dish surface was enhanced using the surface plasmon resonance field. Under an epi-fluorescence microscope and employing a donut-type pinhole, the fluorescence intensity of the neuron dendrites was found to be enhanced efficiently by an order of magnitude compared with that using a conventional glass-bottomed dish. In a transmitted-light fluorescence microscope, the surface-selective fluorescence image of a fine dendrite growing along the dish surface was observed; therefore, the spatial resolution was improved compared with the epi-fluorescence image of the identical dendrite. PMID:25321614

  7. Effectiveness of weekly cognitive stimulation therapy for people with dementia and the additional impact of enhancing cognitive stimulation therapy with a carer training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cove J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Cove,1 Nicola Jacobi,2 Helen Donovan,3 Martin Orrell,4 Josh Stott,5 Aimee Spector5 1Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, 2Department of Psychology, City University, London, 3Clinical Psychology Service, South Essex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Bedford, 4Department of Psychiatry, 5Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UKPurpose of the study: Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST is a widely used, evidence-based intervention for people with dementia (PwD. Although designed as a 14 session, twice weekly intervention, many services in the UK deliver CST once a week for 14 weeks. However, this method of delivery has yet to be evaluated. In addition, CST does not include any formal carer training. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of once weekly CST and determine any additional impact when enhanced with a carer training program.Design and methods: A single blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty eight PwD and their carers were recruited through three community Memory Assessment Services. PwD and their carers were randomized to one of three conditions: CST plus carer training, CST only, or a wait list control. PwD were administered standardized measures of cognition, quality of life, and quality of relationship with carer at baseline and the 15 week follow-up.Results: There were no baseline differences across the three groups. At follow-up, there were no significant differences between PwD in the three groups on any outcomes. Implications: Weekly CST with or without carer training may not be an effective form of delivery. Several possible explanations for the outcomes are proposed. Weekly CST may not offer the necessary “dose” required to combat decline, and equally the carer training may have been too brief to have made a difference. Services currently offering weekly CST should collect routine outcome data to support its use and provide practice-based evidence.Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, cognition, intervention, caregiver

  8. Triplex in-situ hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco, Jacques R. (Princeton, NJ); Johnson, Marion D. (East Windsor, NJ)

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

  9. In situ uranium stabilization by microbial metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial melanin production by autochthonous bacteria was explored in this study as a means to increase U immobilization in U contaminated soil. This article demonstrates the application of bacterial physiology and soil ecology for enhanced U immobilization in order to develop an in situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >106 cells per g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U complexing and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in a field test demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments

  10. In situ uranium stabilization by microbial metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, Charles E. [Environmental Science and Biotechnology, Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 999W, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)], E-mail: Charles.Turick@srnl.doe.gov; Knox, Anna S. [Environmental Science and Biotechnology, Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 999W, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Leverette, Chad L.; Kritzas, Yianne G. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of South Carolina Aiken, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Microbial melanin production by autochthonous bacteria was explored in this study as a means to increase U immobilization in U contaminated soil. This article demonstrates the application of bacterial physiology and soil ecology for enhanced U immobilization in order to develop an in situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >10{sup 6} cells per g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U complexing and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in a field test demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments.

  11. Combined plasma-enhanced-atomic-layer-deposition gate dielectric and in situ SiN cap layer for reduced threshold voltage shift and dynamic ON-resistance dispersion of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors on 200 mm Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Nicolò; De Jaeger, Brice; Van Hove, Marleen; Roelofs, Robin; Wu, Tian-Li; Hu, Jie; Kang, Xuanwu; Decoutere, Stefaan

    2015-04-01

    In this work we will present the experimental path followed to optimize the dynamic ON-resistance (RDS-ON) dispersion and to reduce the threshold voltage shift of AlGaN/GaN transistors grown on 200 mm Si wafers. Firstly, it will be demonstrated that a SiN gate dielectric grown by means of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) instead of rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) reduces threshold voltage (Vth) shift induced by negative gate bias and the gate leakage. Secondly, the dynamic RDS-ON dispersion of two wafers with same gate dielectric (PEALD SiN) but different in situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) capping layer, GaN or SiN, is compared. Results will show that the traps at the surface causing the RDS-ON dispersion can drastically be reduced by using in situ MOCVD SiN.

  12. In situ gamma analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EG and G/EM has successfully fielded an in situ gamma analysis system employing high purity germanium gamma detectors. The system has proven useful in radiological assessment and cleanup operations. The system, its calibration, operation, and past applications are discussed

  13. Tensile properties of in-situ precipitated polydimethylsiloxane networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tensile propertiesof polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS networks filled with in-situ precipitated silica were investigated. Experimental results showed that increasing the swelling time of cured rubber sheets in tetraethoxysilane (TEOS solution or elevating the humidity and temperature of precipitation reaction atmosphere can render to a positive reinforcing effect. Moreover the in-situ precipitation method can be used to further enhance the tensile properties of fumed silica filled PDMS networks. The reinforcement introduced by the in-situ precipitated silica gel particles can probably be attributed to the adsorption of polymer chains onto silica surface, the pinning effect of polymer chains within gel particles, and the fillerfiller gel structure among gel particles.

  14. In Situ Treatment of Chromium-Contaminated Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchter, Jonathan S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2002-12-01

    In Situ Treatment of Chromate Contaminated Groundwater Jonathan S. Fruchter Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Abstract of paper published in Environmental Science and Technology, 2002 Although not as common as solvent or fuel products contamination, chromate (chromium (VI)) contamination of groundwater is relatively widespread. Chromate has a variety of industrial uses, including chrome plating, steel making, and use as a corrosion inhibitor, wood preservative, well-drilling fluid additive, biocide, and as a pigment in paints and primers. EPA has estimated that as many as 1300 sites in the United States may have groundwater contaminated with chromate. The paper discusses a number of approaches to in situ treatment of chromate contamination in groundwater aquifers. The approaches include various types of chemical treatments, biological treatments and natural attenuation. The strengths and weaknesses of each method are discussed and compared. Field examples of two types of chemical treatment, in situ redox manipulation and chemically enhanced pump and treat are presented. It is concluded that in situ methods show promise, but can be difficult to implement due to site-specific conditions and limited long-term experience with these methods. As more performance and cost data are acquired for the demonstrations that are ongoing, and continuing research increases our understanding of subsurface processes, in situ treatment methods for chromium (VI) contamination in groundwater should gain wider acceptance.

  15. In Situ Magnetic Separation for Extracellular Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappler, T.; Cerff, Martin

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for in situ product removal from bioreactors is presented in which high-gradient magnetic separation is used. This separation process was used for the adsorptive removal of proteases secreted by Bacillus licheniformis. Small, non-porous bacitracin linked magnetic adsorbents were employed directly in the broth during the fermentation, followed by in situ magnetic separation, Proof of the concept was first demonstrated in shake flask culture, then scaled up and applied during a fed batch cultivation ill a 3.7 L bioreactor. It could be demonstrated that growth of B. licheniformis was not influenced by the in situ product removal step. Protease production also remained the same after the separation step. Furthermore, degradation of the protease, which followed first order kinetics, was reduced by using the method. Using a theoretical modeling approach, we Could show that protease yield in total was enhanced by using in situ magnetic separation. The process described here is a promising technique toimprove overall yield in No production processes which are often limited due to weak downstream operations, Potential limitations encountered during a bioprocess can be overcome such as product inhibition or degradation. We also discuss the key points where research is needed to implement in situ magnetic separation in industrial production.

  16. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  17. Linking Microbial Phylogeny to Metabolic Activity at the Single-Cell Level by Using Enhanced Element Labeling-Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (EL-FISH) and NanoSIMS? †

    OpenAIRE

    Behrens, Sebastian; Lo?sekann, Tina; Pett-ridge, Jennifer; Weber, Peter K.; Ng, Wing-on; Stevenson, Bradley S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Relman, David A.; Spormann, Alfred M.

    2008-01-01

    To examine phylogenetic identity and metabolic activity of individual cells in complex microbial communities, we developed a method which combines rRNA-based in situ hybridization with stable isotope imaging based on nanometer-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Fluorine or bromine atoms were introduced into cells via 16S rRNA-targeted probes, which enabled phylogenetic identification of individual cells by NanoSIMS imaging. To overcome the natural fluorine and bromine backgroun...

  18. Noise canceling in-situ detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O.

    2014-08-26

    Technologies applicable to noise canceling in-situ NMR detection and imaging are disclosed. An example noise canceling in-situ NMR detection apparatus may comprise one or more of a static magnetic field generator, an alternating magnetic field generator, an in-situ NMR detection device, an auxiliary noise detection device, and a computer.

  19. Oldest biliary endoprosthesis in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Consolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography over open surgery have made it the predominant method of treating patients with choledocholithiasis. After sphincterotomy, however, 10%-15% of common bile duct stones cannot be removed with a basket or balloon. The methods for managing “irretrievable stones” include surgery, mechanical lithotripsy, intraductal or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and biliary stenting. The case presented was a referred 82-year-old Caucasian woman with a 7-year-old plastic biliary endoprosthesis in situ. To the best of our knowledge the examined endoprosthesis is the oldest endoprosthesis in situ reported in the literature. Endoscopic biliary endoprosthesis placement remains a simple and safe procedure for patients with stones that are difficult to manage by conventional endoscopic methods and for patients who are unfit for surgery or who are high surgical risks. To date no consensus has been reached regarding how long a biliary prosthesis should remain in situ. Long-term biliary stenting may have a role in selected elderly patients if stones extraction has failed because the procedure may prevent stones impaction and cholangitis.

  20. Dual growth factor-loaded in situ gel-forming bulking agent: passive and bioactive effects for the treatment of urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; Bae, Jin Woo; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, In Gul; Son, Joo Young; Lee, Ji Youl; Park, Ki Dong; Lee, Jin Ho

    2015-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is one of the major medical problems for adult females and has a devastating effect on their quality of life. The major cause of the development of the SUI is dysfunction of the urethral supporting tissues as a result of aging and childbirth. In this study, in situ gel-forming bulking agent loaded with dual growth factors, nerve growth factor (NGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), was fabricated. The bulking agent consisted of three components; (i) polycaprolactone (PCL) beads, (ii) bFGF-loaded nanogels, and (iii) NGF-loaded in situ gel forming solution. The bulking agent can provide an initial passive bulking effect (from the PCL beads) and regenerate malfunctioning tissues around the urethra (from the sequential and continuous release of growth factors from the hydrogel) for the effective treatment of SUI. The PCL beads were located stably at the applied urethra site (urinary incontinent SD rat) without migration to provide a passive bulking effect. The sequential release of the growth factors (NGF within a week and bFGF for more than 4 weeks) from the bulking agent provided regeneration of damaged nerve and smooth muscle, and thus enhanced biological function around the urethra. From the findings, we suggest that dual growth factor (NGF and bFGF)-loaded in situ gel-forming bulking agent may be a promising injectable bioactive system for the treatment for SUI. PMID:25578713

  1. IN SITU URANIUM STABILIZATION BY MICROBIAL METABOLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Anna Knox, A; Chad L Leverette,C; Yianne Kritzas, Y

    2006-11-29

    Soil contaminated with U was the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >106 cells/g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U chelating and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in field tests demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments.

  2. Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK-dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Treebak, Jonas T; Schjerling, Peter; Goodyear, Laurie; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2014-05-15

    Metformin-induced activation of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent on AMPK signaling. Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given to muscle-specific kinase dead (KD) AMPK?2 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 wk. Soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot analyses. Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (?45%, P < 0.01) but not of AMPK KD mice. Insulin signaling at the level of Akt protein expression or Thr(308) and Ser(473) phosphorylation was not changed by metformin treatment. Insulin signaling at the level of Akt and TBC1D4 protein expression as well as Akt Thr(308)/Ser(473) and TBC1D4 Thr(642)/Ser(711) phosphorylation were not changed by metformin treatment. Also, protein expressions of Rab4, GLUT4, and hexokinase II were unaltered after treatment. The acute metformin treatment did not affect glucose uptake in muscle of either of the genotypes. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence for a role of AMPK in potentiating the effect of insulin on glucose uptake in soleus muscle in response to chronic metformin treatment. PMID:24644243

  3. Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK-dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas MØller; Treebak, Jonas T

    2014-01-01

    Metformin-induced activation of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent on AMPK signaling. Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given to muscle-specific kinase dead (KD) AMPK?2 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 wk. Soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot analyses. Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (?45%, P < 0.01) but not of AMPK KD mice. Insulin signaling at the level of Akt protein expression or Thr(308) and Ser(473) phosphorylation was not changed by metformin treatment. Insulin signaling at the level of Akt and TBC1D4 protein expression as well as Akt Thr(308)/Ser(473) and TBC1D4 Thr(642)/Ser(711) phosphorylation were not changed by metformin treatment. Also, protein expressions of Rab4, GLUT4, and hexokinase II were unaltered after treatment. The acute metformin treatment did not affect glucose uptake in muscle of either of the genotypes. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence for a role of AMPK in potentiating the effect of insulin on glucose uptake in soleus muscle in response to chronic metformin treatment.

  4. N-methyl pyrrolidone/bone morphogenetic protein-2 double delivery with in situ forming implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karfeld-Sulzer, Lindsay S; Ghayor, Chafik; Siegenthaler, Barbara; de Wild, Michael; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Weber, Franz E

    2015-04-10

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth and differentiation factors involved during development in morphogenesis, organogenesis and later mainly in regeneration processes, in particular in bone where they are responsible for osteoinduction. For more than a decade, recombinant human (rh)BMP-2 has been used in the clinic for lumbar spinal fusion at non-physiological high dosages that appear to be causative for side effects, like male sterility. A possible strategy to reduce the effective amount of rhBMP-2 in the clinic is the co-delivery with an enhancer of BMPs' activity. In an earlier study, we showed that N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) enhances BMP activity in vitro and in vivo. Here we report on the development of a slow and sustained double delivery of rhBMP-2 and NMP via an in situ forming implant based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide). The results showed that the release of NMP can be adjusted by varying the lactide/glycolide ratio and the polymer's molecular weight. The same applied to rhBMP-2, with release rates that could be sustained from two to three weeks. In the in vivo model of a critical size defect in the calvarial bone of rabbits, the implant containing 50mol% lactide performed better than the one having 75mol% lactide in terms of defect bridging and extent of bony regenerated area. In situ forming implants for the double delivery of the BMP enhancer NMP and rhBMP-2 appear to be promising delivery systems in bone regeneration. PMID:25697800

  5. An enhanced postnatal autoimmune profile in 24 week-old C57BL/6 mice developmentally exposed to TCDD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental exposure of mice to the environmental contaminant and AhR agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), causes persistent postnatal suppression of T cell-mediated immune responses. The extent to which prenatal TCDD may induce or exacerbate postnatal autoimmune disease remains unknown. In the present study, time-pregnant high affinity AhR C57BL/6 mice received a single oral administration of 0, 2.5, or 5 ?g/kg TCDD on gestation day (gd) 12. Offspring of these mice (n = 5/gender/treatment) were evaluated at 24 weeks-of-age and showed considerable immune dysregulation that was often gender-specific. Decreased thymic weight and percentages of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, and increased CD4+CD8- thymocytes, were present in the female but not male offspring. Males but not females showed decreased CD4-CD8+ T cells, and increased V?3+ and V?17a+ T cells, in the spleen. Males but not females also showed increased percentages of bone marrow CD24-B220+ B cell progenitors. Antibody titers to dsDNA, ssDNA and cardiolipin displayed increasing trends in both male and female mice, reaching significance for anti-dsDNA in both genders and for ssDNA in males at 5 ?g/kg TCDD. Immunofluorescent staining of IgG and C3 deposition in kidney glomeruli increased in both genders of prenatal TCDD-exposed mice, suggestive of early stages of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Ces of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Collectively, these results show that exposure to TCDD during immune system development causes persistent humoral immune dysregulation as well as altered cell-mediated responses, and induces an adult profile of changes suggestive of increased risk for autoimmune disease

  6. Composite with In Situ Plenums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A document describes a high-performance thermal distribution panel (TDP) concept using high-conductivity (greater than 800 W/mK) macro composite skin with in situ heat pipes. The processing technologies proposed to build such a panel result in a one-piece, inseparable assembly with high conductance in both the X and Y planes. The TDP configuration can also be used to produce panels with high structural stiffness. The one-piece construction of the TDP eliminates the thermal interface between the cooling plenums and the heat spreader base, and obviates the need for bulky mounting flanges and thick heat spreaders used on baseline designs. The conductivity of the TDP can be configured to exceed 800 W/mK with a mass density below 2.5 grams per cubic centimeter. This material can provide efficient conductive heat transfer between the in situ heat plenums, permitting the use of thinner panel thicknesses. The plenums may be used as heat pipes, loop heat pipes, or liquid cooling channels. The panel technology used in the TDP is a macro-composite comprised of aluminum-encapsulated annealed pyrolytic graphite (APG). APG is highly aligned crystalline graphite with an in-plane thermal conductivity of 1,700 W/mK. APG has low shear strength and does not constrain the encapsulating material. The proposed concept has no thermal interfaces between the heat pipes and the spreader plate, further improving the overall conductance of the system. The in situ plenums can also be used for liquid cooling applications. The process can be used to fabricate structural panels by adding a second thin sheet.

  7. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining of relevant diffusion coefficients is therefore of prime importance. A few techniques exist for in situ measurement of the quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve the situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  8. Hodoscope in-situ radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fast-neutron hodoscopes at TREAT and proposed for STF can be adapted to perform high-resolution radiography, in addition to their role of time-resolved test fuel imaging. Time resolution may be traded for increased spatial resolution by remote motorized scanning of the collimator, simulataneous collection of data from the detector array over extended time intervals, and deconvolution of the data from the collimator response function. Calculations and analysis of initial scanning experiments at TREAT indicate that an acceptable level of fuel density resolution can be achieved for TREAT and STF in-situ radiography

  9. Methods and systems for in-situ electroplating of electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zappi, Guillermo Daniel; Zarnoch, Kenneth Paul; Huntley, Christian Andrew; Swalla, Dana Ray

    2015-06-02

    The present techniques provide electrochemical devices having enhanced electrodes with surfaces that facilitate operation, such as by formation of a porous nickel layer on an operative surface, particularly of the cathode. The porous metal layer increases the surface area of the electrode, which may result in increasing the efficiency of the electrochemical devices. The formation of the porous metal layer is performed in situ, that is, after the assembly of the electrodes into an electrochemical device. The in situ process offers a number of advantages, including the ability to protect the porous metal layer on the electrode surface from damage during assembly of the electrochemical device. The enhanced electrode and the method for its processing may be used in any number of electrochemical devices, and is particularly well suited for electrodes in an electrolyzer useful for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen.

  10. In situ remediation integrated program: Development of containment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) is supporting the development of subsurface containment barrier technology for use in site restoration applications at contaminated sites throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The types of subsurface barriers being developed include impermeable barriers and sorbent barriers. The specific containment technology projects described in this paper include frozen soil barriers, flowable grout techniques, hydraulic and diffusion barriers, horizontal grout barriers, chemically enhanced barriers, and viscous liquid barriers

  11. In Situ Measurements of Interstellar Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Landgraf, M.; Gruen, E.

    1997-01-01

    We present the mass distribution of interstellar grains measured in situ by the Galileo and Ulysses spaceprobes as cumulative flux. The derived in situ mass distribution per logarithmic size interval is compared to the distribution determined by fitting extinction measurements. Large grains measured in situ contribute significantly to the overall mass of dust in the local interstellar cloud. The problem of a dust-to-gas mass ratio that contradicts cosmic abundances is discus...

  12. Nickel Weeklies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A century or so, a nickel could buy a lot of entertainment. One such form of entertainment was the nickel weekly, which featured tales of detectives, Wild West characters, and evil villains. Bowling Green State University has created this thoroughly delightful digital collection of nickel weeklies for consumption by the general public. This collection includes 221 nickel weeklies, and visitors can browse these offerings by title, date, or author. Visitors can zoom in on the cover page of each weekly, or they may also download each title and view them at another more convenient moment. Users looking for a place to start might do well to look over "Adventures of Buffalo Bill from boyhood to manhood" by Colonel Prentiss Ingraham or "California Claude, the love bandit" by Captain Howard Holmes.

  13. Intravenous Infusion of Monocytes Isolated from 2-Week-Old Mice Enhances Clearance of Beta-Amyloid Plaques in an Alzheimer Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohsfield, Lindsay A.; Humpel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of ?-amyloid (A?) senile plaques and tau-associated neurofibrillary tangles. Other disease features include neuroinflammation and cholinergic neurodegeneration, indicating their possible importance in disease propagation. Recent studies have shown that monocytic cells can migrate into the AD brain toward A? plaques and reduce plaque burden. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the administration of intravenous infusions of ‘young’ CD11b-positive (+) monocytes into an AD mouse model can enhance A? plaque clearance and attenuate cognitive deficits. Peripheral monocytes were isolated from two-week-old wildtype mice using the Pluriselect CD11b+ isolation method and characterized by FACS analysis for surface marker expression and effective phagocytosis of 1 ?m fluorescent microspheres, FITC-Dextran or FITC-A?1–42. The isolated monocytes were infused via the tail vein into a transgenic AD mouse model, which expresses the Swedish, Dutch/Iowa APP mutations (APPSwDI). The infusions began when animals reached 5 months of age, when little plaque deposition is apparent and were repeated again at 6 and 7 months of age. At 8 months of age, brains were analyzed for A?+ plaques, inflammatory processes and microglial (Iba1) activation. Our data show that infusions of two-week-old CD11b+ monocytes into adult APPSwDI mice results in a transient improvement of memory function, a reduction (30%) in A? plaque load and significantly in small (40 ?m) plaques. In addition, we observe a reduction in Iba1+ cells, as well as no marked elevations in cytokine levels or other indicators of inflammation. Taken together, our findings indicate that young CD11b+ monocytes may serve as therapeutic candidates for improved A? clearance in AD. PMID:25830951

  14. In situ Mars ozone detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee; Weinstock, Elliot M.

    1994-01-01

    We propose sending a balloon-borne UV photometer sensor package to measure atmospheric ozone on Mars, and this package could be a Discovery Program sensor candidate. Past measurements of ozone on Mars are highly uncertain, perhaps a factor of 3 or so uncertain, due primarily to interference and masking by cloud and dust. In-situ balloon measurements would avoid these problems, and would provide 'ground truth' which remote sensing techniques cannot. We have explored this approach to measure ozone abundance in the terrestrial stratosphere with a balloon-borne UV absorption photometer. Atmospheric pressures and temperatures and ozone concentrations near the surface of Mars are similar to those in the terrestrial stratosphere.

  15. In situ treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the plans for the in situ treatment zone (ISTZ) treatability test for groundwater contaminated with strontium-90. The treatability test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, in a portion of the 100-N Area adjacent to the Columbia River referred to as N-Springs. The purpose of the treatability test is to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative technology to prevent the discharge of strontium-90 contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River. The ISTZ is a passive technology that consists of placing a treatment agent in the path of the groundwater. The treatment agent must restrict target radioactive contaminants and provide time for the contaminant to decay to acceptable levels. The permeability of the treatment zone must be greater than or equal to that of the surrounding sediments to ensure that the contaminated groundwater flows through the treatment zone agent and not around the agent

  16. In situ atomic force microscope imaging of supported lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Leidy, Chad

    2001-01-01

    In situ AFM images of phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) hydrolysis of mica-supported one- and two-component lipid bilayers are presented. For one-component DPPC bilayers an enhanced enzymatic activity is observed towards preexisting defects in the bilayer. Phase separation is observed in two-component DMPC-DSPC bilayers and a remarkable enhanced hydrolytic activity of the PLA/sub 2/-enzyme for the DMPC-rich phase is seen. Furthermore, in a supported double bilayer system a characteristic ripple structure, most likely related to the formation of the P/sub beta /-ripple phase is observed.

  17. Architecture Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based in Eugene, Oregon, Architecture Week is a magazine that is intended for design and building professionals, and their work includes profiles of new building techniques, historic preservation issues, and architectural practice. Visitors can view the current issues online here, and they will also want to look through their "And More" area. Here they will find sections like "Blog Center", "New Products", "Jobs" and "Conferences". Also, visitors can subscribe to their "ArchitectureWeek Notes", which is a weekly email newsletter. Recent articles on the site have included a piece on historic sites in the United States that are at risk of being demolished and another piece on the importance of listening to clients before starting a major architectural project.

  18. Local Sympathetic Denervation of Femoral Artery in a Rabbit Model by Using 6-Hydroxydopamine In Situ

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yufei; Fan, Junjun; Li, Fuhang; Bi, Long; Pei, Guoxian

    2014-01-01

    Both artery bundle and sympathetic nerve were involved with the metabolism of bone tissues. Whether the enhancing effects of artery bundle result from its accompanying sympathetic nerve or blood supply is still unknown. There is no ideal sympathetic nerve-inhibited method for the in situ denervation of artery bundle. Therefore, we dipped the femoral artery in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) locally and observed its effect. Compared with control group, the in situ treatment of 6-OHDA did not da...

  19. In situ vitrification: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in situ vitrification process (ISV) converts contaminated soils and sludges to a glass and crystalline product. The process appears to be ideally suited for on site treatment of both wet and dry wastes. Basically, the system requires four molybdenum electrodes, an electrical power system for vitrifying the soil, a hood to trap gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system, an off-gas cooling system, and a process control station. Mounted in three transportable trailers, the ISV process can be moved from site to site. The process has the potential for treating contaminated soils at most 13 m deep. The ISV project has won a number of outstanding achievement awards. The process has also been patented with exclusive worldwide rights being granted to Battelle Memorial Institute for nonradioactive applications. While federal applications still belong to the Department of Energy, Battelle transferred the rights of ISV for non-federal government, chemical hazardous wastes to a separate corporation in 1989 called Geosafe. This report gives a review of the process including current operational behavior and applications

  20. An amplified electrochemical immunosensor based on in situ-produced 1-naphthol as electroactive substance and graphene oxide and Pt nanoparticles functionalized CeO2 nanocomposites as signal enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhe-Han; Zhuo, Ying; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin

    2015-07-15

    In this work, an amplified electrochemical immunosensor based on 1-naphthol as electroactive substance and Pt/CeO2/GO composites as catalytic amplifier was constructed for sensitive detection influenza. Through "sandwich" reaction, the Pt/CeO2/GO functionalized bioconjugates were captured on electrode surface and the electrochemical signal directly originated from 1-naphthol, which was in situ produced with high local concentration though the hydrolysis of 1-naphthyl phosphate catalyzed by ALP. Then, 1-naphthol as new reactant was oxidized by Pt/CeO2/GO composites with outstanding catalytic performance, resulting in detection signal amplification. In addition, as compared to label electroactive substance to antibodies, a simplified preparative step of immunosensor could be achieved because the signal probe get rid of introducation other electroactive substances. The proposed immunosensor achieved a linear range of 1.0×10(-3)-1.0ngmL(-1) and 5.0 to 1.0×10(2)ngmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.43pgmL(-1) (defined as S/N=3). PMID:25791337

  1. 30 CFR 828.12 - In situ processing: Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01...2010-07-01 false In situ processing: Monitoring. 828.12 Section 828.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-IN SITU PROCESSING § 828.12 In situ...

  2. Concomitant Detection of HER2 Protein and Gene Alterations by Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Silver Enhanced In Situ Hybridization (SISH) Identifies HER2 Positive Breast Cancer with and without Gene Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsuzsanna; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Moch, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HER2 status assessment became a mandatory test assay in breast cancer, giving prognostic and predictive information including eligibility for adjuvant anti-HER2 therapy. Precise and reliable assessment of HER2 status is therefore of utmost importance. In this study we analyzed breast cancer samples by a novel technology for concomitant detection of the HER2 protein and gene copy number. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 589 invasive breast cancer samples were analyzed with a double immunohistochemistry (IHC) and silver labeled in situ hybridization (SISH) assay simultaneously detecting HER2 protein and gene copy number in the same tumor cells. This bright-field assay was analyzed using scores according to the modified ASCO guidelines and the results were correlated with patient prognosis. Results Overall concordance rate between protein expression and the presence of gene amplification was 98%. Fifty-seven of 60 tumors (95%) with IHC score 3+, 6 of 10 tumors with IHC score 2+ (60%) and only 3 of 519 tumors (0.6%) with IHC score 0/1+ were amplified by SISH. Patients with gene amplification despite IHC score 0/1+ had a tendency for worse overall survival (p?=?0.088, reaching nearly statistical significance) compared to IHC score 0/1+ without amplification. In contrast, there was no difference in overall survival in IHC score 3+/2+ tumors with and without gene amplification. Conclusions The novel double IHC and SISH assay for HER2 is efficient in the identification of breast cancer with discordant HER2 protein and HER2 gene status, especially for the prognostically relevant groups of HER2 protein negative tumors with HER2 amplification and HER2 protein positive tumors without HER2 amplification. Breast cancer without HER2 amplification among IHC score 2+/3+ tumors (10% in our cohort) suggests that other mechanisms than gene amplification contribute to protein overexpression in these cells. PMID:25153153

  3. Scientific rationale of Saturn's in situ exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Mousis, O; Lebreton, J -P; Wurz, P; Cavalié, T; Coustenis, A; Courtin, R; Gautier, D; Helled, R; Irwin, P G J; Morse, A D; Nettelmann, N; Marty, B; Rousselot, P; Venot, O; Atkinson, D H; Waite, J H; Reh, K R; Simon-Miller, A; Atreya, S; André, N; Blanc, M; Daglis, I A; Fischer, G; Geppert, W D; Guillot, T; Hedman, M M; Hueso, R; Lellouch, E; Lunine, J I; Murray, C D; O'Donoghue, J; Rengel, M; Sanchez-Lavega, A; Schmider, F -X; Spiga, A; Spilker, T; Petit, J -M; Tiscareno, M S; Ali-Dib, M; Altwegg, K; Bouquet, A; Briois, C; Fouchet, T; Guerlet, S; Kostiuk, T; Lebleu, D; Moreno, R; Orton, G S; Poncy, J

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing observations meet some limitations when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. A remarkable example of the superiority of in situ probe measurements is illustrated by the exploration of Jupiter, where key measurements such as the determination of the noble gases abundances and the precise measurement of the helium mixing ratio have only been made available through in situ measurements by the Galileo probe. This paper describes the main scientific goals to be addressed by the future in situ exploration of Saturn placing the Galileo probe exploration of Jupiter in a broader context and before the future probe exploration of the more remote ice giants. In situ exploration of Saturn's atmosphere addresses two broad themes that are discussed throughout this paper: first, the formation history of our solar system and second, the processes at play in planetary atmospheres. In this context, we detail the reasons why measurements of Saturn's bulk element...

  4. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

  5. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LisaGieg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contibuting to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more benefical technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

  6. Aquifer restoration at uranium in situ leach sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ mining of uranium involves injection of a leaching solution (lixiviant) into an ore-bearing aquifer. Frequently, the ground water in the mined aquifer is a domestic or livestock water supply. As the lixiviant migrates through the ore body, uranium and various associated elements such as arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, vanadium and radium-226 are mobilized in the ground water. Aquifer restoration after in situ mining is not fully understood. Several methods have been developed to restore mined aquifers to pre-mining (baseline) quality. Commonly used methods include ground water sweeping, clean water injection, and treatment by ion exchange and reverse osmosis technologies. Ammonium carbonate lixiviant was used at one RandD in situ mine. Attempts were made to restore the aquifer using a variety of methods. Efforts were successful in reducing concentrations of the majority of contaminants to baseline levels. Concentrations of certain parameters, however, remained at levels above baseline six months after restoration ceased. Relatively large quantities of ground water were processed in the restoration attempt considering the small size of the project (1.25 acre). More thorough characterization of the hydrogeology of the site may have enhanced the effectiveness of restoration and reduced potential environmental impacts associated with the project. This paper presents some of the findings of a research project conducted by the Mineral Resources Waste Management Team e Mineral Resources Waste Management Team at the University of Idaho in Moscow, Idaho. Views contained herein do not reflect U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy

  7. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  8. Molecular profiling of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    OpenAIRE

    Mørk, Hanne Håberg

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer develops through multiple stages from hyperplasia to invasive and finally metastatic disease. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is an abnormal proliferation of epithelial cells within the milk ducts in the breast without invasion beyond the basement membrane. The incidence of DCIS accounts for about 20-25% of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases. Some in situ lesions are believed to rapidly transit to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), while others remain unchanged or disappear. Nowa...

  9. Molecular Classification of Breast Carcinoma In Situ

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, Usha; Mei, Lu; Seema, Sethi; Hina, Qureshi; Wolman., Sandra R.; Worsham, Maria J.

    2006-01-01

    Pleomorphic variant of invasive lobular carcinoma (PILC) is an aggressive variant of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Its in situ counterpart, pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ (PLCIS) is a recently described entity. Morphologically it has the typical architectural pattern of LCIS, but the neoplastic cells resemble intermediate grade DCIS. Molecular signatures that distinguish PLCIS from DCIS and LCIS would provide additional tools to aid in the histopathologic classification of PLCIS as...

  10. Mechanical properties of in situ composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general features of tensile, creep, fatigue, and impact loading of in situ composites are reviewed. Observed and predicted mechanical behavior is compared and property levels discussed and interpreted in terms of the underlying microstructure and mechanisms of strengthening. This approach provides both a basis and a perspective with which to assess the major advantages and limitations of in situ composites and to compare performance with that of synthetic composites and other advanced structural materials

  11. In situ dehydration of yugawaralite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artioli, G.; Ståhl, Kenny

    2001-01-01

    The structural response of the natural zeolite yugawaralite (CaAl2Si6O16. 4H(2)O) upon thermally induced dehydration has been studied by Rietveld analysis of temperature-resolved powder diffraction data collected in situ in the temperature range 315-791 K using synchrotron radiation. The room-temperature monoclinic structure [Pc, a = 6.73200(9), b = 14.0157(2), c = 10.0607(1) Angstrom, beta = 111.189(1) degrees, Z = 2, at 315 K] has the Ca cations in the channels coordinated to four framework O atoms and to four water molecules, with two of the water sites (OW1 and OW4) showing positional disorder progressively disappearing as the dehydration proceeds. The yugawaralite structure reacts to the release of water molecules with small changes in the Ca-O bond distances and minor distortions of the tetrahedral framework up to about 695 K. Above this temperature the Ca coordination falls below 7 (four framework O atoms and three water molecules) and a major rearrangement in the cation coordination takes place, causing a first order phase transition involving both a large decrease in the cell volume and the change in the space group symmetry. A satisfactory structure model for the high-temperature phase stable in the range 695-791 K could not be obtained because of the complexity of the structure. A model approximately describing the average structure [Pn, a = 12.703(1), b = 13.067(1), c = 9.839(1) Angstrom, beta = 110.894(9), Z = 4, at 749 K] has been used to follow the temperature evolution of the cell parameters in the measured temperature range. This model involves a sixfold coordination of the Ca cations (five framework O atoms and one water molecule). There is no indication of significant structure changes before collapse, likely occurring when the last water molecule is expelled from the structure and the cation coordination drops below 6, as observed in other Ca-rich zeolites (i.e., laumontite, scolecite, mesolite).

  12. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the '70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid '80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern

  13. Reinforcing bioceramic scaffolds with in situ synthesized ?-polycaprolactone coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Miranda, Pedro; Guiberteau, Fernando; Pajares, Antonia

    2013-12-01

    In situ ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (?-CL) was performed to coat ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting in order to enhance their mechanical performance while preserving the predesigned macropore architecture. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from ?-TCP commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a three-dimensional mesh of interpenetrating rods. Then, ?-CL was in situ polymerized within the ceramic structure using a lipase as catalyst and toluene as solvent, to obtain a highly homogeneous coating and full impregnation of in-rod microporosity. The strength and toughness of scaffolds coated by ?-polycaprolactone (?-PCL) were significantly increased (twofold and fivefold increase, respectively) over those of the bare structures. Enhancement of both properties is associated to the healing of preexisting microdefects in the bioceramic rods. These enhancements are compared to results from previous work on fully impregnated structures. The implications of the results for the optimization of the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. PMID:23629876

  14. Solar Week: Learning from Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D.; Hauck, K.

    2003-12-01

    Solar Week is a week-long set of games and activities allowing students to interact directly with solar science and solar scientists. Solar Week was developed as a spin-off of the highly successful Yohkoh Public Outreach Project (YPOP). While YPOP provided access to solar images, movies and activities, the main goal of Solar Week was to enhance the participation of women, who are under-represented in the physical sciences. Solar Week achieves this by providing young women, primarily in grades 6-8, with access to role models in the sciences. The scientists participating in Solar Week are women from a variety of backgrounds and with a variety of scientific expertise. In this paper, our aim is to provide some insight into developing activity-based space science for the web and to discuss the lessons-learned from tailoring to a specific group of participants.

  15. In situ bioremediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated water by a resting-cell methanotrophic microbial filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is testing and developing an in situ microbial filter technology for remediating migrating subsurface plumes contaminated with low concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE). Their current focus is the establishment of a replenishable bioactive zone (catalytic filter) along expanding plume boundaries by the Injection of a representative methanotrophic bacterium, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. We have successfully demonstrated this microbial filter strategy using emplaced, attached resting cells (no methane additions) in a 1.1-m flow-through test bed loaded with water-saturated sand. Two separate 24 h pulses of TCE (109 ppb and 85 ppb), one week apart, were pumped through the system at a flow velocity of 1.5 cm/h; no TCE (<0.5 ppb) was detected on the downstream side of the microbial filter. Subsequent excavation of the wet sand confirmed the existence of a TCE-bioactive zone 19 days after it had been created. An enhanced longevity of the cellular, soluble-form methane monooxygenase produced by this methanotroph Is a result of our laboratory bioreactor culturing conditions. Additional experiments with cells in sealed vials and emplaced in the 1.1-m test bed yielded a high resting-cell finite TCE biotransformation capacity of ? 0.25 mg per mg of bacteria; this is suitable for a planned sand-filled trench field demonstration at a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site

  16. ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

  17. In situ forming polymeric drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DL-lactic acid, poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide and poly-caprolactone. The choice of solvents like water, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methyl pyrrolidone, triacetin and 2-pyrrolidone for these formulations depends on the solubility of polymer used. Mainly in situ gels are administered by oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable and intraperitoneal routes. The in situ gel forming polymeric formulations offer several advantages like sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems. The article presents a detailed review of these types of polymeric systems, their evaluation, advancements and their commercial formulations. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost.

  18. In situ simulation: Taking reported critical incidents and adverse events back to the clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jonas; Paltved, Charlotte

    Introduction In situ simulation offers a novel approach to training in the healthcare setting. It models clinical processes in a real clinical environment and provides the opportunity to correct errors and adjust team interactions without endangering patients. Training in the simulation laboratory does not tap into situational resources, e.g. individual, team, and organisational characteristics such as routines, personal relations, distributed skill-levels etc. Therefore, it fails to fully mimic real clinical team processes. Alternatively, in situ simulation offers a unique opportunity to explore and improve team processes in the clinical environment. Though research on in situ simulation in healthcare is in its infancy, literature is abundant on patient safety, medical simulation, team training and human factors1. Patient safety reporting systems that identify risks to patients can improve patient safety if coupled with training and organisational support2. Insight into the nature of reported critical incidents and adverse events can be used in writing in situ simulation scenarios and thus lead to interventions that enhance patient safety. The patient safety literature emphasises well-developed non-technical skills in preventing medical errors3. Furthermore, critical incidents and adverse events reporting systems comprise a knowledgebase to gain in-depth insights into patient safety issues. This study explores the use of critical incidents and adverse events reports to inform in situ simulation to improve patient safety. Design and purpose The study uses a case study design of in situ simulation training tailored to two emergency departments in the Central Denmark Region. We aim to: - Develop a model that integrates critical incidents and adverse events, a contextual needs analysis and short-term observations in the design of in situ simulation. - Deliver and evaluate the usability of in situ simulation training to interprofessional emergency teams. Methods The project has a triple strategy: 1) Patient safety data analysis and literature review, 2) Video observational study on interprofessional emergency teams, and 3) In situ simulation intervention study with evaluation of training. Reported critical incidents and adverse events will be collected from the Danish Patient Safety Database in the Central Denmark Region and analysed using the qualitative software programme NVivo 10 for content analysis4 and thematic analysis5. Medical experts and simulation faculty will design scenarios for in situ simulation training based on the analysis. Short-term observations using time logs will be performed along with interviews with key informants at the departments. Video data will be collected and used for debriefing6 focusing on team communication and team adaptation7 after in situ simulation training. Perspective and relevance First, this study might help taking reported critical incidents and adverse events back to the clinic. Second, reported critical incidents and adverse events coupled with a contextual needs analysis and short-term observations might aid in scenario design for in situ simulation. This will shed light on how to develop specific learning goals for in situ simulation based on clinical challenges in acute healthcare settings. Third, in situ simulation offers a unique way to study team interactions associated with effective interprofessional teamwork. In particular, team non-technical skills and team adaptation, and their interplay will be scrutinised. In summary, this study offers in situ simulation faculty with a model for integrating reported critical incidents and adverse events with contextual needs analysis and short-term observations. This study generates system knowledge that might lead to changes on the individual, team, and organisational level, and thus enhancing patient safety. References (1) Rosen MA, Hunt EA, Pronovost PJ, Federowicz MA, Weaver SJ. In situ simulation in continuing medical education for the health care professions: A systematic review. J Contin Educ Health Prof 2012; 32(4):243-254.

  19. Integrative approaches for assessing the ecological sustainability of in situ bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Janmejay; Chauhan, Archana; Jain, Rakesh K

    2009-03-01

    Application of microbial metabolic potential (bioremediation) is accepted as an environmentally benign and economical measure for decontamination of polluted environments. Bioremediation methods are generally categorized into ex situ and in situ bioremediation. Although in situ bioremediation methods have been in use for two to three decades, they have not yet yielded the expected results. Their limited success has been attributed to reduced ecological sustainability under environmental conditions. An important determinant of sustainability of in situ bioremediation is pollutant bioavailability. Microbial chemotaxis is postulated to improve pollutant bioavailability significantly; consequently, application of chemotactic microorganisms can considerably enhance the performance of in situ degradation. The environmental fate of degradative microorganisms and the ecological consequence of intervention constitute other important descriptors for the efficiency and sustainability of bioremediation processes. Integrative use of culture-dependent, culture-independent methods (e.g. amplified rDNA restriction analysis, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, denaturing/thermal gradient gel electrophoresis, phospholipid fatty acid, etc.), computational and statistical analyses has enabled successful monitoring of the above aspects. The present review provides a detailed insight into some of the key factors that affect the efficiency of in situ bioremediation along with a comprehensive account of the integrative approaches used for assessing the ecological sustainability of processes. The review also discusses the possibility of developing suicidal genetically engineered microorganisms for optimized and controlled in situ bioremediation. PMID:19178567

  20. Osteogenic efficiency of in situ gelling poloxamine systems with and without bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rey-Rico

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ gelling solutions for minimally invasive local application of bone growth factors are attracting increasing attention as efficient and patient-friendly alternative to bone grafts and solid scaffolds for repairing bone defects. Poloxamines, i.e., X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide-poly(propylene oxide block copolymers with an ethylenediamine core (Tetronic®, were evaluated both as an active osteogenic component and as a vehicle for rhBMP-2 injectable implants. After cytotoxicity screening of various poloxamine varieties, Tetronic 908, 1107, 1301 and 1307 solutions were chosen as the most cytocompatible and their sol-to-gel transitions were rheologically characterized. Viscoelastic gels, formed at 37 ºC, sustained protein release under physiological-like conditions. Formulations of rhBMP-2 led to differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts, quantified as alkaline phosphatase activity with a maximum at day 7, and to mineralized nodules. Interestingly, poloxamine solely gels led to an initial proliferation of the mesenchymal stem cells (first week, followed by differentiation to osteoblasts (second to third week. Histochemical analysis revealed that Tetronic 908 is only osteoinductive; Tetronic 1107 is mostly osteoinductive, although its use leads to a minor differentiation to adipocytes; Tetronic 1307, solely or loaded with rhBMP-2, causes differentiation of both osteoblasts and adipocytes. Enhanced expression levels of CBFA-1 and collagen type I were observed for Tetronic 908, 1107 and 1307, both solely and combined with rhBMP-2. The intrinsic osteogenic activity of poloxamines (not observed for Pluronic F127 offers novel perspectives for bone regeneration using minimally invasive procedures (i.e., injectable scaffolds and overcoming the safety and the cost/effectiveness concerns associated with large scale clinical use of recombinant growth factors.

  1. Oil companies push in-situ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibly, a third Athabaska tar-sand plant using surface mining will be built in the 1980's, but future development beyond that point will probably depend on in-situ recovery. The discussion of in-situ recovery focusses on the effect it will have on the Canadian chemical industry, for example, the market for sodium hydroxide. To obtain the highest yields of oil from bitumen, an external source of hydrogen is necessary; for example Syncrude imports natural gas to make hydrogen for desulphurization. Gasification of coal is a possible source of hydrogen. Research on hydrocracking is progressing. Use of a prototype CANDU OCR reactor to raise the hot steam necessary for in-situ recovery has been suggested. Venezuela is interested in Canadian upgrading technology. (N.D.H.)

  2. In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Program was established in October, 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a recommended long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Feasibility Study format to identify methods for the long-term management of the mixed waste buried. This In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan gives a brief description of the site, work breakdown structure, and project organization: the in situ vitrification technology; the purpose of the tests and demonstrations; and the equipment and materials required for the tests and demonstration. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Transesterificiation of sunflower oil in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler-Marinkovic, S.; Tomasevic, A. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology

    1998-10-01

    This short communication reports that ethyl esters of sunflower seed oil fatty acids can be produced satisfactorily by reaction with the oil in situ. Experiments were designed to determine how variations in molar ratio of methanol to oil, amount of acidic catalyst, and time and temperature of reaction affected the yield and properties of esters. Good results were obtained in mild reaction conditions (temperature 30{degree}C) with a strong acidic catalyst and high molar ratio. The fatty ester composition and properties of the products derived from reactions in situ is essentially the same as that from conventional transesterification of the pre-extracted oil. It is of obvious importance that the products obtained by in situ reaction be as suitable as a diesel fuel substitute as those derived from the conventional treatment. 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. In Situ Imaging of Atomic Quantum Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chen-Lung; Chin, Cheng

    2015-09-01

    One exciting progress in recent cold atom experiments is the development of high resolution, in situ imaging techniques for atomic quantum gases.1-3 These new powerful tools provide detailed information on the distribution of atoms in a trap with resolution approaching the level of single atom and even single lattice site, and complement the welldeveloped time-of-flight method that probes the system in momentum space. In a condensed matter analogy, this technique is equivalent to locating electrons of a material in a snap shot. In situ imaging has offered a new powerful tool to study atomic gases and inspired many new research directions and ideas. In this chapter, we will describe the experimental setup of in situ absorption imaging, observables that can be extracted from the images, and new physics that can be explored with this technique.

  5. Ductal carcinoma in situ: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Shivani; Robin, Julieta; Julian, Thomas B

    2013-08-01

    Advances in methods used to diagnose breast cancer have resulted in the increased detection of ductal carcinoma in situ; most of these are detected by screening mammograms and are confirmed by core needle biopsy. Currently, classification schemas are moving toward a molecular approach. Treatment options for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ are multiple and take into consideration end points such as local, regional or distant recurrence, overall survival and quality of life. Treatment methods continue to be controversial and debated in the oncology community. The quality of local control is multifactorial and depends on adequate surgical clearance, biological characteristics of the tumor, clinical presentation and the possibility of radiation therapies. PMID:23984897

  6. In situ subterranean gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptation of Ge(Li) and intrinsic germanium diodes and small NaI(Tl) and plastic phosphor crystals to the in situ determination of subterranean gamma-ray emitting radionuclides is discussed. Techniques are described for the quantitative measurement of radionuclides in sediments through concentration variations over eight orders of magnitude. Methods are outlined for determining the source of entry of radionuclides into sediments, their direction of travel, their migration rate, and their distance from the point of measurement. Application of the technology to the in situ measurement of radionuclides leaked from underground nuclear fuel waste storage tanks is discussed. (Auth.)

  7. In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive 137Cs and 60Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of 137Cs and 60Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented

  8. The determination of the in situ structure by nuclear spin contrast variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polarized neutron scattering from polarized nuclear spins in hydrogenous substances opens a new way of contrast variation. The enhanced contrast due to proton spin polarization was used for the in situ structure determination of tRNA of the functional complex of the E.coli ribosome

  9. The determination of the in situ structure by nuclear spin contrast variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS Forschungszentrum, Geesthacht (Germany); Nierhaus, K.H. [Max-Planch-Institut fuer Molekulare Genetik, Berlin (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Polarized neutron scattering from polarized nuclear spins in hydrogenous substances opens a new way of contrast variation. The enhanced contrast due to proton spin polarization was used for the in situ structure determination of tRNA of the functional complex of the E.coli ribosome.

  10. Design Games for In-Situ Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The mobile culture has spawned a host of context-based products, like location-based and tag-based applications. This presents a new challenge for the designer. There is a need of design methods that acknowledge the context and allows it to influence the design ideas. This article focuses on a design problem where an in-situ design practice may further the early design process: the case of designing a pervasive game. Pervasive games are computer games, played using the city as a game board and often using mobile phones with GPS. Some contextual design methods exist, but the author proposes an approach that calls for the designer to conceptualise and perform ideas in-situ, that is on the site, where the game is supposed to be played. The problem was to design a creativity method that incorporated in-situ design work and which generated game concepts for pervasive games. The proposed design method, called sitestorming, is based on a game using Situationistic individual exploration of the site and different types of game cards, followed by a joint evaluation of the generated ideas. A series of evaluations showed that the designers found the method enjoyable to use, that the method motivated idea generation, and that using in-situ design influenced their design ideas.

  11. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU VITRIFICATION TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In situ vitrification (ISV) uses electrical power to heat and melt soil, sludge, mine tailings, buried wastes, and sediments contaminated with organic, inorganic, and metal-bearing hazardous wastes. The molten material cools to form a hard, monolithic, chemically inert, stable...

  12. In situ detection of Bartonella henselae cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hercík, Kamil; Melter, O.; Jane?ek, Ji?í; Branny, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 16, - (2002), s. 49-56. ISSN 0890-8508 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA310/98/0417; GA ?R GA204/99/1534 Keywords : bartonella henselae * in situ detection * hydridization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.269, year: 2002

  13. Transesterification in situ of sunflower seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, K.J.; D' Arch-Evans, C.

    1985-06-01

    Transesterification of sunflower seed oil in situ has produced methyl and ethyl esters in yields greater than 40% of the dry seed weight. This figure compares with a typical yield of ca. 30% when the esters were prepared in the conventional manner from preextracted seed oil. 14 references.

  14. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU VITRIFICATION - GEOSAFE CORPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    in Situ Vitrification (ISV) is designed to treat soils, sludges, sediments, and mine tailings contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds. The process uses electrical current to heat (mett) and vitrify the soil in place. Organic contaminants are decomposed by the extreme h...

  15. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Encapsulated Nanosilica Particles with an Acrylic Copolymer by in Situ Emulsion Polymerization Using Thermoresponsive Nonionic Surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Daryoosh Vashaee; Lobat Tayebi; Babak Fathi; Elaheh Motamedi; Tannaz Pourvala; Mostafa Yazdimamaghani

    2013-01-01

    Nanocomposites of encapsulated silica nanoparticles were prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization of acrylate monomers. The synthesized material showed good uniformity and dispersion of the inorganic components in the base polymer, which enhances the properties of the nanocomposite material. A nonionic surfactant with lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was used to encapsulate the silica nanoparticles in the acrylic copolymer matrix. This in situ method combined the surface modifica...

  17. In situ measurements of volatile organic compounds in a boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hakola; Hellén, H.; Henriksson, M.; Rinne, J.; Kulmala, M

    2012-01-01

    We present biogenic VOC, including sesquiterpenes, measurements at the SMEAR II station (Station For Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) in Finland using an in situ gas chromatograph mass-spectrometer with 2 h time resolution. The measurements were conducted over the period October 2010–October 2011, at least one week every month. To our knowledge there are no earlier species-speciated semi-continuous BVOC data also covering dormant periods.

    During ...

  18. Effects of a glass-ionomer cement on the remineralization of occlusal caries: an in situ study Efeito de um cimento de ionômero de vidro sobre a remineralização de cárie na superfície oclusal: estudo in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Tostes Amaral; Antônio Carlos Guedes-Pinto; Orlando Chevitarese

    2006-01-01

    This work evaluated the remineralization of demineralized enamel of pits and fissures of human third molars sealed with a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX, GC Corporation - Japan) or with a Bis-GMA sealant (Delton - Dentsply). Ten volunteers participated in this in situ study that consisted of two thirty-day periods using intra-oral devices, with a week’s interval in between. Four experimental treatment procedures and one control were randomly assigned to the volunteers’ specimens: Group I, ...

  19. Characterizing In Situ Uranium and Groundwater Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J.; Newman, M. A.; Stucker, V.; Peacock, A.; Ranville, J.; Cabaniss, S.; Hatfield, K.; Annable, M. D.; Klammler, H.; Perminova, I. V.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a new sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of uranium and groundwater fluxes. The sensor uses two sorbents and resident tracers to measure uranium flux and specific discharge directly; but, sensor principles and design should also apply to fluxes of other radionuclides. Flux measurements will assist with obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) and further advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. Project efforts will expand our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in uranium fluxes and those for salient electron donor/acceptors, and groundwater are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The new sensor uses an anion exchange resin to measure uranium fluxes and activated carbon with resident tracers to measure water fluxes. Several anion-exchange resins including Dowex 21K and 21K XLT, Purolite A500, and Lewatit S6328 were tested as sorbents for capturing uranium on the sensor and Lewatit S6328 was determined to be the most effective over the widest pH range. Four branched alcohols proved useful as resident tracers for measuring groundwater flows using activated carbon for both laboratory and field conditions. The flux sensor was redesigned to prevent the discharge of tracers to the environment, and the new design was tested in laboratory box aquifers and the field. Geochemical modeling of equilibrium speciation using Visual Minteq and an up-to-date thermodynamic data base suggested Ca-tricarbonato-uranyl complexes predominate under field conditions, while calculated uranyl ion activities were sensitive to changes in pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkaline earth metals. Initial field tests at the Rifle IFRC site were conducted to assess ambient groundwater and uranium fluxes, monitor microbial growth on the sensor during field deployment, and further resolve any unforeseen problems evolving from field deployment. Ten flux sensors were deployed in five wells for three weeks from mid-November to early December 2009. Observed water fluxes varied from 1.2 - 5.3 cm/d while uranium fluxes ranged from 0.01 - 2.2 ug/cm2d. Uranium and water flux variations corresponded closely with changes in lithology. Uranium fluxes were typically observed to increase with depth. Stochastic simulations were conducted to estimate the magnitude of uranium discharge over a 10.5 m2 transect. The mean discharge was approximately 52 mg/d with a narrow 90% confidence interval of ± 11%.

  20. Impregnation of ?-tricalcium phosphate robocast scaffolds by in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Perera, Fidel H; van der Meulen, Inge; Heise, Andreas; Pajares, Antonia; Miranda, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    Ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (?-CL) and L-lactide (LLA) was performed to impregnate ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from ?-TCP commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a 3D mesh of interpenetrating rods. ?-CL and LLA were in situ polymerized within the ceramic structure by using a lipase and stannous octanoate, respectively, as catalysts. The results show that both the macropores inside the ceramic mesh and the micropores within the ceramic rods are full of polymer in either case. The mechanical properties of scaffolds impregnated by in situ polymerization (ISP) are significantly increased over those of the bare structures, exhibiting similar values than those obtained by other, more aggressive, impregnation methods such as melt-immersion (MI). ISP using enzymatic catalysts requires a reduced processing temperature which could facilitate the incorporation of growth factors and other drugs into the polymer composition, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the composite scaffold. The implications of these results for the optimization of the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. PMID:23526780

  1. In situ diesel fuel bioremediation: A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of a ruptured fuel line, the study site had diesel fuel soil contamination and free product more than 2 ft (0.75 m) thick on the groundwater surface. Diesel fuel, which is composed of a high percentage of nonvolatile compounds, has proven difficult to remediate using conventional extraction remediation techniques. A number of remedial alternatives were reviewed, and the patented in situ biodegradation BioSpargeSM technology was selected for the site and performed under license by a specialty contractor. BioSpargeSM is a field-proven closed-loop (no vapor emissions) system that supplies a continuous, steady supply of oxygen, moisture, and additional heat to enhance microorganism activity. The system injects an enriched airstream beneath the groundwater surface elevation and/or within the contaminant plume and removes residual vapors from vadose zone soil within and above the contaminant plume. The technology has no air discharge, which is critical in areas where strict air discharge regulations apply. The focus of this paper is the viability of in situ biodegradation as an effective remediation alternative for reducing nonvolatile petroleum products

  2. Fabrication of Au@Pt multibranched nanoparticles and their application to in situ SERS monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qianling; Shen, Guizhi; Yan, Xuehai; Li, Lidong; Möhwald, Helmuth; Bargheer, Matias

    2014-10-01

    Here, we present an Au@Pt core-shell multibranched nanoparticle as a new substrate capable of in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), thereby enabling monitoring of the catalytic reaction on the active surface. By careful control of the amount of Pt deposited bimetallic Au@Pt, nanoparticles with moderate performance both for SERS and catalytic activity were obtained. The Pt-catalyzed reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol by borohydride was chosen as the model reaction. The intermediate during the reaction was captured and clearly identified via SERS spectroscopy. We established in situ SERS spectroscopy as a promising and powerful technique to investigate in situ reactions taking place in heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:25215532

  3. The in situ combustion pilot project in Bare field, Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perozo, H.A.; Mendoza, A.J.; Teixeira, J.; Alvarez, A.; Vasquez, P. [PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In heavy oil fields, in-situ combustion technology can be used as a means to enhance oil recovery. This process consists of burning some part of the oil present in the reservoir to produce heat that allow increased oil displacement. The aim of this study is to present an in situ combustion pilot project (ISCPP). This project will be conducted by PDVSA Intevep and its partners in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela, to assess the effect of in situ combustion in increasing recovery factors from heavy crude oil reservoirs. The laboratory combustion test analyses, the static and dynamic reservoir simulations, the design, construction and completion of all wells and the study, analysis and development of surface facilities are discussed. The ISCPP is expected to be running by the end of 2011.

  4. Liquid crystalline polymer nanocomposites reinforced with in-situ reduced graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pedrazzoli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work liquid-crystalline polymer (LCP nanocomposites reinforced with in-situ reduced graphene oxide are investigated. Graphene oxide (GO was first synthesized by the Hummers method, and the kinetics of its thermal reduction was assessed. GO layers were then homogeneously dispersed in a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer matrix (Vectran®, and an in-situ thermal reduction of GO into reduced graphene oxide (rGO was performed. Even at low rGO amount, the resulting nanocomposites exhibited an enhancement of both the mechanical properties and the thermal stability. Improvements of the creep stability and of the thermo-mechanical behavior were also observed upon nanofiller incorporation. Furthermore, in-situ thermal reduction of the insulating GO into the more electrically conductive rGO led to an important surface resistivity decrease in the nanofilled samples.

  5. Facility for combined in situ magnetron sputtering and soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrahigh vacuum chamber that enables the in situ growth of thin films and multilayers by magnetron sputtering techniques is described. Following film preparation, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements are performed by utilizing an in vacuum electromagnet. XMCD measurements on sputtered thin films of Fe and Co yield spin and orbital moments that are consistent with those obtained previously on films measured in transmission geometry and grown in situ by evaporation methods. Thin films of FeN prepared by reactive sputtering are also examined and reveal an apparent enhancement in the orbital moment for low N content samples. The advantages of producing samples for in situ XAS and XMCD studies by magnetron sputtering are discussed

  6. 30 CFR 828.11 - In situ processing: Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01...2010-07-01 false In situ processing: Performance standards...11 Section 828.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-IN SITU PROCESSING § 828.11 In...

  7. Next generation in-situ optical Raman sensor for seawater investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomijeca, A.; Kwon, Y.-H.; Ahmad, H.; Kronfeldt, H.-D.

    2012-04-01

    We introduce the next generation of optical sensors based on a combination of surfaced enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) suited for investigations of tiny concentrations of pollutions in the seawater. First field measurements were carried out in the Arctic area which is of global interest since it is more affected by global warming caused climatic changes than any other areas of our planet and it is a recipient for many toxic organic pollutants. A significant long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants to Svalbard is mainly originated from industrialized countries in Europe and North America during the last decades. Therefore, the main interest is to investigate the Arctic water column and also the sediments. Standard chemical methods for water/sediment analysis are extremely accurate but complex and time-consuming. The primary objective of our study was to develop a fast response in-situ optical sensor for easy to use and quick analysis. The system comprises several components: a handheld measurement head containing a 671 nm microsystem diode laser and the Raman optical bench, a laser driver electronics board, a custom-designed miniature spectrometer with an optical resolution of 8 cm-1 and a netbook to control the spectrometer as well as for data evaluation. We introduced for the first time the portable Raman sensor system on an Artic sea-trial during a three week cruise on board of the James Clark Ross research vessel in August 2011. Numerous Raman and SERS measurements followed by SERDS evaluations were taken around locations 78° N and 9° E. Different SERS substrates developed for SERS measurements in sea-water were tested for their capability to detect different substances (PAHs) in the water down to very small (nmol/l) concentrations. Stability tests of the substrates were carried out also for the applicability of our system e.g. on a mooring. Details of the in-situ Raman sensor were presented together with the measurements results from the Arctic area.

  8. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  9. AVARIS. AREVA valve repair in-situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AREVA has designed, built and applied a set of modular machines to refurbish the seal seats of installed valves in NPPs. This innovative new service is called AREVA Valve Repair In-Situ. AVARIS machinery has the unique ability to conduct several processes, in-situ, i.e. in the pipe system in very tight space. The main processes of AVARIS are: - turning of damaged seal areas, - built-up welding of a new hardfacing and - finishing of the welded areas. A gate valve that has been refurbished with the AVARIS method is as good as a new valve regarding the sealing function and life expectancy. By applying AVARIS, the valve is brought back into its original state, so the system remains unchanged. Thus, all original documents keep their validity. (orig.)

  10. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment - various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field preliminary results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

  11. Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Peterson; Hines, Stephanie L.; Vallow, Laura A.; Buskirk, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a noninvasive form of breast cancer that has increased in incidence over the past several decades secondary to screening mammography. DCIS now represents 20–30% of all newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer. Patients with DCIS typically present with an abnormal mammogram, and diagnosis is most commonly obtained with an imageguided biopsy. Historically, mastectomy was considered the primary curative option for patients with DCIS. However, trea...

  12. Chemoport anchoring – the in situ technique

    OpenAIRE

    Yagachikatte Chikkanarasaiah Madhu; Krishnamachar Harish

    2011-01-01

    Chemoports are subcutaneously placed long term central venous access devices usually inserted under local anaesthesia. Rare complications include port inversion or flip over. These can be prevented by anchoring the port to the tissues at its base. We describe an in situ technique of port anchoring. Here, the port is first ‘fixed’ temporarily to the overlying skin by Huber needle, thus facilitating placement of fixing sutures without port manipulation. The described technique is safe and we ha...

  13. Femtosecond laser in laser in situ keratomileusis

    OpenAIRE

    Saloma?o, Marcella Q.; Wilson, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    Flap creation is a critical step in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Efforts to improve the safety and predictability of the lamellar incision have fostered the development of femtosecond lasers. Several advantages of the femtosecond laser over mechanical microkeratomes have been reported in LASIK surgery. In this article, we review common considerations in management and complications of this step in femtosecond laser–LASIK and concentrate primarily on the IntraLase laser because most...

  14. Excursion control at in situ uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes excursions (uncontrolled movement of lixiviant beyond the ore zone) based on case histories of 8 in situ uranium mines (7 in Wyoming and 1 in Texas). These case histories were compiled from data provided by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, and the Texas Department of Water Resources. Most of these data were provided to the above agencies by mining companies in response to regulatory requirements pertaining to licensing actions

  15. In situ monitoring of pharmaceutical crystallisation

    OpenAIRE

    Aina, Adeyinka Temitope

    2012-01-01

    Using confocal Raman spectroscopy/microscopy, we have monitored pharmaceutical crystallisation 'in situ' in three model (well characterised polymorphic systems) Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) and one previously unstudied system where polymorphism had not being reported prior to this study: flufenamic acid, a Non Steroidal Non-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID); nifedipine, an antihypertensive; tolbutamide, used in the treatment of type II diabetes; and imipramine hydrochloride, an antidepres...

  16. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams.

    OpenAIRE

    Axford, D; Owen, RL; Aishima, J; Foadi, J; Morgan, AW; Robinson, JI; Nettleship, JE; Owens, RJ; Moraes, I; Fry, EE; Grimes, JM; Harlos, K; Kotecha, A.; Ren, J.; Sutton, G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals ha...

  17. In situ soil water extraction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihermüller, L; Siemens, J; Deurer, M; Knoblauch, S; Rupp, H; Göttlein, A; Pütz, T

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge of the composition and fluxes of vadose zone water is essential for a wide range of scientific and practical fields, including water-use management, pesticide registration, fate of xenobiotics, monitoring of disposal from mining and industries, nutrient management of agricultural and forest ecosystems, ecology, and environmental protection. Nowadays, water and solute flow can be monitored using either in situ methods or minimally invasive geophysical measurements. In situ information, however, is necessary to interpret most geophysical data sets and to determine the chemical composition of seepage water. Therefore, we present a comprehensive review of in situ soil water extraction methods to monitor solute concentration, solute transport, and to calculate mass balances in natural soils. We distinguished six different sampling devices: porous cups, porous plates, capillary wicks, pan lysimeters, resin boxes, and lysimeters. For each of the six sampling devices we discuss the basic principles, the advantages and disadvantages, and limits of data acquisition. We also give decision guidance for the selection of the appropriate sampling system. The choice of material is addressed in terms of potential contamination, filtering, and sorption of the target substances. The information provided in this review will support scientists and professionals in optimizing their experimental set-up for meeting their specific goals. PMID:17965376

  18. Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Reggie S; DeGrandpre, Michael D; Beck, James C; Hart, Robert D; Peterson, Brittany; De Carlo, Eric H; Drupp, Patrick S; Hammar, Terry R

    2014-08-19

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 ?mol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 ?mol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions. PMID:25051401

  19. Enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons in-situ via bioventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study discusses the remediation of soils beneath a former service station impacted with volatile and semi-volatile petroleum compounds. Subsurface investigation revealed hydrocarbon contamination representative of weathered gasoline and diesel fuel in a stratified soil profile consisting of sand and silts. Only unsaturated soils were contaminated with no impact to ground water. A bioventing corrective action approach was selected which included excavation of 6,100 cubic yards of impacted soils with soil mixing to add inorganic nutrients and eliminate soil heterogeneities. Soils were then returned to the excavation after forced-air ventilation lateral lines were installed at the floor of the excavation. Soil vapor concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX) rapidly declined within the first three months of system operation to nondetectable levels

  20. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S.Y. YANG

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes REV 02. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in REV 02 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what conditions, the tests were conducted. The descriptions and analyses provide data useful for refining and confirming the understanding of flow, drift seepage, and transport processes in the UZ. The UZ testing activities included measurement of permeability distribution, quantification of the seepage of water into the drifts, evaluation of fracture-matrix interaction, study of flow along faults, testing of flow and transport between drifts, characterization of hydrologic heterogeneity along drifts, estimation of drying effects on the rock surrounding the drifts due to ventilation, monitoring of moisture conditions in open and sealed drifts, and determination of the degree of minimum construction water migration below drift. These field tests were conducted in two underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) drift, and the cross-drift for Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB), as described in Section 1.2. Samples collected in boreholes and underground drifts have been used for additional hydrochemical and isotopic analyses for additional understanding of the UZ setting. The UZ transport tests conducted at the nearby Busted Butte site (see Figure 1-4) are also described in this scientific analysis report.

  1. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes2. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in2 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what conditions, the tests were conducted. The descriptions and analyses provide data useful for refining and confirming the understanding of flow, drift seepage, and transport processes in the UZ. The UZ testing activities included measurement of permeability distribution, quantification of the seepage of water into the drifts, evaluation of fracture-matrix interaction, study of flow along faults, testing of flow and transport between drifts, characterization of hydrologic heterogeneity along drifts, estimation of drying effects on the rock surrounding the drifts due to ventilation, monitoring of moisture conditions in open and sealed drifts, and determination of the degree of minimum construction water migration below drift. These field tests were conducted in two underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) drift, and the cross-drift for Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB), as described in Section 1.2. Samples collected in boreholes and underground drifts have been used for additional hydrochemical and isotopic analyses for additional understanding of the UZ setting. The UZ transport tests conducted at the nearby Busted Butte site (see Figure 1-4) are also described in this scientific analysis report

  2. Air-coupled acoustic thermography for in-situ evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N. (Inventor); Winfree, William P. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic thermography uses a housing configured for thermal, acoustic and infrared radiation shielding. For in-situ applications, the housing has an open side adapted to be sealingly coupled to a surface region of a structure such that an enclosed chamber filled with air is defined. One or more acoustic sources are positioned to direct acoustic waves through the air in the enclosed chamber and towards the surface region. To activate and control each acoustic source, a pulsed signal is applied thereto. An infrared imager focused on the surface region detects a thermal image of the surface region. A data capture device records the thermal image in synchronicity with each pulse of the pulsed signal such that a time series of thermal images is generated. For enhanced sensitivity and/or repeatability, sound and/or vibrations at the surface region can be used in feedback control of the pulsed signal applied to the acoustic sources.

  3. Casimir force and in situ surface potential measurements on nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Daniel; Fong, King Yan; Bhaskaran, Harish; Lamoreaux, Steve; Tang, Hong X

    2012-07-13

    We present Casimir force measurements in a sphere-plate configuration that consists of a high quality nanomembrane resonator and a millimeter sized gold coated sphere. The nanomembrane is fabricated from stoichiometric silicon nitride metallized with gold. A Kelvin probe method is used in situ to image the surface potentials to minimize the distance-dependent residual force. Resonance-enhanced frequency-domain measurements of the nanomembrane motion allow for very high resolution measurements of the Casimir force gradient (down to a force gradient sensitivity of 3???N/m). Using this technique, the Casimir force in the range of 100 nm to 2???m is accurately measured. Experimental data thus obtained indicate that the device system in the measured range is best described with the Drude model. PMID:23030202

  4. In-Situ Contained And Of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvel, Mark Darrell (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-12-27

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  5. In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser delivery probes using multimode fiber optic delivery and bulk focusing optics have been constructed and used for performing materials processing experiments within scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam instruments. Controlling the current driving a 915-nm semiconductor diode laser module enables continuous or pulsed operation down to sub-microsecond durations, and with spot sizes on the order of 50 ?m diameter, achieving irradiances at a sample surface exceeding 1 MW/cm2. Localized laser heating has been used to demonstrate laser chemical vapor deposition of Pt, surface melting of silicon, enhanced purity, and resistivity via laser annealing of Au deposits formed by electron beam induced deposition, and in situ secondary electron imaging of laser induced dewetting of Au metal films on SiOx.

  6. In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvel, Mark Darrell

    2005-12-27

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  7. Challenges in subsurface in situ remediation of chlorinated solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; FjordbØge, Annika Sidelmann

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated solvent source zones in the subsurface pose a continuous threat to groundwater quality at many sites worldwide. In situ remediation of these sites is particularly challenging in heterogeneous fractured media and where the solvents are present as DNAPL. In situ remediation by chemical as well as biological degradation of chlorinated solvents is a contact sport and requires direct contact between the contaminant and the reactants and/or degrading microorganisms. In fractured geologic media, where contaminants have spread to the low permeability matrix by diffusion, the contact between contaminant and reactant is limited by slow back diffusion of contaminant and in-diffusion of reactant if the only access for the reactant is via the high permeability fractures/conduits. Where DNAPL is present the mass distribution is very heterogeneous and the reactive degradation is often limited by dissolution of the DNAPL. Most recent research has been aimed at overcoming these challenges by enhanced and targeted reactant delivery methods. These include a wide range of very diverse technologies such as: enhanced injection methods, including fracturing; electrokinetic enhancement of delivery; ZVI-clay mixing for contact; hydrophobic and/or mobile nano-reactants targeting DNAPL. The complexity of the technologies varies greatly and the current level of implementation ranges from multiple full scale applications to bench scale testing. However, the basic degradation reaction involved is usually well established. Enhanced injection with fracturing increases the access to contaminants in clay/clayey media matrixes by shortening the diffusive distance and with ZVI-clay technology by physically mixing the reactant with the contaminated clay/clayey media. The efficiency of the injection technologies has been very variable and rather unpredictable in heterogeneous geologic media, hence, further developments are needed. The novel techniques involving electrokinetics induce migration of primarily ionic species/reactants independent of hydraulic permeability differences, hence transporting the reactant into the contaminated matrix and may be applicable for limestone/bedrock as well as clayey media. Only laboratory studies of electrokinetic enhancement have yet been published, and there is a need for thorough pilot scale studies and supporting laboratory studies. Injectable nano-particles with an affinity for DNAPL surfaces (or phases) may overcome dissolution limitations and provide direct contact with contaminant, limiting reactions with other reactive sites in the subsurface. Challenges lie in obtaining stability and mobility in water, affinity for DNAPL and at the same time maintain reactivity with contaminants. Upscaling to production for pilot studies without loss of efficiency is not trivial. In conclusion there continues to be a need for research and development and in particular for well documented pilot/full scale field studies.

  8. In situ forming chitosan hydrogels prepared via ionic/covalent co-cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, M José; Faneca, H; Lima, M Pedroso; Gil, M Helena; Figueiredo, M Margarida

    2011-09-12

    In situ forming chitosan hydrogels have been prepared via coupled ionic and covalent cross-linking. Thus, different amounts of genipin (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20% (w/w)), used as a chemical cross-linker, were added to a solution of chitosan that was previously neutralized with a glycerol-phosphate complex (ionic cross-linker). In this way, it was possible to overcome the pH barrier of the chitosan solution, to preserve its thermosensitive character, and to enhance the extent of cross-linking in the matrix simultaneously. To investigate the contributions of the ionic cross-linking and the chemical cross-linking, separately, we prepared the hydrogels without the addition of either genipin or the glycerol-phosphate complex. The addition of genipin to the neutralized solution disturbs the ionic cross-linking process and the chemical cross-linking becomes the dominant process. Moreover, the genipin concentration was used to modulate the network structure and performance. The more promising formulations were fully characterized, in a hydrated state, with respect to any equilibrium swelling, the development of internal structure, the occurrence of in vitro degradability and cytotoxicity, and the creation of in vivo injectability. Each of the hydrogel systems exhibited a notably high equilibrium water content, arising from the fact that their internal structure (examined by conventional SEM, and environmental SEM) was highly porous with interconnecting pores. The porosity and the pore size distribution were quantified by mercury intrusion porosimetry. Although all gels became degraded in the presence of lysozyme, their degradation rate greatly depended on the genipin load. Through in vitro viability tests, the hydrogel-based formulations were shown to be nontoxic. The in vivo injection of a co-cross-linking formulation revealed that the gel was rapidly formed and localized at the injection site, remaining in position for at least 1 week. PMID:21774479

  9. Voltammetric, in-situ spectroelectrochemical and in-situ electrocolorimetric characterization of phthalocyanines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, electrochemical, and in-situ spectroelectrochemical characterization of the metallophthalocyanines bearing tetra-(1,1-(dicarbethoxy)-2-(2-methylbenzyl))-ethyl 3,10,17,24-tetra chloro groups were performed. Voltammetric and in-situ spectroelectrochemical measurements show that while cobalt phthalocyanine complex gives both metal-based and ring-based redox processes, zinc and copper phthalocyanines show only ring-based reduction and oxidation processes. The redox processes are generally diffusion-controlled, reversible and one-electron transfer processes. Differently lead phthalocyanine demetallized during second oxidation reaction while it was stable during reduction processes. An in-situ electrocolorimetric method, based on the 1931 CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) system of colorimetry, has been applied to investigate the color of the electro-generated anionic and cationic forms of the complexes for the first time in this study

  10. MRI characteristics of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate and recognize the dynamic and morphological MRI characteristics of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast and provide imaging information for the early detection and treatment planning. Methods: All MRI data in 71 patients with histologically proved DCIS were analyzed retrospectively. The 71 patients were divided into two groups, N1 (pure DCIS, 44 patients) and N2 (DCIS with microinvasion, 27 patients). According to the BI-RADS descriptors, all lesions were defined as a focus (smaller than 5 mm in diameter), mass and no-mass-like three enhancement types. The morphological features (M1 = focus, M2 =linear or linear-branched, M3 = branching-ductal, M4 = segmental, M5 = focal, M6 = regional, M7 = diffuse, M8 = mass) and the time-intensity curve (TIC) pattern [type ? (persistent enhancement curves), type ? (plateau), type ? (washout) and type ? (the same enhancement as glandular tissue)] were described. Chi-square test was used for the morphological characteristics of lesions. Results: The 73 DCIS lesions were found in 71 patients, and 5.5% (n=4) were stippled lesions, 87.7% (n=64) were no-mass like lesions, 6.8% (n=5) were mass-like lesions. In no-mass-like lesions (n= 64), M3 was found in 15 cases, M4 in 34 cases, M5 in 9 cases and M6 in 6 cases, respectively, M3 and M4 were the most common distribution patterns. In N1 group (n=45) and N2 group (n=28), M3, M4, M5, M6 were found in 7 and 8, 21 and 13, 7 and 2, 3 and 3 cases, respectively. There were no statistic differences between two groups (P>0.05). In 31 showed heterogeneous enhancement, both M3 and M4 were observed in 35.5% (11/31). In 26 clustered ring enhancement lesions, M4 was observed in 88.5% (23/26). Four lesions showed reticular enhancement, 2 lesions showed a clumped enhancement and 1 lesion showed homogeneous enhancement. In 5 mass-like lesions, N1 group had 3 cases, N2 group had 2 cases. Four lesions showed lobulated margin, 4 lesions showed speculated margin, 1 mass showed smooth margin. Five mass showed heterogeneous enhancement. Type ?, type ?, type ? and type ? TIC (n=25) were demonstrated in 8, 11, 3 and 3 lesions, respectively. Conclusions: M3, M4, especially segmental clustered ring enhancement, are the most common morphological characteristics of DCIS. Type ? and type ? TIC are the most common types. (authors)

  11. Ureteral in situ biocompatibility of L-lactide-glycolic acid copolymer 80:20 stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the in situ biocompatibility of a new biodegradable ureteral stent made of L-lactide-glycolic acid copolymer 80:20 (PLGA 80:20). Methods: 16 dogs served as experimental animals. Ureteral stents of PLGA 80:20 were inserted in situ into the left ureter after transection at the mid level, then the ureters were routinely anastomosed. Ureters surrounding the stent were taken out 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. The ureters were dissected to find changes of stents and local ureters. Histological analysis was performed to investigate tissue reactions to the stent and evaluate the biocompatibility. Rods of UROVISION stent served as controls. Results: The PLGA stent was degraded completely within 12 weeks post implantation. In the early stage (2-4 weeks), both stents induced epithelial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell reaction at local ureter (P>0.05). In the later stage (8-12 weeks), the tissue reaction nearly subsided in PLGA stented ureters after degradation of the device. Whereas, the tissue reaction induced by UROVISION stent had lasted throughout the observation period, even deteriorated with time going (P<0.05). Conclusion: The tissue reaction induced by PLGA stent is retrievable. PLGA is regarded highly compatible and can serve as an ideal material for biodegradable ureteral stent. (authors)

  12. The treatment of in situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcinoma in situ is the earliest histologically recognisable form of malignancy and as such provides an opportunity to treat the disease in a curative way. The two major variants, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) will be considered separately as the two conditions have divergent natural histories. DCIS is increasing in incidence since microcalcification may be detected radiologically in the screening of asymptomatic women. The extent of microcalcification may not indicate the extent of disease. It has yet to be determined whether there is a difference in behaviour of the tumour forming and the asymptomatic types of DCIS. After a biopsy has shown DCIS there will be residual DCIS at the biopsy site in one-third of patients, and multifocal DCIS in another third. A coexistent infiltrating carcinoma may be present in up to 16%. Due to sampling problems areas of invasion may be missed. Axillary nodal metastases are found in only 1% of patients with histological DCIS. Radical surgery by total or modified mastectomy is almost curative, but 3% of patients will die of metastases. Taking results of uncontrolled trials, local relapse rates are as follows: excision alone 50%, wide excision 30%, wide excision plus radiotherapy 20%. Two prospective trials are underway run by the EORTC and NSABP in which patients with DCIS are treated by wide excision with or without external radiotherapy. LCIS is usually an incidental finding with a bilateral prean incidental finding with a bilateral predisposition to subsequent infiltrating carcinomas. Curative procedures such as bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction may represent overtreatment. A systemic rather than local approach would seem appropriate and a trial is now underway run by the EORTC in which patients with histologically confirmed LCIS are randomised to observation alone or to receive tamoxifen 20 mg daily for 5 years. (orig./MG)

  13. In-situ thermal testing program strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past year the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has implemented a new Program Approach to the licensing process. The Program Approach suggests a step-wise approach to licensing in which the early phases will require less site information than previously planned and necessitate a lesser degree of confidence in the longer-term performance of the repository. Under the Program Approach, the thermal test program is divided into two principal phases: (1) short-term in situ tests (in the 1996 to 2000 time period) and laboratory thermal tests to obtain preclosure information, parameters, and data along with bounding information for postclosure performance; and (2) longer-term in situ tests to obtain additional data regarding postclosure performance. This effort necessitates a rethinking of the testing program because the amount of information needed for the initial licensing phase is less than previously planned. This document proposes a revised and consolidated in situ thermal test program (including supporting laboratory tests) that is structured to meet the needs of the Program Approach. A customer-supplier model is used to define the Project data needs. These data needs, along with other requirements, were then used to define a set of conceptual experiments that will provide the required data within the constraints of the Program Approach schedule. The conceptual thermal tests presented in this document represent a consolidation and update of previously defined tests that should result in a more efficient use of Project resources. This document focuses on defining the requirements and tests needed to satisfy the goal of a successful license application in 2001, should the site be found suitable

  14. Development of in-situ monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of in-situ monitoring system using an optical fiber to measure the real time temperature variation of subsurface water for the evaluation of flow characteristics. We describe the feasibility of developing a fiber-optic temperature sensor using a thermochromic material. A sensor-tip is fabricated by mixing of a thermochromic material powder. The relationships between the temperatures and the output voltages of detectors are determined to measure the temperature of water. It is expected that the fiber-optic temperature monitoring sensor using thermochromic material can be used to measure the real time temperature variation of subsurface water

  15. Robust and efficient in situ quantum control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Christopher; Moussa, Osama

    2015-05-01

    Precision control of quantum systems is the driving force for both quantum technology and the probing of physics at the quantum and nanoscale levels. We propose an implementation-independent method for in situ quantum control that leverages recent advances in the direct estimation of quantum gate fidelity. Our algorithm takes account of the stochasticity of the problem, is suitable for closed-loop control, and requires only a constant number of fidelity-estimating experiments per iteration independent of the dimension of the control space. It is efficient and robust to both statistical and technical noise.

  16. Carcinoma in situ and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erton, M; Ilker, Y; Akda?

    1996-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a high-grade and aggressive manifestation of transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder that has a highly variable course. The treatment of CIS has undergone dramatic changes since this malignancy was first recognized. While cystectomy was once recommended as the initial treatment of choice, recognition of the highly variable prognosis and the uniformly high response rate to intravesical BCG has prompted a more conservative approach to management. Patients who fail BCG immunotherapy without evidence of progression may yet be candidates for intravesical chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, or alternative immunotherapies such as alpha-2b interferon, bromopirimine, or keyhole limpet haemocyanin. PMID:8738617

  17. In situ viscometry by optical trapping interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, C.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency of the flow, which is simply proportional to the viscosity, when measured in units of the thermal power spectral density at the same frequency. Measurements are validated on different water-glycerol mixtures, as well as in a glycerol gradient, where no a priori knowledge of the solution is used to determine the glycerol concentration.

  18. In-situ nanoindentation in the SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia D. Nowak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades scanning electron microscopes (SEMs have become commonplace instruments in both academic and industrial settings. With their superior spatial resolution, SEMs have replaced visible-light microscopes in many applications, particularly as the surge in interest in nanotechnology dictates smaller and smaller structures. The limits of these microscopes are now being pushed even further with the development of new in-situ testing methods. Combining SEM imaging with complementary characterization techniques can help to paint a more complete picture of materials behavior. Here we report on progress in the development of a compact, vacuum-compatible instrument capable of quantitative nanomechanical testing in the SEM1.

  19. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Revision 1, Demonstration system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last nine years IIT Research Institute (IITRI) has been developing and testing the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. The vaporized contaminants, water vapor and air are recovered from the heated zone by means of a vacuum manifold system which collects gases from below surface as well as from the soil surface. A vapor barrier is used to prevent fugitive emissions of the contaminants and to control air infiltration to minimize dilution of the contaminant gases and vapors. The recovered gases and vapors are conveyed to an on site vapor treatment system for the clean up of the vent gases. Electrical energy is applied to the soil by forming an array of electrodes in the soil which are electrically interconnected and supplied with power. The electrodes are placed in drilled bore holes which are made through the contaminated zone. There are two versions of the in situ heating and soil treatment process: the f irst version is called the In Situ Radio Frequency (RF) Soil Decontamination Process and the second version is called the In Situ Electromagnetic (EM) Soil Decontamination Process. The first version, the RF Process is capable of heating the soil in a temperature range of 100 degrees to 400 degrees C. The soil temperature in the second version, the EM Process, is limited to the boiling point of water under native conditions. Thus the soil will be heated to a temperature of about 85 degrees to 95 degrees C. In this project IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site due to the fact that most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 degrees to 95 degrees C

  20. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae osteomyelitis in pigs demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette

    1999-01-01

    Necrotizing osteomyelitis and fibrinopurulent arthritis with isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 is reported in two pigs from a herd with lameness and mild coughing problems among 8 to 12-week-old pigs. Application of fluorescent in situ hybridization targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of A. pleuropneumoniae in formalin-fixed tissue was performed to verify the association of A. pleuropneumoniae with the bone and joint lesions. By in situ hybridization A. pleuropneumoniae was demonstrated as multiple microcolonies or single cells dispersed in focal fibrinonecrotizing pleuropneumonia, in joints with arthritis, and in bone necroses including lysis of growth plate and suppurative inflammation in the adjacent trabecular metaphysis, thus demonstrating that well-known infections manifest new, unusual lesions.

  1. Chitosan/glucose 1-phosphate as new stable in situ forming depot system for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supper, Stephanie; Anton, Nicolas; Boisclair, Julie; Seidel, Nina; Riemenschnitter, Marc; Curdy, Catherine; Vandamme, Thierry

    2014-10-01

    Chitosan (CS)-based thermosensitive solutions that turn into semi-solid hydrogels upon injection at body temperature have increasingly drawn attention over the last decades as an attractive new type of in situ forming depot (ISFD) drug delivery system. Despite the great potential of the standard CS/?-glycerophosphate (?-GP) thermogelling solutions, their lack of stability over time at room temperature as well as at refrigerated conditions renders them unsuitable as ready-to-use drug product. In the present study, we investigated Glucose-1-Phosphate (G1-P) as an alternative gelling agent for improving the stability of CS-based ISFD solutions. The in vitro release performance of CS/G1-P formulations was assessed using several model compounds. Furthermore, the local tolerance of subcutaneously implanted CS/G1-P hydrogels was investigated by histological examination over three weeks. The thermogelling potential of CS/G1-P solutions, determined by rheology, is dependent on the polymer molecular weight (Mw) and concentration as well as on the G1-P concentration. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements confirmed that sol/gel transition takes place at around body temperature and is not fully thermo-reversible. The long term storage stability was evaluated through the appearance, pH, viscosity and gelation time at 37°C of the solution. The results emphasized an enhanced stability of the CS/G1-P system compared to the standard CS/?-GP. CS solution with 0.40 mmol/g G1-P is stable for at least 9 months at 2-8°C, versus less than 1 month when using ?-GP as gelling agent. Furthermore, the solution is easy to inject, as evidenced from injectability evaluation using 23-30 G needles. In vitro release experiments showed a sustained release over days to weeks for hydrophilic model compounds, demonstrating thereby that CS/G1-P may be suitable for the prolonged delivery of drugs. The inflammatory reaction observed in the tissue surrounding the hydrogel in rats was a typical foreign body reaction, similar to the one observed for CS/?-GP hydrogels. These features confirm the potential of CS/G1-P solutions as an injectable ready-to-use in situ forming hydrogel. PMID:24859306

  2. Dosimetry of in situ activated dysprosium microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a study aimed at investigating the dosimetry of stable dysprosium microspheres activated, in situ, by a linac generated photon beam. In phantom measurements of the neutron flux within an 18 MV photon beam were performed using CR-39 detectors and gold activation. The results were used in conjunction with a Monte Carlo computer simulation to investigate the dose distribution resulting from the activation of dysprosium (Dy) microspheres using an 18 MV photon beam. Different depths, lesion volumes and volume concentrations of microspheres are investigated. The linac lower collimator jaws are assumed completely closed to shield the tumour volume from the photon dose. Using a single AP field with 0 x 0 cm2 field size (closed jaws), a photon dose rate of 600 MU min-1 and 80 cm SSD for 10 min, an average dose exceeding 1 Gy can be delivered to spherical lesions of 0.5 cm and higher diameter. The variation of the average dose with the size of the lesion reaches saturation for tumour volumes exceeding 1 cm in diameter. This report shows that the photon beam of a high-energy linac can be used to activate Dy microspheres in situ and, as a result, deliver a significant dose of beta radiation. Non-radioactive Dy microspheres do not have the toxicity and imaging problems associated with commercially available yttrium-90 based products

  3. Molecular cytogenetics using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.W.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lucas, J.; Pinkel, D.; Weier, H-U.; Yu, Loh-Chung.

    1990-12-07

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific probes enables several new areas of cytogenetic investigation by allowing visual determination of the presence and normality of specific genetic sequences in single metaphase or interphase cells. in this approach, termed molecular cytogenetics, the genetic loci to be analyzed are made microscopically visible in single cells using in situ hybridization with nucleic acid probes specific to these loci. To accomplish this, the DNA in the target cells is made single stranded by thermal denaturation and incubated with single-stranded, chemically modified probe under conditions where the probe will anneal only with DNA sequences to which it has high DNA sequence homology. The bound probe is then made visible by treatment with a fluorescent reagent such as fluorescein that binds to the chemical modification carried by the probe. The DNA to which the probe does not bind is made visible by staining with a dye such as propidium iodide that fluoresces at a wavelength different from that of the reagent used for probe visualization. We show in this report that probes are now available that make this technique useful for biological dosimetry, prenatal diagnosis and cancer biology. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Electromagnetic theory for in situ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remarkable fact that fine disconnected superconducting filaments embedded in a normal metal matrix can lead to bulk superconductivity was first reported in 1973. Materials of this type are referred to as in situ superconductors. Although much remains to be learned concerning the microscopic electromagnetic behavior of in situ materials, some technologically important bulk properties can be described with only minimal knowledge of the microscopic physics. To do so one needs only to construct a macroscopic set of Maxwell equations, and postulate a set of constitutive relations which allow the equations to be solved. The present analysis is concerned with the bulk behavior, and includes the nature of the filament coupling for cases in which the average filament spacing is large compared with the proximity layer thickness and for the case in which the filaments are closely spaced and there is a high degree of anisotropy in the critical current density. The effect of twist on the hysteresis is covered, and a comparison is made of critical current density from hysteresis and transport measurements

  5. Dosimetry of in situ activated dysprosium microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnani, N

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a study aimed at investigating the dosimetry of stable dysprosium microspheres activated, in situ, by a linac generated photon beam. In phantom measurements of the neutron flux within an 18 MV photon beam were performed using CR-39 detectors and gold activation. The results were used in conjunction with a Monte Carlo computer simulation to investigate the dose distribution resulting from the activation of dysprosium (Dy) microspheres using an 18 MV photon beam. Different depths, lesion volumes and volume concentrations of microspheres are investigated. The linac lower collimator jaws are assumed completely closed to shield the tumour volume from the photon dose. Using a single AP field with 0 x 0 cm2 field size (closed jaws), a photon dose rate of 600 MU min(-1) and 80 cm SSD for 10 min, an average dose exceeding 1 Gy can be delivered to spherical lesions of 0.5 cm and higher diameter. The variation of the average dose with the size of the lesion reaches saturation for tumour volumes exceeding 1 cm in diameter. This report shows that the photon beam of a high-energy linac can be used to activate Dy microspheres in situ and, as a result, deliver a significant dose of beta radiation. Non-radioactive Dy microspheres do not have the toxicity and imaging problems associated with commercially available yttrium-90 based products. PMID:15070199

  6. In situ PEM fuel cell water measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, Daniel S [NIST; Jacobson, David L [NIST; Arif, Muhammad [NIST

    2009-01-01

    Efficient PEM (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) fuel cell performance requires effective water management. To achieve a deeper understanding of water transport and performance issues associated with water management, we have conducted in situ water examinations to help understand the effects of components and operations. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and Neutron imaging were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells, with various conditions, including current density, relative humidity, inlet flows, flow orientation and variable Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) properties. High resolution neutron radiography was used to image fuel cells during a variety of conditions. The effect of specific operating conditions, including flow direction (co-flow or counter-flow) was examined. Counter-flow operation was found to result in higher water content than co-flow operation, which correlates to lower membrane resistivity. A variety of cells were used to quantify the membrane water in situ during exposure to saturated gases, during fuel cell operation, and during hydrogen pump operation. The quantitative results show lower membrane water content than previous results suggested.

  7. GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert; R.A. Newby P.G.A. Cizmas

    2004-05-17

    In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In Task 1, Blade Path Aerodynamics, design options were evaluated using CFD in terms of burnout, increase of power output, and possible hot streaking. It was concluded that Vane 1 injection in a conventional 4-stage turbine was preferred. Vane 2 injection after vane 1 injection was possible, but of marginal benefit. In Task 2, Combustion and Emissions, detailed chemical kinetics modeling, validated by Task 3, Sub-Scale Testing, experiments, resulted in the same conclusions, with the added conclusion that some increase in emissions was expected. In Task 4, Conceptual Design and Development Plan, Siemens Westinghouse power cycle analysis software was used to evaluate alternative in situ reheat design options. Only single stage reheat, via vane 1, was found to have merit, consistent with prior Tasks. Unifying the results of all the tasks, a conceptual design for single stage reheat utilizing 24 holes, 1.8 mm diameter, at the trailing edge of vane 1 is presented. A development plan is presented.

  8. Mitigating in situ oil sands carbon costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, D.J.; Peterson, J. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Heinrichs, H. [Canadian Chemical Technology Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Carbon capture and sequestration is a complex problem with a variety of dimensions that need to be considered. The political, social, and regulatory pressures are forcing carbon costs on the oil sands industry in an effort to reduce the carbon footprint of oil sands operations. This paper reviewed the political, social, and regulatory pressures and obligations for the in-situ oil sands industry. It presented the views and insights of Laricina Energy on the carbon challenge. It also described the initiatives that Laricina Energy is taking to manage these imperatives and outlined the challenges the industry is facing. The purpose of the paper was to encourage dialogue and collaboration by the oil sands industry. The paper also described the dimensions of the carbon problem and how the industry can contribute to a solution. Last, the paper reviewed the parameters of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas containment and storage issues. It was concluded that the regulatory and policy requirements need to be clarified so that industry understands the new business landscape as well as the requirements that influence the economics of in-situ oil sands development. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  10. In situ vitrification large-scale operational acceptance test analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermal treatment process is currently under study to provide possible enhancement of in-place stabilization of transuranic and chemically contaminated soil sites. The process is known as in situ vitrification (ISV). In situ vitrification is a remedial action process that destroys solid and liquid organic contaminants and incorporates radionuclides into a glass-like material that renders contaminants substantially less mobile and less likely to impact the environment. A large-scale operational acceptance test (LSOAT) was recently completed in which more than 180 t of vitrified soil were produced in each of three adjacent settings. The LSOAT demonstrated that the process conforms to the functional design criteria necessary for the large-scale radioactive test (LSRT) to be conducted following verification of the performance capabilities of the process. The energy requirements and vitrified block size, shape, and mass are sufficiently equivalent to those predicted by the ISV mathematical model to confirm its usefulness as a predictive tool. The LSOAT demonstrated an electrode replacement technique, which can be used if an electrode fails, and techniques have been identified to minimize air oxidation, thereby extending electrode life. A statistical analysis was employed during the LSOAT to identify graphite collars and an insulative surface as successful cold cap subsidence techniques. The LSOAT also showed that even under worst-case conditions, the off-gas system exceeds the flow requirements necessary to maintain a negative pressure on the hood covering the area being vitrified. The retention of simulated radionuclides and chemicals in the soil and off-gas system exceeds requirements so that projected emissions are one to two orders of magnitude below the maximum permissible concentrations of contaminants at the stack

  11. MR imaging evaluation of ductal carcinoma in situ and ductal carcinoma in situ with small invasive foci of breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To retrospectively assess diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative assessment of local extent of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and DCIS with small invasive foci, compared with the mammography and uhrasonography (US) imagings. Methods: Results of MRI, mammography, and US imaging from 17 consecutive women with known breast DCIS and DCIS with invasive foci were analyzed, and then compared with pathologic examination. Results: (1) Fourteen lesions showed enhancement on dynamic breast MRI, of which 11 lesions were no-mass-like enhancement. Six of 11 lesions appeared segmental enhancement, and 2 were regional enhancement. Ductal and multiple focal areas enhancement were 1 case respectively. Symmetric diffuse enhancement in bilateral breast was showed in 1 patient. Ductal dilation was visible in ipsilateral breast on pre-contrast MRI in 2 cases, which manifested bloody nipple discharge in clinical examination, and duct enhanced on post- contrast imaging in one of them. Two lesions appeared mass enhancement with irregular shape and homogeneous signal. Linear enhancement surrounding the oval homogeneous mass with smooth margin found in 1 case. (2) Thirteen of 17 patients underwent bilateral mammography. There were various findings in mammograms, including microcalcifications (6 cases), normal mammograms (2 cases), calcifications with other appearance (2 cases), and non-calcification ahnormity (3 cases). In 8 lesions with calcinormity (3 cases). In 8 lesions with calcifications, 5 were noted higher' probability of malignancy calcifications and 3 intermediate concern calcifications. Calcifications distributed clustered (5 cases), regional (2 cases) and diffuse (1 case) shape. (3) Sixteen of 17 patients were performed breast US examination. Eleven lesions, which were correct diagnosed, appeared higher echo spots within irregular lower echo area. One lesion diagnosed benign and 4 were negative on US examination. (4) Regarded the size measured on pathologic examination as golden standard, accordance of lesion extent was 13 of 17 case in MRI, 7 of 13 in mammography, and 7 of 16 in US. There were 2 lesions overestimation of extent in MRI, 3 in mammography, and 2 in US. Underestimation of extent showed 1 case and 3 cases in mammography and US imaging respectively. The difference was not significant (P=0.161). Conclusion: The MR imaging features of DCIS and DCIS with small invasive foci were characteristic. The combination of MRI and mammography could improve diagnostic accuracy. (authors)

  12. Comparación de las técnicas in situ, in vitro y enzimática (celulasa) para estimar la digestibilidad de forrajes en ovinos / Comparison of the in situ, in vitro and Enzimatic (Cellulase) Techniques for Digestibility Estimation of Forages in Sheep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovanna, Torres G.; Teresa, Arbaiza F.; Fernando, Carcelén C.; Orlando, Lucas A..

    Full Text Available Se comparó los resultados de las técnicas in vitro, in situ y enzimática (celulasa) para estimar la digestibilidad de forrajes de diferente calidad nutritiva en ovinos. Se colectó muestras de forraje de tres calidades: alta (rye grass de 2-4 semanas), media (rye grass de 8 semanas y heno de alfalfa) [...] y baja (paja de avena). Las muestras fueron secadas, molidas y pasaron por tamiz de 1 mm para la técnica in vitro y celulasa y 3 mm para la técnica in situ. Se determinó la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS), digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca (DISMS) y digestibilidad a la celulasa de la materia seca (DCMS). Se emplearon tres ovinos con fístula ruminal y alimentados con maíz forrajero y heno de alfalfa. Se usó un diseño experimental con arreglo factorial de 4 x 3 (4 calidades de forraje y 3 técnicas). La DISMS fue superior (p Abstract in english The objective of the study was to compare the efficiency of the in situ, in vitro and enzymatic (cellulose) techniques in estimating the digestibility of forage with different nutritional quality in sheep. Samples of three qualities of forage were collected: high (rye grass of 2-4 weeks), medium (ry [...] e grass of 8 weeks and alfalfa hay), and low (oat straw). The samples were dried, grounded and passed through 1 mm sieve for the in vitro and cellulose technique and 3 mm sieve for the in situ technique. The in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDDM), in situ digestibility of dry matter (ISDDM), and cellulose digestibility of dry matter (CDDM) were determined. Three adult rams with ruminal fistula and fed with a diet based on alfalfa hay and corn stalk. A complete randomized 4 x 3 experimental design (4 quality forages and 3 techniques) was used. The ISDDM was higher (p

  13. Advances in the application of in situ electrical resistance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) is an aggressive in situ thermal remediation technology that was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy from the original oil production technology to enhance vapor extraction remediation technologies in low permeability soils. Soil and groundwater are heated by the passage of electrical current through saturated and unsaturated soil between electrodes, not by the electrodes themselves. It is the resistance to the flow of electrical current that results in increased subsurface temperatures, and this is typically applied to the boiling point of water. It is estimated that more than 75 ERH applications have been performed. Capacity to perform these projects has increased over the years, and as many as 15 to 20 of these applications now being performed at any given time, mainly in North America, with some European applications. While the main focus has been to vaporize volatile organic compounds, as one would expect other semi-volatile and non-volatile organic compounds have also been encountered, resulting in observations of chemical and physical reactions that have not been normally incorporated into environmental restoration projects. One such reaction is hydrolysis, which is slow under normal groundwater temperatures, becomes very rapid under temperatures that can easily be achieved using ERH. As a result, these chemical and physical reactions are increasing the applicability of ERH in environmental restoration projects, treatienvironmental restoration projects, treating a wider variety of compounds and utilizing biotic and abiotic mechanisms to reduce energy costs. For the treatment of oil and coal tar residues from manufactured gas plants, a process TRS has called steam bubble floatation is used to physically remove the coal and oil tar from the soils for collection using conventional multi-phase collection methods. Heat-enhanced hydrolysis has been used to remediate dichloromethane from soils and groundwater at a site in Illinois, while heat-enhanced biotic and abiotic dehalogenation has been observed at the vast majority of the sites where ERH has been applied. With disposal options becoming more limited around the world, alternate in situ treatment methods for soil and groundwater restoration are becoming more important. Over the 10 years of commercialization of the ERH technology, soil and groundwater remediation mechanisms and processes that were not envisioned by the technology's developers expand the range of chemicals that have successfully been treated. This paper will discuss these processes and how these processes have been used to effect remediation of soil and groundwater where ERH has been employed. (authors)

  14. Laboratory sand column study of encapsulated buffer release for potential in situ pH control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Christine M; Aelion, C Marjorie; Flora, Joseph R V

    2002-01-01

    Encapsulation technology is being investigated as a method for controlling pH in situ at contaminated groundwater sites where pH may limit remediation of organic contaminants. This study examined the effectiveness of using KH2PO4 buffer encapsulated in a pH-sensitive coating to neutralize pH in laboratory sand columns (1.5-1) under a simulated groundwater flow rate and characterized the pattern of capsule release in the flow-through system. Denitrification was used in the columns to increase the pH of the pore water. Each of three columns was equipped with three miniature mesh wells to allow contact of the buffer with column pore water, but capsules (15 g) were inserted into only one column (amended). The two other columns served as amendment (no buffer) and abiotic (no denitrification) controls. Oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, NH4+, NO3- +NO2-, PO(4)3-, and pH were measured in the influent, two side ports, and effluent of the columns over time. Near complete conversion of 80 mg N/1 of nitrate and 152 mg/l of ethanol per day resulted in a mean pH increase from 6.2 to 8.2 in the amendment control column. The amended column maintained the target pH of 7.0 +/- 0.2 for 4 weeks until the capsules began to be depleted, after which time the pH slowly started to increase. The capsules exhibited pulses of buffer release, and were effectively dissolved after 7.5 weeks of operation. Base-neutralizing capacity contributed by the encapsulated buffer over the entire study period, calculated as cation equivalents, was 120 mM compared to 8 mM without buffer. This study demonstrates the potential for this technology to mediate pH changes and provides the framework for future studies in the laboratory and in the field, in which pH is controlled in order to enhance organic contaminant remediation by pH-sensitive systems. PMID:11858196

  15. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Hovhannisyan Galina G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA damage and repairing...

  16. Radiation sensitivity of DNA molecules in situ in normal and neoplastic tissues of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity to radiation of DNA molecules in situ in various tissues was estimated by alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation. The sensitivity of DNA in liver, thymus, spleen and cerebellum was found to be of the same order of magnitude. The oxygen enhancement ratios of DNA in spleen, thymus and cerebellum were all approximately three. Sensitivity of DNA molecules in the tumour was about half of that in normal tissues, probably because of its hypoxicity. (Auth.)

  17. The LISA1 experiment: in-situ tritium release investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LISA1 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium release. Conducted in the SILOE reactor at CEN Grenoble, the experiment uses the same facilities as the LILA1. The experiment has six capsules, four with Li2SiO3, one with Li4SiO4 and one with LiA102. Each capsule is separately purged. The tritium activity is determined by ionization chambers and scintillation counting. An important difference as compared to LILA1 is the use of zinc beds to reduce tritiated water and thereby prevent sorption of T2O on the lines. Irradiation began on October 25, 1985 and was continued for three 3-week-cycles. The testing included systematic variation of four parameters: temperature (450 to 7300C), neutron flux (0.8 to 2.7 x 1013 1/cm2.s), sweep gas flow rate (1.8 to 7.0 L/h), and sweep gas composition (He,He+0.1% H2, He+0.2% O2). Preliminary results are given

  18. The LISA1 experiment: In-situ tritium release investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LISA1 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium release. Conducted in the SILOE reactor at CEN Grenoble, the experiment uses the same facilities as the LILA1. The experiment has six capsules, four with Li2SiO3, one with Li4SiO4 and one with LiAlO2. Each capsule is separately purged. The tritium activity is determined by ionization chambers and scintillation counting. An important difference as compared to LILA1 is the use of zinc beds to reduce tritiated water and thereby prevent sorption of T2O on the lines. Irradiation began on October 25, 1985 and was continued for three 3-weeks-cycles. The testing included systematic variation of four parameters: temperature (450 to 7300C), neutron flux (0.8 to 2.7x1017 m-2 s-1), sweep gas flow rate (1.8 to 7.0 l/h), and sweep gas composition (He, He+0.1% H2, He+0.2% O2). Preliminary results are given. (orig.)

  19. In-situ bioaugmentation of vadose zone restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leakage from an underground gasoline storage tank caused evacuation from a restaurant and an insurance company. An engineering consultant was engaged to correct the problem. Upon remedy of the habitability situation, a groundwater recovery system was designed to recover whatever open-quotes free productclose quotes gasoline could be collected. Since traditional open-quotes Pump and treatclose quotes remedial technologies are successful only to the extent that the contaminant is mobile, an alternative is necessary to effectively remediate that contamination which is recalcitrant. At this point, Waste Stream Technology was enlisted to propose an in-situ remedial action plan. Approximately five injection wells were installed around the perimeter and in the zone of influence of each of eight recovery wells. The injection wells were designed to distribute the bacteria at various depths in the vadose zone. Bacteria were cultured on site in Waste Stream's proprietary bioreactor. Bacterial and nutrient applications were injected on a weekly basis. Bacterial population dynamics and BETX levels were monitored throughout the course of the remediation. Although the remediation is currently in progress, disappearance of open-quotes free productclose quotes on the water table and elimination of benzene in the groundwater over a reasonable time period marked the success of this project

  20. Numerical study on in-situ leaching uranium with pressure fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent researches and innovation of in-situ leaching focus on the chemical process, which can not solve the low recovery in 'dead leaching zone' and 'non-preferential zone' caused by preferential flow and solute transport phenomena in heterogeneous ore deposits. Based on hydrodynamic effects and phenomena in highly heterogeneous porous media, gas injection experiments and laboratory experiment results, an innovative method for in-situ leaching, named as leaching with pressure fluctuation, was put forward to enhance the leaching effect and uranium recovery, especially in those uranium ore deposits with high heterogeneity. Based on the characteristics of gas/liquid mixture and flow-reactive-transport theory, a numerical modeling tool is established. By the numerical simulation, the field-scale traditional leaching method and the new method were studied. The simulation results show that the gas-liquid mixture will expand/shrink greatly in different flow zone during the pressure fluctuation process, and the deformation will enhance the solute transport effect among different flow zones, especially in non-preferential flow zone, and enhance the uranium recovery. The primary results show that in-situ leaching with pressure fluctuation is feasible technically. (authors)

  1. In-situ gelling polymers for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the research involving in situ gelling polymers and can be used as a guidebook for academics, industrialists and postgraduates interested in this area. This work summaries the academic contributions from the top authorities in the field and explore the fundamental principles of in situ gelling polymeric networks, along with examples of their major applications. This book aims to provide an up-to-date resource of in situ gelling polymer research.

  2. In situ gas-phase hydrosilylation of plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariwala, Bhavin N; Dewey, Oliver S; Stradins, Paul; Ciobanu, Cristian V; Agarwal, Sumit

    2011-08-01

    Surface passivation of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is critical in enabling their utilization in novel optoelectronic devices, solar cells, and biological and chemical sensors. Compared to the extensively used liquid-phase NC synthesis and passivation techniques, gas-phase routes provide the unique opportunity for in situ passivation of semiconductor NCs. Herein, we present a method for in situ gas-phase organic functionalization of plasma-synthesized, H-terminated silicon (Si) NCs. Using real-time in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, we have studied the surface reactions during hydrosilylation of Si NCs at 160 °C. First, we show that, during gas-phase hydrosilylation of Si NCs using styrene (1-alkene) and acetylene (alkyne), the reaction pathways of the alkenes and alkynes chemisorbing onto surface SiH(x) (x = 1-3) species are different. Second, utilizing this difference in reactivity, we demonstrate a novel pathway to enhance the surface ligand passivation of Si NCs via in situ gas-phase hydrosilylation using the combination of a short-chain alkyne (acetylene) and a long-chain 1-alkene (styrene). The quality of surface passivation is further validated through IR and photoluminescence measurements of Si NCs exposed to air. PMID:21774486

  3. In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) Technologies; New Challenges for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Julie A.; Bodiford, Melanie P.; Hammond, Monica S.; King, Ron; Mclemore, Carole A.; Hall, Nancy R.; Fiske, Michael R.; Ray, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's human exploration initiative poses great opportunity and great risk for manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Engineers and Scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are continuing to evaluate current technologies for in situ resource-based exploration fabrication and repair applications. Several technologies to be addressed in this paper have technology readiness levels (TRLs) that are currently mature enough to pursue for exploration purposes. However, while many technologies offer promising applications, these technologies must be pulled along by the demands and applications of this great initiative. The In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) Element will supply and push state of the art technologies for applications such as habitat structure development, in situ resource utilization for tool and part fabrication, and repair and non-destructive evaluation W E ) of common life support elements. As an overview of the ISFR Element, this paper will address rapid prototyping technologies, their applications, challenges, and near term advancements. This paper will also discuss the anticipated need to utilize in situ resources to produce replacement parts and fabricate repairs to vehicles, habitats, life support and quality of life elements. Overcoming the challenges of ISFR development will provide the Exploration initiative with state of the art technologies that reduce risk, and enhance supportability.

  4. Radiological aspects of in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the demand for Uranium as historical inventories have been consumed and new reactor orders are being placed. Numerous mineralized properties around the world are being evaluated for Uranium recovery and new mining / milling projects are being evaluated and developed. Ore bodies which are considered uneconomical to mine by conventional methods such as tunneling or open pits, can be candidates for non-conventional recovery techniques, involving considerably less capital expenditure. Technologies such as Uranium in situ leaching in situ recovery (ISL / ISR), have enabled commercial scale mining and milling of relatively small ore pockets of lower grade, and may make a significant contribution to overall world wide uranium supplies over the next ten years. Commercial size solution mining production facilities have operated in the US since 1975. Solution mining involves the pumping of groundwater, fortified with oxidizing and complexing agents into an ore body, solubilizing the uranium in situ, and then pumping the solutions to the surface where they are fed to a processing plant. Processing involves ion exchange and may also include precipitation, drying or calcining and packaging operations depending on facility specifics. This paper presents an overview of the ISR process and the health physics monitoring programs developed at a number of commercial scale ISL / ISR Uranium recovery and production facilitiesUranium recovery and production facilities as a result of the radiological character of these processes. Although many radiological aspects of the process are similar to that of conventional mills, conventional-type tailings as such are not generated. However, liquid and solid byproduct materials may be generated and impounded. The quantity and radiological character of these by products are related to facility specifics. Some special monitoring considerations are presented which are required due to the manner in which Radon gas is evolved in the process and the unique aspects of controlling solution flow patterns underground. An overview of the major aspects of the health physics and radiation protection programs that were developed at these facilities are discussed and contrasted to circumstances of the current generation and state of the art of Uranium ISR technologies and facilities. (authors)

  5. Outcomes of pregnancies in women with hysteroscopically placed micro-inserts in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veersema, Sebastiaan; Mijatovic, Velja; Dreyer, Kim; Schouten, Helga; Schoot, Dick; Emanuel, Mark Hans; Hompes, Peter; Brölmann, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This was a retrospective review of all pregnancies reported after Essure in situ in the Netherlands. Pregnancies included those that were unintentional (resulting from lack of protocol adherence and/or misread confirmation tests) and those that were intentional (resulting from off-label use of Essure micro-inserts for hydrosalpinx closure before in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection with embryo transfer or in vitro fertilization with embryo transfer after regret of sterilization). The outcomes of 50 pregnancies in women with 1 or 2 micro-inserts in situ were evaluated. Eight unintended pregnancies and 18 intended pregnancies resulted in birth of a full-term healthy baby. Seven infants were delivered via cesarean-section. Two women delivered prematurely by C-section, (singleton after 34 weeks 1 day, twins after 35 weeks 3 days). All babies are healthy and without any congenital anomalies. There were 2 stillbirths after 20 weeks; however, it is unlikely that this was related to the presence of the micro-inserts. In conclusion, it is unlikely that the presence of intratubal micro-inserts interferes with implantation and the developing amniotic sac and fetus. PMID:24184075

  6. Support Routines for In Situ Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert G.; Pariser, Oleg; Yeates, Matthew C.; Lee, Hyun H.; Lorre, Jean

    2013-01-01

    This software consists of a set of application programs that support ground-based image processing for in situ missions. These programs represent a collection of utility routines that perform miscellaneous functions in the context of the ground data system. Each one fulfills some specific need as determined via operational experience. The most unique aspect to these programs is that they are integrated into the large, in situ image processing system via the PIG (Planetary Image Geometry) library. They work directly with space in situ data, understanding the appropriate image meta-data fields and updating them properly. The programs themselves are completely multimission; all mission dependencies are handled by PIG. This suite of programs consists of: (1)marscahv: Generates a linearized, epi-polar aligned image given a stereo pair of images. These images are optimized for 1-D stereo correlations, (2) marscheckcm: Compares the camera model in an image label with one derived via kinematics modeling on the ground, (3) marschkovl: Checks the overlaps between a list of images in order to determine which might be stereo pairs. This is useful for non-traditional stereo images like long-baseline or those from an articulating arm camera, (4) marscoordtrans: Translates mosaic coordinates from one form into another, (5) marsdispcompare: Checks a Left Right stereo disparity image against a Right Left disparity image to ensure they are consistent with each other, (6) marsdispwarp: Takes one image of a stereo pair and warps it through a disparity map to create a synthetic opposite- eye image. For example, a right eye image could be transformed to look like it was taken from the left eye via this program, (7) marsfidfinder: Finds fiducial markers in an image by projecting their approximate location and then using correlation to locate the markers to subpixel accuracy. These fiducial markets are small targets attached to the spacecraft surface. This helps verify, or improve, the pointing of in situ cameras, (8) marsinvrange: Inverse of marsrange . given a range file, re-computes an XYZ file that closely matches the original. . marsproj: Projects an XYZ coordinate through the camera model, and reports the line/sample coordinates of the point in the image, (9) marsprojfid: Given the output of marsfidfinder, projects the XYZ locations and compares them to the found locations, creating a report showing the fiducial errors in each image. marsrad: Radiometrically corrects an image, (10) marsrelabel: Updates coordinate system or camera model labels in an image, (11) marstiexyz: Given a stereo pair, allows the user to interactively pick a point in each image and reports the XYZ value corresponding to that pair of locations. marsunmosaic: Extracts a single frame from a mosaic, which will be created such that it could have been an input to the original mosaic. Useful for creating simulated input frames using different camera models than the original mosaic used, and (12) merinverter: Uses an inverse lookup table to convert 8-bit telemetered data to its 12-bit original form. Can be used in other missions despite the name.

  7. In-situ continuous water analyzing module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN); Wise, Marcus B. (Kingston, TN)

    1998-01-01

    An in-situ continuous liquid analyzing system for continuously analyzing volatile components contained in a water source comprises: a carrier gas supply, an extraction container and a mass spectrometer. The carrier gas supply continuously supplies the carrier gas to the extraction container and is mixed with a water sample that is continuously drawn into the extraction container. The carrier gas continuously extracts the volatile components out of the water sample. The water sample is returned to the water source after the volatile components are extracted from it. The extracted volatile components and the carrier gas are delivered continuously to the mass spectometer and the volatile components are continuously analyzed by the mass spectrometer.

  8. In-situ continuous water monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C.V.; Wise, M.B.

    1998-03-31

    An in-situ continuous liquid monitoring system for continuously analyzing volatile components contained in a water source comprises: a carrier gas supply, an extraction container and a mass spectrometer. The carrier gas supply continuously supplies the carrier gas to the extraction container and is mixed with a water sample that is continuously drawn into the extraction container by the flow of carrier gas into the liquid directing device. The carrier gas continuously extracts the volatile components out of the water sample. The water sample is returned to the water source after the volatile components are extracted from it. The extracted volatile components and the carrier gas are delivered continuously to the mass spectrometer and the volatile components are continuously analyzed by the mass spectrometer. 2 figs.

  9. Mathematical modeling of in-situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ vitrification (ISV) is a new technology used for treating radioactive, organic and inorganic contaminated soils. In this process, electricity is applied through electrodes buried in the contaminated soil to melt it and form an environmentally stable glass-like solid. The organic contaminants and volatile metals are vaporized during heating up, the non-volatile inorganic elements are dissolved and incorporated into the melt. In present full-scale operation, the ISV process can treat 4 to 6 tons of soil per hour at consumption of about 1,000 kWh per ton of soil. In this study, various configurations of electrodes were examined in a mathematical model. The results may be used to optimize the ISV process

  10. Expérimentation in situ : principes et perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Geffard, Benoit Ferrari, Arnaud Chaumot et Bernard Montuelle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifier l'origine d'une perturbation, discriminer un stress physique ou chimique, et quantifier les liens de cause à effet des pollutions supposent de recueillir des données nécessaires à l'évaluation de la qualité des eaux. À l'heure actuelle, la majorité des données est issue de tests de laboratoire, obtenue dans un cadre très contrôlé. Les données recueillies dans les conditions naturelles sont très parcellaires et encore peu répandues même si leur développement serait extrêmement utile. Quels sont les principes de ces expérimentations in situ, leur intérêt, dans quelle mesure peuvent-elles être déployées à une large échelle ? Les auteurs font le point sur ces questions.

  11. In situ corrosion monitoring of steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ac electrochemical technique which meets the basic requirements for an in situ localized corrosion monitor within the secondary coolant of PWR steam generators has been investigated. The technique uses two electrodes to measure the electrochemical impedance of a surface in an occluded region with high heat flux. The impedance is related to the kinetics of corrosion. Marked decreases indicate the onset of a high corrosion rate. Experiments have demonstrated the ability of the technique to determine the onset of corrosion under conditions of high solution resistance and solution agitation due to local boiling. Experiments have shown the technique operates similarly in pressurized 3000C water, 1,400 ppM in Na2SO4

  12. In situ measurement of gold nanoparticle production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affandi, Mohd Syafiq; Bidin, Noriah; Abdullah, Mundzir; Aziz, Muhammad Safuan Abd.; Al-Azawi, Mohammed; Nugroho, Waskito

    2015-01-01

    The closeness of the experimental and theoretical values enables the development of an in situ characterization technique to monitor and analyze the production of gold nanoparticles (NPs), overcoming the use of high-end and expensive instrumentation. Gold NPs below the radius size of 10 nm were successfully synthesized in accordance with a few working parameters of pulse laser ablation in a liquid technique. In this report, the size, shape, concentration, and aggregation properties of gold NPs were estimated by the Mie-Gans model based on a reliable and interactive real-time absorption spectroscopy. The major features can be an important means toward determination of efficient process measures, productivity of gold NPs generated, and efficiency of the mass ablation rate. The accuracy in the measurement is confirmed via transmission electron microscopy analysis.

  13. In situ erosion of cohesive sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been increasing interest in tidal power schemes and the effect of a tidal energy barrage on the environment. A large man-made environmental change, such as a barrage, would be expected to have significant effects on the sediment distribution and stability of an estuary and these effects need to be assessed when considering a tidal barrage project. This report describes the development of apparatus for in-situ measurements of cohesive sediment erosion on inter-tidal mudflats. Development of the prototype field erosion bell and field testing was commissioned on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry by the Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU). This later work commenced in August 1991 and was completed in September 1992. (Author)

  14. Specific heat of in situ superconducting composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific heat measurements have been used to study the electronic excitation spectrum of the Cu regions of in situ prepared Cu-Nb and Cu--Nb3Sn composites having filament dimensions comparable to the superconducting coherence distance. At very low temperatures the major contribution to C/sub p/ comes from the electrons in the Cu regions so the excitation spectrum in Cu is easily accessible by this technique. Measurements show that the specific heat is far smaller than that expected if the Cu were normal, indicating that there is a well developed superconducting order parameter of about the size predicted from the de Gennes boundary conditions, i.e., about 0.3 meV. With the application of only a few millitesla, this gap is reduced by at least a factor of 10

  15. In-situ drying process test proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if in-situ drying is a practical method of removing the nonrecoverable interstitial liquid, a process test is needed. By reducing the tank ventilation rate, the salt cake or sludge will increase in temperature and more moisture can be evaporated. As long as the air flow rate is great enough to replace the moisture laden air with ambient air, the moisture removal rate (MRR) should increase. The maximum MRR will be determined by reducing the flow rate in a stepwise procedure. Tanks 105-BY, 107-BY, and 110-U have been chosen for use in these tests. Temperature increases resulting from the process tests will not exceed the maximum tank temperature limits

  16. In situ studies of fracture in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron microscope studies were made of the propagation of microcracks during in situ tensile deformation of stainless steel, molybdenum and magnesium oxide representing ductile, semi-brittle and brittle solids. As the stress is applied, the cracks are initiated at the edge of holes in the thinned foils. The extent of plastic activity around the cracks is measured in terms of the density and the distribution of dislocations and is sensitive to the ductile/brittle nature of the solid. The slip systems of the dislocations are determined by contrast analysis and stereoscopic observation. In stainless steel and magnesium oxide, the dislocations are relatively straight and they lie nearly perpendicular to the direction of the crack propagation, whereas in molybdenum the dislocations are in the form of irregular tangles which are stretched along the direction of the crack propagation. These observations are discussed in terms of the model of Dugdale concerning the formation of plastic zones under uniaxial loading in plane stress conditions

  17. Kinetic measurements from in situ TEM observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Renu

    2009-03-01

    Environmental transmission or scanning transmission electron microscope is ideally suited to observe gas solid interactions at nanoscale. It is shown that the time and temperature resolved data, obtained from in situ observations, can be used to obtain reaction rates and understand the kinetics of the processes. Low or high magnification images provide the change in length, area or volume with time at constant temperature and pressure conditions during nitridation of Cu-Cr thin films, deposition of Au particles, growth of Si nanowire and carbon nanotubes. Effect of electron beam is estimated by making observations with and without constant electron beam exposure. Quantitative electron energy loss spectroscopy is employed to measure the reduction rate of Ce(+4) in pure ceria, mixed oxides (ceria-zirconia) and catalyst (Rh-ceria-zirconia) powders. PMID:19130611

  18. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wang

    2001-12-14

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

  19. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR

  20. PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring

  1. Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

  2. Melanoma "in situ" tratado con Imiquimod / Melanoma in situ treated with Imiquimod

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RE, Achenbach; M, Dutto; S, Dupuy; CA, Maggi; C, Grecco; A, Acevedo; GF, Sánchez.

    2012-12-30

    Full Text Available Comunicamos un caso con dos melanomas "in situ", en un varón de 86 años, localizados en ambos lados de la cara con alto riesgo quirúrgico, quien fuera tratado con imiquimod al 5% una vez al día durante dos meses; los resultados hasta el momento, clínicos e histológicos han sido satisfactorios. [...] Abstract in english A 86 years-old man with two melanomas "in situ" at both sides of his face, treated with imiquimod 5% are presented. The patient has a cardiovascular high risk due to isquemic heart disease, for that reason we start the treatment with imiquimod once a day for two months. The clinical and histological [...] response was good and a follow up will be as long as we can.

  3. Development of the integrated in situ Lasagna process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination in deep, low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in uniform delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ methods such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, and pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites

  4. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified

  5. Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technology assessment was initiated in March 1979 of the in-situ uranium mining technology. This report explores the impediments to development and deployment of this technology and evaluates the environmental impacts of a generic in-situ facility. The report is divided into the following sections: introduction, technology description, physical environment, institutional and socioeconomic environment, impact assessment, impediments, and conclusions

  6. Experience with in situ measurement of rock deformability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although in situ tests have the advantage of involving a large volume or rock tested under the same environmental conditions as are prevailing in the rock mass, such tests are expensive and time consuming. In addition, there are a number of controversial questions pertinent to in situ tests

  7. Ecological impact assessment of metallurgic effluents using in situ biomarker assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ecological impact study was performed based on in situ biomarker assays with the waterflea Daphnia magna. The effects of metallurgic effluents on the energy metabolism, anti-oxidative metabolism and DNA damage were assessed in caged daphnids during a 4-week study. In situ survival and reproduction studies demonstrated a clear impact on these parameters in organisms exposed in the most polluted areas. At the downstream-sublethal-zone the organisms were disturbed within their tolerance limits, resulting in alterations of their energy metabolism. These data suggest an acclimation hypothesis, which was tested through the analysis of the energy metabolism of resident species: isopods and amphipods. These organisms had shifted to a decrease in their overall energy metabolism compared to the upstream region. This change in some biochemical processes suggests a selective advantage to cope with the prevailing environmental conditions. In addition, we found clear genotoxic effects caused by the industrial discharges that might correlate with a reduction in (long-term) survival. - In situ monitoring of metallurgic effluents using biomarker analysis

  8. In situ radionuclide transfers in the deep-sea Lysianassidae amphipod Eurythenes gryllus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies at the NEA dumpsite confirmed the existence of the scavenging amphipod Eurythenes gryllus. The aim of this study was to inquire if, under deep-sea conditions of low temperature and high pressure, this species of crustacean would retain artificial radionuclides in the same organ as those observed in similar coastal species of the same family. This necrophagous species is easily attracted by bait. It can ingest 30 to 60% of its body weight in 30 ± 10 min. In addition, this species can store ingested food for several weeks. Thus, the ingestion of radiolabelled food over a period of several days could be considered as a single-meal contamination experiment. For all these reasons Eurythenes gryllus appeared to be a good test animal to compare laboratory experiments on coastal species with in situ radionuclide retention studies on deep-sea fauna. In order to prevent any disturbance of their physiological conditions, a special device was used to attract and feed the animals with radiolabelled baits, in situ at a depth of 4000 m, rather than recovering amphipods without decompression and keeping them alive aboard ship. Qualitatively speaking results yielded by in situ experiments support those obtained from laboratory studies with coastal animals and the same radionuclides

  9. 60Co ?-irradiation enhances expression of GAP-43 mRNA in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the relationship between the expression of GAP-43 mRNA and nerve regeneration in rat brain after 60Co ?-irradiation. Methods: Wistar rats were subjected to whole-body irradiation with 8 Gy 60Co ?-rays. The expression of GAP-43 was detected by in situ hybridization histochemistry using Dig-cRNA probe. Results: It was found that the expression of GAP-43 mRNA increased in the cerebral cortex, caudate, putamen, globus pallidum, thalamus and hypothalamus one week after 8 Gy 60Co ?-irradiation. The peak of GAP-43 mRNA expression was observed in the fourth week and then began to decrease but still remained at a higher than normal level. However, it decreased to a low level after 7 weeks. Conclusion: Enhanced expression of GAP-43 mRNA after 60Co ?-irradiation in rat brain is associated with nerve regeneration and reconstruction of synapse

  10. Fractionation of stable isotopes in perchlorate and nitrate during in situ biodegradation in a sandy aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinger, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Sturchio, N.C.; Gu, B.; Heraty, L.J.; Borden, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental context. Perchlorate (ClO4-) and nitrate (NO3-) are common co-contaminants in groundwater, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Each of these compounds is biodegradable, so in situ enhanced bioremediation is one alternative for treating them in groundwater. Because bacteria typically fractionate isotopes during biodegradation, stable isotope analysis is increasingly used to distinguish this process from transport or mixing-related decreases in contaminant concentrations. However, for this technique to be useful in the field to monitor bioremediation progress, isotope fractionation must be quantified under relevant environmental conditions. In the present study, we quantify the apparent in situ fractionation effects for stable isotopes in ClO4- (Cl and O) and NO3- (N and O) resulting from biodegradation in an aquifer. Abstract. An in situ experiment was performed in a shallow alluvial aquifer in Maryland to quantify the fractionation of stable isotopes in perchlorate (Cl and O) and nitrate (N and O) during biodegradation. An emulsified soybean oil substrate that was previously injected into this aquifer provided the electron donor necessary for biological perchlorate reduction and denitrification. During the field experiment, groundwater extracted from an upgradient well was pumped into an injection well located within the in situ oil barrier, and then groundwater samples were withdrawn for the next 30 h. After correction for dilution (using Br- as a conservative tracer of the injectate), perchlorate concentrations decreased by 78% and nitrate concentrations decreased by 82% during the initial 8.6 h after the injection. The observed ratio of fractionation effects of O and Cl isotopes in perchlorate (18O/37Cl) was 2.6, which is similar to that observed in the laboratory using pure cultures (2.5). Denitrification by indigenous bacteria fractionated O and N isotopes in nitrate at a ratio of ???0.8 (18O/15N), which is within the range of values reported previously for denitrification. However, the magnitudes of the individual apparent in situ isotope fractionation effects for perchlorate and nitrate were appreciably smaller than those reported in homogeneous closed systems (0.2 to 0.6 times), even after adjustment for dilution. These results indicate that (1) isotope fractionation factor ratios (18O/37Cl, 18O/15N) derived from homogeneous laboratory systems (e.g. pure culture studies) can be used qualitatively to confirm the occurrence of in situ biodegradation of both perchlorate and nitrate, but (2) the magnitudes of the individual apparent values cannot be used quantitatively to estimate the in situ extent of biodegradation of either anion. ?? CSIRO 2009.

  11. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype design for construction and test. Significant improvements must be made in fluor-doped fiber performance in order to use the method for in situ monitoring to verify compliance with current EPA drinking water standards. Additional Phase 1 fiber development work should be performed to increase the fluor dopant concentration above 2% until the self-absorption limit is observed. Continued fiber optimization work is expected to improve the sensitivity limits, and will enable application of the detector to verify compliance with the US EPA drinking water standard of 20,000 pico Curies per liter. However, if the need for monitoring higher levels of tritium in water at concentrations greater than 200,000 pico Curies per liter is justified, then prototype development and testing could proceed either as a Phase 2 stand-alone effort or in parallel with continued Phase 1 development work

  12. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype design for construction and test. Significant improvements must be made in fluor-doped fiber performance in order to use the method for in situ monitoring to verify compliance with current EPA drinking water standards. Additional Phase 1 fiber development work should be performed to increase the fluor dopant concentration above 2% until the self-absorption limit is observed. Continued fiber optimization work is expected to improve the sensitivity limits, and will enable application of the detector to verify compliance with the US EPA drinking water standard of 20,000 pico Curies per liter. However, if the need for monitoring higher levels of tritium in water at concentrations greater than 200,000 pico Curies per liter is justified, then prototype development and testing could proceed either as a Phase 2 stand-alone effort or in parallel with continued Phase 1 development work.

  13. In-situ electrochemical route to aerogel electrode materials of graphene and hexagonal CeO?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2015-05-15

    We reported a one-step in-situ electrochemical route to synthesize 3D aerogel electrode materials including graphene and hexagonal CeO2 composites. The graphene/CeO2 aerogel can be formed via freeze-drying graphene/CeO2 colloidal solution that was obtained by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite anode and in-situ deposition of CeO2 nanoparticles on graphene sheets in mixing electrolyte of (NH4)2SO4/Ce(NO3)3 and (NH4)2SO4/(NH4)2Ce(NO3)6. The as-obtained CeO2 nanoparticles were closely contacted with graphene, which can enhance the synergistic effect between graphene and CeO2. It is interesting that the as-obtained CeO2 products possessed hexagonal crystal structure that was rarely reported. The Faradaic reactivity of the graphene/CeO2 composites as supercapacitor was enhanced with the increase of the concentration of Ce salts in initial electrolyte. The introduction of CeO2 to graphene electrode can lead to the presence of additional pseudocapacitance besides the electric double-layer capacitance. This simple one-step in-situ electrochemical route can be extended to synthesize various graphene/metal oxide aerogel electrode materials for electric energy storage. PMID:25660707

  14. Supramolecular hydrogels from in situ host-guest inclusion between chemically modified cellulose nanocrystals and cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ning; Dufresne, Alain

    2013-03-11

    When grafted ?-cyclodextrin is used as targeting sites, Pluronic polymers have been introduced on the surface of cellulose nanocrystals by means of inclusion interaction between ?-cyclodextrin and hydrophobic segment of the polymer. Because of the steric stabilization effect, surface poly(ethylene glycol) chains facilitate the dispersion and compatibility of nanocrystals, which also enhance the loading levels of nanocrystals in the hydrogel system. Meanwhile, uncovered poly(ethylene glycol) segments render the participating inclusion of ?-cyclodextrin for the architecture of in situ hydrogels. Surface grafting and inclusion reactions were proved by solid (13)C NMR and FTIR. Grafting efficiency of ?-cyclodextrin and inclusion efficiency of Pluronic on the surface of nanocrystals were confirmed by UV spectroscopy and elemental analysis. A significant enhancement of the structural and thermal stability of in situ hydrogels with high loading levels of modified nanocrystals (>5.77 wt %) was observed by rheological analysis. Further study reveals the performance and behavior of hydrogels under a different pH environment. Finally, in situ hydrogels were used as drug carrier for in vitro release of doxorubicin and exhibit the behavior of prolonged drug release with special release kinetics. PMID:23347071

  15. Banned Books Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next week is Banned Books Week, and the American Library Association (ALA) offers this site giving background on Banned Books Week and censorship as well as resources to help teachers, librarians, and booksellers observe the week. Once again, the Harry Potter series tops this year's list of most challenged books. At the ALA site, users will find the complete list as well as the most challenged books of the past decade. In addition, the site hosts a press kit, resources for sale to celebrate the week, links to other banned books sites, and a page on book burning.

  16. In situ containment and stabilization of buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.; Heiser, J.H.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of the project was to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced grouting materials for the in-situ installation of impermeable, durable subsurface barriers and caps around waste sites and for the in-situ stabilization of contaminated soils. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste (CWL) and Mixed Waste Landfills (MWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). This report documents this project, which was conducted in two subtasks. These were (1) Capping and Barrier Grouts, and (2) In-situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. Subtask 1 examined materials and placement methods for in-situ containment of contaminated sites by subsurface barriers and surface caps. In Subtask 2 materials and techniques were evaluated for in-situ chemical stabilization of chromium in soil.

  17. A NOVEL OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: IN-SITU GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Patil*, A.A. Tagalpallewar, G.M. Rasve, A.V. Bendre, P.G. Khapekar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ophthalmic in-situ gels now days proved an palpable sustained drug delivery in various eye diseases. The formulation of in-situ gels for eye which carries the advantages like easy for administration, reduces frequency of dose and improves patient compliance. The formation of in-situ gels depends on phase transition system or sol-gel transition system. The formulation approaches like temperature intonation, pH change and presence of ions from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner are utilised for in-situ gels. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in-situ gels include chitosan, Pluronic F-127, poly-caprolactone, gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin etc.

  18. Aluminum-Based Cast In Situ Composites: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, S. L.; Bakshi, Srinivasa R.; Murty, B. S.

    2015-06-01

    In situ composites are a class of composite materials in which the reinforcement is formed within the matrix by reaction during the processing. In situ method of composite synthesis has been widely followed by researchers because of several advantages over conventional stir casting such as fine particle size, clean interface, and good wettability of the reinforcement with the matrix and homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement compared to other processes. Besides this, in situ processing of composites by casting route is also economical and amenable for large scale production as compared to other methods such as powder metallurgy and spray forming. Commonly used reinforcements for Al and its alloys which can be produced in situ are Al2O3, AlN, TiB2, TiC, ZrB2, and Mg2Si. The aim of this paper is to review the current research and development in aluminum-based in situ composites by casting route.

  19. Autonomous In-Situ Resources Prospector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissly, R. W.; Buehler, M. G.; Schaap, M. G.; Nicks, D.; Taylor, G. J.; Castano, R.; Suarez, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will describe the concept of an autonomous, intelligent, rover-based rapid surveying system to identify and map several key lunar resources to optimize their ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilization) extraction potential. Prior to an extraction phase for any target resource, ground-based surveys are needed to provide confirmation of remote observation, to quantify and map their 3-D distribution, and to locate optimal extraction sites (e.g. ore bodies) with precision to maximize their economic benefit. The system will search for and quantify optimal minerals for oxygen production feedstock, water ice, and high glass-content regolith that can be used for building materials. These are targeted because of their utility and because they are, or are likely to be, variable in quantity over spatial scales accessible to a rover (i.e., few km). Oxygen has benefits for life support systems and as an oxidizer for propellants. Water is a key resource for sustainable exploration, with utility for life support, propellants, and other industrial processes. High glass-content regolith has utility as a feedstock for building materials as it readily sinters upon heating into a cohesive matrix more readily than other regolith materials or crystalline basalts. Lunar glasses are also a potential feedstock for oxygen production, as many are rich in iron and titanium oxides that are optimal for oxygen extraction. To accomplish this task, a system of sensors and decision-making algorithms for an autonomous prospecting rover is described. One set of sensors will be located in the wheel tread of the robotic search vehicle providing contact sensor data on regolith composition. Another set of instruments will be housed on the platform of the rover, including VIS-NIR imagers and spectrometers, both for far-field context and near-field characterization of the regolith in the immediate vicinity of the rover. Also included in the sensor suite are a neutron spectrometer, ground-penetrating radar, and an instrumented cone penetrometer for subsurface assessment. Output from these sensors will be evaluated autonomously in real-time by decision-making software to evaluate if any of the targeted resources has been detected, and if so, to quantify their abundance. Algorithms for optimizing the mapping strategy based on target resource abundance and distribution are also included in the autonomous software. This approach emphasizes on-the-fly survey measurements to enable efficient and rapid prospecting of large areas, which will improve the economics of ISRU system approaches. The mature technology will enable autonomous rovers to create in-situ resource maps of lunar or other planetary surfaces, which will facilitate human and robotic exploration.

  20. Superconducting critical properties and AC losses in a large sample of in situ formed Cu-Nb3Sn composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critical-current density, upper critical field, and hysteresis ac losses have been evaluated for a large (100-m long) sample of in situ formed Cu-Nb3Sn composite with superconducting volume fraction lambdaapprox. =0.23. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current, measured in wire and tape samples of different reductions, cannot be explained by a model based on a single pinning mechanism. The enhancement of the pinning force in highly reduced tape composites is attributed to surface flux pinning at the filament-matrix interfaces. Hysteretic ac losses obtained by calorimetric and electronic measuring methods confirmed the results reported previously for small in situ samples

  1. Reinforcement of nitrile rubber by in situ formed zinc disorbate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc disorbate (ZDS was in situ formed by the reaction between sorbic acid (SA and zinc oxide (ZnO in nitrile rubber (NBR. The effects of SA amount on the curing characteristics, crosslink density and mechanical properties of peroxide- cured NBR were studied. The results showed that ZDS was generated mainly during the rubber vulcanization, rather than the open mill compounding phase. The results from the crosslink density determinations showed that the formation of ZDS significantly increased the ionic bond content in the vulcanizates. In addition, the formation of ZDS greatly enhanced the mechanical properties of NBR vulcanizates. The modulus, tensile strength, tear strength and hardness were found to be increased with the loading of ZDS. Preheating the compounds before compression moulding was beneficial to the formation of ZDS, and consequently the increases in mechanical properties. At 40 parts per hundred rubber (phr of SA and 16 phr ZnO, five to six folds of tensile strength and tear strength of the neat NBR vulcanizate were achieved. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM results confirmed the nano-dispersion structure of the polymerized ZDS in the NBR matrix.

  2. In situ recycling of contaminated soil uses bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OxyChem Pipeline Operations, primarily an ethylene and propylene products mover, has determined that substantial savings can be realized by adopting a bioremediation maintenance and recycling approach to hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. By this method, the soil can be recycled in situ, or in containers. To implement the soil-recycling program, OxyChem elected to use a soil remediator and natural absorbent product, Oil Snapper. This field maintenance material, based on an Enhanced Urea Technology, provides a diet to stimulate the growth of hydrocarbon-eating microbes. It works well either with indigenous soil microbes or with commercial microbes. The product is carried in field vehicles, which makes it immediately available when leaks or spills are discovered. Procedure for clean-up is to apply product and mix it into affected soil. Thus the contaminant is contained, preventing further migration; the contaminant is dispersed throughout the product, making it more accessible to the microbes; nutrients are immediately available to the microbes; and the material contributes aeration and moisture-retention properties

  3. In-situ air sparging under confined aquifer conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the summer of 1993, an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air sparging (IAS) and soil vapor extraction (SVE) to remedy jet fuel condition found in Colorado River Terrace deposits was initiated by the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence. Preliminary field tests were performed to develop air injection flow rates, IAS radius of influence, air entry pressure requirements, SVE radii of influence, SVE well head vacuum requirements, and SVE air extraction flow rates. In addition to the field tests, soil samples were, collected for formal geotechnical laboratory analysis. The information gathered from these preliminary field investigations were then used to design and install a pilot scale ground-water remediation system. The pilot scale system represents a modified version of the traditional IAS/SVE approach. Due to the presence of an overlying low permeability confining layer, the system was modified to inject and extract air from the phreatic zone. The vapor extraction wells are screened down into the saturated interval to provide an escape route for the air injected by the sparging system. This system is intended to trigger two remedial processes. The first is the physical stripping of dissolved phase volatile petroleum constituents as ground water contacts air channels forming around each sparge point. The second remedial process which may be activated by this system is enhanced aerobic biodegradation of organics due to the oxygenation of the sa organics due to the oxygenation of the saturated interval

  4. In situ treatment of VOCs by recirculation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project described herein was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify processes and technologies developed in Germany that appeared to have near-term potential for enhancing the cleanup of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soil and groundwater at DOE sites. Members of the ORNL research team identified and evaluated selected German technologies developed at or in association with the University of Karlsruhe (UoK) for in situ treatment of VOC contaminated soils and groundwater. Project activities included contacts with researchers within three departments of the UoK (i.e., Applied Geology, Hydromechanics, and Soil and Foundation Engineering) during fall 1991 and subsequent visits to UoK and private industry collaborators during February 1992. Subsequent analyses consisted of engineering computations, groundwater flow modeling, and treatment process modeling. As a result of these project efforts, two processes were identified as having near-term potential for DOE: (1) the vacuum vaporizer well/groundwater recirculation well and (2) the porous pipe/horizontal well. This document was prepared to summarize the methods and results of the assessment activities completed during the initial year of the project. The project is still ongoing, so not all facets of the effort are completely described in this document. Recommendations for laboratory and field experiments are provided

  5. In situ electrical measurements of polytypic silver nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel 4H structure silver nanowires (4H-AgNWs) have been reported to coexist with the usual face-centered cubic (FCC) ones. Here we report the electrical properties of these polytypic AgNWs for the first time. AgNWs with either 4H or FCC structures in the diameter range of 20-80 nm were measured in situ inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both kinds of AgNW in the diameter range show metallic conductance. The average resistivity of the 4H-AgNWs is 19.9 ?? cm, comparable to the 11.9 ?? cm of the FCC-AgNWs. The failure current density can be up to ?108 A cm-2 for both 4H-and FCC-AgNWs. The maximum stable current density (MSCD) is introduced to estimate the AgNWs' current-carrying ability, which shows diameter-dependence with a peak around 34 nm in diameter. It is attributed to fast annihilation of the current-induced vacancies and the enhanced surface scattering. Our investigations also suggest that the magnetic field of the electromagnetic lens may also introduce some influence on the measurements inside the TEM

  6. In situ electrical measurements of polytypic silver nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohua; Zhu, Jing; Jin, Chuanhong; Peng, Lian-Mao; Tang, Daiming; Cheng, Huiming

    2008-02-27

    Novel 4H structure silver nanowires (4H-AgNWs) have been reported to coexist with the usual face-centered cubic (FCC) ones. Here we report the electrical properties of these polytypic AgNWs for the first time. AgNWs with either 4H or FCC structures in the diameter range of 20-80 nm were measured in situ inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both kinds of AgNW in the diameter range show metallic conductance. The average resistivity of the 4H-AgNWs is 19.9 ?? cm, comparable to the 11.9 ?? cm of the FCC-AgNWs. The failure current density can be up to ?10(8) A cm(-2) for both 4H-and FCC-AgNWs. The maximum stable current density (MSCD) is introduced to estimate the AgNWs' current-carrying ability, which shows diameter-dependence with a peak around 34 nm in diameter. It is attributed to fast annihilation of the current-induced vacancies and the enhanced surface scattering. Our investigations also suggest that the magnetic field of the electromagnetic lens may also introduce some influence on the measurements inside the TEM. PMID:21730742

  7. Swarm in situ observations of F region polar cap patches created by cusp precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, L. V.; Iserhienrhien, B.; Miles, D. M.; Patra, S.; Meeren, C.; Buchert, S. C.; Burchill, J. K.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Knudsen, D. J.; McWilliams, K. A.; Moen, J.

    2015-02-01

    High-resolution in situ measurements from the three Swarm spacecraft, in a string-of-pearls configuration, provide new insights about the combined role of flow channel events and particle impact ionization in creating F region electron density structures in the northern Scandinavian dayside cusp. We present a case of polar cap patch formation where a reconnection-driven low-density relative westward flow channel is eroding the dayside solar-ionized plasma but where particle impact ionization in the cusp dominates the initial plasma structuring. In the cusp, density features are observed which are twice as dense as the solar-ionized background. These features then follow the polar cap convection and become less structured and lower in amplitude. These are the first in situ observations tracking polar cap patch evolution from creation by plasma transport and enhancement by cusp precipitation, through entrainment in the polar cap flow and relaxation into smooth patches as they approach the nightside auroral oval.

  8. The growth and in situ characterization of chemical vapor deposited SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R.; Chang, R. R.; Lile, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the results of studies of the kinetics of remote (indirect) plasma enhanced low pressure CVD growth of SiO2 on Si and InP and of the in situ characterization of the electrical surface properties of InP during CVD processing. In the latter case photoluminescence was employed as a convenient and sensitive noninvasive method for characterizing surface trap densities. It was determined that, provided certain precautions are taken, the growth of SiO2 occurs in a reproducible and systematic fashion that can be expressed in an analytic form useful for growth rate prediction. Moreover, the in situ photoluminescence studies have yielded information on sample degradation resulting from heating and chemical exposure during the CVD growth.

  9. Orientation relationship in WC-Co composite nanoparticles synthesized by in situ reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilong; Song, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xuemei; Liu, Xingwei; Wang, Haibin; Zhou, Cheng

    2015-04-10

    Using the nanoscale violet tungsten oxide as the tungsten source, the WC-Co composite powder was synthesized by the in situ reactions. The particle size of the WC-Co composite powder has a narrow distribution with the mean particle size below 100 nm, and the single composite particle has a nanocrystalline structure with a mean grain size smaller than 10 nm. The detailed characterizations of the nanoparticle microstructure reveal that the orientation relationship and coherence at the interfaces can form during the in situ reactions and further inherit in the consolidated cemented carbide bulk material. The favorable crystallographic characteristics of the WC-Co composite nanoparticles play a significant role in the enhancement of the mechanical properties of the prepared cemented carbide bulk material. PMID:25785577

  10. Demonstration, testing, and evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Volume 1, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a final reports in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cubic yards of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. It was demonstrated that the mass flow rate of the volatile organic chemicals was enhanced in the recovered soil gas as a result of heating

  11. Doxorubicin-loaded zein in situ gel for interstitial chemotherapy of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Shen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate doxorubicin (DOX-loaded zein in situ gels, a new drug delivery system in which a liquid state drug can be transformed into semi-solid after intratumoral injection. In vitro release of DOX-loaded zein was investigated and the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and therapeutic efficacy of these DOX-loaded zein formulations were investigated using BALB/c nude tumor-bearing mice. In vitro release of DOX from the gels extended up to 7 days. Efficient accumulation of DOX in the tumor with lower drug concentration in blood and normal organs was obtained resulting in effective inhibition of tumor growth and fewer off-target side effects. In conclusion, a DOX-loaded in situ gel was developed with sustained release, enhanced anti-cancer efficacy for colorectal cancer in vivo, and especially with reduced off-target side effects.

  12. Strain effects in cabled and braided ''in situ'' formed Nb3Sn conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-strand cables (pitch=15 and 30 mm) and three-strand braid (pitch=30 mm) have been made using ''in situ'' formed Nb3Sn wire (0.31 mm outer diameter) as strands, and their mechanical properties and strain effects have been investigated. The stress-strain relations of all the cables and braid examined are similar to that of the strand except in lower strain region. The degradations in the critical currents are observed for the cable with smaller pitch and the braid. Strain sensitivity of critical current is enhanced by braiding. The optimization of the pitch is required for cables and braids in order to fully utilize high critical current and high strain tolerence of ''in situ'' formed strands

  13. Orientation relationship in WC-Co composite nanoparticles synthesized by in situ reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilong; Song, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xuemei; Liu, Xingwei; Wang, Haibin; Zhou, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Using the nanoscale violet tungsten oxide as the tungsten source, the WC-Co composite powder was synthesized by the in situ reactions. The particle size of the WC-Co composite powder has a narrow distribution with the mean particle size below 100 nm, and the single composite particle has a nanocrystalline structure with a mean grain size smaller than 10 nm. The detailed characterizations of the nanoparticle microstructure reveal that the orientation relationship and coherence at the interfaces can form during the in situ reactions and further inherit in the consolidated cemented carbide bulk material. The favorable crystallographic characteristics of the WC-Co composite nanoparticles play a significant role in the enhancement of the mechanical properties of the prepared cemented carbide bulk material.

  14. Phase evolution in PLD MgB{sub 2} films during the in situ annealing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wu, Y S [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Kong, C [Electron Microscopy Unit, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2000 (Australia); Wexler, D [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Vos, M [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Went, M R [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Dou, S X [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    The transformation of zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization curves of PLD MgB{sub 2} films annealed in situ for different dwell times and at different temperatures is studied within the context of structural analysis. The PLD films were deposited using an off-axis geometry followed by two series of annealing conditions: the dwell time series and the annealing temperature series. ZFC magnetization curves were obtained in an MPMS magnetometer from samples that had been cut into similar shapes. XRD scans on the two series of film samples show enhanced (001) and (002) MgB{sub 2} peaks till a dwell time of 9 min at a 650 deg. C and a 800 deg. C annealing temperature. TEM results show a granular transformation from an un-annealed film to a 700 deg. C 9 min in situ annealed film. The possible structural development with annealing time and annealing temperature is then discussed.

  15. Combining Space-Based and In-Situ Measurements to Track Flooding in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Mclaren, David; Tran, Daniel; Tanpipat, Veerachai; Chitradon, Royal; Boonya-aaroonnet, Surajate; Thanapakpawin, Porranee; Khunboa, Chatchai; Leelapatra, Watis; Plermkamon, Vichian; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Mandl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We describe efforts to integrate in-situ sensing, space-borne sensing, hydrological modeling, active control of sensing, and automatic data product generation to enhance monitoring and management of flooding. In our approach, broad coverage sensors and missions such as MODIS, TRMM, and weather satellite information and in-situ weather and river gauging information are all inputs to track flooding via river basin and sub-basin hydrological models. While these inputs can provide significant information as to the major flooding, targetable space measurements can provide better spatial resolution measurements of flooding extent. In order to leverage such assets we automatically task observations in response to automated analysis indications of major flooding. These new measurements are automatically processed and assimilated with the other flooding data. We describe our ongoing efforts to deploy this system to track major flooding events in Thailand.

  16. Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Peterson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS of the breast is a noninvasive form of breast cancer that has increased in incidence over the past several decades secondary to screening mammography. DCIS now represents 20–30% of all newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer. Patients with DCIS typically present with an abnormal mammogram, and diagnosis is most commonly obtained with an imageguided biopsy. Historically, mastectomy was considered the primary curative option for patients with DCIS. However, treatment of DCIS continues to evolve, and now treatment strategies also include breast-conserving therapy, which consists of local excision followed by radiation therapy or local excision alone. Multiple randomized trials have confirmed a decrease in ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence in patients treated with local excision followed by radiation therapy compared with local excision alone. Ongoing clinical trials attempt to identify a subgroup of DCIS patients at low risk for recurrence who may not benefit from radiation therapy. In addition, because the majority of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences occur near the original primary tumor site, partial breast irradiation is currently under investigation as a treatment option for DCIS patients. Randomized trials have shown tamoxifen can reduce the risk of ipsilateral and contralateral breast tumor recurrences while the role of aromatase inhibitors is the subject of current clinical trials. DCIS represents a complex pathologic entity, and treatment optimization requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  17. In situ vitrification of radioactive underground tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a treatment process with great potential for remediating underground tanks previously used for storing radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Tests at several scales have demonstrated the utility of ISV for these tanks. An engineering-scale test vitrified a 30-cm-diameter buried steel and concrete tank that contained simulated tank sludge. Hazardous components of the tank sludge were immobilized, or removed and captured in the off-gas treatment system, and the tank walls were melted or incorporated into the ISV block. A pilot-scale ISV test vitrified a 1-m simulated underground tank than contained a simulated refractory sludge. The ISV process completely vitrified the tank, its contents, and the soil below the tank to a depth of 2.4 m, producing a uniform glass and crystalline monolith with an estimated mass of 30 tons. A large-scale underground tank test is scheduled for early 1991. 5 refs., 4 figs

  18. Cubesat in-situ degradation detector (CIDD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rievers, Benny; Milke, Alexander; Salden, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The design of the thermal control and management system (TCS) is a central task in satellite design. In order to evaluate and dimensionize the properties of the TCS, material parameters specifying the conductive and radiative properties of the different TCS components have to be known including their respective variations within the mission lifetime. In particular the thermo-optical properties of the outer surfaces including critical TCS components such as radiators and thermal insulation are subject to degradation caused by interaction with the space environment. The evaluation of these material parameters by means of ground testing is a time-consuming and expensive endeavor. Long-term in-situ measurements on board the ISS or large satellites not only realize a better implementation of the influence of the space environment but also imply high costs. Motivated by this we propose the utilization of low-cost nano-satellite systems to realize material tests within space at a considerably reduced cost. We present a nanosat-scale degradation sensor concept which realizes low power consumption and data rates compatible with nanosat boundaries at UHF radio. By means of a predefined measurement and messaging cycle temperature curves are measured and evaluated on ground to extract the change of absorptivity and emissivity over mission lifetime.

  19. In situ produced hydrogen (hydrogen on demand)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, John [Syringa Bioscience (Pty) Ltd, 137 Edward Avenue, Hennops Park, Centurion 0157 (South Africa); Radu, Marin [Centrul de Cercetari pentru Materiale Macromoleculare si Membrane - CCMMM, 202B, Splaiul Independentei, Sector 6, 060023, Bucuresti (Romania)

    2010-07-15

    Pollution created by the increased number of people and by industrial and domestic activities put pressure in the planet's climate that can result in a catastrophe which may end the humans' life on the planet. Hydrogen is an endless source of energy, clean and efficient, which exist in the Universe in a high proportion, over 88%. Current problems that stop the development of an efficient Hydrogen Economy are the high production costs, storage problems, and transport and supply problems, due to the high cost of operational structure needed for supply to the end user. To all these objective reasons may be added the high rate of international terrorism that may use storage of liquid hydrogen as a target for its activity. Looking in the right direction, Marin Radu solved the above problems by producing hydrogen in situ, via an electro-catalytic membrane, which decomposes the water molecules efficiently, with low input of electric current (9 V-24 V) and produces hydrogen on demand [. unpublished]. (author)

  20. In-situ combustion with solvent injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Silva, J.; Kakade, G. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[Maharashtra Inst. of Technology, Pune (India)

    2008-10-15

    The effects of combining in situ combustion and heavy hydrocarbon naphtha vapor injection techniques in a heavy oil reservoir were investigated. Oil production rates and steam injection efficiencies were considered. The technique was also combined with toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) processes. The study showed that the modified THAI process achieved high rates of recovery for both primary production and as a follow-up technique in partially depleted reservoirs after cyclic steam and cold production. Oil produced using the modified THAI technique was also partially upgraded by the process. Results of the vapour chamber pressure calculations showed that the volume of oil produced by naphtha assisted gravity drainage was between 1 to 3 times higher than amounts of oil produced by SAGD processes during the same amount of time. The naphtha injection process produced more oil than the steam only process. However, high amounts of naphtha were needed to produce oil. Injection and production rates during the naphtha injection process were higher. Naphtha vapor was injected near the heel of a horizontal producer well. The vapor acted as a thermal and diluent mechanism in order to reduce the viscosity of the heavy oil . 9 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Laser in situ keratomileusis in adult patients with anisometropic amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Ya?a

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the increase in corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK in adults with anisometropic amblyopia.METHODS: The medical records of consecutive patients diagnosed with anisometropic amblyopia at the time of refractive evaluation who underwent LASIK were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with at least a two-line difference of visual acuity (VA between the eyes with a spherical refractive error difference of at least 3.00 diopters (D or an astigmatic difference of at least 2.00D were included. Patients with any other possible reason for amblyopia other than anisometropia or those who had undergone previous amblyopia treatment were excluded. Amblyopic eyes with myopia or myopic astigmatism were considered as group 1, hypermetropia or hypermetropic astigmatism constituted group 2, and mixed astigmatism patients comprised group 3. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, subjective manifest refraction, and CDVA were analyzed at 1 week and 1 month, 3, and 6 months. RESULTS: The study included 57 eyes of 57 patients. There were 33 eyes in group 1, 12 eyes in group 2, and 12 eyes in group 3. The preoperative mean values for spherical equivalent of subjective manifest refraction (SE in groups 1, 2, and 3 were (-4.66±1.97D, (4.40±1.00D, and (0.15±1.05D, respectively. Mean CDVA improved 0.1 log units (1 line LogMAR at 6 months (P0.05. Moreover, age, the amount of preoperative refractive error, and the levels of preoperative corrected and UDVA had no effect on postoperative CDVA improvement (P>0.05.CONCLUSION: Correction of refractive errors with LASIK produced significant CDVA improvement in adult patients with anisometropic amblyopia and no previous amblyopia treatment.

  2. Laser in situ keratomileusis in adult patients with anisometropic amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agca, Alper; Özgürhan, Engin Bilge; Baz, Ökke?; Bozkurt, Ercüment; Ozkaya, Abdullah; Ya?a, Dilek; Demirok, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the increase in corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in adults with anisometropic amblyopia. METHODS The medical records of consecutive patients diagnosed with anisometropic amblyopia at the time of refractive evaluation who underwent LASIK were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with at least a two-line difference of visual acuity (VA) between the eyes with a spherical refractive error difference of at least 3.00 diopters (D) or an astigmatic difference of at least 2.00D were included. Patients with any other possible reason for amblyopia other than anisometropia or those who had undergone previous amblyopia treatment were excluded. Amblyopic eyes with myopia or myopic astigmatism were considered as group 1, hypermetropia or hypermetropic astigmatism constituted group 2, and mixed astigmatism patients comprised group 3. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), subjective manifest refraction, and CDVA were analyzed at 1 week and 1 month, 3, and 6 months. RESULTS The study included 57 eyes of 57 patients. There were 33 eyes in group 1, 12 eyes in group 2, and 12 eyes in group 3. The preoperative mean values for spherical equivalent of subjective manifest refraction (SE) in groups 1, 2, and 3 were (-4.66±1.97)D, (4.40±1.00)D, and (0.15±1.05)D, respectively. Mean CDVA improved 0.1 log units (1 line LogMAR) at 6 months (P0.05). Moreover, age, the amount of preoperative refractive error, and the levels of preoperative corrected and UDVA had no effect on postoperative CDVA improvement (P>0.05). CONCLUSION Correction of refractive errors with LASIK produced significant CDVA improvement in adult patients with anisometropic amblyopia and no previous amblyopia treatment. PMID:23826534

  3. In Situ Sensing Guided Geotechnical Modelling of Subglacial Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, A.; Brain, M.; Hart, J. K.; Roberts, D.; Martinez, K.; Rosser, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Data collected by in situ subglacial probes has been used to guide a series of geotechnical tests on till. The testing provides an opportunity to develop a process-based understanding of movement patterns observed in the subglacial environment. The probes were deployed by the Glacsweb project at Skalafellsjökull, Iceland, in 2008 and 2012. They were emplaced in till below 80 m of ice and recorded a number of variables including pore pressure, case stress, movement and conductivity. During the winter of 2008-2009 cyclic pressure changes were recorded in the till. Repeated pore pressure increases of up to 20% occurred over a variable period of one to eight weeks. Each rise was followed by a sharp drop in pore pressure lasting up to a few days. A back pressure shear box was used to replicate the pore pressure changes whilst maintaining a constant horizontal shear stress and normal total stress to examine effects on deformation and strain rate. Till was collected for testing from the ice margin close to the probes in 2012 and remoulded for use in the back pressure shear box. General characterisation of the till was performed to benchmark it against previous work and then a series of pore pressure re-inflation tests were undertaken. These approximated the pore pressure variations observed in the field by linearly increasing pore pressure and so decreasing normal effective stress. The till displayed dilatancy-induced episodic increases in strain rate. These were regulated by consolidation that increased shear strength and so reduced strain rate. Strain rate variations were similar to ice velocity variations recorded by differential GPS deployed on the ice surface above the probes.

  4. Virtual Savannah : In Situ Test of a Virtual Learning 3D Visualization for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Eskildsen, SØren

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Savannah is constructed to visualize parts of a curriculum, which the educational service at Aalborg Zoo has difficulties in teaching children visiting the zoo. It contains rich media like audio, text, video and picture galleries about African ecology, but some of this episodic information has been visualized to a further extent in order to transfer it as semantic knowledge for the children to assimilate. Three in situ tests reflected through a set of assignments which prior knowledge the children had on the subject, if they could assimilate information from the system, and finally the children’s retention one week after the test, measuring if any learning had happened. The tests showed significant results by comparing prior knowledge with assimilated knowledge. It also showed significant results by comparing prior knowledge and knowledge retained one week after the test, which indicate that the children were not only able to use the system as intended, but they also learned from it.

  5. Fabrication and characteristics of in situ Al12W particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites by reaction sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel in situ Al12W particles reinforced aluminum matrix composite was synthesized by reaction sintering of tungsten and aluminum powders and followed by hot extrusion. The microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The tensile tests of composite and pure aluminum materials were measured. The XRD analysis identifies that the in situ Al12W particles are formed by the reaction between tungsten and aluminum powders. Meanwhile, SEM observation shows that the Al12W particles are distributed uniformly in the Al matrix, and TEM observation shows that the interfacial condition of Al12W particles and Al is good. It is found from the tensile tests that the in situ synthesized Al12W particles can significantly enhance the strength of the composite in spite of decreasing elongation. The fracture morphology analysis reveals that the fracture mode of composite is ductile fracture.

  6. In situ bioremediation strategies for oiled shoreline environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite advances in preventative measures, recent events have demonstrated that accidental oil spills at sea will still occur. While physical (e.g. booms and skimmers) and chemical (e.g. chemical dispersants) methods have been developed to recover and/or disperse oil spilled at sea, they are not 100% effective and are frequently limited by operational constraints attributed to sea state and/or nature of the contamination. As a result, oil spills frequently impact shoreline environments. In situ bioremediation, the addition of substances or modification of habitat at contaminated sites to accelerate natural biodegradation processes, is now recognised as an alternative spill response technology of the remediation of these sites. Recommended for use following the physical removal of bulk oil, this treatment strategy has an operational advantage in that it breaks down and/or removes the residual contamination in place. Laboratory experiments and field trials have demonstrated the feasibility and success of bioremediation strategies such as nutrient enrichment to enhance bacterial degradation of oil on cobble, sand beach and salt marsh environments. With improved knowledge of the factors that limit natural oil degradation rates, the feasibility of other strategies such as phytoremediation, enhanced oil-mineral fines interaction and the addition of oxygen or alternative electron acceptors are now being evaluated. Laboratory and field test protocols are being refined for thed test protocols are being refined for the selection of effective bioremediation agents and methods of application. It is recommended that future operational guidelines include real time product efficacy test and environmental effects monitoring programs. Termination of treatment should be implemented when: 1) it is no longer effective; 2) the oil has degraded to acceptable biologically benign concentrations; or 3) toxicity due to the treatment is increasing. (Author)

  7. Detection of denitrification genes by in situ rolling circle amplification - fluorescence in situ hybridization (in situ RCA-FISH) to link metabolic potential with identity inside bacterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A target-primed in situ rolling circle amplification (in situ RCA) protocol was developed for detection of single-copy genes inside bacterial cells and optimized with Pseudomonas stutzeri, targeting nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase genes (nirS and nosZ). Two padlock probes were designed per gene to target both DNA strands; the target DNA was cut by a restriction endonuclease close to the probe binding sites, which subsequently were made accessible by 5'-3' exonucleolysis. After hybridization, the padlock probe was circularized by ligation and served as template for in situ RCA, primed by the probe target site. Finally, the RCA product inside the cells was detected by standard fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The optimized protocol showed high specificity and signal-to-noise ratio but low detection frequency (up to 15% for single-copy genes and up to 43% for the multi-copy 16S rRNA gene). Nevertheless, multiple genes (nirS and nosZ; nirS and the 16S rRNA gene) could be detected simultaneously in P. stutzeri. Environmental application of in situ RCA-FISH was demonstrated on activated sludge by the differential detection of two types of nirS-defined denitrifiers; one of them was identified as Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis by combining in situ RCA-FISH with 16S rRNA-targeted FISH. While not suitable for quantification because of its low detection frequency, in situ RCA-FISH will allow to link metabolic potential with 16S rRNA (gene)-based identification of single microbial cells.

  8. In situ deformations in the immature brain during rapid rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nicole G; Natesh, Rahul; Szczesny, Spencer E; Ryall, Karen; Eucker, Stephanie A; Coats, Brittany; Margulies, Susan S

    2010-04-01

    Head trauma is the leading cause of death and debilitating injury in children. Computational models are important tools used to understand head injury mechanisms but they must be validated with experimental data. In this communication we present in situ measurements of brain deformation during rapid, nonimpact head rotation in juvenile pigs of different ages. These data will be used to validate computational models identifying age-dependent thresholds of axonal injury. Fresh 5 days (n=3) and 4 weeks (n=2) old piglet heads were transected horizontally and secured in a container. The cut surface of each brain was marked and covered with a transparent, lubricated plate that allowed the brain to move freely in the plane of rotation. For each brain, a rapid (20-28 ms) 65 deg rotation was applied sequentially at 50 rad/s, 75 rad/s, and 75 rad/s. Each rotation was digitally captured at 2500 frames/s (480x320 pixels) and mark locations were tracked and used to compute strain using an in-house program in MATLAB. Peak values of principal strain (E(peak)) were significantly larger during deceleration than during acceleration of the head rotation (p<0.05), and doubled with a 50% increase in velocity. E(peak) was also significantly higher during the second 75 rad/s rotation than during the first 75 rad/s rotation (p<0.0001), suggesting structural alteration at 75 rad/s and the possibility that similar changes may have occurred at 50 rad/s. Analyzing only lower velocity (50 rad/s) rotations, E(peak) significantly increased with age (16.5% versus 12.4%, p<0.003), which was likely due to the larger brain mass and smaller viscoelastic modulus of the 4 weeks old pig brain compared with those of the 5 days old. Strain measurement error for the overall methodology was estimated to be 1%. Brain tissue strain during rapid, nonimpact head rotation in the juvenile pig varies significantly with age. The empirical data presented will be used to validate computational model predictions of brain motion under similar loading conditions and to assist in the development of age-specific thresholds for axonal injury. Future studies will examine the brain-skull displacement and will be used to validate brain-skull interactions in computational models. PMID:20387974

  9. In Situ Hydrocarbon Degradation by Indigenous Nearshore Bacterial Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential episodic hydrocarbon inputs associated with oil mining and transportation together with chronic introduction of hydrocarbons via urban runoff into the relatively pristine coastal Florida waters poses a significant threat to Florida's fragile marine environment. It is therefore important to understand the extent to which indigenous bacterial populations are able to degrade hydrocarbon compounds and also determine factors that could potentially control and promote the rate at which these compounds are broken down in situ. Previous controlled laboratory experiments carried out by our research group demonstrated that separately both photo-oxidation and cometabolism stimulate bacterial hydrocarbon degradation by natural bacterial assemblages collected from a chronically petroleum contaminated site in Bayboro Bay, Florida. Additionally, we also demonstrated that stable carbon and radiocarbon abundances of respired CO2 could be used to trace in situ hydrocarbon degradation by indigenous bacterial populations at this same site. This current proposal had two main objectives: (a) to evaluate the cumulative impact of cometabolism and photo-oxidation on hydrocarbon degradation by natural bacterial assemblages collected the same site in Bayboro Bay, Florida and (b) to determine if in situ hydrocarbon degradation by indigenous bacterial populations this site could be traced using natural radiocarbon and stable carbon abundances of assimilated bacterial carbon. Funds were used for 2 years of full support for one ESI Ph.D. student, April Croxton. To address our first objective a series of closed system bacterial incubations were carried out using photo-oxidized petroleum and pinfish (i.e. cometabolite). Bacterial production of CO2 was used as the indicator of hydrocarbon degradation and (delta)13C analysis of the resultant CO2 was used to evaluate the source of the respired CO2 (i.e. petroleum hydrocarbons or the pinfish cometabolite). Results from these time series experiments demonstrated that short-term exposure of petroleum to UV light enhanced hydrocarbon degradation by 48% over that observed for non-photo-oxidized petroleum. Despite the greater bio-availability of the photo-oxidized over the non-photo-oxidized petroleum, an initial lag in CO2 production was observed indicating potential phototoxicity of the photo- by-products. (delta)13C analysis and mass balance calculations reveal that co-metabolism with pinfish resulted in increased hydrocarbon degradation for both photo-oxidized and non-photo-oxidized petroleum each by over 100%. These results demonstrate the cumulative effect of photo-oxidation and co-metabolism on petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by natural bacterial populations indigenous to systems chronically impacted by hydrocarbon input. To address the second objective of this proposal bacterial concentrates were collected from Bayboro Harbor in April 2001 for nucleic acid extraction and subsequent natural radiocarbon abundance analyses. Unfortunately, however, all of these samples were lost due to a faulty compressor in our -70 freezer. The freezer was subsequently repaired and samples were again collected from Bayboro Harbor in June 2002 and again December 2002. Several attempts were made to extract the nucleic acid samples--however, the student was not able to successfully extract and an adequate amount of uncontaminated nucleic acid samples for subsequent natural radiocarbon abundance measurements of the bacterial carbon by accelerator mass spectrometry (i.e. require at least 50 (micro)g carbon for AMS measurement). Consequently, we were not able to address the second objective of this proposed work

  10. Ductal carcinoma in situ: a challenging disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevilay Altintas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS represents a heterogenous group of lesions with variable malignant potential. Although it is clearly pre-invasive, not all lesions progress to an invasive malignant disease. The significant increase in the frequency of diagnosis is the result of both widespread use of screening mammography and better recognition among pathologists. Treatment is controversial, but for several decades total mastectomy has been considered as the appropriate treatment. The tendency to be less aggressive in terms of surgery has followed the pattern of events observed in the treatment of invasive breast carcinomas. More recently, it has become clear that breastconserving procedures could be applied and selected on the basis of diagnostics and risk factors. When all patients with DCIS are considered, the overall mortality is extremely low, only about 1–2%. On the other hand, breast-conserving surgery is only curative in 75–85%; 50% of the local recurrences have proven to be invasive with a mortality rate of 12–15%. There is no place for axillary node dissection, adjuvant hormonal treatment or chemotherapy in the treatment. Important factors in predicting local recurrence are age, family history, nuclear grade, comedo-type necrosis, tumor size and margin width. With the addition of radiation therapy to excisional surgery, there is a 50% reduction in the overall local recurrence rate. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index (VNPI, recently updated, is a tool that quantifies measurable prognostic factors that can be used in the decision-making process of treatment. Recent data from large cohort studies and randomized trials have emerged to guide treatment. DCIS is now understood to have diverse malignant potential and it is unlikely that there will be a single treatment for this wide range of lesions. Advances in molecular biology and gene expression profiling of human breast tumors have been providing important insights into the relationship between DCIS and invasive breast cancer.

  11. In-situ chemical oxidation of MTBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) can be a cost-effective method for the destruction of source areas of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Several ISCO processes have been tested successfully under laboratory conditions and a few have proven successful when field tested for the destruction of MTBE. This paper reviews the state of the art with respect to MTBE oxidation for several common oxidants and Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). Four frequently used oxidants are reviewed in this paper: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ozone (O3), permanganate (MnO4- ), and persulfate (S2O82- ). When choosing an oxidant for a specific remediation strategy, trade-offs exist between oxidant strength and stability in the subsurface. Aquifer and water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity, and soil oxidant demand (SOD) may influence the initiation and effectiveness of the ISCO reaction and may significantly increase the amount of oxidant required to treat the target contaminant. Oxidation end products are an important consideration in the selection of an oxidant, as not all oxidants have proven successful in complete mineralization of MTBE. Tert-butyl formate (TBF) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) are the major intermediate products in the oxidative reactions of MTBE and may pose a greater health hazard than MTBE. Other factors, including regulatory restrictions, need to be considered when choosing an s, need to be considered when choosing an oxidant for a specific application. This paper will highlight the chemistry of the oxidant/MTBE reactions, successes or limitations observed under laboratory and field conditions, and practical design advice when employing the oxidant. (author)

  12. Cost performance assessment of in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology with promise for the destruction or immobilization of hazardous materials in contaminated soils. It has developed over the past decade to a level of maturity where meaningful cost effectiveness studies may be performed. The ISV process melts 4 to 25 m2 of undisturbed soil to a maximum depth of 6 m into an obsidian-like glass waste form by applying electric current (3750 kill) between symmetrically spaced electrodes. Temperatures of approximately 2000 degree C drive off and destroy complex organics which are captured in an off-gas treatment system, while radio-nuclides are incorporated into the homogeneous glass monolith. A comparative life-cycle cost evaluation between mobile rotary kiln incineration and ISV was performed to quantitatively identify appropriate performance regimes and components of cost which are sensitive to the implementation of each technology. Predictions of melt times and power consumption were obtained from an ISV performance model over ranges of several parameters including electrode spacing, soil moisture, melt depth, electrical resistivity, and soil density. These data were coupled with manpower requirements, capitalization costs, and a melt placement optimization routine to allow interpolation over a wide variety of site characteristics. For the purpose of this study, a single site scenario representative of a mixed waste evaporation pond was constructed. Preliminary comparisons between ISV and incineration show that while operating costs are comparable, ISV avoids secondary treatment and monitored storage of radioactive waste that would be required following conventional incineration. It is the long term storage of incinerated material that is the most expensive component

  13. Evaluation of In Situ Combustion for Schrader Bluff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathi, P.; Strycker, A.; Wang, S.

    1999-03-11

    The focus of this report is on the results related to evaluation of in situ combustion processes applied to Schrader Bluff. Initially, overall screening processes were applied to determine which of the EOR methods, were most appropriate for Schrader Bluff. In situ combustion was among the methods considered potentially favorable and was evaluated further. Laboratory scale tube runs were conducted to determine if the kinetic parameters for the crude oil were favorable. Additional sensitivity studies were conducted to evaluate the recovery potential. Described in this report are the results of the (1) initial screening,(2) experimental tube runs, and (3) simulation sensitivity studies as related to in situ combustion in Schrader Bluff.

  14. NOVEL IN-SITU METAL AND MINERAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn O' Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson

    2004-09-22

    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  15. Is in-situ leaching applicable. Project evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many unsuspecting engineers can find themselves in trouble by proposing in-situ leaching as the solution to a low-grade-deposit utilization or a hard-to-get-at deposit utilization. A method of project evaluation is presented that will help clarify the steps needing evaluation before in-situ leaching should be proposed as a solution to a difficult problem. Rules-of-thumb are presented for evaluating important parameters of in-situ leaching. Case studies of copper and uranium ore bodies are also analyzed. 7 references, 5 figures, 6 tables

  16. Epoxidação "in situ" aplicada ao látex de borracha natural / "In situ" epoxidation of natural rubber latex

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane K., Santin; Gisele de C., Pinto; Marly Maldaner, Jacobi.

    Full Text Available O comportamento da borracha natural na forma látex frente à reação de epoxidação foi avaliado visando estabelecer as melhores condições reacionais sem a ocorrência de reações laterais, que promovem a coagulação do látex e o desenvolvimento de um aglomerado de borracha. Grupos epóxidos foram gerados [...] através da reação de epoxidação a partir da formação in situ do ácido perfórmico. As amostras foram caracterizadas qualitativamente por espectroscopia de infravermelho (FTIR) e o grau de modificação determinado por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (1H-RMN). Análises de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC) demonstraram que a mobilidade da cadeia polimérica foi influenciada pela presença de grupos epóxidos, com aumento linear na temperatura de transição vítrea (Tg). Os resultados indicaram que a epoxidação do látex de borracha natural, sem a ocorrência de reações laterais, é possível e dependente das condições reacionais. Abstract in english Natural rubber latex was submitted to epoxidation reaction to establish the best reaction conditions without the occurrence of side reactions, which promote coagulation of the latex and development of an agglomerate of rubber. Epoxy groups were produced by in situ epoxidation with formic acid and hy [...] drogen peroxide. The samples were characterized qualitatively by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis and the degree of modification determined by Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-NMR) analysis. A linear increase in the glass transition temperature (Tg) was observed. The results show that the epoxidation of natural rubber latex is possible and depends on the reaction conditions.

  17. In situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test consisted of methane mixed with air into the contaminated aquifer via a horizontal well and extraction from the vadose zone via a parallel horizontal well. This configuration has the advantage of simultaneously stimulating methanotrophic activity in both the groundwater and vadose zone, and inhibiting spread of the contaminant plume. Groundwater was monitored biweekly from 13 wells for a variety of chemical and microbiological parameters. Groundwater from wells in affected areas showed increases in methanotrophs of more than 1 order of magnitude every 2 weeks for several weeks after 1% methane-in-air injection was started. Some wells had increases as much as 7 orders of magnitude. Simultaneous with the increase in methanotrophs was a decrease in water and soil gas concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethane (PCE). Two wells declined in TCE/PCE concentration in the water by more than 90% to below 2 ppb. All of the wells in the affected zone showed significant decreases in contaminants in less than one month. Chloride concentrations in the water were inversely correlated with TCE/PCE concentration. Four of five vadose zone piezometers declined from concentration as high as 10,000 ppm to less than 5 ppm in less than 6 weeks. The fifth cluster also declined by more than 95%. After only three months on injection, a decline in TCE/PCE in the sediment of more than 30% was also observed, with TCE/PCE being undetectable in most sediments at the end of the 14-month test. Gene probes and direct isolation from the water and sediment revealed that the right types of methanotrophs were being stimulated and that isolates could degrade TCE at a high rate

  18. Rapid Optical Characterization Suite for in situ Target Analysis of Rock Surfaces Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROCSTAR is an in situ instrument suite that can accomplish rapid mineral and molecular identification without sample preparation for in situ planetary exploration;...

  19. In situ transesterification of highly wet microalgae using hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Im, Hanjin; Lee, Jae W

    2015-06-01

    This study addresses in situ transesterification of highly wet microalgae with hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a catalyst. In situ transesterification was performed by heating the mixture of wet algal cells, HCl, methanol, and solvent in one pot, resulting in the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield over 90% at 95°C. The effects of reaction variables of temperature, amounts of catalyst, reactant, and solvent, and type of solvents on the yield were investigated. Compared with the catalytic effect of H2SO4, in situ transesterification using HCl has benefits of being less affected by moisture levels that are as high as or above 80%, and requiring less amounts of catalyst and solvent. For an equimolar amount of catalyst, HCl showed 15wt.% higher FAME yield than H2SO4. This in situ transesterification using HCl as a catalyst would help to realize a feasible way to produce biodiesel from wet microalgae. PMID:25769690

  20. Pushing the envelope of in situ transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandramoorthy, Rajaprakash; Bernal, Rodrigo; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2015-05-26

    Recent major improvements to the transmission electron microscope (TEM) including aberration-corrected electron optics, light-element-sensitive analytical instrumentation, sample environmental control, and high-speed and sensitive direct electron detectors are becoming more widely available. When these advances are combined with in situ TEM tools, such as multimodal testing based on microelectromechanical systems, key measurements and insights on nanoscale material phenomena become possible. In particular, these advances enable metrology that allows for unprecedented correlation to quantum mechanics and the predictions of atomistic models. In this Perspective, we provide a summary of recent in situ TEM research that has leveraged these new TEM capabilities as well as an outlook of the opportunities that exist in the different areas of in situ TEM experimentation. Although these advances have improved the spatial and temporal resolution of TEM, a critical analysis of the various in situ TEM fields reveals that further progress is needed to achieve the full potential of the technology. PMID:25942405

  1. In Situ Oxygen Production from Lunar and Martian Regolith Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ oxygen production is of immense importance to NASA in the support of the NASA initiative to sustain man's permanent presence in space. The oxygen produced...

  2. Novel Instrumentation for In Situ Combustion Measurements Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase I is to develop, demonstrate and test a novel instrument based on laser absorption diagnostics for fast, in situ measurements of...

  3. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, L. [FRX Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Siegrist, B.; Meiggs, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed.

  4. Customised search and comparison of in situ, satellite and model data for ocean modellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamre, Torill; Vines, Aleksander; Lygre, Kjetil

    2014-05-01

    For the ocean modelling community, the amount of available data from historical and upcoming in situ sensor networks and satellite missions, provides an rich opportunity to validate and improve their simulation models. However, the problem of making the different data interoperable and intercomparable remains, due to, among others, differences in terminology and format used by different data providers and the different granularity provided by e.g. in situ data and ocean models. The GreenSeas project (Development of global plankton data base and model system for eco-climate early warning) aims to advance the knowledge and predictive capacities of how marine ecosystems will respond to global change. In the project, one specific objective has been to improve the technology for accessing historical plankton and associated environmental data sets, along with earth observation data and simulation outputs. To this end, we have developed a web portal enabling ocean modellers to easily search for in situ or satellite data overlapping in space and time, and compare the retrieved data with their model results. The in situ data are retrieved from a geo-spatial repository containing both historical and new physical, biological and chemical parameters for the Southern Ocean, Atlantic, Nordic Seas and the Arctic. The satellite-derived quantities of similar parameters from the same areas are retrieved from another geo-spatial repository established in the project. Both repositories are accessed through standard interfaces, using the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS), and OPeNDAP protocols, respectively. While the developed data repositories use standard terminology to describe the parameters, especially the measured in situ biological parameters are too fine grained to be immediately useful for modelling purposes. Therefore, the plankton parameters were grouped according to category, size and if available by element. This grouping was reflected in the web portal's graphical user interface, where the groups and subgroups were organized in a tree structure, enabling the modeller to quickly get an overview of available data, going into more detail (subgroups) if needed or staying at a higher level of abstraction (merging the parameters below) if this provided a better base for comparison with the model parameters. Once a suitable level of detail, as determined by the modeller, was decided, the system would retrieve available in situ parameters. The modellers could then select among the pre-defined models or upload his own model forecast file (in NetCDF/CF format), for comparison with the retrieved in situ data. The comparison can be shown in different kinds of plots (e.g. scatter plots), through simple statistical measures or near-coincident values of in situ of model points can be exported for further analysis in the modeller's own tools. During data search and presentation, the modeller can determine both query criteria and what associated metadata to include in the display and export of the retrieved data. Satellite-derived parameters can be queried and compared with model results in the same manner. With the developed prototype system, we have demonstrated that a customised tool for searching, presenting, comparing and exporting ocean data from multiple platforms (in situ, satellite, model), makes it easy to compare model results with independent observations. With further enhancement of functionality and inclusion of more data, we believe the resulting system can greatly benefit the wider community of ocean modellers looking for data and tools to validate their models.

  5. In situ calibration of and algorithm for strain monitoring using four-gauge borehole strainmeters (FGBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zehua; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Baohong; Guo, Yanping

    2013-04-01

    Borehole strainmeters have proved very useful in geodynamic research. Because the sensors are imbedded in rock, their in situ calibration is of crucial importance. The four-gauge borehole strainmeter (FGBS) is a Chinese invention to monitor the temporal variation in horizontal strain. The four gauges in the FGBS are arranged at 45° intervals to bring about a simple self-consistency equation, which serves as a means of checking that the measurements obtained from the FGBS are correct. The instruments currently used in China are usually placed at depths of several tens of meters to avoid disturbances at the surface, while still being sufficiently near the surface for the vertical stress to be regarded as zero - the premise on which the theoretical model of this observation is based. In this paper, an index of data credibility is established, based on the self-consistency equation, to allow evaluation of the observations. A relative in situ calibration has been developed to calculate a relative correction factor for each gauge's sensitivity, termed the gauge weight, and this has proven effective in enhancing data credibility. Parameters for deriving strain from readings are determined by a concise absolute in situ calibration with the aid of the theoretical Earth tide. Instead of averaging four groups of solutions, a simpler comprehensive algorithm is developed to transform readings into strain. Data from 24 Chinese sites of YRY-4-type FGBS are processed and evaluated to be fairly good.

  6. A Comparative Study of In Situ and Ex Situ Impregnation for LLDPE/Silica Composites Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunjerd Jongsomjit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The two different kinds of impregnation (in situ and ex situ were used in the heterogeneous copolymerization of ethylene and 1-hexene for production of LLDPE/silica composite. For the ex situ impregnation, MMAO cocatalyst was immobilized firmly onto the silica support through washing and drying step before introducing the powder of MMAO/silica support into the copolymerization system. For the in situ impregnation, MMAO was only contacted with silica support for the short period of time before bringing all of the slurry of MMAO/silica support into the copolymerization system. By comparing the catalytic activity between two methods, it was found that the in situ impregnation provided the higher one beneficial from the lower interaction between MMAO and silica due to lower contacting time. The lower interaction enhanced the reactivity of MMAO toward zirconocene catalyst during activation process thus leading to the higher catalytic activity. The said interaction can be proven by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis. In addition, the obtained polymers were further characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, 13C-NMR spectroscopy (NMR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC.

  7. Hydrogen production by glycerol steam reforming with in situ hydrogen separation: A thermodynamic investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaodong [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wang, Na [Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Scotland (United Kingdom); Li, Maoshuai; Li, Shuirong; Wang, Shengping; Ma, Xinbin [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Thermodynamic features of hydrogen production by glycerol steam reforming with in situ hydrogen extraction have been studied with the method of Gibbs free energy minimization. The effects of pressure (1-5 atm), temperature (600-1000 K), water to glycerol ratio (WGR, 3-12) and fraction of H{sub 2} removal (f, 0-1) on the reforming reactions and carbon formation were investigated. The results suggest separation of hydrogen in situ can substantially enhance hydrogen production from glycerol steam reforming, as 7 mol (stoichiometric value) of hydrogen can be obtained even at 600 K due to the hydrogen extraction. It is demonstrated that atmospheric pressure and a WGR of 9 are suitable for hydrogen production and the optimum temperature for glycerol steam reforming with in situ hydrogen removal is between 825 and 875 K, 100 K lower than that achieved typically without hydrogen separation. Furthermore, the detrimental influence of increasing pressure in terms of hydrogen production becomes marginal above 800 K with a high fraction of H{sub 2} removal (i.e., f = 0.99). High temperature and WGR are favorable to inhibit carbon production. (author)

  8. Ex Situ and In Situ Conservation of Agricultural Biodiversity: Major Advances and Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa BORELLI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The effective conservation and use of agricultural biodiversity is vital for creating and maintaining sustainable increases in the productivity of healthy food for mankind, as well as contributing to the increased resilience of agricultural systems. Major advances in the two main complementary strategies for agricultural biodiversity conservation, namely ex situ and in situ, over the last decade are presented to reflect on their current global status and trends. The FAO Second State of the World Report on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture reports that the total number of accessions conserved in ex situ collections is about 7.4 million, in over 1750 genebanks around the world. There has also been increasing awareness of the importance and value of conserving crop wild relatives (CWR in situ and a greater understanding of the scientific issues surrounding on farm management of genetic diversity. Recent research outputs produced by Bioversity International to ensure the effective and efficient conservation and use of genetic diversity are cited. These have involved development of best practices for genebank management and the development of enhanced technologies and methodologies for conserving and promoting the use of the genetic diversity. Bioversity International has led the development of methodologies for on farm conservation, and promoted the drafting of policies and strategies for the in situ conservation of crop wild relatives and their management inside and outside protected areas. Also an outlook of the research priorities and needs for conservation and use of agricultural biodiversity is described.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of in situ formed titanium diboride particulate reinforced AA7075 aluminum alloy cast composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Fabrication of AA7075/TiB2 AMC by in situ reaction K2TiF6 and KBF4 salts. ? Most of the TiB2 particles were located in inter granular regions. ? Uniform distribution of TiB2 particles having clear interface and good bonding. ? TiB2 particles displayed various shapes such as cubic, spherical and hexagonal. ? TiB2 particles enhanced the mechanical properties of the AMC. -- Abstract: In situ fabrication of aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) has gathered widespread attention of researchers due to inherent advantages over ex situ methods. Aluminum alloy AA7075 reinforced with various amounts (0, 3, 6 and 9 wt.%) of TiB2 particles were prepared by the in situ reaction of inorganic salts such as K2TiF6 and KBF4 to molten aluminum. X-ray diffraction patterns of the prepared AMCs clearly revealed the formation of TiB2 particles without the presence of any other intermetallic compounds. The microstructures of the AMCs were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The in situ formed TiB2 particles were characterized with uniform distribution, clear interface, good bonding and various shapes such as cubic, spherical and hexagonal. The formation of TiB2 particles enhanced the microhardness and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the AMCs.

  10. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasilainen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-11-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories. 98 refs. The thesis includes also eight previous publications by author.

  11. In situ measurements of Li isotopes in foraminifera

    OpenAIRE

    Vigier, Nathalie; Rollion-Bard, Claire; Spezzaferri, Silvia; Brunet, Fabrice

    2007-01-01

    In situ measurement of Li isotope ratios in foraminifera has been developed using a Cameca ims 1270 ion microprobe. In situ ??Li analyses have been performed in biogenic calcite of planktonic foraminifera from various locations. Results show that for west Pacific mixed Globigerinoides and Globorotalia (22°S161°E), the isotopic variability between tests and within a single test, respectively, is not significantly greater than estimated analytical uncertainty (?1.5‰). Mean ??Li for several plan...

  12. Gene amplification in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhardt, L.; Grob, T. J.; Hermann, I.; Burandt, E.; Choschzick, M; Jänicke, F; Müller, V; Bokemeyer, C.; Simon, R; SAUTER, G.; WILCZAK, W.; Lebeau, A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Multiple different biologically and clinically relevant genes are often amplified in invasive breast cancer, including HER2, ESR1, CCND1, and MYC. So far, little is known about their role in tumor progression. To investigate their significance for tumor invasion, we compared pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and DCIS associated with invasive cancer with regard to the amplification of these genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on a tissue microa...

  13. BAW and SAW sensors for in-situ analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bao, X. Q.; Chang, Z.; Sherrit, S.

    2003-01-01

    In-situ analysis is a major goal in current and future NASA exploration missions. In general in-situ analysis experiments are designed to investigate chmical, biological or geological markers or properties to determine the complex history of the body being studied. In order to expand the number of applicable sensor schemes an investigation into piezoelectric bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators has been initiated.

  14. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories

  15. Improving accuracy of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Boson, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry measurements performed on site, or “in situ”, is a widely used and powerful method that can be employed both to identify and quantify ground deposited radionuclides. The purpose of this thesis is to improve the calibration of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors for in situ measurements, and calculate the combined uncertainty and potential systematic effects. An improved semi-empirical calibration method is presented, based on a novel expression for the intrinsic ...

  16. In?situ permeability from integrated poroelastic reflection coefficients :

    OpenAIRE

    Dalen, K. N.; Ghose, R.; Drijkoningen, C. G.; Smeulders, D. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    A reliable estimate of the in?situ permeability of a porous layer in the subsurface is extremely difficult to obtain. We have observed that at the field seismic frequency band the poroelastic behavior for different seismic wavetypes can differ in such a way that their combination gives unique estimates of in?situ permeability and porosity simultaneously. This is utilized in the integration of angle? and frequency?dependent poroelastic reflection coefficients in a cost function. Realis...

  17. Effect of Microorganisms on In Situ Uranium Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, Marylynn V.; Brierley, James A.; Brierley, Corale L.; Follin, Steven

    1983-01-01

    The extraction of some metal values, e.g., uranium or copper, may be accomplished by using solutions to remove metals from ore bodies without practicing conventional mining. This process is referred to as in situ leaching and has been used industrially to recover uranium. The growth of microbial populations during in situ leaching is believed to be one of the causes of flow path plugging in the ore body, which results in decreased uranium production. Leach solution and solid samples from well...

  18. Characterization of VPO ammoxidation catalysts by in situ methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Luecke, B.; Brueckner, A.; Steinike, U. [Institut fuer Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V., Berlin (Germany); Brzezinka, K.W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Meisel, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    1998-12-31

    In-situ methods are well known as powerful tools in studying catalyst formation processes, their solid state properties under working conditions and the interaction with the feed, intermediates and products to reveal reaction mechanisms. This paper gives a short overview on results of intense studies using in-situ techniques to reveal VPO catalyst generation processes, interaction of educts, intermediates and products with VPO catalyst surfaces and mechanistic insights. Catalytic data of the ammoxidation of toluene on different VPOs complete these findings. The precursor-catalyst transformation processes were preferently investigated by in-situ XRD, in-situ Raman and in-situ ESR spectroscopy. The interaction of aromatic molecules and intermediates, resp., and VPO solid surfaces was followed by in-situ ESR and in-situ FTIR spectroscopy. Mechanistic information was mainly obtained using in-situ FTIR spectroscopy and the temporal-analysis-of-products (TAP) technique. Catalytic studies were carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor on pure (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(VO){sub 3}(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}, generated [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}(VO{sub 3})(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}+V{sub x}O{sub y}] catalysts, having different V{sub x}O{sub y} proportions by use of VOHPO{sub 4} x 1/2H{sub 2}O (V/P=1) and recently studied (VO){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} x 7 H{sub 2}O (V/P=1.5) precursors; the well-known (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} was used for comparison. (orig.)

  19. SOXHLET EXTRACTION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM SOIL WITH IN SITU DERIVATIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Soto-cordoba, S. M.; Baeza, J.; Freer, J.

    2001-01-01

    The traditional Soxhlet extraction of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from soil samples has been modified to allow a rapid and efficient extraction. The modified procedure includes a derivatization in situ of the soil sample during the extraction. The traditional Soxhlet extraction (TSE) was compared with Soxhlet extraction with in situ derivatization (SED). Two different mixtures of derivative reactives, trietylamine-acetic anhydride (TEA-AA) and pyridine-acetic anhydride (PYR-AA), were utilized. Un...

  20. Polypropylene/graphite nanocomposites by in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the synthesis of nanocomposites of polypropylene/graphite by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalyst and graphene nanosheets. Initially was analyzed which of the metallocene catalysts rac-Et(Ind)2ZrCl2 or rac-Me2Si(Ind)2ZrCl2 produces polypropylene with mechanical properties more relevant. Then it were performed the in situ polymerization reactions to obtain the nanocomposites. The polymeric materials were characterized by XRD, DSC, GPC and DMTA. (author)

  1. In-situ diffusion in granite: results from scoping experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the scoping experiments carried out, both in the laboratory and in-situ at a depth of ?450 m in the Underground Research Laboratory, for the study to determine the diffusion parameters of intact granite/granodiorite under natural high-stress conditions. The study includes four in-situ diffusion experiments (one each in four separate boreholes with experiment times from six months to two years), and supporting laboratory experiments. Tentative conclusions from the first 203-day in-situ experiment in hole DIF4 indicate that the in-situ tortuosity value of granodiorite under high stress conditions may be significantly higher than those obtained from measurements on the same rock under ambient conditions in the laboratory. Because problems were encountered during drilling of the in-situ sample core, potentially adversely affecting the analytical data, further work needs to be carried out to substantiate these tentative conclusions. Tortuosity values obtained in the laboratory for de-stressed rock from the in-situ experiment zones range between 2.4 and 4.6, falling well within the range of tortuosity values reported by Davison et al. (1994) that were used for the assessment modelling of the reference disposal system (Goodwin et al. 1994). The granodiorite samples have lower tortuosity values (between 2.4 and 3.9) compared with that of the single granite sample (4.6). (author)

  2. In situ leaching of uranium: Technical, environmental and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of its activities in nuclear raw materials the International Atomic Energy Agency has convened a series of meetings to discuss various aspects of uranium ore processing technology, recovery of uranium from non-conventional resources and development of projects for the production of uranium concentrates including economic aspects. As part of this continuing effort to discuss and document important aspects of uranium production the IAEA convened a Technical Committee Meeting on Technical, Economic and Environmental Aspects of In-Situ Leaching. Although the use of this technique is limited by geological and economic constraints, it has a significant potential to produce uranium at competitive prices. This is especially important in the current uranium market which is mainly characterised by large inventories, excess production capability and low prices. This situation is not expected to last indefinitely but it is unlikely to change drastically in the next ten years or so. This Technical Committee Meeting was held in Vienna from 3 to 6 November 1987 with the attendance of 24 participants from 12 countries. Eight papers were presented. Technical sessions covered in-situ mining research, environmental and licensing aspects and restoration of leached orebodies; the technological status of in-situ leaching, the current status and future prospects of in-situ leaching of uranium in Member States, general aspects of planning and implementation of in-situ projects and the economics of in-situ leaching. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-compound DNAPLs with surfactant solutions. Phase 1: Laboratory and pilot field-scale testing. Phase 2: Solubilization test and partitioning interwell tracer tests. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). The field test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer which is located 20 to 30 meters beneath a vapor degreasing operation at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This aquifer has become contaminated with TCE due to leakage of perhaps 40,000 liters of TCE, which has generated a plume of dissolved TCE extending throughout an area of approximately 3 km2 in the aquifer. Most of the TCE is believed to be present in the overlying lacustrine deposits and in the aquifer itself as a dense, non-aqueous phase liquid, or DNAPL. The objective of the field test was to assess the efficacy of the surfactant for in situ TCE solubilization. Although the test demonstrated that sorbitan monooleate was unsuitable as a solubilizer in this aquifer, the single-well test was demonstrated to be a viable method for the in situ testing of surfactants or cosolvents prior to proceeding to full-scale remediation

  4. Advances in Groundwater Remediation: Achieving Effective In Situ Delivery of Chemical Oxidants and Amendments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegrist, Robert L.; Crimi, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of soil and groundwater by organic chemicals represents a major environmental problem in urban areas throughout the United States and other industrialized nations. In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has emerged as one of several viable methods for remediation of organically contaminated sites. Many of the most prevalent organic contaminants of concern at sites in urban areas (e.g., chlorinated solvents, motor and heating fuels) can be destroyed using catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ), sodium persulfate (Na 2 S 2 O 8 ), or ozone (O 3 ) delivered into the subsurface using injection wells, probes, or other techniques. A continuing challenge for ISCO, as well as other in situ remediation technologies, is how to achieve in situ delivery and obtain simultaneous contact between treatment fl uids, such as oxidants and amendments, and the target contaminants. During the past few years, advances have been made in several key areas including knowledge and know-how associated with: (1) use of amendments for enhanced delivery and distribution of treatment fl uids in heterogeneous settings with zones of low permeability media, (2) use of direct push technology for targeted high resolution delivery of treatment fl uids, and (3) use of monitoring and sensing methods for direct feedback for delivery control and evaluation of remediation effectiveness. This paper provides a summary of ISCO and highlights ongoing efforts to advance the effective in situ delivery of treatment fl uids, with an emphasis on chemical oxidants and amendments, which can help achieve cleanup goals and protect groundwater and associated drinking water resources.

  5. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan (Revision 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 degrees to 95 degrees C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern. This document is a Treatability Study Work Plan for the demonstration program. The document contains a description of the proposed treatability study, background of the EM heating process, description of the field equipment, and demonstration test design

  6. Degradation of Bimetallic Model Electrocatalysts ___ an in situ XAS Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friebel, Daniel

    2011-06-22

    One of the major challenges in the development of clean energy fuel cells is the performance degradation of the electrocatalyst, which, apart from poisoning effects, can suffer from corrosion due to its exposure to a harsh environment under high potentials. In this communication, we demonstrate how interactions of Pt with a transition metal support affect not only, as commonly intended, the catalytic activity, but also the reactivity of Pt towards oxide formation or dissolution. We use two well-defined single-crystal model systems, Pt/Rh(111) and Pt/Au(111) and a unique x-ray spectroscopy technique with enhanced energy resolution to monitor the potential-dependent oxidation state of Pt, and find two markedly different oxidation mechanisms on the two different substrates. This information can be of great significance for future design of more active and more stable catalysts. We have studied the potential-induced degradation of Pt monolayer model electrocatalysts on Rh(111) and Au(111) single-crystal substrates. The anodic formation of Pt oxides was monitored using in situ high energy resolution fluorescence detection x-ray absorption spectroscopy (HERFD XAS). Although Pt was deposited on both substrates in a three-dimensional island growth mode, we observed remarkable differences during oxide formation that can only be understood in terms of strong Pt-substrate interactions throughout the Pt islands. Anodic polarization of Pt/Rh(111) up to +1.6 V vs. RHE (reversible hydrogen electrode) leads to formation an incompletely oxidized passive layer, whereas formation of PtO2 and partial Pt dissolution is observed for Pt/Au(111).

  7. MR imaging of mucinous carcinoma of the breast associated with ductal carcinoma in situ: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youn Jeong; Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Young Up; Kim, Sei Joong; Kim, Won Hong; Suh, Chang Hae; Han, Jee Young [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-01-15

    A mucinous carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon carcinoma containing mucin that is associated with a mucocele-like tumor or other malignant tumors. We report the MR imaging findings of two cases, a mucinous carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), associated with mucocele-like tumor. The mucinous carcinoma showed a gradually enhancing kinetic pattern on the dynamic MR and high signal intensity on the T2-weighted images. The MR findings were indistinguishable from a common benign mass of the breast.

  8. MR imaging of mucinous carcinoma of the breast associated with ductal carcinoma in situ: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mucinous carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon carcinoma containing mucin that is associated with a mucocele-like tumor or other malignant tumors. We report the MR imaging findings of two cases, a mucinous carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), associated with mucocele-like tumor. The mucinous carcinoma showed a gradually enhancing kinetic pattern on the dynamic MR and high signal intensity on the T2-weighted images. The MR findings were indistinguishable from a common benign mass of the breast

  9. Dispersion of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes by in situ Polymerization Under Sonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Watson, Kent A.; Crooks, Roy E.; Smith, Joseph, Jr.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Connell, John W.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; St.Clair, Terry L.

    2002-01-01

    Single wall nanotube reinforced polyimide nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ polymerization of monomers of interest in the presence of sonication. This process enabled uniform dispersion of single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles in the polymer matrix. The resultant SWNT-polyimide nanocomposite films were electrically conductive (antistatic) and optically transparent with significant conductivity enhancement (10 orders of magnitude) at a very low loading (0.1 vol%). Mechanical properties as well as thermal stability were also improved with the incorporation of the SWNT.

  10. Multi-walled carbon nanotube/polystyrene composites prepared by in-situ bulk sonochemical polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyoung Jin; Zhang, Ke; Lim, Jae Yun

    2007-10-01

    Nanocomposites with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and polystyrene (PS) were synthesized via an in-situ bulk sonochemical polymerization under the application of ultrasonication to open pi-bonds in the MWNT, thus enhancing the PS polymerization. Sonication of vinyl monomers such as styrene leads to radical initiation of polymerization. Various characteristics such as morphology, thermal property of the synthesized PS in the presence of the MWNT in the PS/MWNT composites were examined by SEM, TEM, thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Their rheological properties were also investigated using a stress-controlled rotational rheometer under small amplitude oscillation and steady transient shear in their melt state. PMID:18330147

  11. Ductal carcinoma in situ. Correlations between high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine and correlate contrast-enhanced areas and multiple internal dark dots and lines on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) with findings in surgical specimens of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and to evaluate the ability of HR-MRI to detect DCIS lesions and clarify HR-MRI features characteristic of DCIS. This study retrospectively reviewed 11 patients diagnosed with DCIS who had undergone HR-MRI. Pathological findings and results of HR-MRI were compared, and causes of periductal enhancements were analyzed. In all patients, HR-MRI using microscopic coils revealed ductally, segmentally, or regionally enhanced areas containing multiple dark dots and lines, representing local enhancement of stroma adjacent to the mammary duct containing DCIS. Neovascularization, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and focal edema occurred in enhanced periductal stroma. Poorly enhanced linear or dot-like structures correlated with dilated mammary ducts displaying necrosis and tumor impaction. DCIS was successfully depicted on HR-MRI using a microscopy coil in all 11 cases. Ductal, segmental, or regional areas of enhancement with multiple dark dots and lines on HR-MRI corresponded to mammary glands containing DCIS with periductal enhancement. (author)

  12. Solar Week Friday: Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a blog entry about the process by which rocket payloads are assembled prior to launch. It was written by one of the female team members associated with a NASA sounding rocket launch program. The blog entry reading is scheduled to occur during Friday of Solar Week.

  13. A Comparison of Tumor Biology in Primary Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Recurring as Invasive Carcinoma versus a New In Situ

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Wenjing; Johansson, Christine; Jirström, Karin; Ringberg, Anita; Blomqvist, Carl; Amini, Rose-Marie; Fjallskog, Marie-Louise; Wärnberg, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. About half of all new ipsilateral events after a primary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are invasive carcinoma. We studied tumor markers in the primary DCIS in relation to type of event (invasive versus in situ). Methods. Two hundred and sixty-six women with a primary DCIS from two source populations, all with a known ipsilateral event, were included. All new events were regarded as recurrences. Patient and primary tumor characteristics (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone rec...

  14. In Situ Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Analyte-Specific Monitoring of Glucose and Ammonium in Streptomyces coelicolor Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nanna; Ödman, Peter

    2010-01-01

    There are many challenges associated with in situ collection of near infrared (NIR) spectra in a fermentation broth, particularly for highly aerated and agitated fermentations with filamentous organisms. In this study, antibiotic fermentation by the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor was used as a model process. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models were calibrated for glucose and ammonium based on NIR spectra collected in situ. To ensure that the models were calibrated based on analyte-specific information, semisynthetic samples were used for model calibration in addition to data from standard batches. Thereby, part of the inherent correlation between the analytes could be eliminated. The set of semisynthetic samples were generated from fermentation broth from five separate fermentations to which different amounts of glucose, ammonium, and biomass were added. This method has previously been used off line but never before in situ. The use of semisynthetic samples along with validation on anindependent batch provided a critical and realistic evaluation of analyte-specific models based on in situ NIR spectroscopy. The prediction of glucose was highly satisfactory resulting in a RMSEP of 1.1 g/L. The prediction of ammonium based on NIR spectra collected in situ was not satisfactory. A comparison with models calibrated based on NIR spectra collected off line suggested that this is caused by signal attenuation in the optical fibers in the region above 2,000 nm; a region which contains important absorption bands for ammonium. For improved predictions of ammonium in situ, it is suggested to focus efforts on enhancing the signal in that particular region.

  15. At Least 39 Weeks

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 39 weeks Description | Related videos | Most played video E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  16. Permeability enhancement using explosive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ recovery methods for many of the hydrocarbon and mineral resources depend on the ability to create or enhance permeability in the resource bed to allow uniform and predictable flow. To meet this need, a new branch of geomechanics devoted to computer prediction of explosive rock breakage and permeability enhancement was developed. 25 refs

  17. National Wildlife Week 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    April 7-13, 2002, is Canada's National Wildlife Week. The week, a tribute to conservation pioneer Jack Miner, is an opportunity for citizens to "celebrate wildlife and take action to protect wild plants and animals." In addition to a calendar of events across Canada, the celebration's home page features 20 things that anyone can do to protect wildlife, as well as games, activities, and fact sheets focused on this year's theme -- Climate Change.

  18. IN SITU GEL FORMING INJECTABLE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta B. Kumbhar*, Ashwini K. Rakde, P.D. Chaudhari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, controlled and sustained drug delivery has become the standard in modern pharmaceutical design and an intensive research have been undertaken in achieving much better drug product effectiveness, reliability and safety. This interest has been sparked by the advantages shown by in situ gel forming drug delivery systems such as ease of administration and reduced frequency of administration, improved patient compliance and comfort. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various biodegradable polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DL lactic acid, poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide and poly-caprolactone. Mainly in situ gels are administered by oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable and intraperitoneal routes. In situ gel forming injectable drug delivery system is the ability to inject a drug incorporated into a polymer to a localized site and have the polymer form a semi-solid gel drug depot has a number of advantages. Among these advantages is ease of application and localized, prolonged drug delivery. Biodegradable injectable in situ gel forming drug delivery systems represent an attractive alternative to microspheres, liposomes and emulsion as parenteral depot systems. For these reasons a large number of in situ gelling polymeric delivery systems have been developed and investigated for use in delivering a wide variety of drugs. The various strategies that have been used to prepare in situ gelling systems and outline their advantages and disadvantages as localized drug delivery systems. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost.

  19. In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10-5 parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables

  20. Effect of Al alloys on selective laser melting behaviour and microstructure of in situ formed particle reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Effect of Al alloy was examined on SLM facilitated in situ interaction with Fe2O3. ? The Al alloy influenced the SLM consolidation performance and the formed phases. ? In situ Al (alloy) composites were reinforced by ultrafine/nanoscale particles. ? The Al alloy affected the appearance of reinforced matrix. ? Enhanced solid solubility of matrix contributed to hardening. - Abstract: This work investigates the effects of various Al alloys (including Al, AlMg1SiCu, and AlSi10Mg), mixed with 15 wt% Fe2O3, on the selective laser melting (SLM) facilitated in situ reaction and formation of Al metal matrix composite (MMC) components. The results contribute to the development of medium/high strength Al composite parts which can be produced as complex net-shape products via the SLM process. Visual observation and computed tomography (CT) scanning reveal the best SLM consolidation performance and the lowest porosity for AlSi10Mg. SLM facilitated in situ reaction and subsequent rapid solidification introduce very fine particles (down to ?50–100 nm), reinforcing the microstructure of all Al (alloy) composites. The particles are Al–Fe intermetallics, Al oxides such as ?–Al2O3, plus Si crystals (alone or in combination) depending on the alloy composition. Ultrafine/nanoscale dendritic feature appears in the reinforced matrix of AlSi10Mg/15 wt%Fe2O3, in contrast wi3, in contrast with featureless matrix of Al/15 wt%Fe2O3. The in situ particle reinforced Al (alloy) composites are significantly harder than corresponding conventionally manufactured (e.g. casting) Al alloys without Fe2O3, due to superior microstructural characteristics such as featureless or very fine dendritic matrix, ultrafine/nanoscale particles, and also enhanced solid solubility of the SLM products.

  1. Cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics for protein crystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics system has been established for protein crystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction. Microfluidics is a promising technology for the rapid identification of protein crystallization conditions. However, most of the existing systems utilize silicone elastomers as the chip material which, despite its many benefits, is highly permeable to water vapour. This limits the time available for protein crystallization to less than a week. Here, the use of a cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics system for protein crystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction is described. Liquid handling in this system is performed in 2 mm thin transparent cards which contain 500 chambers, each with a volume of 320 nl. Microbatch, vapour-diffusion and free-interface diffusion protocols for protein crystallization were implemented and crystals were obtained of a number of proteins, including chicken lysozyme, bovine trypsin, a human p53 protein containing both the DNA-binding and oligomerization domains bound to DNA and a functionally important domain of Arabidopsis Morpheus’ molecule 1 (MOM1). The latter two polypeptides have not been crystallized previously. For X-ray diffraction analysis, either the cards were opened to allow mounting of the crystals on loops or the crystals were exposed to X-rays in situ. For lysozyme, an entire X-ray diffraction data set at 1.5 Å resolution was collected without removing the crystal from the card. Thus, cyclic olefin homopolymer-based microfluidics systems have the potential to further automate protein crystallization and structural genomics efforts

  2. Management Plan: Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project IITRI will demonstrate an in situ soil heating technology for the removal of hazardous organic contaminants present in the soil. In Situ heating will be accomplished by the application of 60 Hz AC power to the soil. The soil will be heated to a temperature of about 90 degree C. This technology is suited for the removal of those organic compounds which have a normal boiling point in the range of 100 degree to 210 degree C, or else for those which exhibit a pure component vapor pressure of at least 10 mm Hg in the 90 degree to 100 degree C temperature range. For example, perchloroethylene, dichlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene, etc. may be removed by in situ AC heating. It is planned to demonstrate the technology by heating approximately 400 tons of soil in the K-1070 Classified Burial Ground located at DOE's K-25 Site located in Oak Ridge, TN. It is estimated that the heating portion of the demonstration will take approximately 3 weeks at an average power input rate of 150 to 175 kill. IITRI expects to spend considerable time in the front end reviewing site characteristics, preparing detail design, developing Health and Safety Plans and other documents needed to obtain regulatory approval for the demonstration, arranging for site sampling, infrastructure development and document preparation. It is anticipated that site activities will begin in approximately 5 to 6 months. This contract was signed on September 30, 1993. IITRI started work on it in October 1993. It is planned to complete the demonstration and submit approved final reports by September 30, 1994. This project has 12 tasks and four major milestones. The major milestones and their planned completion dates are presented

  3. In situ measurement of nitrate in deep-sea sediments with a microscale biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzocchi, Ugo; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    When a bacteria-based nitrate biosensor with tip diameter down to 20 µm was invented about 12 years ago it became possible to measure detailed nitrate profiles in marine sediments, but functional tip membranes in the sensors were difficult to make, and the sensors did not work at temperatures below about 8°C. Large resources are being spent on exploration of the deep sea using sensor-equipped benthic landers, and it would be of significant value to add nitrate to the array of chemical sensors for in situ use, but it is then necessary to construct more robust sensors that work at temperatures around 2°C. By isolation of psychrotrophic nitrate-reducing and N2O producing bacteria from arctic environments and by application of a new procedure for making microscale ion-permeable membranes we have now succeeded in making biosensors that function reproducibly at low temperatures. It has thus been possible to analyze detailed nitrate microprofiles with < 1 µM resolution in sediments off the Japanese coast at 1500 m water depth where the temperature was 2.5°C. Many of the profiles exhibited near-surface nitrate peaks due to nitrification, and subsequent nitrate consumption due to nitrate respiration in anoxic layers led to total depletion at 10-15 mm depth. A result from comparison of shallow (75 m) water sediment profiles recorded both in situ and on recovered sediment cores is that there was more variability in situ than in the laboratory, probably due to decreased animal activity during laboratory conditions. It is difficult to work strictly aseptically when producing the sensors, and there is thus a risk that the bacterial culture may be contaminated with N2O reducing bacteria that will make the sensor insensitive to nitrate. However, when used continuously at room temperature they usually work well for several days, and the shelf-life is up to several weeks if they are stored at 4-6°C.

  4. Innovative ground water and soil remediation: In situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative environmental restoration technology, in situ air stripping, has been demonstrated at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. This process, using horizontal wells, is designed to concurrently remediate unsaturated-zone soils and ground water containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In situ technologies have the potential to substantially reduce costs and time required for remediation as well as improve effectiveness of remediation. Horizontal wells were selected to deliver and extract fluids from the subsurface because their geometry can maximize the efficiency of a remediation system and they have great potential for remediating contaminant sources under existing facilities. The in situ air stripping concept utilizes two parallel horizontal wells: one below the water table and one in the unsaturated zone. The deeper well is used as a delivery system for the air injection. VOCs are stripped from the ground water into the injected vapor phase and are removed from the subsurface by drawing a vacuum on the shallower well in the vadose zone. The first demonstration of this new technology was conducted for a period of twenty weeks. A vacuum was first drawn on the vadose zone well until a steady-state removal of VOCs was obtained. Air was then injected at three different rates and at two different temperatures. An extensive characterization program was conducted at the site and an extensive monitoring network was i and an extensive monitoring network was installed prior to initiation of the test. Significant quantities of VOCs have been removed from the subsurface (equivalent to an eleven-well 500 gpm pump-and-treat system at the same site). Concentrations of VOCs in the ground water have been significantly reduced in a number of the monitoring wells. In addition, the activity of indigenous microorganisms was increased as much as two orders of magnitude during the air injection

  5. In Situ Sensors for the Chemical Industry- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tate, J.D.; Knittel, Trevor

    2006-06-30

    The project focused on analytical techniques that can be applied in situ. The innovative component of this project is the focus on achieving a significant breakthrough in two of the three primary Process Analytical (PA) fields. PA measurements can roughly be broken down into: ? Single component measurements, ? Multiple component measurements and ? Multiple component isomer analysis. This project targeted single component measurements and multiple component measurements with two basic technologies, and to move these measurements to the process, achieving many of the process control needs. During the project the following achievements were made: ? Development of a low cost Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) Analyzer system for measurement of 1) Oxygen in process and combustion applications, 2) part per million (ppm) H2O impurities in aggressive service, 3) ppm CO in large scale combustion systems. This product is now commercially available ? Development of a process pathlength enhanced (high sensitivity) Laser Based Analyzer for measurement of product impurities. This product is now commercially available. ? Development of signal processing methods to eliminate measurement errors in complex and changing backgrounds (critical to chemical industry measurements). This development is incorporated into 2 commercially available products. ? Development of signal processing methods to allow multi-component measurements in complex chemical streams. This development is incorporated into 2 commercially available products. ? Development of process interface designs to allow in-situ application of TDL technology in aggressive (corrosive, high temperature, high pressure) commonly found in chemical processes. This development is incorporated in the commercially available ASI TDL analyzer. ? Field proving of 3 laser-based analyzer systems in process control and combustion applications at Dow Chemical. Laser based analyzers have been available for >5yrs, however significant product price/performance issues have minimized their applicability in the chemical industry. In order to take advantage of the promise of this technology a number of technology advances were required, within price limits for market acceptance. This project significantly advanced the state of TDL technology for application in chemical industry applications. With these advances a commercially available product now exists that has already achieved market success and is installed in critical applications. The ability to make fast, sensitive and accurate measurements inside the chemical processes is now delivering improved process control, energy efficiency and emissions control within the U.S. Chemical Industry. Despite the success we enjoyed for the laser-based sensors, there were significant technical barriers for the solid-state sensors. With exception of a generic close-coupled extractive housing and electronics interface, there were significant issues with all of the solid-state sensor devices we sought to develop and test. Ultimately, these issues were roadblocks that prevented further development and testing. The fundamental limitations of available sensor materials that we identified, formulated and tested were overwhelming. This situation forced our team to cancel these portions of the project and focus our resources on laser-based sensor techniques. The barriers of material compatibility, sensitivity, speed of response, chemical interferences, etc. are surmountable in the field of solid-state sensors. Inability to address any single one of these attributes will prevent wide-implementation into this market. This situation is plainly evident by the lack of such devices in the online analyzer market (for petrochemicals).

  6. In situ viscosity of oil sands using low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs, oil viscosity is a vital piece of information that will have great bearing on the chosen EOR scheme and the recovery expected. Prediction of in situ viscosity with a logging tool would he very beneficial in reservoir characterization and exploitation design. Low field NMR is a technology that has shown great potential as a tool for characterizing hydrocarbon properties in heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. An oil viscosity correlation has previously been developed that is capable of providing order of magnitude viscosity estimates for a wide range of oils taken from various fields in Alberta. This paper presents tuning procedures to improve the NMR predictions for different viscosity ranges, and extends the NMR viscosity model to in situ heavy oil in unconsolidated sands. The results of this work show that the NMR oil peak can be de-convoluted from the in situ signals of the oil and water, and the bulk viscosity correlation that was developed for bulk oils can he applied to predict the in situ oil viscosity. These results can be translated to an NMR logging tool algorithm, allowing for in situ measurements of oil viscosity at the proper reservoir conditions. (author)

  7. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Wright

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  8. An autonomous sea going Raman/SERS instrument for in situ detection of chemicals in sea water

    OpenAIRE

    Kolomijeca, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The continuous monitoring of dangerous pollutants at very low concentrations (nM range) in the sea is of global importance to ensure environmental protection. To realize a technological basis for this purpose, an autonomous in situ sea going instrument for SERS (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy) detection of selected chemicals was developed and tested. The selectivity and sensitivity of the applied technique was verified by extensive laboratory investigations, with more than 100 water ...

  9. Two strain-hardening mechanisms in nanocrystalline austenitic steel: An in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical behaviour of nanocrystalline austenitic steels with and without yttria particles was investigated using in situ synchrotron diffraction during tensile deformation. Two different strain-hardening regimes were found. The first regime can be assigned predominantly to a martensitic phase transformation, the second to deformation twinning in the fragmented retained austenite. The kinetics of martensitic phase transformation is remarkably enhanced in the nanocrystalline structure.

  10. In situ X-ray diffraction study of martensitic transformation in austenitic stainless steel during cyclic tensile loading and unloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ X-ray diffraction was carried out to identify and evaluate strain-induced martensitic transformation in 304 austenitic stainless steel under cyclic tensile loading and unloading. Experimental results indicated that the fraction of strain-induced martensite increases due to the alteration of the internal structure involving the internal stress and dislocation configuration when unloading occurs. It is found that the enhanced transformation-induced plasticity effect can prolong the time to neck formation to a significant extent.

  11. Remote sensed and in situ constraints on processes affecting tropical tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sauvage

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to evaluate the consistency of satellite measurements of lightning flashes and ozone precursors with in situ measurements of tropical tropospheric ozone. The measurements are tropospheric O3, NO2, and HCHO columns from the GOME satellite instrument, lightning flashes from the OTD and LIS satellite instruments, profiles of O3, CO, and relative humidity from the MOZAIC aircraft program, and profiles of O3 from the SHADOZ ozonesonde network. We interpret these multiple data sources with our model to better understand what controls tropical tropospheric ozone. Tropical tropospheric ozone is mainly affected by lightning NOx and convection in the upper troposphere and by surface emissions in the lower troposphere. Scaling the spatial distribution of lightning in the model to the observed flashes improves the simulation of O3 in the upper troposphere by 5–20 ppbv versus in situ observations and by 1–4 Dobson Units versus GOME retrievals of tropospheric O3 columns. A lightning source strength of 6±2 Tg N/yr best represents in situ observations from aircraft and ozonesonde. Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns from GOME are applied to provide top-down constraints on emission inventories of NOx (biomass burning and soils and VOCs (biomass burning. The top-down biomass burning inventory is larger than the bottom-up inventory by a factor of 2 for HCHO and alkenes, and by a factor of 2.6 for NOx over northern equatorial Africa. These emissions increase lower tropospheric O3 by 5–20 ppbv, improving the simulation versus aircraft observations, and by 4 Dobson Units versus GOME observations of tropospheric O3 columns. Emission factors in the a posteriori inventory are more consistent with a recent compilation from in situ measurements. The ozone simulation using two different dynamical schemes (GEOS-3 and GEOS-4 is evaluated versus observations; GEOS-4 better represents O3 observations by 5–15 ppbv, reflecting enhanced convective detrainment in the upper troposphere. Heterogeneous uptake of HNO3 on aerosols reduces simulated O3 by 5–7 ppbv, reducing a model bias versus in situ observations over and downwind of deserts. Exclusion of HO2 uptake on aerosols increases O3 by 5 ppbv in biomass burning regions, reducing a model bias versus MOZAIC aircraft measurements.

  12. Dynamical properties of nano-structured catalysts for methane conversion: an in situ scattering study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The reactivity of catalyst particles can be radically enhanced by decreasing their size down to the nanometer range. The nanostructure of a catalyst can have an enormous and positive influence on the reaction rate, for example strong structure sensitivity was observed for methane reforming and ammonia synthesis, and it is therefore crucial that catalysts preserve their nanostructures under operational conditions. Fundamental understanding of the relation between the catalytic activity and the morphology of the nanoparticle, their crystallinity and crystallite size, is required to improve the catalysts and assess the optimum conditions of operation. A powerful and suitable technique to resolve these relations is simultaneous small and wide angle X-ray scattering coupled with mass spectroscopy measurements, performed in situ at conditions comparable to large scale processes. A new heater setup for an in situ cell, accommodated in a laboratory SAXS/WAXS camera, has been developed and a sample gas system has beendesigned and installed. A mass spectrometer has been implemented to monitor the chemical reactions during the in situ experiments. The heater permits experiments in a temperature range from 298 - 1073 K. The heater performance was tested and it was shown that no temperature calibration is needed. The applicability of the new setup, to study nanostructured materials, was successfully demonstrated using anatase TiO2 nanorods. Heating experiments on the nanorods were performed in a temperature range from 298 - 1023 K. Correlated crystallite and particle growth due to sintering were observed after the decomposition of the surfactant. Furthermore transformations from rod to spherical particle shape were observed. In situ reduction experiments of a Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst were performed. The Ni/NiO particles in a fresh catalyst sample showed a Ni/NiO core shell structure. The Ni lattice parameter decreased during the reduction due to the release of stress between the Ni core and the NiO shell. Ni particles sintered during heating in hydrogen after the reduction of the NiO shell. Dry reforming experiments were performed over a Ru/MgAl2O4. The catalyst showed a high sintering stability and no catalyst deactivation was observed. The results presented in this thesis emphasize the advantage of the simultaneous SAXS/W AXS laboratory setup to study nanostructured materials and catalysts in situ.

  13. Assessment of a multi-species in-situ FTIR for precise atmospheric greenhouse gas observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hammer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We thoroughly evaluate the performance of a multi-species, in-situ FTIR analyser with respect to high accuracy needs for greenhouse gas monitoring networks. The in-situ FTIR analyser measures CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O mole fractions continuously, all with better reproducibility than requested by the WMO-GAW inter-laboratory compatibility (ILC goal. Simultaneously determined ?13CO2 reaches reproducibility as good as 0.03‰. This paper focuses on the quantification of residual dependencies between the measured components and the thermodynamic properties of the sample as well as the cross-sensitivities among the sample constituents. The instrument has proven to be linear for all components in the ambient range. The temporal stability of the instrument was investigated by 10 months of continuously collected quality control measures. Based on these measures we conclude that for moderately stable laboratory conditions weekly calibrations of the instrument are sufficient to reach WMO-GAW ILC goals.

  14. Label-free, in situ SERS monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Zeng, Jianbo; Zhao, Fusheng; Lin, Steven Hsesheng; Raja, Balakrishnan; Strych, Ulrich; Willson, Richard C.; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2014-07-01

    We present label-free, in situ monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics. By immobilizing molecular sentinel probes on nanoporous gold disks, we demonstrate sensitivity approaching the single-molecule limit via surface-enhanced Raman scattering which provides robust signals without photobleaching for more than an hour. We further demonstrate that a target concentration as low as 20 pM can be detected within 10 min under diffusion-limited transport. We present label-free, in situ monitoring of individual DNA hybridization in microfluidics. By immobilizing molecular sentinel probes on nanoporous gold disks, we demonstrate sensitivity approaching the single-molecule limit via surface-enhanced Raman scattering which provides robust signals without photobleaching for more than an hour. We further demonstrate that a target concentration as low as 20 pM can be detected within 10 min under diffusion-limited transport. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NPG disk fabrication and characterization, probe density estimation, and hybridization temperature. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01951b

  15. Glycolate adsorption at gold and platinum electrodes: A theoretical and in situ spectroelectrochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of glycolate anions at sputtered gold thin-film electrodes was studied in perchloric acid solutions by cyclic voltammetry experiments combined with in situ Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and Surface Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy under attenuated total reflection conditions (ATR-SEIRAS). Theoretical harmonic vibrational frequencies and band intensities obtained from B3LYP/LANL2DZ,6-31+G(d) calculations for glycolate species adsorbed on Au clusters with (1 1 1) orientation were used to interpret the experimental spectra. Vibrational data confirm the bidentate bonding of glycolate anions through the oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group, in a bridge configuration with the OCO plane perpendicular to the metal surface. The DFT calculations show no significant effect of the total charge of the metal cluster-adsorbate adduct on the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed glycolate species. The infrared experimental study is extended to platinum films electrochemically deposited onto sputtered gold thin-film electrodes showing the potential-dependent formation of adsorbed CO upon dissociative adsorption of glycolate anions. As in the case of gold, the reversible adsorption of glycolate anions takes place in a bidentate configuration as predicted by DFT calculations for glycolate adsorbed on Pt(1 1 1) clusters. At low glycolic acid concentration, the in situ ATR-SEIRA spectra evidence the formation of adsorbed oxalate as reaction intmation of adsorbed oxalate as reaction intermediate.

  16. Tests of In-Situ Formation Scenarios for Compact Multiplanet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schlaufmam, Kevin C

    2014-01-01

    Kepler has identified over 600 multiplanet systems, many of which have several planets with orbital distances smaller than that of Mercury -- quite different from the Solar System. Because these systems may be difficult to explain in the paradigm of core accretion and disk migration, it has been suggested that they formed in situ within protoplanetary disks with high solid surface densities. The strong connection between giant planet occurrence and stellar metallicity is thought to be linked to enhanced solid surface densities in disks around metal-rich stars, so the presence of a giant planet can be a detectable sign of planet formation in a high solid surface density disk. I formulate quantitative predictions for the frequency of long-period giant planets in these in situ models of planet formation by translating the proposed increase in disk mass into an equivalent metallicity enhancement. I rederive the scaling of giant planet occurrence with metallicity as P_gp = 0.05_{-0.02}^{+0.02} x 10^{(2.1 +/- 0.4) ...

  17. Comparison of in-situ and ex-situ catalytic pyrolysis in a micro-reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaige; Johnston, Patrick A; Brown, Robert C

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we compared ex-situ catalytic pyrolysis (CP) and in-situ CP of hybrid poplar in a micro-reactor system. When both pyrolysis and catalysis were performed at 700 °C, the carbon yield of olefins was greater for ex-situ CP than for in-situ CP (17.4% vs. 5.4%). On the other hand, in-situ CP produced more aromatic hydrocarbons than ex-situ CP (26.1% vs. 18.9%). The remarkably high yield of olefins from ex-situ CP indicates the potential of exploiting the process to preferentially produce olefins as a primary product from biomass, with aromatics being the secondary products. The carbon yield of carbonaceous residues from ex-situ CP was 18.6% compared to 31.3% for in-situ CP. Substantial carbon was deposited as char during ex-situ CP, which could be easily recovered as by-product, simplifying catalyst regeneration. The effects of catalyst loading, pyrolysis temperature and catalysis temperature on product distributions for ex-situ CP were also investigated. Our results showed that catalyst temperature strongly affected product distribution. While high catalyst temperature enhanced both olefin and aromatic production, yield of olefin increased to a greater extent than did aromatics. Neither pyrolysis temperature nor catalyst loadings had significant effect on product distribution for ex-situ CP. PMID:25299488

  18. Robot-Assisted Antegrade In-Situ Fenestrated Stent Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the technical feasibility of a novel approach of in-situ fenestration of aortic stent grafts by using a remotely controlled robotic steerable catheter system in the porcine model. A 65-kg pig underwent robot-assisted bilateral antegrade in-situ renal fenestration of an abdominal aortic stent graft with subsequent successful deployment of a bare metal stent into the right renal artery. A 16-mm iliac extension covered stent served as the porcine aortic endograft. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the graft was punctured with a 20-G customized diathermy needle that was introduced and kept in place by the robotic arm. The needle was exchanged for a 4 x 20 mm cutting balloon before successful deployment of the renal stent. Robot-assisted antegrade in-situ fenestration is technically feasible in a large mammalian model. The robotic system enables precise manipulation, stable positioning, and minimum instrumentation of the aorta and its branches while minimizing radiation exposure.

  19. Applications of in situ hybridization to plant-improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ hybridization is a powerful method for characteristic alien addition and substitution lines. RFLP analysis can identify the presence of a particular individual chromosome, but whether they are as a pair or as a single chromosome cannot be determined. In situ hybridization has become established as an essential method in cell and molecular biology. It is able to link DNA sequences with their organization and physical position. The rate of technology-development in the field of in situ hybridization has been rapid: radioactive probes are now rarely used, while labeling methods, fluorochromes, chromosomes and tissue-preparation methods, microscope and imaging technology have all useful in functional genomics and localization of transgenes on the chromosomes. (author)

  20. Detector calibration for in-situ gamma ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Balea, G

    2002-01-01

    The power in the technique of in-situ spectrometry lies in the fact that a detector placed on ground measures gamma radiation from sources situated over an area of several hundred square meters. The 'field of view' for the detector would be larger for high energy radiation sources and for sources closer to the soil surface. In contrast, a soil sample would represent an area of a few tens of hundreds of square centimeters. In practice, an effective characterization of a site would involve in-situ gamma ray spectrometry in conjunction with soil sampling. As part of an overall program, in-situ gamma ray spectrometry provides a means to assess the degree of contamination in areas during the course of operations in the field, thus guiding the investigator on where to collect samples. It can also substantially reduce the number of samples need to be collected and subsequently analyzed. (author)

  1. In situ comprehensive characterization of optoelectronic nanomaterials for device purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have combined optical fiber probe and nanoprobe techniques in a scanning electron microscope, which enables in situ optical, electrical and structural characterization of optoelectronic nanomaterials and nanodevices. The nanoprobe technique, employing sharp metal tips, is used for in situ nano-manipulation, contact and electrical measurement. The fiber probe, coupled to a spectrometer or a laser and controlled by a nano-manipulator, allows local optical detection or excitation. We show in situ assembly of a light emitter and photodetector based on individual nanostructures, demonstrating the potential application of the above technique in building prototype optoelectronic devices and selecting suitable nanostructures for device purposes. In addition, the angular resolving power of the fiber probe detection is demonstrated to be useful for studying nanoscale waveguides.

  2. In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy for Battery Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi, Beata L.; Gu, Meng; Parent, Lucas R.; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Chen, Xilin; Unocic, Raymond R.; Xu, Pinghong; Welch, David A.; Abellan, Patricia; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.; Arslan, Ilke; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-04-01

    The recent development of in situ liquid stages for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes now makes it possible for us to study the details of electrochemical processes under operando conditions. As electrochemical processes are complex, care must be taken to calibrate the system before any in situ/operando observations. In addition, as the electron beam can cause effects that look similar to electrochemical processes at the electrolyte/electrode interface, an understanding of the role of the electron beam in modifying the operando observations must also be understood. In this paper we describe the design, assembly, and operation of an in situ electrochemical cell, paying particular attention to the method for controlling and quantifying the experimental parameters. The use of this system is then demonstrated for the lithiation/delithiation of silicon nanowires.

  3. Assessing bitumen and heavy oil viscosity in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larter, S.; Adams, J.; Jiang, D.; Snowdon, L.; Bennett, B.; Gates, I. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Gushor Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Log-based techniques for evaluating the in-situ viscosity of oil rely on dead oil viscosity measurements are conducted in laboratories. However, bitumen viscosity is impacted by water; sediment and gas loads; emulsion formation; and shear properties. This abstract discussed a method of assessing the in-situ viscosity of bitumen and heavy oils. The method was designed to simulate the viscosity of heavy oil fluid flow in process conditions. Measured appropriate dead oil viscosity was combined with estimates of solution gas content using mixing rules in order to establish in-situ live oil viscosity estimates. The method takes into account solid and water loads, procedures for correction of viscosity for core storage artifacts, and the impact of variable bitumen saturation pressures through oil columns on live oil reconstruction algorithms.

  4. Stabilization of contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ methods are preferred for the stabilization or restoration of soil sites contaminated with elevated levels of hazardous materials (e.g., radionuclides, metals, organics) to minimize potential risks to personnel and the environment associated with removal and treatment. In situ methods available include polymer and silicate grouting, compaction, chemical treatment, groundwater diversion, and vitrification. Of these, in situ vitrification (ISV) is most desirable because it is more a permanent solution and produces a final waste form with the most preferred characteristics. The ISV product, generally a mixture of glass and crystals, has high strength, is resistant to leaching, and has low porosity and permeability. Results are presented on an ISV test at an Oak Ridge Laboratory Site

  5. Additive manufacturing for in situ repair of osteochondral defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue engineering holds great promise for injury repair and replacement of defective body parts. While a number of techniques exist for creating living biological constructs in vitro, none have been demonstrated for in situ repair. Using novel geometric feedback-based approaches and through development of appropriate printing-material combinations, we demonstrate the in situ repair of both chondral and osteochondral defects that mimic naturally occurring pathologies. A calf femur was mounted in a custom jig and held within a robocasting-based additive manufacturing (AM) system. Two defects were induced: one a cartilage-only representation of a grade IV chondral lesion and the other a two-material bone and cartilage fracture of the femoral condyle. Alginate hydrogel was used for the repair of cartilage; a novel formulation of demineralized bone matrix was used for bone repair. Repair prints for both defects had mean surface errors less than 0.1 mm. For the chondral defect, 42.8 ± 2.6% of the surface points had errors that were within a clinically acceptable error range; however, with 1 mm path planning shift, an estimated ?75% of surface points could likely fall within the benchmark envelope. For the osteochondral defect, 83.6 ± 2.7% of surface points had errors that were within clinically acceptable limits. In addition to implications for minimally invasive AM-based clinical treatments, these proof-of-concept prints are some of the only in situ demonstrations to-of the only in situ demonstrations to-date, wherein the substrate geometry was unknown a priori. The work presented herein demonstrates in situ AM, suggests potential biomedical applications and also explores in situ-specific issues, including geometric feedback, material selection and novel path planning techniques.

  6. Measuring in situ vertical hydraulic conductivity in tidal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejing; Li, Hailong; Yang, Jinzhi; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei; Guo, Huaming

    2014-08-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of intertidal sediments plays an important role in quantifying seawater-groundwater interactions. However, its accurate and economical in situ evaluation is difficult since available in situ methods do not apply in intertidal zones due to periodic tidal fluctuations. Here a new apparatus is presented for measuring the sediments' vertical hydraulic conductivity in tidal environments and a simple, finite-difference data analysis method is proposed to estimate this key parameter. The new apparatus is easy to operate, and is able to measure in situ vertical hydraulic conductivity ranging from 10-7 m/s to 10-2 m/s in tidal environments within one hour. A posteriori error of the finite-difference approximation method is estimated to have the same magnitude order as the square of the nondimensionalized observation time interval K?t/(LV) (here ?t is the observation time interval, Rd is the diameter ratio of the falling-head water-container standpipe to the undisturbed in situ sediment sample, K is the vertical hydraulic conductivity, and LV is the sample length), which is usually a very small number. The new apparatus and finite-difference method were verified by numerical simulations and many in situ experiments in several coastal case study sites of Bohai Sea, PR China. The finite-difference method has adequate accuracy in estimating the hydraulic conductivity compared with the traditional least-squares fitting method. The relative error between the estimates by the two methods is less than 9.41% and averages 1.22% for all experiments. The new apparatus and simple finite-difference method are recommended for in situ experiment that have many advantages such as economy, efficiency, reliability, and simplicity.

  7. Particle size alterations of feedstuffs during in situ NDF incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; NØrgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    Particle size alterations during neutral detergent fiber (NDF) determination and in situ rumen incubation were analyzed by dry sieving and image analysis. The in situ procedure for estimation of NDF degradation parameters and indigestible NDF concentration used for feed evaluation was thereby evaluated in terms of particle size for a broad range of feedstuffs which typically serve as NDF sources in dairy cow rations. Early and late cut grass silages, corn silage, alfalfa silage, rapeseed meal and dried distillers grains were examined. Treatments were I) drying and grinding of forage samples and grinding of concentrates, II) neutral detergent soluble (NDS) extraction, III) machine-washing and NDS extraction, IV) 24 h rumen incubation, machine-washing and NDS extraction, and V) 288 h rumen incubation, machine-washing and NDS extraction. Degradation profiles for potentially degradable NDF were determined and image analysis was used to estimate particle size profiles and thereby the risk for particle loss. Particle dimensions changed during NDF determination and in situ rumen incubation and variations depended on feedstuff and treatment. Late cut grass silage varied most in particle area among feedstuffs with a decrease of 74 % between 24 h and 288 h in situ rumen incubation. Together with the highest mass proportion (20 %) of particles in the critical zone for escape (smaller than 0.005 mm2 in area) for late cut grass silage after 288 h in situ rumen incubation, this imposes a risk for particle loss during incubation in the bags. Particle area decreased linearly with increasing incubation time. Particle loss during in situ rumen incubation could therefore not be excluded and was likely to vary among feedstuffs.

  8. Case Report: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in the Male Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Chern, Joshua; Liao, Lydia; Baraldi, Raymond; Tinney, Elizabeth; Hendershott, Karen; Germaine, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    High-grade ductal carcinoma in situ is incredibly rare in male patients. The prognosis for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in a male patient is the same as it would be for a female with the same stage disease; therefore, early recognition and diagnosis are of the utmost importance. We present a case of a male with unilateral invasive ductal carcinoma who was diagnosed with DCIS in the contralateral breast. The DCIS presented as microcalcifications on mammography and was found to be biopsy pro...

  9. In-situ bioremediation drilling and characterization work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work plan describes the design and construction of proposed wells and outlines the characterization activities to be performed in support of the In Situ Bioremediation Task for FY 1994. The purpose of the well-design is to facilitate implementation and monitoring of in situ biodegradation of CCl4 in ground water. However, the wells will also be used to characterize the geology, hydrology, microbiology, and contaminant distribution, which will all feed into the design of the technology. Implementation and design of this remediation demonstration technology will be described separately in an integrated test plan

  10. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ heating of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) for IITRI Project C06787 entitled open-quotes Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Heating of Soilclose quotes. A work plan for the above mentioned work was previously submitted. This QAPP describes the sampling and analysis of soil core-samples obtained from the K-25 Site (Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) where an in-situ heating and soil decontamination demonstration experiment will be performed. Soil samples taken before and after the experiment will be analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds. The Work Plan mentioned above provides a complete description of the demonstration site, the soil sampling plan, test plan, etc

  11. PPLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite prepared by in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the preparation and and characterization of a PLLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite obtained by in situ polymerization. The nanocomposite was prepared by ring opening polymerization of the lactide dimer in the presence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and the as-obtained materials was characterized using FTIR, DSC, XRD and TGA measurements. The incorporation of cellulose nanocrystals in PLLA using this method improved the thermal stability and increased the crystallinity of PLLA. These results indicate that the incorporation of CNCs by in situ polymerization improve thermal properties and has potential to improve also mechanical properties of this biodegradable polymer. (author)

  12. Contribution of fluorescence in situ hybridization to biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with composite whole chromosome specific DNA probes for human chromosomes 2, 4 and 12 an ?-satellite centromeric DNA probe labelled with biotin were used to measure symmetrical and terminal translocations (dose rate 0.5 Gy/min) and dicentrics (0.1 Gy/min) induced in vitro by 60Co ?-irradiation (0-5 Gy). The suitability of fluorescence in situ hybridization (F.I.S.H.) technique for dicentrics detection is compared with the conventional technique. Dose-response curves for ?-rays (60Co) for two dose rates are shown (dicentrics and translocations). (authors). 10 refs., 2 figs

  13. Hysteresis loss in a twisted in situ superconducting composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current and magnetic and electric field distributions and the energy loss are calculated for a twisted wire made up of an in situ superconductor placed in a variable transverse magnetic field. The composite is assumed to be electrically isotropic in the direction transverse to the filaments. The conditions are found under which the twist affects significantly the loss in the in situ wire. In the other calculations both the superconducting and resistive components of the transverse current are taken into account. The results obtained are valid in a wide range of external magnetic field rates of change. (author)

  14. A rat model with an isolated bladder in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Olsen, P S

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes our method for producing a rat model with an isolated bladder in situ in which the bladder makes no contact with urine. First, the right kidney was removed, then an external catheter was placed in the right ureter for bladder infusions, and next the left ureter was anatomosed to the proximal part of the descending colon. The animals were treated with antibiotics, and saline was infused daily into the bladder in order to prevent atrophy. This in situ model is considered to be useful in studies investigating the influence of specific compounds, such as carcinogens, on the bladder and its urothelium.

  15. Editorial : In situ, revue de l’Inventaire général

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Figure 1Vierge à l’Enfant, statue en terre cuite entourée de François Lasa, photographe et de François Le Bœuf, chercheur, service régional de l’Inventaire en Pays-de-la-LoirePhot. Inv. F. Lasa © Inventaire général, ADAGP, 2000Présentation de « In situ »La création d'une revue permettant de rendre compte des travaux de recherche de l'Inventaire général et, plus largement, des travaux sur le patrimoine conservé in situ est le résultat, comme de nombreux projets collectifs, de réflexions, d'éch...

  16. In situ remediation integrated program: Success through teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP), managed under the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development, focuses research and development efforts on the in-place treatment of contaminated environmental media, such as soil and groundwater, and the containment of contaminants to prevent the contaminants from spreading through the environment. As described here, specific ISR IP projects are advancing the application of in situ technologies to the demonstration point, providing developed technologies to customers within DOE. The ISR IP has also taken a lead role in assessing and supporting innovative technologies that may have application to DOE

  17. In-situ studies with photons, neutrons and electrons scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannengiesser, Thomas [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Ohio State Univ., Columbia, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Komizo, Yu-ichi [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Joining and Welding Research Inst.; Ramirez, Antonio J. (eds.) [Brasileira de Tecnologia de Luz Sincrotron Campinas, Sao Paolo (Brazil). Laboratorio de Microscopia Electronica

    2010-07-01

    In-situ scattering and diffraction measurements using synchrotron and neutron beam lines have become a viable tool to look at the non-equilibrium processing of advanced materials. This volume presents the subject from the theoretical and experimental standpoint, in order to provide a closer insight into the different synchrotron and neutron diffraction techniques as well as innovative microscopy techniques. It addresses the following items: - phase detection and quantification - In-situ welding experiments - Stress/strain build-up - model development and Simulation - Analysis tools and programming (orig.)

  18. PPLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite prepared by in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This work reports the preparation and and characterization of a PLLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite obtained by in situ polymerization. The nanocomposite was prepared by ring opening polymerization of the lactide dimer in the presence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and the as-obtained materials was characterized using FTIR, DSC, XRD and TGA measurements. The incorporation of cellulose nanocrystals in PLLA using this method improved the thermal stability and increased the crystallinity of PLLA. These results indicate that the incorporation of CNCs by in situ polymerization improve thermal properties and has potential to improve also mechanical properties of this biodegradable polymer. (author)

  19. Multiple excitation fluorometer for in situ oceanographic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiderio, R A; Moore, C; Lantz, C; Cowles, T J

    1997-02-20

    A new in situ fluorometer for the detection of oceanic photosynthetic pigment fluorescence is described. Emission spectra from 546 to 733 nm are recorded for each of three different visible excitation bands ten times a second. A Spectralon cell is used to improve the excitation coupling to and the collection efficiency from the sample volume. Laboratory tests demonstrated that the fluorescence emission spectra from the violet, blue, and green excitation can be used to discriminate among various algal species. The instrument was used at sea in extended in situ deployments on an undulating vehicle (SeaSoar). PMID:18250802

  20. In-situ studies with photons, neutrons and electrons scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kannengiesser, Thomas; Komizo, Yu-Ichi; Ramirez, Antonio J

    2010-01-01

    In-situ scattering and diffraction measurements using synchrotron and neutron beam lines have become a viable tool to look at the non-equilibrium processing of advanced materials. This volume presents the subject from the theoretical and experimental standpoint, in order to provide a closer insight into the different synchrotron and neutron diffraction techniques as well as innovative microscopy techniques. It addresses the following items: Phase detection and quantification; In-situ welding experiments; Stress/strain build-up; Model development and Simulation; and, Analysis tools and programm

  1. Composition and photoelectrochemical properties of WO3/TNAs photoelectrodes fabricated by in situ electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiO2/Ti Nanotube arrays (TNAs) and WO3/TNAs photoelectrodes were fabricated by in situ anodization and cycle pulse electrochemical deposition method. The morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Optical properties and photoelectrochemical (PECH) properties were investigated by surface photovoltage (SPV), ultra UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV/vis/DRS), open-circuit potential (OCP), and photocurrent density The results showed that WO3/TNAs photoelectrodes have excellent photoresponse performance. WO3 would enhance the photovoltage and photocurrent of TNAs photoelectrodes. The presence of WO3 caused red shift and enhanced the photosensitivity of TNAs photoelectrodes in whole light region

  2. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Mercury and Saturn Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed. Unique elements of the local planetary environments are discussed and included in the analyses and assessments. Using historical studies of space exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many way. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions will be presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Titan exploration with chemical propulsion options are discussed.

  3. In situ annealing of hydroxyapatite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic that mimics the mineral composition of natural bone. Unfortunately, problems with adhesion, poor mechanical integrity, and incomplete bone ingrowth limit the use of many conventional hydroxyapatite surfaces. In this work, we have developed a novel technique to produce crystalline hydroxyapatite thin films involving pulsed laser deposition and postdeposition annealing. Hydroxyapatite films were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V alloy and Si (100) using pulsed laser deposition, and annealed within a high temperature X-ray diffraction system. The transformation from amorphous to crystalline hydroxyapatite was observed at 340 deg. C. Mechanical and adhesive properties were examined using nanoindentation and scratch adhesion testing, respectively. Nanohardness and Young's modulus values of 3.48 and 91.24 GPa were realized in unannealed hydroxyapatite films. Unannealed and 350 deg. C annealed hydroxyapatite films exhibited excellent adhesion to Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates. We anticipate that the adhesion and biological properties of crystalline hydroxyapatite thin films may be enhanced by further consideration of deposition and annealing parameters

  4. Assessment of a multi-species in situ FTIR for precise atmospheric greenhouse gas observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hammer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We thoroughly evaluate the performance of a multi-species, in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analyser with respect to high-accuracy needs for greenhouse gas monitoring networks. The in situ FTIR analyser is shown to measure CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O mole fractions continuously, all with better reproducibility than the inter-laboratory compatibility (ILC goals, requested by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO for the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW programme. Simultaneously determined ?13CO2 reaches reproducibility as good as 0.03‰. Second-order dependencies between the measured components and the thermodynamic properties of the sample, (temperature, pressure and flow rate and the cross sensitivities among the sample constituents are investigated and quantified. We describe an improved sample delivery and control system that minimises the pressure and flow rate variations, making post-processing corrections for those quantities non-essential. Temperature disequilibrium effects resulting from the evacuation of the sample cell are quantified and improved by the usage of a faster temperature sensor. The instrument has proven to be linear for all measured components in the ambient concentration range. The temporal stability of the instrument is characterised on different time scales. Instrument drifts on a weekly time scale are only observed for CH4 (0.04 nmol mol?1 day?1 and ?13CO2 (0.02‰ day?1. Based on 10 months of continuously collected quality control measures, the long-term reproducibility of the instrument is estimated to ±0.016 ?mol mol?1 CO2, ±0.03‰ ?13CO2, ±0.14 nmol mol?1 CH4, ±0.1 nmol mol?1 CO and ±0.04 nmol mol?1 N2O. We propose a calibration and quality control scheme with weekly calibrations of the instrument that is sufficient to reach WMO-GAW inter-laboratory compatibility goals.

  5. In situ grown carbon nanotubes on carbon paper as integrated gas diffusion and catalyst layer for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on carbon paper as an integrated gas diffusion layer (GDL) and catalyst layer (CL) were developed for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) applications. The effect of their structure and morphology on cell performance was investigated under real PEMFC conditions. The in situ grown CNT layers on carbon paper showed a tunable structure under different growth processes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) demonstrated that the CNT layers are able to provide extremely high surface area and porosity to serve as both the GDL and the CL simultaneously. This in situ grown CNT support layer can provide enhanced Pt utilization compared with the carbon black and free-standing CNT support layers. An optimum maximum power density of 670 mW cm-2 was obtained from the CNT layer grown under 20 cm3 min-1 C2H4 flow with 0.04 mg cm-2 Pt sputter-deposited at the cathode. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results confirmed that the in situ grown CNT layer can provide both enhanced charge transfer and mass transport properties for the Pt/CNT-based electrode as an integrated GDL and CL, in comparison with previously reported Pt/CNT-based electrodes with a VXC72R-based GDL and a Pt/CNT-based CL. Therefore, this in situ grown CNT layer shows a great potential for the improvement of electrode structure and configuration for PEMFC ode structure and configuration for PEMFC applications.

  6. A Week in Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Piirto

    2012-01-01

    The author recounts a week in October, describing her teaching, writing, thinking, mail, and other activities that relate to her professional and personal work on creativity. This personal creative nonfiction piece also contains poetry and references to her books and lectures. The author chose this form in order to emphasize the autobiographical nature of work in the area of creativity.

  7. Electrokinetic In Situ Treatment of Metal-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian A., III; Geiger, Cherie; Reinhart, Debra

    2004-01-01

    An electrokinetic technique has been developed as a means of in situ remediation of soils, sludges, and sediments that are contaminated with heavy metals. Examples of common metal contaminants that can be removed by this technique include cadmium, chromium, zinc, lead, mercury, and radionuclides. Some organic contaminants can also be removed by this technique. In the electrokinetic technique, a low-intensity direct current is applied between electrodes that have been implanted in the ground on each side of a contaminated soil mass. The electric current causes electro-osmosis and migration of ions, thereby moving aqueous-phase subsurface contaminants from one electrode to the other. The half reaction at the anode yields H+, thereby generating an acid front that travels from the anode toward the cathode. As this acid front passes through a given location, the local increase in acidity increases the solubility of cations that were previously adsorbed on soil particles. Ions are transported towards one electrode or the other which one depending on their respective electric charges. Upon arrival at the electrodes, the ionic contaminants can be allowed to become deposited on the electrodes or can be extracted to a recovery system. Surfactants and other reagents can be introduced at the electrodes to enhance rates of removal of contaminants. Placements of electrodes and concentrations and rates of pumping of reagents can be adjusted to maximize efficiency. The basic concept of electrokinetic treatment of soil is not new. What is new here are some of the details of application and the utilization of this technique as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., flushing or bioremediation) that are not suitable for treating soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Another novel aspect is the use of this technique as a less expensive alternative to excavation: The cost advantage over excavation is especially large in settings in which contaminated soil lies near and/or under industrial buildings and therefore excavation would be made even more expensive by the need to prevent damage to numerous underground pipes and cables.

  8. Structure formation and characterization of injectable drug loaded biodegradable devices: in situ implants versus in situ microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, H; Bodmeier, R

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate key formulation variables affecting the release of bupivacaine hydrochloride, a local anesthetic, from different in situ forming biodegradable drug delivery devices. The formulations included ISM systems [in situ microparticles, a poly(lactide)-solvent phase dispersed into an external oil phase] and poly(lactide) solutions (in situ implant systems). The solubility of the biodegradable polymer poly(d,l-lactide) (PLA) in various organic solvents was determined using the Hansen multicomponent solubility parameter concept. The solvent release from ISM and polymer solutions into phosphate buffer which influences the polymer precipitation rate was investigated as a function of the type of solvent, polymer concentration and polymer:oil phase ratio by using a HPLC assay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed in order to relate the drug release to the surface properties of the precipitated implants or microparticles. Suitable solvents for the preparation of the in situ forming drug delivery systems, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 2-pyrrolidone were found using the Hansen multicomponent solubility parameter concept. The injection of the polymer solutions (in situ implants) into the aqueous medium led to a rapid solvent/non-solvent exchange. The resulting in situ implants were porous, thus explaining the rapid initial drug release. Upon contact with the release medium, the internal polymer phase of the ISM system solidified and formed microparticles as shown by SEM measurements. Due to the presence of an external oil phase the solvent release into the buffer medium from ISM was significantly slower compared to the polymer solutions. The solvent release of the ISM systems into the phosphate buffer decreased with increasing polymer concentration and decreasing polymer:oil phase ratio. The type of solvent used also affected the solvent release. A slower solvent release into the aqueous medium resulted in less porous microparticles, thus explaining the reduced initial drug release from ISM systems compared to the polymer solutions. PMID:18501569

  9. Determination of 228Th, 226Ra and 40K in Soil Using In-Situ GammaSpectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of natural radionuclide in latosol soil at six locationsaround PPTN Serpong by using Inspector portable gamma spectrometer with highpurity Germanium detector (HPGe) which has 26% relative efficiency had beenobtained. Radionuclides data of 228Th, 226Ra and 40K were obtained in4 hours, shorter than laboratories analysis which needed 3 weeks. Thedifferences between in-situ measurement and laboratory were 3.6% to 56.2% forsix conditions of soil measured. According to the specific activity dataanalysis using statistic hypothesis, the result shows that the activity of228Th and 226Ra are independent on location, but 40K is dependent onlocation. (author)

  10. Diagnosis of In Situ Metabolic State and Rates of Microbial Metabolism During In Situ Uranium Bioremediation with Molecular Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek R. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    2012-11-28

    The goal of these projects was to develop molecule tools to tract the metabolic activity and physiological status of microorganisms during in situ uranium bioremediation. Such information is important in able to design improved bioremediation strategies. As summarized below, the research was highly successful with new strategies developed for estimating in situ rates of metabolism and diagnosing the physiological status of the predominant subsurface microorganisms. This is a first not only for groundwater bioremediation studies, but also for subsurface microbiology in general. The tools and approaches developed in these studies should be applicable to the study of microbial communities in a diversity of soils and sediments.

  11. Interpretation of TOMS Observations of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone with a Global Model and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Staudt, Amanda C.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Liu, Hongyu; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We interpret the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOCs) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) and additional information from in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM TTOCs capture 44% of the variance of monthly mean TOMS TTOCs from the convective cloud differential method (CCD) with no global bias. Major discrepancies are found over northern Africa and south Asia where the TOMS TTOCs do not capture the seasonal enhancements from biomass burning found in the model and in aircraft observations. A characteristic feature of these northern topical enhancements, in contrast to southern tropical enhancements, is that they are driven by the lower troposphere where the sensitivity of TOMS is poor due to Rayleigh scattering. We develop an efficiency correction to the TOMS retrieval algorithm that accounts for the variability of ozone in the lower troposphere. This efficiency correction increases TTOC's over biomass burning regions by 3-5 Dobson units (DU) and decreases them by 2-5 DU over oceanic regions, improving the agreement between CCD TTOCs and in situ observations. Applying the correction to CCD TTOCs reduces by approximately DU the magnitude of the "tropical Atlantic paradox" [Thompson et al, 2000], i.e. the presence of a TTOC enhancement over the southern tropical Atlantic during the northern African biomass burning season in December-February. We reproduce the remainder of the paradox in the model and explain it by the combination of upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx, peristent subsidence over the southern tropical Atlantic as part of the Walker circulation, and cross-equatorial transport of upper tropospheric ozone from northern midlatitudes in the African "westerly duct." These processes in the model can also account for the observed 13-17 DU persistent wave-1 pattern in TTOCs with a maximum above the tropical Atlantic and a minimum over the tropical Pacific during all seasons. The photochemical effects of mineral dust have only a minor role on the modeled distribution of TTOCs, including over northern Africa, due to multiple competing effects. The photochemical effects of mineral dust globally decease annual mean OH concentrations by 9%. A global lightning NOx source of 6 Tg N yr(sup -1) in the model produces a simulation that is most consistent with TOMS and in situ observations.

  12. In-situ measurements in Vesivehmaa air field - STUK team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markkanen, M.; Honkamaa, T.; Niskala, P. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Nineteen in-situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed in Vesivehmaa air field on 17th August 1995. The results for {sup 137}Cs and natural radionuclides are in good agreement with the results from soil sampling and laboratory analyses. (au).

  13. In-situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets

    OpenAIRE

    Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    Graphene nanosheets were effectively functionalized by in-situ deposition of hydroxyaptite through a facile chemical precipitation method. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. The resulting hydroxyapatite functionalized graphene nanosheets were characterized by attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, trans...

  14. Assessment of in situ adipose tissue inflammation by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne; Andersen, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation, and specifically adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, is part of the pathophysiology of obesity and HIV-associated lipodystrophy. Local AT protein assessment methods are limited, and AT inflammation studies have therefore primarily examined inflammatory gene expression. We therefore investigated the utility of microdialysis to study in situ AT interstitial inflammatory protein levels.

  15. Kapradiny hornoslezské pánve a jejich spory in situ.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pšeni?ka, J.; Bek, Ji?í

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 2008, - (2009), s. 105-108. ISSN 0514-8057 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA300130503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Upper Silesian Basin * Upper Carboniferous * ferns * in situ spores * spores Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www. geology .cz/zpravy/obsah/2008/2008-30.pdf

  16. Oxygen-free in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Ulstrup, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy under full electrochemical potential control (in situ STM) has been used extensively as an efficient method to characterize microstructures at solid/liquid interfaces at the atomic and molecular levels. However, under ambient conditions oxygen may interfere in open in situ STM systems by diffusion through the solutions. Such interference can be serious for oxygen sensitive systems both for the target molecules themselves and for chemical linker molecules bound to the electrode surface for example, via Au-S bonding. This is strikingly illustrated in the present report. We present here oxygen-free in situ STM, in which the samples are contained in an argon atmosphere which removes oxygen in the system. Interference from oxygen is profoundly reduced in this setup and demonstrated by three examples. Two of these are in situ STM of the intermediate-size sulfur containing organic molecule cysteamine and the biomolecule homocysteine. The third example is the iron-sulfur protein ferredoxin (Pyrococcus furiosus). Monolayers of these molecules on Au(111) are imaged to molecular resolution and the images compared in the presence and absence of oxygen. In all the cases, the STM image quality of the monolayer structures has improved significantly in the absence of oxygen. Reasons for the drastic effects of dioxygen based on both chemical surface reactivity and electron scattering effects are discussed. These observations are important in general for STM of oxygen sensitive chemical and biological samples.

  17. Experimental investigation of in situ cleanable HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), High Level Waste Division, Tanks Focus Area, and the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) have been investigating high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters which can be regenerated or cleaned in situ as an alternative to conventional disposable HEPA filters. This technical report documents concerns pertaining to conventional HEPA filters

  18. Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, K.; Elsperman, M. S.; Smith, D. B.; Cook, T. S.

    2011-03-01

    We propose a two spacecraft rendezvous with multiple NEOs. A two spacecraft mission mimics architecture for human explorers to use a mother ship to get from Earth to the NEO and a small body lander for in situ investigation on or close to the NEO.

  19. In situ performance measurements of the mitre photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdak, A. S.; Haas, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    A data acquisition system was developed to provide more accurate and consistent measurement of the degradation of solar arrays. A technique was developed for in-situ measurement of photovoltaic panels of sufficient quality to permit evaluation of electrical performance over extended periods of several years.

  20. In situ performance measurements of the Mitre photovoltaic array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherdak, A.S.; Haas, G.M.

    1977-08-01

    A data acquisition system was developed to provide more accurate and consistent measurement of the degradation of solar arrays. A technique was developed for in-situ measurement of photovoltaic panels of sufficient quality to permit evaluation of electrical performance over extended periods of several years.

  1. Surface exposure dating using in situ cosmogenic 10Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface exposure dating using in situ cosmogenic 10Be in quartz is an important new tool in Quaternary research. We give an introduction into the method and describe, how 10Be surface exposure ages are measured and calculated at the Institute of Soil Science and Soil Geography at the University of Bayreuth, Germany. (author)

  2. In situ amorphisation of indomethacin with Eudragit® E during dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemel, Petra A; Laitinen, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the possibility of utilising in situ crystalline-to-amorphous transformation for the delivery of poorly water soluble drugs was investigated. Compacts of physical mixtures of ?-indomethacin (IMC) and Eudragit® E in 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 (w/w) ratios were subjected to dissolution testing at pH 6.8 at which IMC but not the polymer is soluble. Compacts changed their colour from white to yellow indicating amorphisation of IMC. X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) confirmed the amorphisation and only one glass transition temperature was observed (58.1 °C, 54.4 °C, and 50.1 °C for the 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 (w/w) drug-to-polymer ratios, respectively). Furthermore, principal component analysis of infrared spectra resulted in clustering of in situ transformed samples together with quench cooled glass solutions for each respective ratio. Subsequent dissolution testing of in situ transformed samples at pH 4.1, at which the polymer is soluble but not IMC, led to a higher dissolution rate than for quench cooled glass solution at 3:1 and 1:1 ratios, but not for the 1:3 ratio. This study showed that crystalline drug can be transformed into amorphous material in situ in the presence of a polymer, leading to the possibility of administering drugs in the amorphous state without physical instability problems during storage.

  3. In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of catalyst sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeLaRiva, Andrew T.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in the field of electron microscopy, such as aberration correctors, have now been integrated into Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs), making it possible to study the behavior of supported metal catalysts under operating conditions at atomic resolution. Here, we focus on in situ electron microscopy studies of catalysts that shed light on the mechanistic aspects of catalyst sintering. Catalyst sintering is an important mechanism for activity loss, especially for catalysts that operate at elevated temperatures. Literature from the past decade is reviewed along with our recent in situ TEM studies on the sintering of Ni/MgAl2O4 catalysts. These results suggest that the rapid loss of catalyst activity in the earliest stages of catalyst sintering could result from Ostwald ripening rather than through particle migration and coalescence. The smallest particles are found to disappear in a few seconds as soon as the catalyst reaches the operating temperature. While particle migration and coalescence is evident in some of these in situ studies, it does not follow the classical model where the smallest particles are most mobile. Deterministic models of Ostwald ripening as well as atomistic Monte Carlo simulations are both in good agreement with these experimental observations, predicting a steep loss in catalyst activity at short times on stream. The in situ studies show the importance of direct observations to deduce mechanisms and show the important role played by the support and the gas atmosphere (especially the presence of H2O) on the rates of catalyst sintering.

  4. Geomechanical Modeling of In-situ Stresses Around a Borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Samantha

    A paper presenting a modeling of the in-situ stress state associated with the severe hole enlargement of a wellbore and the geomechanical information needed to ensure wellbore stability. Geomechanical information is relevant to assure wellbore stability, i.e., to prevent damages in the formation and later on, the casing.

  5. Z-DNA, a new in situ marker for transcription.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?erná, Adriana; Cuadrado, A.; Jouve, N.; de la Espina, S. M. D.; De la Torre, C.

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 48, ?. 1 (2004), s. 49-55. ISSN 1121-760X R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IBS5038351 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Allium cepa * Z-DNA immunodetection * in situ run-on transcription Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.845, year: 2004

  6. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  7. Process for in-situ leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention relates to the recovery of uranium from subterranean ore deposits, and more particularly to an in-situ leaching operation employing an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and carbon dioxide as the lixiviant. Uranium is solubilized in the lixiviant as it traverses the subterranean uranium deposit. The lixiviant is subsequently recovered and treated to remove the uranium

  8. A Nanoaquarium for in situ Electron Microscopy in Liquid Media

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Joseph M.; Bau, Haim H.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of many nanoscale processes occurring in liquids such as colloidal crystal formation, aggregation, nanowire growth, electrochemical deposition, and biological interactions would benefit greatly from real-time, in situ imaging with the nanoscale resolution of transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEMs). However, these imaging tools cannot readily be used to observe processes occurring in liquid media withou...

  9. Emissivity of etched Cu-Nb in-situ alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cu-Nb in-situ alloys possess high strenght plus thermal conductivity properties and are therefore of interest in heat transfer applications. Etching the surfaces of these alloys to preferentially remove Cu places the Nb filaments in relief. Experiments demonstrate that the emissivity of such etched surfaces can be increased from around 0.08 to values greater than 0.9

  10. Manual of acid in situ leach uranium mining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ leaching (ISL) technology recovers uranium using two alternative chemical leaching systems - acid and alkaline. This report brings together information from several technical disciplines that are an essential part of ISL technology. They include uranium geology, geohydrology, chemistry as well as reservoir engineering and process engineering. This report provides an extensive description of acid ISL uranium mining technology

  11. NASAL IN SITU GEL: A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrupesh panchal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, advances in the in situ gel technologies have spurred development in manymedical and biomedical applications including controlled drug delivery. Many novel in situ gel baseddelivery matrices have been designed and fabricated to fulfill the ever increasing needs of thepharmaceutical and medical fields. In situ gelling systems are liquid at room temperature but undergogelation when in contact with body fluids or change in pH. In situ gel forming drug delivery is a type ofmucoadhesive drug delivery system. The formation of gel depends on factors like temperaturemodulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultraviolet irradiation from which the drug gets released ina sustained and controlled manner. Nasal delivery is a promising drug delivery option where commondrug administrations such as intravenous, intramuscular or oral are inapplicable. Recently, it has beenshown that many drugs have better bioavailability by nasal route than the oral route. This has beenattributed to rich vasculature and a highly permeable structure of the nasal mucosa coupled withavoidance of hepatic first-pass elimination, gut wall metabolism and/or destruction in thegastrointestinal tract. The physiology of the nose presents obstacles but offers a promising route for noninvasivesystemic delivery of numerous therapies and debatably drug delivery route to the brain. Thusthis review focuses on nasal drug delivery, various aspects of nasal anatomy and physiology, nasal drugabsorption mechanisms, various nasal drug delivery systems and their applications in drug delivery.

  12. In situ TEM observation of solid-gas reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under a gaseous atmosphere at high temperatures, almost all the materials (metal, catalysts, etc.) change their structures and properties. For the research and development of materials, it is of vital importance to clarify mechanisms of solid-gas and liquid-gas reactions. Recently an in situ TEM system combined with an environmental holder, which has a gas injection nozzle close to a specimen-heating element, has been developed. The gas injection nozzle permits gas to flow around the specimens sitting on the heating element made of a fine W filament. The newly developed in situ TEM has a differential pumping system; therefore, the pressure in the specimen chamber is maintained in the range of higher than 1 Pa, while the pressure in the electron gun chamber can be kept in the range of 10-5 Pa. This system was applied to in situ observation of chemical reactions of metals with gases: Observation of oxidation and reduction under a gas pressure ranging from 10-5 Pa to 1 Pa at high temperatures (room temperature to ?1473 K) were successfully carried out on pure metal and rare metal catalysts at near-atomic resolution. This in situ environmental TEM system is promising for clarifying mechanisms of many solid-gas and liquid-gas reactions that take place at high temperatures under a gas atmosphere.

  13. In situ detection of horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Hansen, Susse Kirkelund

    2002-01-01

    Plasmid transfer was investigated in microbial populations associated with different types of surfaces. The general strategy behind these investigations was to label the transferable plasmid with a gene encoding a fluorescent protein in order to make it a transfer reporter. This was achieved by fusing the reporter gene with a lac promoter expression cassette and combining this with a donor cell-associated lacI repressor cassette. After construction of a range of strains and plasmids with combinations of genes expressing fluorescent proteins from constitutive (cell tagging) or regulated promoters (transfer reporters) it was thus possible to detect transfer events in situ and correlate these with either the location of donor and recipient cells or with the growth activity of the cells. In some cases, expression of unstable Gfp from a growth-controlled promoter, rrnB from Escherichia coli, was used to monitor bacterial growth activity in situ. Differential tagging of mobilizing and mobilizable plasmids with different genes encoding fluorescent proteins with varying emission wavelengths allowed in situ detection of plasmid mobilization and detection of retro-transfer on agar surfaces. The obtained data show that the several different types of fluorescent reporters, which are now available, allow more informative in situ investigations of horizontal gene transfer to be carried out, and by combining these genes with various expression systems it is possible to simultaneously monitor donor/recipient positioning, cellular activity and appearance of transconjugants.

  14. A FIVE-STAGE CYCLONE SYSTEM FOR IN SITU SAMPLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the development and calibration of a five-stage cyclone system for in situ sampling of process streams. Cyclones may be used to advantage for collecting large samples and in sampling aerosols of high particulate concentration. At 25C, 28.3 L/min, and for a par...

  15. In situ measurement of tritium permeation through stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? In situ tritium permeation measurements collected over broad pressure range. ? Test conditions relevant to 316 SS in commercial light water reactors. ? Comparisons between in- and ex-reactor measurements provided. ? Correlation between tritium permeation, temperature, and pressure developed. -- Abstract: The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a 4He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T2) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292 °C and 330 °C. In situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He–Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. Results from in situ permeation measurements were compared with predictions based on an ex-reactor permeation correlation in the literature. In situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure over the ranges considered in this study. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of 3He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a 4He carrier gas mixed with 3He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330 °C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from 3He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation

  16. In situ gas treatment technology demonstration test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the objectives and requirements associated with undertaking a field demonstration of an in situ gas treatment appoach to remediation chromate-contaminated soil. The major tasks presented in this plan include the design and development of the surface gas treatment system, performance of permitting activities, and completion of site preparation and field testing activities

  17. FISH-ing for Genes: Modeling Fluorescence "in situ" Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck

    2006-01-01

    Teaching methods of genetic analysis such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be an important part of instructional units in biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. Experience, however, indicates that these topics are difficult for many students. The authors of this article describe how they created an activity that effectively…

  18. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU 3) Technical Interchange Meeting: Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU III) Technical Interchange Meeting, February 11-12, 1999, hosted by the Lockheed Martin Astronautics Waterton Facility, Denver, Colorado. Administration and publication support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  19. Needs of in-situ materials testing under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under neutron irradiation, the component atoms of materials are displaced as primary knock-on atoms, and the energy of the primary knock-on atoms is consumed by electron excitation and nuclear collision. Elementary irradiation defects accumulate to form damage structure including voids and bubbles. In situ test under neutron irradiation is necessary for investigating into the effect of irradiation on creep behavior, the electric properties of ceramics, transport phenomena and so on. The in situ test is also important to investigate into the phenomena related to the chemical reaction with environment during irradiation. Accelerator type high energy neutron sources are preferable to fission reactors. In this paper, the needs and the research items of in situ test under neutron irradiation using a D-Li stripping type high energy neutron source on metallic and ceramic materials are described. Creep behavior is one of the most important mechanical properties, and depends strongly on irradiation environment, also it is closely related to microstructure. Irradiation affects the electric conductibity of ceramics and also their creep behavior. In this way, in situ test is necessary. (K.I.)

  20. IN-SITU HIGH TEMPERATURE LOW CYCLE FATIGUE STUDY.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrenec, M.; Polák, Jaroslav; Šamo?il, T.; Dluhoš, J.; Obrtlík, Karel

    Ostrava : Tanger Ltd, 2014. ISBN 978-80-87294-52-9. [23. mezinárodní konference metalurgie a materiál? METAL 2014. Brno (CZ), 21.05.2014-23.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA13-23652S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : In-situ * SEM * high temperature * fatigue * superalloy Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  1. In situ research and investigations in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report explains why deep geological disposal is the most favoured option for the disposal of high level waste and spent fuel, as well as some alpha bearing wastes. It also gives an overview of the main aim and elements of in-situ research and investigation activities in OECD countries, as well as of initiatives taken at an international level

  2. Development and Demonstration of Airborne Remote and In Situ Aerosol and Cloud Measurements Conducted Under the NASA DEVOTE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, J. W.; Obland, M. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Rogers, R.; Ziemba, L. D.; Yang, M. M.; Ottaviani, M.; Dolgos, G.

    2011-12-01

    A current approach for evaluating satellite aerosol and cloud measurements involves collecting correlative data during episodic, large-scale airborne missions or from ground-based networks. Only rarely do these campaigns provide a statistically meaningful set of measurements to assess satellite retrievals from nadir-only viewing satellite instruments like the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and future aerosol and cloud satellite sensors planned for the Aerosol, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) Decadal Survey mission. In addition, the evaluation of satellite prototype instruments and associated retrieval algorithms require measurements under various atmospheric conditions, seasons, and geographic locations, thus requiring more frequent flights. The DEVOTE (Development and Evaluation of satellite ValidatiOn Tools by Experimenters) project addresses these limitation by: 1) developing the capability to frequently and systematically evaluate these retrieval algorithms with a comprehensive suite of in situ instruments and remote sensing airborne simulators deployed on the NASA Langley B-200 and UC-12 aircraft, 2) enhancing in situ measurement capability of key aerosol optical properties, and 3) acquiring science data in a series of flights designed to demonstrate this capability. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) with partners from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) have modified the NASA LaRC B-200 aircraft to enable in situ aerosol and cloud measurements, developed an airborne in situ Polarized Imaging Nephelometer, and executed coordinated science flights with the remote sensing and in situ instruments on the UC-12 and B-200 aircraft, respectively. An overview of the instrument payloads, aircraft capabilities and flight profiles, together with preliminary measurements results and comparisons from the two aircraft are presented.

  3. A review of transmission electron microscopes with in situ ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with in situ ion irradiation is unique amongst experimental techniques in allowing the direct observation of the internal microstructure of materials on the nanoscale whilst they are being subjected to bombardment with energetic particles. Invaluable insights into the underlying atomistic processes at work can be gained through direct investigation of radiation induced and enhanced effects such as: phase changes and segregation; mechanical and structural changes; atomic/layer mixing and chemical disorder; compositional changes; chemical reactions; grain growth and shrinkage; precipitation and dissolution; defect/bubble formation, growth, motion, coalescence, removal and destruction; ionisation; diffusion; and collision cascades. The experimental results obtained can be used to validate the predictions of computational models which in turn can elucidate the mechanisms behind the phenomena seen in the microscope. It is 50 years since the first TEM observations of in situ ion irradiation were made by D.W. Pashley, A.E.B. Presland and J.W. Menter at the Tube Investment Laboratories in Cambridge, United Kingdom and 40 years since the first interfacing of an ion beam system with a TEM by P.A. Thackery, R.S. Nelson and H.C. Sansom at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell, United Kingdom. In that time the field has grown with references in the literature to around thirty examples of such facilities. This paper gives an over such facilities. This paper gives an overview of the importance of the technique, especially with regard to the current challenges faced in understanding radiation damage in nuclear environments; a description of some of the important construction elements and design considerations of TEMs with in situ ion irradiation; a brief history of the development of this type of instrument; a summary of the facilities built around the world over the last half century; and finally a focus on the instruments in operation today.

  4. Optimizing the Environmental Performance of In Situ Thermal Remediation Technologies Using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Nielsen, Steffen G.

    2013-01-01

    In situ thermal remediation technologies provide efficient and reliable cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater, but at a high cost of environmental impacts and resource depletion due to the large amounts of energy and materials consumed. This study provides a detailed investigation of four in situ thermal remediation technologies (steam enhanced extraction, thermal conduction heating, electrical resistance heating, and radio frequency heating) in order to (1) compare the life-cycle environmental impacts and resource consumption associated with each thermal technology, and (2) identify options to reduce these adverse effects. The study identifies a number of options for environmental optimization of in situ thermal remediation. In general, environmental optimization can be achieved by increasing the percentage of heating supplied in off peak electricity demand periods as this reduces the pressure on coal-based electricity and thereby reduces the environmental impacts due to electricity production by up to 10%. Furthermore, reducing the amount of concrete in the vapor cap by using a concrete sandwich construction can potentially reduce the environmental impacts due to the vapor cap by up to 75%. Moreover, a number of technology-specific improvements were identified, for instance by the substitution of stainless steel types in wells, heaters, and liners used in thermal conduction heating, thus reducing the nickel consumption by 45%. The combined effect of introducing all the suggested improvements is a 10 to 21% decrease in environmental impacts and an 8 to 20% decrease in resource depletion depending on the thermal remediation technology considered. The energy consumption was found to be the main contributor to most types of environmental impacts; this will, however, depend on the electricity production mix in the studied region. The combined improvement potential is therefore to a large extent controlled by the reduction/improvement of energy consumption.

  5. Particulate matter mapping in the European Alps from MODIS, SEVIRI, and in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emili, E.; Popp, C.; Zebisch, M.; Wunderle, S.; Petitta, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the spatially homogenous mapping of particulate matter over the complex topography of the European Alpine region by means of remote sensing and ground-based measurements. Knowledge about the spatio-temporal distribution and atmospheric evolution of particulate matter is of great interest because higher levels of PM can affect human health and therefore, such information can be used by authorities to take counteractions like e.g. traffic restrictions. The study area is frequently influenced by high PM concentrations, especially when atmospheric inversions occur during winter. Major anthropogenic aerosol sources in the European Alps include traffic, wood burning for heating and cooking, and industrial activities. Wefirst apply a linear model to relate aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) and polar orbiting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) together with boundary layer height (BLH) to surface PM10 concentrations in order to derive spatially homogenous maps of PM10 over the study region for 2008-2009. In parallel, maps of PM10 are computed by inverse distance interpolation of in-situ measurements. Both (SEVIRI and MODIS) satellite based PM10 estimates reveal a moderate performance with a correlation coefficient (R) of ~0.6 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of around 10 ?g m-1. In contrary, the sole inverse distance interpolation of in-situ measurements produces more accurate PM10 maps (R~0.8, RMSE retrievals. However, PM remote sensing is of great interest in regions with a sparser in-situ network (> 100km) and the presented approach can be generally applied to test the additional information provided by PM estimates based on remote sensing data.

  6. Mapping Particulate Matter in the European Alps from Modis, Seviri, and In-Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitta, M.; Emili, E.; Popp, C. T.; Wunderle, S.; Zebisch, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the spatially homogenous mapping of particulate matter over the complex topography of the European Alpine region by means of remote sensing and ground-based measurements. Knowledge about the spatio-temporal distribution and atmospheric evolution of particulate matter is of great interest because higher levels of PM can affect human health and therefore, such information can be used by authorities to take counteractions like e.g. traffic restrictions. The study area is frequently influenced by high PM concentrations, especially when atmospheric inversions occur during winter. Major anthropogenic aerosol sources in the European Alps include traffic, wood burning for heating and cooking, and industrial activities. Wefirst apply a linear model to relate aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) and polar orbiting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) together with boundary layer height (BLH) to surface PM10 concentrations in order to derive spatially homogenous maps of PM10 over the study region for 2008-2009. In parallel, maps of PM10 are computed by inverse distance interpolation of in-situ measurements. Both (SEVIRI and MODIS) satellite based PM10 estimates reveal a moderate performance with a correlation coefficient (R) of ~0.6 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of around 10 ?g m-1. In contrary, the sole inverse distance interpolation of in-situ measurements produces more accurate PM10 maps (R~0.8, RMSE retrievals. However, PM remote sensing is of great interest in regions with a sparser in-situ network (> 100km) and the presented approach can be generally applied to test the additional information provided by PM estimates based on remote sensing data.

  7. FORMULATION AND ASSESSMENT OF GEMIFLOXACIN MESYLATE OCULAR IN SITU GELLING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshmi R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In situ gels are one of the most successful means of delivering the drug at ocular site with maximum bioavailability, which undergoes gelation upon instillation as drops into the eye due to physicochemical changes inherent to the biological fluids. The main aim of the present investigation was to obtain an ophthalmic drug delivery system with improved mucoadhesive and mechanical properties that could provide extended retention time for the treatment of ocular infections. For this in situ gels of Gemifloxacin Mesylate comprised of the combination of a thermosetting polymer, polaxamer with a mucoadhesive agent chitosan was developed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry techniques (DSC were performed to know the compatibilities between drug and polymer. FTIR spectra and DSC thermograph of Gemifloxacin Mesylate formulations showed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and polymer and confirmed the stability of the drug. The gels were evaluated for pH, Gel strength, Gelling capacity, Rheology, Drug content uniformity and Ocular irritancy studies. In vitro drug release studies reveal that all the formulations showed sustained release of the drug in the range of 70.82 to 76.43 % for a period of 8 h. The optimized formulation was tested for ocular irritation study on male albino rabbit and the result indicated that the formulation was well tolerated, non-irritating and therapeutically efficacious. In conclusion in situ gelling systems containing polaxamer / chitosan solution are viable alternative to enhance bioavailability thus leads to an excellent potential alternative ophthalmic sustained-release formulation of Gemifloxacin Mesylate in ocular infections.

  8. High sensitivity calixarene SERS substrates for the continuous in-situ detection of PAHs in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Hyok; Kolomijeca, Anna; Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2011-05-01

    In-situ monitoring of pollutant chemicals in sea-water is of worldwide interest. For that purpose, fast response sensors based on Raman spectroscopy are suitable for a rapid identification and quantification of these substances. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was applied to achieve the high sensitivity necessary for trace detection. In the project SENSEnet, funded by the European Commission, a SERS sensor based on calixarene-functionalized silver nanoparticles embedded in a sol-gel matrix was developed and adapted for the in-situ detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The laboratory set-up contains a microsystem Raman diode laser with two slightly different emission wavelengths (670.8 nm and 671.3 nm) suitable also for shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS). The output power at each of both wavelengths is up to 200 mW. For the detection of the SERS spectra integration times of typically 1 - 10 seconds were chosen. The SERS substrate is located inside a flow-through cell which provides continuous flow conditions of the analyte. The spectra were recorded using a laboratory spectrograph with a back-illuminated deep depletion CCD-detector. We present scanning electron microscope images of the developed calixarene-functionalized Ag colloid based SERS substrates as well as results for the SERS adsorption properties of major PAHs (pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene) in artificial sea-water and their limits of detection (e. g. 0.1 nM for pyrene). The suitability of the presented device as an in-situ SERS sensor for application on a mooring or buoy will be discussed.

  9. EM-54 Technology Development In Situ Remediation Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites as well as wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety and the environment, and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations by 2019. EM-50 is charged with developing new technologies that are safer, more effective and less expensive than current methods. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (the subject of this report) is part of EM-541, the Environmental Restoration Research and Development Division of EM-54. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: Significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces; in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP tends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years

  10. Additive manufacturing for in situ repair of osteochondral defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel L; Lipton, Jeffrey I; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Lipson, Hod

    2010-09-01

    Tissue engineering holds great promise for injury repair and replacement of defective body parts. While a number of techniques exist for creating living biological constructs in vitro, none have been demonstrated for in situ repair. Using novel geometric feedback-based approaches and through development of appropriate printing-material combinations, we demonstrate the in situ repair of both chondral and osteochondral defects that mimic naturally occurring pathologies. A calf femur was mounted in a custom jig and held within a robocasting-based additive manufacturing (AM) system. Two defects were induced: one a cartilage-only representation of a grade IV chondral lesion and the other a two-material bone and cartilage fracture of the femoral condyle. Alginate hydrogel was used for the repair of cartilage; a novel formulation of demineralized bone matrix was used for bone repair. Repair prints for both defects had mean surface errors less than 0.1 mm. For the chondral defect, 42.8+/-2.6% of the surface points had errors that were within a clinically acceptable error range; however, with 1 mm path planning shift, an estimated approximately 75% of surface points could likely fall within the benchmark envelope. For the osteochondral defect, 83.6+/-2.7% of surface points had errors that were within clinically acceptable limits. In addition to implications for minimally invasive AM-based clinical treatments, these proof-of-concept prints are some of the only in situ demonstrations to-date, wherein the substrate geometry was unknown a priori. The work presented herein demonstrates in situ AM, suggests potential biomedical applications and also explores in situ-specific issues, including geometric feedback, material selection and novel path planning techniques. PMID:20823507

  11. In situ geomechanics: Climax granite, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in situ modulus of the Climax granite in the Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) area of the Nevada Test Site was estimated using six different approaches. Our best estimate of field modulus as E/sub f/ = 26 GPa was obtained from a comparison of the various approaches. A best estimate of laboratory modulus acquired by comparing three different sources was E/sub l/ = 70 GPa. Therefore, the modulus reduction factor for the Climax granite appears to be E/sub f//E/sub l/ = 0.37. In turn, our estimate of in situ rock-mass deformability was used to back-calculate in situ values for the normal stiffness of the granite joints. Our analysis of former stress measurements by the US Geological Survey (USGS) shows that the horizontal stresses in the vicinity of SFT-C vary greatly with azimuth. An unexplained feature of the stresses at SFT-C is the fact that the vertical stress appears to be only 65 to 75% of the calculated lithostatic burden. From the three-dimensional stress ellipsoid at mid-length in the tunnels, assuming a plane strain condition, we were able to estimate an in situ Poisson's ratio of the rock mass as ? = 0.246. Two other techniques were applied in an attempt to measure the stresses around the SFT-C heater and canister drifts: the undercoring method and the borehole jack fracturing approach. The former technique appears to have given reasonable estimates of tangential stresses in the roof of the heater drifts; the latter appears to give low results for stresses in the pillars. Specific recommendations are made for future tests to further characterize the mechanical properties of the Climax granite and the in situ stresses at SFT-C

  12. Groundwater restoration with in situ uranium leach mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ leach mining of uranium has developed into a major mining technology. Since 1975, when the first commercial mine was licensed in the United States, the percentage or uranium produced by in situ mining has steadily grown from 0.6 to 10 percent in 1980. Part of the reason for this growth is that in situ mining offers less initial capital investment, shorter start-up times, greater safety, and less labor than conventional mining methods. There is little disturbance of the surface terrain or surface waters, no mill tailings piles, and no large open pits, but in situ leaching mining does have environmental disadvantages. During the mining, large amounts of ground water are cirulated and there is some withdrawal from an area where aquifers constitute a major portion of the water supply for other purposes. When an ammonia-based leach system is used, the ammonium ion is introduced into an area where cation exchange on clays (and some production of nitrate) may occur. Also, injection of an oxidant with the leach solution causes valence and phase changes of indigenous elements such as As, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se, S, and V as well as U. Furthermore, the surrounding ground water can become contaminated by escape of the leach solution from the mining zone. This chapter presents an overview of the in situ mining technology, including uranium deposition, mining techniques, and ground water restoration alternatives. The latter part of the chapter covers the situation in South Texas. Economics and development of the industry, groundwater resources, regulation, and restoration activities are also reviewed