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Chemically enhanced in situ recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Sale, T. [CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States); Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K. [Surtek, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

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Modeling enhanced in situ denitrification in groundwater  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-dimensional numerical solute transport model was developed for simulating an enhanced in situ denitrification experiment performed in a nitrate-contaminated aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. In this experiment, formate (HCOO-) was injected for a period of 26 days into the carbon-limited aquifer to stimulate denitrification. Calibration of the vertical-profile site model was demonstrated through error analysis and comparison with formate, nitrate, and nitrite concentration data monitored along a transect of three multilevel groundwater sampling wells for 75 days after initial injection. Formate utilization rates were approximately 142 and 38 ??M/day for nitrate and nitrite reduction, respectively. Nitrate and nitrite utilization rates were approximately 29 and 8 ??M/day, respectively. Nitrate utilization rates under enhanced conditions were 1 order of magnitude greater than previously reported naturally occurring rates. The nitrite production rate was approximately 29 ??M/day. Persistence of nitrite was attributed to a combination of factors, including electron donor (formate) limitation late in the experiment, preferential utilization of nitrate as an electron acceptor, and greater nitrite production relative to nitrite utilization.

Killingstad, M.W.; Widdowson, M.A.; Smith, R.L.

2002-01-01

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In situ aromatization enhances breast tumor estradiol levels and cellular proliferation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high concentrations of estradiol (E2) found in breast tumors of postmenopausal women could be the result of enhanced uptake from plasma or in situ aromatization of androgens to estrogens. To test the relative importance of these two mechanisms, a model system allowing precise distinction between each is required. Such a model was established using aromatase (A+)- and sham (A-)-transfected MCF-7 cells inoculated into ovariectomized (OVX) nude mice. To validate the model, the confounding effect of peripheral aromatization was first excluded experimentally. A- cells were inoculated into OVX mice as homoimplants (A- cells on both flanks) or heteroimplants (A- cells on one flank and A+ cells on the other), and growth of A- cells in response to exogenous aromatase substrate, androstenedione (delta4A), was evaluated. A- cells did not grow in either group during the 8 weeks of observation, indicating the lack of peripheral aromatization in OVX mice. The biological effects of in situ aromatization were then directly examined. We found that A+ cells in the heteroimplant group grew rapidly, and that the average weight of A+ tumor was 7.6-fold larger and tissue E2 concentration was 3-4-fold higher than A- tumors grown in the same animals. These results demonstrate that in situ aromatization rather than uptake can be a determinant of tumor E2 content and growth stimulation. An additional experiment was then designed to evaluate the relative importance of in situ synthesis versus uptake under conditions reflecting postmenopausal physiology. Groups of OVX mice bearing A+ cells received E2 Silastic implants to clamp plasma levels at 5, 7, 10, and 20 pg/ml or delta4A by injection. The highest tumor E2 concentration and growth rate were found in the group receiving delta4A. E2 delivered by Silastic implants always produced lower tissue E2 levels and tumor growth rates than resulted from in situ synthesis. These data provide direct evidence that under physiological conditions reflecting those in postmenopausal women, in situ aromatization in breast tumor makes a major contribution to tissue E2 content. As further validation that our experimental paradigm models the postmenopausal state, we studied OVX animals not given delta4A as substrate. A+ cells also grew under these conditions, and the aromatase inhibitor 4-hydroxyandrostenedione reduced both tumor E2 level and growth rate, providing additional evidence of the importance of in situ synthesis. These studies provide the first direct evidence that in situ synthesis of E2 in breast tumors, as opposed to peripheral aromatization and uptake from plasma, can enhance tissue E2 levels and stimulate tumor growth. PMID:9500452

Yue, W; Wang, J P; Hamilton, C J; Demers, L M; Santen, R J

1998-03-01

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IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration...

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IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC., - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration...

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Passive in-situ cometabolic biotreatment of gasoline and diesel in soil and groundwater: An electrokinetic enhanced bioremediation case history  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of passive in-situ biotreatment of gasoline and diesel conducted at the subject facility in Hayward, California. Past spills of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels from an underground storage tank farm caused soil and shallow groundwater contamination in the clayey Bay Mud. The soil contamination was limited to a depth of about 10 feet with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration of 100 to 3,900 ppm. Due to the low permeability of the clayey Bay Mud, a passive in-situ biotreatment (PISB) system was designed and implemented for both soil and groundwater plumes. The PISB consisted of a system of electrokinetic, oxygen, nutrient and moisture enhancement units covering the soil and groundwater plumes. The electrokinetic system was installed to promote rapid migration of nutrient oxidant between electrodes to enhance the in-situ biodegradation processes. The gasoline and diesel in soil was remediated to less than 100 ppm of TPH. The TPH in groundwater was remediated to less than 10 ppm of TPH. The TPH in groundwater was remediated to less than 10 ppm. The groundwater remediation is in progress and the target cleanup levels were to be less than 10 ppm TPH and BTEX to less than 0.005, 1.0, 0.7 and 10.0 ppm respectively which are all below the MCL under the EPA primary drinking water standard. The total duration of this PISB was completed in less than 4 weeks

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Engineering natural materials as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates for in situ molecular sensing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful analytical tool. However, its applications for in situ detection of target molecules presented on diverse material surfaces have been hindered by difficulties in rapid fabricating SERS-active substrates on the surfaces of these materials through a simple, low-cost, and portable approach. Here, we demonstrate our attempt to address this issue by developing a facile and versatile method capable of in situ generating silver nanoparticle film (SNF) on the surfaces of both artificial and natural materials in a simple, cheap, practical, and disposable manner. Taking advantage of the high SERS enhancement ability of the prepared SNF, the proposed strategy can be used for in situ inspecting herbicide and pesticide residues on vegetables, as well as the abuse of antiseptic in aquaculture industry. Therefore, it opens new avenues for advancing the application prospects of SERS technique in the fields of food safety, drug security, as well as environment monitoring. PMID:23170894

Liu, Xiaojuan; Zong, Chenghua; Ai, Kelong; He, Wenhui; Lu, Lehui

2012-12-01

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DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) is designed to remove volatile compounds such as halogenated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons, and semi-volatile compounds from contaminated soils in situ. The vapor pressures of most contaminants will increase by the addition of ste...

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Enhancement of in situ microbial remediation of aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods are provided for remediating subsurface areas contaminated by toxic organic compounds. An innocuous oil, such as vegetable oil, mineral oil, or other immiscible organic liquid, is introduced into the contaminated area and permitted to move therethrough. The oil concentrates or strips the organic contaminants, such that the concentration of the contaminants is reduced and such contaminants are available to be either pumped out of the subsurface area or metabolized by microorganisms. Microorganisms may be introduced into the contaminated area to effect bioremediation of the contamination. The methods may be adapted to deliver microorganisms, enzymes, nutrients and electron donors to subsurface zones contaminated by nitrate in order to stimulate or enhance denitrification. 4 figures.

Fredrickson, J.K.; Brockman, F.J.; Streile, G.P.; Cary, J.W.; McBride, J.F.

1993-11-30

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In situ microbial systems for the enhancement of oil recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microbial Enhancement of Oil Recovery (MEOR) offers important new opportunities in the quest for increased oil production. It refers not to a single technique but rather to a collection of methodologies, analogous to parallel non-microbiological methods. MEOR has relevance for many type of production and reservoir problems detailed protocols: may be tailored specifically to a range of individual reservoir conditions. Microorganisms downhole can generate a wide variety of chemical products from inexpensive feed stocks: where these are more cost-effective than oil field chemicals injected from the surface, microbial methods may win widespread acceptance. MEOR methods must be defined precisely; in any particular reservoir procedure their proposed mechanism of action must be clearly understood and criteria established for evaluating their success. The most important applications for MEOR are 1) the production f insoluble or highly viscous polymer to control coning or to plug selectively high permeability thief zones and fractures, 2) the continuous generation of the active agents for polymer-and/or surfactant floods, 3) matrix acidisation and acid fracturing in carbonate rocks stimulate flows into production wells. All these approaches are currently actively been explored; several programmes for field-testing microbial EOR methods already exist, or are being readied, and rapid progress is likely within the next few years. (author)

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Engineering an in situ crosslinkable hydrogel for enhanced remyelination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Remyelination has to occur to fully regenerate injured spinal cords or brain tissues. A growing body of evidence has suggested that exogenous cell transplantation is one promising strategy to promote remyelination. However, direct injection of neural stem cells or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the lesion site may not be an optimal therapeutic strategy due to poor viability and functionality of transplanted cells resulted from the local hostile tissue environment. The overall objective of this study was to engineer an injectable biocompatible hydrogel system as a supportive niche to provide a regeneration permissive microenvironment for transplanted OPCs to survive, functionally differentiate, and remyelinate central nervous system (CNS) lesions. A highly biocompatible hydrogel, based on thiol-functionalized hyaluronic acid and thiol-functionalized gelatin, which can be crosslinked by poly-(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), was used. These hydrogels were optimized first regarding cell adhesive properties and mechanical properties to best support the growth properties of OPCs in culture. Transplanted OPCs with the hydrogels optimized in vitro exhibited enhanced survival and oligodendrogenic differentiation and were able to remyelinate demyelinated axons inside ethidium bromide (EB) demyelination lesion in adult spinal cord. This study provides a new possible therapeutic approach to treat CNS injuries in which cell therapies may be essential. PMID:23239823

Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Cui, Lin; Brunson, Christopher; Zhao, Wen; Bhat, Narayan R; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Xuejun

2013-03-01

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An integrated numerical and physical modeling system for an enhanced in situ bioremediation process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater contamination due to releases of petroleum products is a major environmental concern in many urban districts and industrial zones. Over the past years, a few studies were undertaken to address in situ bioremediation processes coupled with contaminant transport in two- or three-dimensional domains. However, they were concentrated on natural attenuation processes for petroleum contaminants or enhanced in situ bioremediation processes in laboratory columns. In this study, an integrated numerical and physical modeling system is developed for simulating an enhanced in situ biodegradation (EISB) process coupled with three-dimensional multiphase multicomponent flow and transport simulation in a multi-dimensional pilot-scale physical model. The designed pilot-scale physical model is effective in tackling natural attenuation and EISB processes for site remediation. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed system is effective in modeling the EISB process, and can thus be used for investigating the effects of various uncertainties. - An integrated modeling system was developed to enhance in situ bioremediation processes

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An integrated numerical and physical modeling system for an enhanced in situ bioremediation process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Groundwater contamination due to releases of petroleum products is a major environmental concern in many urban districts and industrial zones. Over the past years, a few studies were undertaken to address in situ bioremediation processes coupled with contaminant transport in two- or three-dimensional domains. However, they were concentrated on natural attenuation processes for petroleum contaminants or enhanced in situ bioremediation processes in laboratory columns. In this study, an integrated numerical and physical modeling system is developed for simulating an enhanced in situ biodegradation (EISB) process coupled with three-dimensional multiphase multicomponent flow and transport simulation in a multi-dimensional pilot-scale physical model. The designed pilot-scale physical model is effective in tackling natural attenuation and EISB processes for site remediation. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed system is effective in modeling the EISB process, and can thus be used for investigating the effects of various uncertainties. - An integrated modeling system was developed to enhance in situ bioremediation processes.

Huang, Y.F. [Institute of River and Coastal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, G.H. [Sino-Canada Center of Energy and Environmental Research, North China Electric Power University, Bejing 102206 (China) and Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)]. E-mail: huang@iseis.org; Wang, G.Q. [Institute of River and Coastal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lin, Q.G. [Sino-Canada Center of Energy and Environmental Research, North China Electric Power University, Bejing 102206 (China); Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Chakma, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2006-12-15

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First Steps of in Situ Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering During Shipboard Experiments  

OpenAIRE

It is shown that the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique can be applied to detect organic molecules during in situ experiments. To this purpose, we used trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (BPE) as a target molecule. Adsorbed on the SERS chemosensor surface and excited under laser, the vibration modes of the molecules can be identified. SERS chemosensors are based on quartz substrates functionalized by silanization and partially coated with gold nanoparticles. SERS measurements du...

Peron, Olivier; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Colas, Florent; Lehaitre, Michel; Compere, Chantal

2010-01-01

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Enhancing the design of in situ chemical barriers with multicomponent reactive transport modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the need for systematic control of field-scale performance in the emplacement and operation of in situ chemical treatment barriers; in particular, it addresses the issue of how the local coupling of reaction kinetics and material heterogeneities at the laboratory or bench scale can be accurately upscaled to the field. The authors have recently developed modeling analysis tools that can explicitly account for all relevant chemical reactions that accompany the transport of reagents and contaminants through a chemically and physically heterogeneous subsurface rock or soil matrix. These tools are incorporated into an enhanced design methodology for in situ chemical treatment technologies, and the new methodology is demonstrated in the ongoing design of a field experiment for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) project at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The ISRM design approach, which systematically integrates bench-scale and site characterization information, provides an ideal test for the new reactive transport techniques. The need for the enhanced chemistry capability is demonstrated by an example that shows how intra-aqueous redox kinetics can affect the transport of reactive solutes. Simulations are carried out on massively parallel computer architectures to resolve the influence of multiscale heterogeneities on multicomponent, multidimensional reactive transport. The technology will soon be available to design larger-scale remediation schemes

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Changes in normal and abnormal colony formation of thyroid cells in vivo, when transplanted at 1 day or 6 weeks after X-irradiation in situ  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid cells were given 5.5 Gy X-rays in situ and transplanted after 1 day or after 6 weeks to form colonies in fat pads. The colony-forming efficiency unexpectedly decreased by a factor of about 2 with this increase in delay time before transplantation. In addition, there was a concomitant marked increase above the control levels in the proportion of new structures of thyroid origin containing abnormal follicles. These quantitative and qualitative increases in injury may be related to the gradual expression of thyroid abnormalities following irradiation in situ, and they may have implications for the recovery of functional tissue subunits in other organs. (author)

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Observations of in-situ generated gravity waves during a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE event  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evidence for in situ generated atmospheric gravity waves associated with a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE are presented. The signatures of two sets of gravity waves are observed by molecular-aerosol lidar in conjunction with the early December 2000 STE event above Sondrestrom, Greenland. The first set of gravity waves shows downward phase progression with a vertical wavelength of ~8 km while the second set shows upward phase progression with a vertical wavelength of ~9 km. With estimates of the background wind fields from synoptic analyses, the various intrinsic gravity wave parameters of these two wave structures are found. The observed wave features compare well to previous numerical modeling predictions.

A. J. Gerrard

2011-11-01

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Controlled in situ nanoscale enhancement of gold nanowire arrays with plasmonics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The controlled in situ growth of ordered gold nanoparticles and nanowire arrays has been studied by optically tracking changes in the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectrum. A spectrometer and custom-programmed analysis software track changes in the LSPR spectrum. The peak position, peak height (i.e. extinction intensity) and peak width (e.g. radius of curvature) were tracked over time to quantify the dynamic growth of gold as soon as the system was exposed to a commercial gold enhancement solution. This enables the controlled dynamic growth of nano-objects without the necessity of characterizing the growth and aggregation kinetics of the gold enhancement solution. The result was the successful enhancement of their electrically conductive and plasmonic properties, as well as the controlled growth and transformation of line-patterned nanoparticles into conductive particle-based nanowires.

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Integrated modelling of enhanced in situ biodenitrification in a fractured aquifer: biogeochemistry and isotope geochemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced in-situ biodenitrification is a feasible technology to recovery groundwater polluted by nitrates and achieves drinking water standards. Under optimum conditions, nitrate is reduced by autochthonous bacteria trough different reactions until arrive to harmless dinitrogen gas. Isotopic fractionation monitoring in field applications allows knowing the exact degree and the real scope of this technology. Using the Rayleigh equation the change in the isotope ratio of the nitrate molecule (?15N-NO3-, ?18O-NO3-) is related to the fraction of molecules remaining as a result of biodenitrification. However, Rayleigh application at field scale is sometimes limited due to other processes involved during groundwater flow such as dispersion or adsorption and geological media heterogeneities that interferes in concentration values. Then, include isotope fractionation processes in reactive transport models is a useful tool to interpret and predict data from in-situ biodenitrification. We developed a reactive transport model of enhanced in situ application at field scale in a fractured aquifer that considers biogeochemical processes as well as isotope fractionation to enable better monitoring and management of this technology. Processes considered were: microbiological- exogenous and endogenous nitrate and sulfate respiration coupled with microbial growth and decay, geochemical reactions (precipitation of calcite) and isotopic fractionation (?15N-NO3-; ?18O- NO3- and carbon isotope network). The 2-D simulations at field scale were developed using PHAST code. Modeling of nitrate isotope geochemistry has allowed determining the extent of biodenitrification in model domain. We have quantified which is the importance in decreasing of nitrate concentrations due to biodegradation (percentage of biodegradation, 'B%') and due to dilution process (percentage of dilution, 'D%'). On the other hand, the stable carbon isotope geochemistry has been modeled. We have considered the isotopic carbon fractionation of different carbon species involved in enhanced biodenitrification: external organic carbon, biomass, inorganic carbon (in different forms) and calcite. The inclusion of carbon isotopes in the model, which are involved in both direct (oxidation of organic carbon) and indirect (carbonate mineral interaction) processes of enhanced biodenitrification, improves the evaluation of the overall model consistency due to the central role of carbon in the reaction network.

Rodríguez-Escales, Paula; Folch, Albert; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Vidal-Gavilan, Georgina; Soler, Albert

2014-05-01

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Multiwalled carbon nanotubes enhance electrochemical properties of titanium to determine in situ bone formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) enhance osteoblast (bone-forming cell) calcium deposition compared to currently implanted materials (such as titanium). In this study, MWCNTs were grown out of nanopores anodized on titanium (MWCNT-Ti). The electrochemical responses of MWCNT-Ti were investigated in an attempt to ascertain if MWCNT-Ti can serve as novel in situ sensors of bone formation. For this purpose, MWCNT-Ti was subjected to a ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple and its electrochemical behavior measured. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed an enhanced redox potential for the MWCNT-Ti. These redox signals were superior to that obtained with bare unmodified Ti, which did not sense either oxidation or reduction peaks in the CVs. A further objective of this study was to investigate the redox reactions of MWCNT-Ti in a solution of extracellular components secreted by osteoblasts in vitro. It was found that MWCNT-Ti exhibited well-defined and persistent CVs, similar to the ferri/ferrocyanide redox reaction. The higher electrodic performance and electrocatalytic activity of the MWCNT-Ti compared to the bare titanium observed in this study were likely due to the fact that MWCNTs enhanced direct electron transfer and facilitated double-layer effects, leading to a strong redox signal. Thus these results encourage the further study and modification of MWCNT-Ti to sense new bone growth in situ next to orthopedic implants and perhaps monitor other events (such as infection and/or harmful scar tissue formation) to improve the current clinical diagnosis of orthopedic implants. PMID:21730595

Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Webster, Thomas J

2008-07-23

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Fiber-optic remote sensor for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An in situ SERS fiber-optic system for remote sensing was developed for exciting and collecting surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals generated from a sensing probe having silver-coated microparticles deposited on a glass plate support. The geometry of the excitation and collection fibers is a head-on arrangement, with the fibers on opposite sides of the SERS substrate and with the angle between the fibers equal to 180{degree}. Remote measurements are performed with the SERS probe and the collection fibers immersed in the analyte solution. The analytical data relevant to the performance of the SERS fiber-optic system, such as spectral characteristics, limits of detection, signal response, and temporal behavior, are described.

Bello, J.M.; Narayanan, V.A.; Stokes, D.L.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA))

1990-11-15

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Observations of in-situ generated gravity waves during a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE event  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Observations of in-situ generated atmospheric gravity waves associated with a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE are presented. Two sets of gravity waves are observed by molecular-aerosol lidar in conjunction with the early December 2000 STE event above Sondrestrom, Greenland. The first set of gravity waves shows downward phase progression with a vertical wavelength of ~8 km while the second set shows upward phase progression with a vertical wavelength of ~9 km. With estimates of the background wind fields from synoptic analyses, the various intrinsic gravity wave parameters of these two wave structures are found. The observed waves compare well to numerical modeling predictions, though the potential observation of a downward propagating wave would be unexpected.

A. J. Gerrard

2011-05-01

23

In situ growth of matchlike ZnO/Au plasmonic heterostructure for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we report a novel matchlike zinc oxide (ZnO)/gold (Au) heterostructure with plasmonic-enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) activity for solar hydrogen production. The matchlike heterostructure with Au nanoparticles coated on the tip of ZnO nanorods is in situ grown on a zinc (Zn) substrate by using a facile hydrothermal and photoreduction combined approach. This unique heterostructure exhibits plasmonic-enhanced light absorption, efficient charge separation and transportation properties with tunable Au contents. The photocurrent density of the matchlike ZnO/Au heterostructure reaches 9.11 mA/cm(2) at an applied potential of 1.0 V (vs Ag/AgCl) with an Au/Zn atomic ratio of 0.039, which is much higher than that of the pristine ZnO nanorod array (0.33 mA/cm(2)). Moreover, the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of this special heterostructure can reach 0.48%, 16 times higher than that of the pristine ZnO nanorod array (0.03%). What is more, the efficiency could be further improved by optimizing the Au content of the heterostructure. The formation mechanism of such a unique heterostructure is proposed to explain the plasmonic-enhanced PEC performance. This study might contribute to the rational design of the visible-light-responsive plasmonic semiconductor/metal heterostructure photoanode to harvest the solar spectrum. PMID:25144940

Wu, Mi; Chen, Wei-Jian; Shen, Yu-Hua; Huang, Fang-Zhi; Li, Chuan-Hao; Li, Shi-Kuo

2014-09-10

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ENHANCEMENT OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE PULP BY IN-SITU FILLER PRECIPITATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate in bagasse fibers resulted in a very significant increase in specific scattering coefficient and consequently large improvements in opacity and brightness of the handsheets made from such pulp. At the same level of filler loading, the scattering coefficient of in-situ precipitated pulp was much greater than for directly loaded pulp. In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate caused a drop in strength properties of bagasse pulp, but such loss could be recovered to a large extent by blending with other pulps. The effect of in-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate on pulp fibers was quite different for bagasse pulp from hardwood pulp. In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate on hardwood fibers showed neither much improvement in optical properties nor much reduction in strength properties.

Pradeep Kumar

25

In situ surface chemical modification of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes for enhanced organic fouling resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane-based water separation process with potential applications in a host of environmental and industrial processes. Nevertheless, membrane fouling remains a technical obstacle affecting this technology, increasing operating costs and decreasing membrane life. This work presents the first fabrication of an antifouling thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane by an in situ technique without postfabrication treatment. The membrane was fabricated and modified in situ, grafting Jeffamine, an amine-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) derivative, to dangling acyl chloride surface groups on the nascent polyamide active layer. Surface characterization by contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and fluorescence microscopy, confirms the presence of Jeffamine on the membrane surface. We demonstrate the improved fouling resistance of the in situ modified membranes through accelerated dynamic fouling FO experiments using a synthetic wastewater feed solution at high concentration (250 mg/L) of alginate, a model macromolecule for the hydrophilic fraction of wastewater effluent organic matter. Our results show a significantly lower flux decline for the in situ modified membranes compared to pristine polyamide (14.3 ± 2.7% vs 2.8 ± 1.4%, respectively). AFM adhesion force measurements between the membrane and a carboxylate-modified latex particle, a surrogate for the organic (alginate) foulant, show weaker foulant-membrane interactions, further confirming the enhanced fouling resistance of the in situ modified membranes. PMID:24066902

Lu, Xinglin; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Shaffer, Devin L; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

2013-11-01

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Enhanced arsenic removal by in situ formed Fe-Mn binary oxide in the aeration-direct filtration process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of an in situ formed Fe-Mn binary oxide (in situ FMBO) for improving arsenic (As) removal in the aeration-direct filtration process. The transformation and transportation of As, Fe, and Mn in the filter bed were also investigated. The in situ FMBO increased the As removal efficiency by 20-50% to keep the residual As below 10 ?g/L. The optimum FMBO dosage was determined to be 0.55 mg/L with the Fe/Mn ratio as 10:1. The removal of Fe, Mn, turbidity, and particles was also improved to a large extent. The in situ FMBO favored the transformation of soluble As, Fe, and Mn into the solid phases, benefiting the removal of these pollutants by the subsequent filtration. Moreover, the deposited precipitates onto the filter media were characterized, as indicated by the analyses of SEM/EDS and particle size distribution. The long-term experiments exhibited decreased head loss growth and prolonged run length, suggesting an enhanced pollutant catching capacity of the filter media. The full-scale field study with a flow of 10,000 m3/d confirmed positive effects of in situ FMBO on As removal, with the average effluent As concentration reduced from 20 ?g/L to 6 ?g/L (reagent cost=0.006 ¥/m3). PMID:23017236

Wu, Kun; Liu, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hui-Juan; Lan, Hua-Chun; Qu, Jiu-Hui

2012-11-15

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Identification of bacteria used for microbial enhanced oil recovery process by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was developed for rapid detection of microorganisms for use in the microbial enhancement of oil recovery (MEOR) process. Two microorganisms, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322 and Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, were selected from a collection of Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. which were screened in previous studies as candidate microorganisms for injection, and were used for this experiment. Oligonucleotide probes, design based on specific sequences in the 16S rRNA gene were labeled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), or 6-car-boxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), and were allowed to hybridize with fixed cells of the two microorganisms noted above. The fluorescence signal emitted from each microorganism cells could clearly be detected by an epifluorescence microscope. Moreover, E. cloacae TRC-322 and B, licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, suspended in actual reservoir brine, including inorganic salts, oil and aboriginal cells of the reservoir brine, could be detected directly by this hybridization method, without the need for cultivation and isolation. (author)

Fujiwara, K.; Tanaka, S.; Otsuka, M. [Kansai Research Institute, Kyoto (Japan). Lifescience Lab.; Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

2000-01-01

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The potential of Bacillus licheniformis strains for in situ enhanced oil recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ability of microorganisms isolated from oil reservoirs to increase oil recovery by in situ growth and metabolism following the injection of laboratory grown microbial cells and nutrients were studied. Four strains isolated from Northern German oil reservoirs at depths of 866 to 1520 m, and identified as Bacillus licheniformis, were characterized taxonomically and physiologically. All strains grew on a variety of substrates at temperatures of up to 55C and at salinities of up to 12% NaCl. Extracellular polymer production occurred both aerobically and anaerobically over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and salinities, though it was optimal at temperatures around 50C and at salinities between 5 and 10% NaCl. Strain BNP29 was able to produce significant amounts of biomass, polymer, fermentation alcohols and acids in batch culture experiments under simulated reservoir conditions. Oil recovery (core flooding) experiments with strain BNP29 and a sucrose-based nutrient were performed with lime-free and lime-containing, oil-bearing sandstone cores. Oil recovery efficiencies varied from 9.3 to 22.1% of the water flood residual oil saturation. Biogenic acid production that accompanied oil production, along with selective plugging, are important mechanisms leading to increased oil recovery, presumably through resulting changes in rock porosity and alteration of wettability. These data show that strain BNP29 exhibits potential for the development of enhanced oil recovery processes

Yakimov, Michail M.; Timmis, Kenneth N. [Microbial Ecology Group, Division of Microbiology, GBF-National Research Centre for Biotechnology, Braunschweig (Germany); Amro, Mohammed M.; Kessel, Dagobert G. [German Petroleum Institute, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Bock, Michael; Boseker, Klaus [BGR, Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Fredrickson, Herbert L. [Environmental Laboratory, Waterways Experimental Station, USAGE, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1997-07-15

29

CNTs in Situ Attached to ?-Fe2O3 Submicron Spheres for Enhancing Lithium Storage Capacity.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we developed a facile hydrothermal method for synthesis of hybrid ?-Fe2O3-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) architectures (?-Fe2O3-CNTs-1 and ?-Fe2O3-CNTs-2). The CNTs are in situ attached to the ?-Fe2O3 submicron spheres and form three-dimensional network robust architectures. The increase in the amount of CNTs in the network ?-Fe2O3-CNTs architectures will significantly enhance the cycling and rate performance, as the flexible and robust CNTs could ensure the fast electron transport pathways, enhance the electronic conductivity, and improve the structural stability of the electrode. As for pure ?-Fe2O3 submicron spheres, the capacity decreased significantly and retained at 377.4 mAh g(-1) after 11 cycles, and the capacity has a slightly increasing trend at the following cycling. In contrast, the network ?-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 electrode shows the most remarkable performance. At the 60th cycle, the capacity of network ?-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 (764.5 mAh g(-1)) is 1.78 times than that of ?-Fe2O3 submicron spheres (428.3 mAh g(-1)). The long-term cycling performance (1000 cycles) of samples at a high current density of 5 C showed that the capacity of ?-Fe2O3 submicron spheres fade to ?37.3 mAh g(-1) at the 400th cycle and gradually increased to ?116.7 mAh g(-1) at the 1000th cycle. The capacity of network ?-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 maintained at ?220.2 mAh g(-1) before the 400th cycle, arrived at ?326.5 mAh g(-1) in the 615th, cycle and retained this value until 1000th cycle. The network ?-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 composite could significantly enhance the cycling and rate performance than pure ?-Fe2O3 submicron spheres composite. PMID:25490394

Gao, Guo; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Qiu, Peiyu; Sun, Rongjin; Yin, Ting; Cui, Daxiang

2015-01-14

30

In Situ High Temperature Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for the Study of Interface Phenomena: Probing a Solid Acid on Alumina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Herein, we utilize surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for the in situ analyses of catalyst structure while operating at elevated temperatures in various atmospheres. In order to accomplish this, robust SERS substrates were generated by depositing an ultrathin protective coating of alumina on top of silver nanowires (NWs) via atomic layer deposition (ALD). In situ studies were then conducted by analyzing the effects of heating a solid acid, phosphotungstic acid (PTA), on the alumina surface in either an oxygen or hydrogen environment at temperatures up to 400 C. Interestingly, the distance-dependent decay of the enhancement factor of the SERS signal from the underlying NWs allowed us to probe with great detail the interfacial region between the PTA and the alumina surface. The ability to analyze the area closest to the alumina surface was further confirmed by assembling vanadia onto the substrate and monitoring the intensity differences between the V-O-Al and outer V = O bonds.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Formo, Eric V [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL

2011-01-01

31

Liquid Perfluorodecalin Application for In Situ Extraction and Enhanced Naphthoquinones Production in Arnebia euchroma Cell Suspension Cultures  

OpenAIRE

Suspension cultures of Arnebia euchroma supported with liquid perfluorodecalin (PFD) degassed, aerated, or ethylene-saturated were investigated as a novel in situ extraction system for enhanced alkannin/shikonin production. Simultaneously, the effect of PFD applied as the liquid gas carrier on the growth of A. euchroma biomass was studied. The similar dry (4-fold) and fresh (7-fold) biomass increase was observed in the control (without PFD addition) and supplemented with PFD-degassed or PFD-a...

Syk?owska-baranek, Katarzyna; Pilarek, Maciej; Cichosz, Micha?; Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka

2014-01-01

32

Enhancing the mechanical properties of cement paste by growing in-situ fiber reinforcement during hydration  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to improve the mechanical properties of concrete by modifying the cement paste matrix have focused entirely on strength enhancement. But the intrinsic brittleness of the cement paste matrix limits the possible improvement in the mechanical properties of concrete, and in particular the toughness of the material. Increasing the toughness of the cement paste matrix could lead to a reduction in flaw sensitivity by delaying unstable crack propagation. Consequently, the resistance of the material to cracking due to drying shrinkage, thermal shrinkage, expansive deterioration processes, and applied loads could increase considerably. The goal of this study was to grow in-situ fiber reinforcement in cement paste, a technique never before applied to cement-based materials, to enhance the toughness of the material. Ettringite, an existing, fiber-like hydration product was selected as the fiber reinforcement. Ettringite met all the necessary criteria to act as reinforcement in cement paste: adequate distribution in the matrix; adjustable volume fraction, aspect ratio and size; high stiffness along the fiber length; and finally compatibility with existing hydration products. Alkali-free accelerators were selected as the admixtures used to grow the ettringite in the cement paste. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy experiments were performed to study the volume fraction, distribution, size, and morphology of the ettringite crystals in the cement paste matrix (both plain and accelerator-containing). Mechanical tests (compression, splitting tension, flexural, compact tension) were used to evaluate the effect of the accelerators on the strength and toughness of cement paste. Microindentations on the surface of the cement paste matrix were performed to study the morphology of the cracks and the toughening mechanisms taking place. Through the characterization tests we identified that while more ettringite forms with the addition of the alkali-free accelerators, some of that ettringite forms in highly-porous inclusions distributed throughout the matrix. The compact tension specimen results showed that the accelerated specimens had a higher toughness and ductility compared to the control specimens. The dominant toughening mechanism identified was constrained microcracking, with the ettringite inclusions contributing to microcracking.

Constantinides, Margarita

33

A competitive photoelectrochemical assay for estradiol based on in situ generated CdS-enhanced TiO2.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel and simple photoelectrochemical (PEC) bioassay protocol for estradiol was proposed based on in situ generated CdS-enhanced TiO2 film via competitive strategy. The CdS was generated in situ by immediately dropping S(2-) onto the Cd(2+)-functionalized titanium phosphate nanoparticles (TiP@Cd(2+)). The TiO2 photoactive sensing film with countless active sites was obtained by calcination and further explored for estradiol (E2) capture. The TiP@Cd(2+) was used as labels and immobilized through affinity-specific binding with E2 on the surface of the electrode. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved by using porous TiP nanoparticles as carriers to load a large amount of Cd(2+) and further for more CdS production through the S(2-) deposition. What's more, the photocurrent of CdS generated on the electrode surface could be significantly amplified by the coupling of CdS and TiO2, which could enhance the excitation and photo-to-electric conversion efficiency. Through the application of a competitive binding assay, the proposed biosensor showed high sensitivity with a detection limit down to 2pg/mL. This simple and fast PEC E2-sensing approach offers great promise to extend its application for the assay of small molecules of biomedical, food and environmental interest. Additionally, the strategy of employing in situ generated narrow-band gap semiconductors paves a new way for PEC sensing. PMID:25530540

Li, Rongxia; Liu, Yixin; Yan, Tao; Li, Yueyun; Cao, Wei; Wei, Qin; Du, Bin

2015-04-15

34

Interactive oxidation-reduction reaction for the in situ synthesis of graphene-phenol formaldehyde composites with enhanced properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a facile in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-phenol formaldehyde (PF) composites with an interactive oxidation-reduction reaction. In this interactive chemical reaction, graphene oxide (GO) was reduced to RGO by phenol, and simultaneously phenol was oxidized to benzoquinone. The noncovalently adsorbed phenol on the RGO surface can not only serve as an effective reductant but also participate in the in situ polymerization and guide the formation of PF on the RGO surface. RGO-PF composites with different RGO contents were prepared successfully and further characterized with fluorescent spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and thermal resistance of the created RGO-PF were investigated. The results indicated that the dispersity of RGO in the PF matrix and the interfacial interaction between RGO and PF were improved greatly because of formation of the RGO-PF hybrid in the in situ synthesis. The homogeneous dispersion and in situ polymerization of RGO sheets help to enhance the thermal conductivity of RGO-PF composites from 0.1477 to 0.3769 W m(-1) K(-1) and endow the composites with a good electrical conductivity. In addition, the well-dispersed RGO-PF composites are much more effective in improving their mechanical property and heat resistance. PMID:24588055

Zhao, Xiaojia; Li, Yang; Wang, Jinhui; Ouyang, Zhaofei; Li, Jingfeng; Wei, Gang; Su, Zhiqiang

2014-03-26

35

Prospects for Enhancing In Situ CO2 Mineralization in the Peridotite Aquifer of the Samail Ophiolite  

Science.gov (United States)

The mantle peridotite section of the Samail Ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman is a site of exceptionally well-developed, naturally occurring in situ CO2 mineralization and serves as a natural analog to an enhanced process. The evolution of groundwater along the CO2 mineralization pathway in ultramafic rocks is generally thought to follow a progression from surface water to shallow Mg-HCO3 groundwater to deep, alkaline Ca-OH groundwater [e.g., 1-3], but the timescale for this evolution is not known. In order to assess the prospects for an enhanced CO2 mineralization process, we must first have a better understanding of the time necessary to attain natural CO2 mineralization, as well as the rate-limiting factors for the natural process. To that end, a reactive transport model was developed to simulate water-rock interaction during the natural CO2 mineralization process in the peridotite of the Samail Ophiolite aquifer. The model was created using the geochemical code EQ3/6 v.8.0 4, and it tracks a two stage process in which surface water first interacts with peridotite in a shallow aquifer open to atmosphere, and then progresses to a closed system in which the water interacts with peridotite isolated from the atmosphere. The incorporation of dissolution kinetics for the primary minerals in peridotite allowed for an estimate of the time required for water to evolve to the extent seen in the field. Model results suggest that it may take less than 50 years to develop the shallow Mg-HCO3 water, but up to 5,600 years to form the deeper, alkaline Ca-OH water. Rock and water chemistry collected from the Samail Ophiolite and its aquifer were used to calibrate the model. The modeled water chemistry is in agreement with that seen in the field, suggesting that the model offers a fair representation of the natural CO2 mineralization process. The natural system model indicates that CO2 availability is the limiting factor for mineralization in the subsurface, so the model was expanded to include CO2 injection scenarios to determine if increasing the supply could enhance the rate of CO2 mineralization. Model results show that CO2 injection at 100 bar pCO2 and ambient temperature (30oC) would result in a 40x increase in CO2 mineralization over a 30 year period, while injection at 90oC would result in a 3,600x increase in mineralization. Thus far, these model results do not include hydrogeological parameters for the system. Porosity and permeability, and their change with secondary mineralization, may affect the injectivity of CO2 into the aquifer, so they should be included when modeling CO2 injection. However, permeability and porosity in fractured rock aquifers are notoriously complex and remain poorly constrained for the peridotite of the Samail Ophiolite; these parameters warrant further study prior to their inclusion in a model. Results from permeability tests on peridotite cores from the Samail Ophiolite will be presented, with emphasis on how these measurements contribute to our understanding of the potential for enhanced CO2 mineralization in the peridotite of the Samail Ophiolite aquifer. 1Barnes and O'Neil, 1969; 2Stanger, 1986; 3Bruni et al., 2002; 4Wolery and Jarek, 2003

Paukert, A. N.; Matter, J. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Shock, E.; Havig, J. R.

2011-12-01

36

IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column returned to aerobic conditions, but the concentration later returned to below the clean-up level. Speciation analysis was conducted on soil collected from the treated column after rebound testing. The experimental results show that: (a) The mass of uranium resolubilized in more than four months of column testing was much lower than the amount precipitated. (b) The majority of the uranium was precipitated in the first few inches of the treated column. The majority of the uranium precipitated was associated with iron oxides or in other immobile/sequestered phases. It is important to contrast this result with the results reported by Bryan (2003) who shows that most of the uranium associated with contaminated aquifer solids at Fernald under the existing natural attenuation/pump and treat with reinjection conditions is carbonate bound. Carbonate bound forms are traditionally seen as fairly mobile, but may not be under a calcite/dolomite saturated condition. Fernald is currently conducting further studies to investigate the mobility of the carbonate bound forms. (c) Though reoxidation concentrations from the bench-scale column exceeded 30 {micro}g/L for a time, they later returned to below this value. Effluent concentrations from the treated column are expected to over predict full-scale concentrations for reasons discussed in depth in the text. Finally, these results must be viewed in light of the site's ongoing pump-and-treat with reinjection system. There is reason to believe that although the pump-and-treat technology is currently effectively controlling the uranium plume and reducing the groundwater concentration, it may not be able to reach the treatment standard of 30 {micro}g/L within an economical operating lifetime and then maintain that concentration without rebound. This study suggests that Enhanced Anaerobic Reductive Precipitation can change the speciation and thus reduce the mobility of uranium at the site and expedite closure.

Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

2003-08-01

37

The use of non-uniform electrokinetics to enhance in situ bioremediation of phenol-contaminated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ bioremediation is an attractive and often cost-effective technology for the cleanup of organics-contaminated sites, but it often requires extended treatment time under field conditions. This study explored the feasibility of using non-uniform electrokinetic transport processes to enhance in situ bioremediation. A bench-scale non-uniform electrokinetic system with periodic polarity-reversal was developed for this purpose, and tested by using a sandy loam spiked with phenol as a model organic pollutant. The results demonstrated that non-uniform electrokinetic processes could accelerate the movement and in situ biodegradation of phenol in the soil. Bidirectional operation enhanced the phenol biodegradation more effectively than unidirectional operation. At the same time, a smaller polarity-reversing interval induced a higher and more uniform removal of phenol from the soil. The results also showed that reversing the polarity of electric field applied could maintain the soil pH and moisture, but it increased the consumption of electricity. PMID:15885421

Luo, Qishi; Zhang, Xihui; Wang, Hui; Qian, Yi

2005-05-20

38

In situ growth rate measurements during plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotube films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ laser reflectivity measurements are used to monitor the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films grown by DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) from an iron catalyst film deposited on a silicon wafer. In contrast to thermal CVD growth, there is no initial increase in the growth rate; instead, the initial growth rate is high (as much as 10 ?m min-1) and then drops off rapidly to reach a steady level (2 ?m min-1) for times beyond 1 min. We show that a limiting factor for growing thick films of multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs) using PECVD can be the formation of an amorphous carbon layer at the top of the growing nanotubes. In situ reflectivity measurements provide a convenient technique for detecting the onset of the growth of this layer

39

MICROCOSM AND IN SITU FIELD STUDIES OF ENHANCED BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY PHENOL-UTILIZING MICROORGANISMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of different aerobic groundwater microorganisms to cometabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), and 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene (t-DCE) was evaluated both in groundwater-fed microcosms and in situ in a shallow aquifer. icrocosms am...

40

Emulsion compression and coalescence under enhanced gravity studied with in-situ microscopy  

OpenAIRE

We report the results of experiments and numerical calculations of compression and coalescence in a monodisperse oil-in-water emulsion upon centrifugation. A custom-built setup allows in-situ monitoring of a rotating bilayer of emulsion droplets using an optical microscope. The oil volume fraction in a compressed layer of oil droplets stabilized against coalescence was measured experimentally as a function of time for different radial accelerations. The sedimentation was simulated using CFD i...

Krebs, T.; Slot, J. J.; Schroe?n, C. G. P. H.; Hoeijmakers, H. W. M.; Boom, R. M.

2012-01-01

41

Cyclodextrin-enhanced in situ bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated soils and plant uptake  

OpenAIRE

In situ bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) polluted soils can be improved by the augmentation of degrading microbial populations and by the increase of hydrocarbon bioavailability. ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) significantly accelerate the induction of hydrocarbon biodegradation, but it is not still clear its effectiveness during final, slower stages of degradation. Moreover, it is yet not known if the PAH uptake from plants is influenced by the presence of CD. A field study w...

Belviso, Simona; Bertolone, Eleonora; Opsi, Francesca; Ajmone Marsan, Franco; Bardi, Laura; Marzona, Mario

2007-01-01

42

Ultrasound-enhanced rapid in situ transesterification of marine macroalgae Enteromorpha compressa for biodiesel production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ transesterification of Enteromorpha compressa algal biomass was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The maximum methyl esters (ME) yield of 98.89% was obtained using ultrasonic irradiation. Tetra hydro furan (THF) and acid catalyst (H2SO4) was found to be an appropriate co-solvent and catalyst for high free fatty acids (FFA) content E. compressa biomass to increase the efficiency of the reactive in situ process. The optimization study was conducted to obtain the maximum yield and it was determined as 30vol% of THF as a co-solvent, 10wt% of H2SO4, 5.5:1 ratio of methanol to algal biomass and 600rpm of mixing intensity at 65°C for 90min of ultrasonic irradiation time. The produced biodiesel was characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) analysis. Kinetic studies revealed that the reaction followed the first-order reaction mechanism. Rapid in situ transesterification was found to be suitable technique to produce biodiesel from marine macroalgae feedstock. PMID:24508906

Suganya, Tamilarasan; Kasirajan, Ramachandran; Renganathan, Sahadevan

2014-03-01

43

JV Task 59-Demonstration of Accelerated In Situ Contaminant Degradation by Vacuum-Enhanced Nutrient Distribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at a former Mohler Oil site in Bismarck, North Dakota. The remedial strategy was based on the application of two innovative concepts: (1) design and deployment of the mobile extraction, treatment, and injection units to overcome site limitations associated with urban settings in high-traffic areas and (2) vacuum-controlled nutrient injection within and on the periphery of an induced hydraulic and pneumatic depression. Combined contaminant recovery since the beginning of the project in June 2003 totals over 13,600 lb ({approx}6,170 kg) of hydrocarbons, equivalent to 2176 gallons (8236 l) of product. In situ delivery of 1504 Ib (682 kg) of ionic nitrate and 540 Ib (245 kg) of dissolved oxygen translates into further reduction of about 489 Ib (222 kg) of benzene for the same period and provides for long-term stimulation of the natural attenuation process. In addition to contaminant recovered by extraction and reduced by in situ biodegradation, a total of 4136 Ib (1876 kg) of oxygen was delivered to the saturated zone, resulting in further in situ reduction of an estimated 1324 lb (600 kg) of dissolved-phase hydrocarbons. Based on the results of the EERC demonstration, the North Dakota Department of Health approved site abandonment and termination of the corrective action.

Jaroslav Solc

2007-03-15

44

Enhanced nucleic acid amplification with blood in situ by wire-guided droplet manipulation (WDM).  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many challenges facing the use of molecular biology to provide pertinent information in a timely, cost effective manner. Wire-guided droplet manipulation (WDM) is an emerging format for conducting molecular biology with unique characteristics to address these challenges. To demonstrate the use of WDM, an apparatus was designed and assembled to automate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a reprogrammable platform. WDM minimizes thermal resistance by convective heat transfer to a constantly moving droplet in direct contact with heated silicone oil. PCR amplification of the GAPDH gene was demonstrated at a speed of 8.67 s/cycle. Conventional PCR was shown to be inhibited by the presence of blood. WDM PCR utilizes molecular partitioning of nucleic acids and other PCR reagents from blood components, within the water-in-oil droplet, to increase PCR reaction efficiency with blood in situ. The ability to amplify nucleic acids in the presence of blood simplifies pre-treatment protocols towards true point-of-care diagnostic use. The 16s rRNA hypervariable regions V3 and V6 were amplified from Klebsiella pneumoniae genomic DNA with blood in situ. The detection limit of WDM PCR was 1 ng/?L or 10(5)genomes/?L with blood in situ. The application of WDM for rapid, automated detection of bacterial DNA from whole blood may have an enormous impact on the clinical diagnosis of infections in bloodstream or chronic wound/ulcer, and patient safety and morbidity. PMID:24140832

Harshman, Dustin K; Reyes, Roberto; Park, Tu San; You, David J; Song, Jae-Young; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

2014-03-15

45

In situ-generated nano-gold plasmon-enhanced photoelectrochemical aptasensing based on carboxylated perylene-functionalized graphene.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel in situ-generated nanogold plasmon-enhanced photoelectrochemical aptasensor for Hg(2+) ions was fabricated using a perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid/graphene (PTCA-GR) heterojunction. The fabricated photoelectrochemical aptasensor was based on thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine coordination chemistry and the plasmonic near-field absorption enhancement effect of the subsequent specific catalytic formation of nanogold. The energetic electrons from the surface plasmons of the nanogold were injected into the LUMO orbit of the organic PTCA semiconductor and then rapidly transferred to the electrode through GR due to the possible Hg(2+)-DNA molecular wires following irradiation with the visible light (? > 450 nm) and at a bias voltage of 0.2 V. The fabricated aptasensor was linear in its response to the concentration of Hg(2+) ions in the range of 5-500 pmol L(-1), with a detection limit of 2 pmol L(-1). The presence of up to 200-fold greater concentrations of other common metal ions did not interfere with the detection of Hg(2+) ions in an aqueous system, and the results corresponded well with those obtained by ICP-MS. This novel plasmon-enhanced photoelectrochemical aptasensor exhibited good performance with its high sensitivity, good selectivity, low cost, and portable features. The strategy of the localized surface plasmon resonance through the in situ generation of noble metal nanoparticles paves the way for improvements in PEC aptasensor performance. PMID:24377281

Li, Jing; Tu, Wenwen; Li, Hongbo; Han, Min; Lan, Yaqian; Dai, Zhihui; Bao, Jianchun

2014-01-21

46

Enhanced in-situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater at a former dry-cleaning site in the Netherlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ARCADIS has performed a pilot study of the in-situ enhanced anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater, at a former dry-cleaning site in Utrecht, The Netherlands. This work has been conducted as an interim remedial measure (IRM). During the pilot study a subsurface convection cell was created by injecting organic carbon into the aquifer using an injection and re-circulation system. Results have shown that a uniform distribution of organic carbon has been established throughout the aquifer, creating a strongly reducing environment, whereby a considerable reduction in contaminant mass has occurred via biodegradation mechanisms. (orig.)

Burdick, J.; Dols, P.; Bareman, M. [ARCADIS, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Dekker, A. den [ARCADIS, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Stolzenburg, M. [Gemmente Utrecht, Dienst Stadtsontwikkeling (Netherlands)

2003-07-01

47

Microcosm and in situ field studies of enhanced biotransformation of trichloroethylene by phenol-utilizing microorganisms.  

OpenAIRE

The ability of different aerobic groundwater microorganisms to cometabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), and 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene (t-DCE) was evaluated both in groundwater-fed microcosms and in situ in a shallow aquifer. Microcosms amended with phenol or toulene were equally effective in removing c-DCE (> 90%) followed by TCE (60 to 70%), while the microcosm fed methane was most effective in removing t-DCE (> 90%). The microcosm fed ammonia was t...

Hopkins, G. D.; Semprini, L.; Mccarty, P. L.

1993-01-01

48

Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: In situ FTIR investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalyst on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO2 is produced as the final product during the reaction process. Highlights: ? Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI photocatalysts showed enhanced photocatalytic activity. ? Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. ? CO2 was produced as the final product during the reaction process. ? The high efficiency of charge separation was mainly ascribed to the hybrid effect. - Abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalysts on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irf benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO2 is determined as the final product during the reaction process.

49

Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: In situ FTIR investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalyst on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} is produced as the final product during the reaction process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI photocatalysts showed enhanced photocatalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} was produced as the final product during the reaction process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high efficiency of charge separation was mainly ascribed to the hybrid effect. - Abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalysts on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} is determined as the final product during the reaction process.

Shen, Yu [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Zhao, Qidong [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Yuan, Deling; Hou, Yang [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Shaomin, E-mail: shaomin.liu@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

2012-11-30

50

Challenges of "going nano": enhanced electrochemical performance of cobalt oxide nanoparticles by carbothermal reduction and in situ carbon coating.  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrochemical performance of nano- and micron-sized Co(3)O(4) is investigated, highlighting the substantial influence of the specific surface area on the obtainable specific capacities as well as the cycling stability. In fact, Co(3)O(4) materials with a high surface area (i.e. a small particle size) show superior specific features, which are, however, accompanied by a rapid capacity fading, owing to the increased formation of an insulating polymeric surface film that results from transition-metal-catalyzed electrolyte decomposition. The simultaneous coating with carbon of Co(3)O(4) nanoparticles and in situ reduction of the Co(3)O(4) by a carbothermal route yields a CoO-Co-C nanocomposite. The formation of this material substantially enhances the long-term cycling stability and coulombic efficiency of the lithium-ion active material used. Although the metallic cobalt enhances the electronic conductivity within the electrode and remains electrochemically inactive (as revealed by in situ powder X-ray diffraction analysis), it might have a detrimental effect on the long-term cycling stability by catalytically inducing continuous electrolyte decomposition. PMID:24723308

Bresser, Dominic; Paillard, Elie; Niehoff, Philip; Krueger, Steffen; Mueller, Franziska; Winter, Martin; Passerini, Stefano

2014-07-21

51

In situ synthesis of CoS2/RGO nanocomposites with enhanced electrode performance for lithium-ion batteries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •CoS2/RGO was in situ synthesized by employing graphene oxides as oxidizer and Na2S2O3 as reductor. •The CoS2 particles of 150 nm were uniformly dispersed on the RGO nanosheets. •The enhanced properties can be attributed to the small particle size and the RGO networks. -- Abstract: This study reports a novel strategy of preparing CoS2/reduced graphene oxides (RGO) nanocomposites by employing graphene oxides (GO) as an oxidizing agent and Na2S2O3 as a reducing agent. CoS2 can be in situ synthesized with GO being reduced. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical test are used to characterize the nanocomposite. The CoS2 particles with the size of 150 nm are dispersed in the networks made from thin RGO nanosheets. The CoS2/RGO nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries can deliver excellent reversible capacity retention (640 mA hg?1) after cycling 50 times when tested at 100 mA g?1 and rate performance. The enhanced electrochemical properties can be attributed to the nanoscale particles sizes of CoS2 in addition to the effects of RGO networks in preventing the agglomeration of CoS2 and absorbing lithium polysulfides during the charge-discharge processes

52

In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy on probing the enhanced electrochemical activity of ternary PtRu@Pb catalysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cumulative synergistic effect generated by the combination of the components is a promising route for developing active ternary catalysts with reduced Pt content. In this article, synthesis, electrochemical property and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of a novel ternary catalyst PtRu@Pb/C have been reported. This ternary PtRu@Pb/C catalyst shows tenfold increase in the peak current density for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in comparison to the commercial state-of-the-art PtRu catalyst. To understand the mechanistic pathways and plausible reasons behind higher current density of PtRu@Pb, XAS and ?? analysis in combination with ab initio FEFF8 calculations have been performed. The results reveal the direct evidence of strong charge transfer from lead to platinum shedding the light on this enhanced activity. The electrochemical study in conjunction with the in situ spectroscopy affirms the different role played by Pb and Ru, where ligand mechanism is induced by Pb and the bi-functional mechanism is mostly operated by ruthenium both being responsible in the enhancement of high current density for MOR

53

A capillary-based probe for in situ detection of enhanced fluorescence signals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple, compact, and high sensitivity capillary-based probe for the in situ detection of fluorescence signals with high sensitivity is demonstrated. A home-made single–multi-mode fiber coupler that is coaxially aligned with the capillary-based probe provides for the transmission of excitation light and the collection and transmission of fluorescence. We propose a conceptually straightforward theoretical model to optimize the factors affecting the fluorescence-capture capability of the capillary-based probe. The fluorescence signal detected by fiber-optic spectroscopy non-linearly increases with the length of the capillary-based probe. In addition, the thicker the capillary tube wall is, the less the fluorescence signals determined are. The performance of the proposed probe is evaluated experimentally by measuring the fluorescence spectra of Cy5.5 dye and blue-green algae. The experimental results show that the proposed probe provides more than a ten-fold increase in fluorescence signal compared with direct measurements by a flat-tipped multi-mode fiber probe. The advantages of the capillary-based probe, which include its simple and compact structure, excellent light collection efficiency, requirement of small sample volume, and recoverability of samples, allow its wide application to in situ detection in the medical, forensic, biological, geological, and environmental fields with high sensitivity. (letter)

54

Comparison of 1 week versus 4 weeks of albendazole therapy in single small enhancing computed tomography lesion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : The appropriate duration of albendazole therapy in neurocysticercosis is uncertain. The observation in small uncontrolled randomized trials in children that short-course therapy (1 week is as effective as the conventional regimen (4weeks must be tested. Objective : To compare the efficacy of 1 and 4 weeks of albendazole therapy in children with single small enhancing computed tomographic lesion (SSECTL. Study Design: An open-labeled, randomized, clinical trial. Materials and Methods : One hundred twenty children with SSECTLs presenting with seizure. Intervention: The subjects were assigned to two groups using random tables: group A (n=58 received albendazole for 1 week and group B (n=62 for 4 weeks. All the subjects were followed up for 6 months. Results : The proportions of subjects with complete resolution of lesion in the two groups were similar (group A 63.8% versus group B 51.6%. The proportion of subjects in the two groups in whom the lesion calcified on follow up (group A 19% versus group B 24.2% also did not differ significantly. The incidence of seizure recurrence during the 6-month follow-up period was also similar in both the groups (group A 9.6% versus group B 3.4%, P > 0.05. Conclusion : One week of albendazole therapy is as effective as 4 weeks of therapy in children with SSECTLs.

Kaur Prabhjeet

2010-01-01

55

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE NASAL IN-SITU GEL USING FULVIC ACID AS NOVEL PERMEATION ENHANCER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sumatriptan succinate is a 5-HT1D (5-hydroxy tryptamine 1D-receptor agonist, used in the treatment of migraine and cluster headache Sumatriptan succinate has been shown to have a low oral bioavailability in human volunteers (15% because of high first pass metabolism.. Subcutaneous administration is an alternative; however, dislike of injections or inability to self-administer by this route makes subcutaneous treatment unacceptable to some individuals. These all above things justify a need of nasal drug delivery. To improve the nasal retention time of Sumatriptan succinate, it has been formulated as in situ mucoadhesive gel by using Pluronic PF127 and carbopol 974P. The objective of this work was to improve the nasal bioavailability of Sumatriptan succinate by increasing its nasal retention time as well as by means of nasal permeation. Nasal permeation of Sumatriptan succinate was improved by using fulvic acid extracted from Shilajit as a novel permeation enhancer. For the same the nasal in situ gel of Sumatriptan succinate and its complex with fulvic acid extracted from shilajit was made by cold method. The prepared in-situ gel was evaluated for gelation temperature, drug content, mucoadhesive force, gel strength and viscosity measurement. Further insitu gels prepared with and without permeation enhancer (Fulvic acid were evaluated for its In vitro drug diffusion study by Fran’s Diffusion Cell. The data of In vitro drug diffusion study of insitu gel prepared with and without permeation enhancer showed non Fickian or anomalous diffusion mechanism. The optimized batch C3 and F3 of insitu gel prepared with and without permeation enhancer respectively shows drug release in a controlled manner with higher permeation rate for 250min.. The drug permeation study across sheep nasal mucosa was conducted using C3 and F3 batch. The study showed that the insitu gel having fulvic acid have a significantly higher permeability as compared to the insitu gel which do not contain the fulvic acid. The higher permeation rate of C3 formulation as compare to F3 formulation is might be due to polymeric polyphenolic nature of fulvic acid because of which it have a tendency to interact with number of component resulting in higher permeation rate.

Shyam D. Badgujar

2010-10-01

56

In situ temperature jump high-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization experiments: enhanced sensitivity in liquid-state NMR spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe an experiment, in situ temperature jump dynamic nuclear polarization (TJ-DNP), that is demonstrated to enhance sensitivity in liquid-state NMR experiments of low-gamma spins--13C, 15N, etc. The approach consists of polarizing a sample at low temperature using high-frequency (140 GHz) microwaves and a biradical polarizing agent and then melting it rapidly with a pulse of 10.6 microm infrared radiation, followed by observation of the NMR signal in the presence of decoupling. In the absence of polarization losses due to relaxation, the enhancement should be epsilon+ = epsilon(T(obs)/T(mu)(wave)), where epsilon+ is the observed enhancement, epsilon is the enhancement obtained at the temperature where the polarization process occurs, and T(mu)(wave) and T(obs) are the polarization and observation temperatures, respectively. In a single experimental cycle, we observe room-temperature enhancements, epsilon(dagger), of 13C signals in the range 120-400 when using a 140 GHz gyrotron microwave source, T(mu)(wave) = 90 K, and T(obs) = 300 K. In addition, we demonstrate that the experiment can be recycled to perform signal averaging that is customary in contemporary NMR spectroscopy. Presently, the experiment is applicable to samples that can be repeatedly frozen and thawed. TJ-DNP could also serve as the initial polarization step in experiments designed for rapid acquisition of multidimensional spectra. PMID:16848479

Joo, Chan-Gyu; Hu, Kan-Nian; Bryant, Jeffrey A; Griffin, Robert G

2006-07-26

57

Liquid perfluorodecalin application for in situ extraction and enhanced naphthoquinones production in Arnebia euchroma cell suspension cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suspension cultures of Arnebia euchroma supported with liquid perfluorodecalin (PFD) degassed, aerated, or ethylene-saturated were investigated as a novel in situ extraction system for enhanced alkannin/shikonin production. Simultaneously, the effect of PFD applied as the liquid gas carrier on the growth of A. euchroma biomass was studied. The similar dry (4-fold) and fresh (7-fold) biomass increase was observed in the control (without PFD addition) and supplemented with PFD-degassed or PFD-aerated cultures while PFD-ethylene application impeded cell growth. The highest total of alkannin/shikonin production (23.23 mg flask(-1)) was observed when PFD-aerated has been used and it resulted in about 50% higher yield of alkannin/shikonin compared with the control culture. Chiral HPLC analysis revealed that in cultures supported with PFD, both alkannin and shikonin were produced. Their mutual ratio varied depending on culture conditions, and the accumulation of alkannin prevailed under almost all culture conditions. PFD has proved to be exceptionally efficient and cell-safe solvent for the in situ extraction of naphthoquinone red pigments without exerting any detrimental effects on cell growth. Extracellularly secreted red naphthoquinones were easily dissolved and extracted from the PFD phase, which can be regenerated and reused (e.g., in continuous culture system). PMID:24420283

Syk?owska-Baranek, Katarzyna; Pilarek, Maciej; Cichosz, Micha?; Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka

2014-03-01

58

Steam hydration-reactivation of FBC ashes for enhanced in situ desulphurization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bed and fly ashes originating from industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) were steam hydrated to produce sorbents suitable for further in situ desulphurization. Samples of the hydrated ash were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and porosimetry. Bed ashes were hydrated in a pressure bomb for 30 and 60 min at 200{sup o}C and 250{sup o}C. Fly ash was hydrated in an electrically heated tubular reactor for 10 and 60 min at 200{sup o}C and 300{sup o}C. The results were interpreted by considering the hydration process and the related development of accessible porosity suitable for resulphation. The performance of the reactivated bed ash as sulphur sorbent improved with a decrease of both the hydration temperature and time. For reactivated fly ash, more favourable porosimetric features were observed at longer treatment times and lower hydration temperatures. Finally, it was shown that an ashing treatment (at 850{sup o}C for 20 min) promoted a speeding up of the hydration process and an increase in the accessible porosity. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Fabio Montagnaro; Marianna Nobili; Antonio Telesca; Gian Lorenz Valenti; Edward J. Anthony; Piero Salatino [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dipartimento di Chimica

2009-06-15

59

Semi-continuous in situ magnetic separation for enhanced extracellular protease productionmodeling and experimental validation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In modern biotechnology proteases play a major role as detergent ingredients. Especially the production of extracellular protease by Bacillus species facilitates downstream processing because the protease can be directly harvested from the biosuspension. In situ magnetic separation (ISMS) constitutes an excellent adsorptive method for efficient extracellular protease removal during cultivation. In this work, the impact of semi?continuous ISMS on the overall protease yield has been investigated. Results reveal significant removal of the protease from Bacillus licheniformis cultivations. Bacitracin?functionalized magnetic particles were successfully applied, regenerated and reused up to 30 times. Immediate reproduction of the protease after ISMS proved the biocompatibility of this integrated approach. Six subsequent ISMS steps significantly increased the overall protease yield up to 98% because proteolytic degradation and potential inhibition of the protease in the medium could be minimized. Furthermore, integration of semi?continuous ISMS increased the overall process efficiency due to reduction of the medium consumption. Process simulation revealed a deeper insight into protease production, and was used to optimize ISMS steps to obtain the maximum overall protease yield. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 2161–2172. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Cerff, M.; Scholz, A.

2013-01-01

60

Development of ultrafine Ti-Fe-Sn in-situ composite with enhanced plasticity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present investigation is aimed at developing ultrafine eutectic/dendrite Ti-Fe-Sn in-situ composite with balanced combination of strength and plasticity. It also studies the microstructure evolution in the series of hypereutectic Ti-Fe-Sn ternary alloys. Sn concentration of these alloys has been varied from 0 – 10 atom% in the binary alloy (Ti71Fe29) keeping the Ti concentration fixed. These alloys have been prepared by arc melting under an Ar atmosphere on a water-cooled Cu hearth, which are subsequently suction cast in a split Cu-mold under an Ar atmosphere. Detailed X-ray diffraction (XRD) study shows the presence of TiFe, ?-Ti, and Ti3Sn phases. The SEM micrographs reveal that the microstructures consist of fine scale eutectic matrix (?-Ti and TiFe) with primary dendrite phases (TiFe and/or Ti3Sn) depending on concentration of Sn. ? -Ti forms as a eutectoid reaction product of ?-Ti. The room temperature uniaxial compressive test reveals simultaneous improvement in the strength (1942 MPa) and plasticity (13.1 %) for Ti71Fe26Sn3 ternary alloy. The fracture surface indicates a ductile mode of fracture for the alloy.

61

Development of ultrafine Ti-Fe-Sn in-situ composite with enhanced plasticity  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation is aimed at developing ultrafine eutectic/dendrite Ti-Fe-Sn in-situ composite with balanced combination of strength and plasticity. It also studies the microstructure evolution in the series of hypereutectic Ti-Fe-Sn ternary alloys. Sn concentration of these alloys has been varied from 0 - 10 atom% in the binary alloy (Ti71Fe29) keeping the Ti concentration fixed. These alloys have been prepared by arc melting under an Ar atmosphere on a water-cooled Cu hearth, which are subsequently suction cast in a split Cu-mold under an Ar atmosphere. Detailed X-ray diffraction (XRD) study shows the presence of TiFe, ?-Ti, and Ti3Sn phases. The SEM micrographs reveal that the microstructures consist of fine scale eutectic matrix (?-Ti and TiFe) with primary dendrite phases (TiFe and/or Ti3Sn) depending on concentration of Sn. ? -Ti forms as a eutectoid reaction product of ?-Ti. The room temperature uniaxial compressive test reveals simultaneous improvement in the strength (1942 MPa) and plasticity (13.1 %) for Ti71Fe26Sn3 ternary alloy. The fracture surface indicates a ductile mode of fracture for the alloy.

Mondal, B.; Samal, S.; Biswas, K.; Govind

2012-01-01

62

Enhancing RHIC luminosity capabilities with in-situ beam pipe coating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron clouds have been observed in many accelerators, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). They can limit the machine performance through pressure degradation, beam instabilities or incoherent emittance growth. The formation of electron clouds can be suppressed with beam pipe surfaces that have low secondary electron yield. At the same time, high wall resistivity in accelerators can result in levels of ohmic heating unacceptably high for superconducting magnets. This is a concern for the RHIC machine, as its vacuum chamber in the superconducting dipoles is made from relatively high resistivity 316LN stainless steel. The high resistivity can be addressed with a copper (Cu) coating; a reduction in the secondary electron yield can be achieved with a titanium nitride (TiN) or amorphous carbon (a-C) coating. Applying such coatings in an already constructed machine is rather challenging. We started developing a robotic plasma deposition technique for in-situ coating of long, small diameter tubes. The technique entails fabricating a device comprised of staged magnetrons and/or cathodic arcs mounted on a mobile mole for deposition of about 5 (micro)m (a few skin depths) of Cu followed by about 0.1 (micro)m of TiN (or a-C)

63

In-situ hybridization of calcium silicate and hydroxyapatite-gelatin nanocomposites enhances physical property and in vitro osteogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low mechanical strengths and inadequate bioactive material-tissue interactions of current synthetic materials limit their clinical applications in bone regeneration. Here, we demonstrate gelatin modified siloxane-calcium silicate (GEMOSIL-CS), a nanocomposite made of gelatinous hydroxyapatite with in situ pozzolanic formation of calcium silicate (CS) interacting among gelatin, silica and Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). It is shown the formation of CS matrices, which chemically bonds to the gelatinous hydroxyapatite, provided hygroscopic reinforcement mechanism and promoted both in vitro and in vivo osteogenic properties of GEMOSIL-CS. The formation of CS was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and powder X-ray diffraction. The interfacial bindings within nanocomposites were studied by FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis. Both gelatin and CS have been found critical to the structure integrity and mechanical strengths (93 MPa in compressive strength and 58.9 MPa in biaxial strength). The GEMOSIL-CS was biocompatible and osteoconductive as result of type I collagen secretion and mineralized nodule formation from MC3T3 osteoblasts. SEM and TEM indicated the secretion of collagen fibers and mineral particles as the evidence of mineralization in the early stage of osteogenic differentiation. In vivo bone formation capability was performed by implanting GEMOSIL-CS into rat calvarial defects for 12 weeks and the result showed comparable new bone formation between GEMOSIL-CS group (20 %) and the control (20.19 %). The major advantage of GEMOSIL-CS composites is in situ self-hardening in ambient or aqueous environment at room temperature providing a simple, fast and cheap method to produce porous scaffolds. PMID:25649517

Chiu, Chi-Kai; Lee, Dong Joon; Chen, Hsin; Chow, Laurence C; Ko, Ching-Chang

2015-02-01

64

Optical antenna arrays on a fiber facet for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports a bidirectional fiber optic probe for the detection of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). One facet of the probe features an array of gold optical antennas designed to enhance Raman signals, while the other facet of the fiber is used for the input and collection of light. Simultaneous detection of benzenethiol and 2-[(E)-2-pyridin-4-ylethenyl]pyridine is demonstrated through a 35 cm long fiber. The array of nanoscale optical antennas was first defined by electron-beam lithography on a silicon wafer. The array was subsequently stripped from the wafer and then transferred to the facet of a fiber. Lithographic definition of the antennas provides a method for producing two-dimensional arrays with well-defined geometry, which allows (i) the optical response of the probe to be tuned and (ii) the density of "hot spots" generating the enhanced Raman signal to be controlled. It is difficult to determine the Raman signal enhancement factor (EF) of most fiber optic Raman sensors featuring hot spots because the geometry of the Raman enhancing nanostructures is poorly defined. The ability to control the size and spacing of the antennas enables the EF of the transferred array to be estimated. EF values estimated after focusing a laser directly onto the transferred array ranged from 2.6 x 10(5) to 5.1 x 10(5). PMID:19236032

Smythe, Elizabeth J; Dickey, Michael D; Bao, Jiming; Whitesides, George M; Capasso, Federico

2009-03-01

65

PERFORMANCE MONITORING OF ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF MTBE IN GROUND WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of the Biostimulation Technology Evaluation was to determine if enhanced biodegradation was occurring in a ground-water test plot to a sufficient degree to reduce intrinsic methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to the State of California's treatability criteria...

66

In situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic study of formic acid electrooxidation on spontaneously deposited platinum on gold.  

Science.gov (United States)

Present formic acid fuel cell efficiency is limited by low kinetics at the anode, indicating the need for effective catalysts to improve the formic acid oxidation. As a prerequisite, the nature of adsorbed species and specifically the reaction intermediates formed in this process needs to be examined. This work focuses on the electrooxidation of formic acid and the nature of the intermediates at a platinum-modified gold surface prepared through spontaneous deposition using a combination of electrochemistry and in situ surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This Pt-modified gold electrode surface assists in oxidizing formic acid at potentials as low as 0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl which is 0.15 V more negative than a bare Pt surface. The oxidation current obtained on the Pt-modified gold electrode is 72 times higher than on a bare Au surface and 5 times higher than on a bare Pt surface at the same potential. In situ SERS has revealed the involvement of formate at a low frequency as the primary intermediate in this electrooxidation process. While previous studies mainly focused on the formate mode at ca. 1322 cm(-1), it is the first time that a formate peak at ca. 300 cm(-1) was observed on a Pt or Pt-associated surface. A unique relationship has been observed between the formic acid oxidation currents and the SERS intensity of this formate adsorbate. Furthermore, the characteristic Stark effect of the formate proves the strong interaction between the adsorbate and the catalyst. Both electrochemical and spectroscopic results suggest that the formic acid electrooxidation takes place by the dehydrogenation pathway involving a low frequency formate intermediate on the Pt-modified gold electrode catalyst. PMID:23674096

Muralidharan, Ranjani; McIntosh, Michael; Li, Xiao

2013-06-28

67

Nitrogen fate model for gas-phase ammonia-enhanced in situ bioventing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subsurface bioremediation of contaminants is sometimes limited by the availability of nitrogen. Introduction of gaseous ammonia to the subsurface is a feasible and economical approach to enhance biodegradation in some environments. A gaseous nutrient source may be a practical option for sites where surface application of liquid nutrients is not possible, such as sites with shallow groundwater or sites with surface operations. A conceptual nitrogen fate model was developed to provide remediation scientists and engineers with some practical guidelines in the use of ammonia-enhanced bioventing. Ammonia supplied to the subsurface dissolves readily in soil moisture and sorbs strongly to soil particles. The ammonium ion is the preferred nutrient form of many microorganisms. Some of the ammonia will be converted to nitrate by ammonia-oxidizing organisms. Field monitoring data from an operating ammonia-enhanced bioventing remediation site for diesel fuel contamination are presented. Conservative additions of ammonia promoted appreciable increases in evolved carbon dioxide and rate of oxygen utilization. An overabundance of added ammonia promoted formation of methane from likely anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation in the presence of nitrate as the electron acceptor

68

Modeling Enhanced In Situ CO2 Mineralization in the Samail Ophiolite Aquifer  

Science.gov (United States)

The Samail Ophiolite aquifer in the Sultanate of Oman is a site of exceptionally well-developed naturally occurring in situ CO2 mineralization, and serves as a natural analog for an engineered CO2 sequestration process. Natural processes within the aquifer can be described by the following reactions [e.g.1,2]: near the surface, infiltrating rainwater dissolves peridotite, increasing dissolved Mg, Ca, and Si; interaction with soil CO2 and carbonate rocks and dust further increases Ca and dissolved C. At deeper levels, groundwater is cut off from the atmosphere-and hence its CO2 source- but continues to dissolve peridotite, and precipitates serpentine, magnesite, and dolomite. The resulting water has a high Ca-OH concentration, essentially no Mg or dissolved C, and ultrabasic pH. When this alkaline water reaches the shallow subsurface or surface, it mixes with CO2-saturated shallow groundwater or absorbs CO2 directly from the atmosphere. Dissolved C reacts with Ca to precipitate calcite on the surface, lowering the pH to basic. This process forms abundant carbonate minerals, both in the subsurface and in surficial travertine terraces. Water chemistry data can be used to determine the amount of CO2 sequestered. The quantity of CO2 mineralized at the surface as CaCO3 can be calculated from the removal of Ca from alkaline water once it discharges at springs, assuming CaCO3 precipitation is the only surficial Ca sink. Water samples from 22 alkaline spring outlets and 16 surface water bodies were used to calculate the average decrease in Ca and increase in TIC as alkaline spring water discharges and flows along the surface, losing its high pH and converting to basic surface water; the values are 1.26 mmol/L Ca and 3.13 mmol/L TIC, respectively. The increase in TIC can be attributed to absorption of atmospheric CO2. In regions with known flow rates, it is possible to determine the total amount of CO2 mineralized annually. For example, near Masibt where the flow rate of a single spring is 3x107 L/yr, the annual loss of Ca is 3.8x104 moles/yr and the amount of CO2 mineralized as CaCO3 by that spring is 0.85 kg/yr. Over 70 alkaline springs have been mapped throughout the Samail Ophiolite3, and doubtless many more exist. At the surface, Ca availability limits carbonate mineral formation; however, in the subsurface, dissolved CO2 must be the limiting species. TIC decreases from 3.24 mmol/L in shallow groundwater to 0.27 mmol/L in alkaline springs. The loss of 2.96 mmol/L TIC likely occurs by magnesite precipitation, meaning that this amount of CO2 is mineralized in the subsurface. If the availability of dissolved CO2 is the limiting factor in mineralization by the Samail Ophiolite aquifer, it may be possible to engineer the system to increase the rate of sequestration by injecting CO2 into the aquifer. To simulate the outcome of such an engineered system, data from the natural system have been incorporated into a reactive transport model. Results of this simulation will be presented. 1Barnes and O’Neil, 1969; 2Bruni et al., 2002; 3Stanger, 1986

Paukert, A. N.; Matter, J. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Shock, E.; Streit, E.

2010-12-01

69

Innovative Protocols for in SITU MTBE Degradation by Using Molecular Probes-An Enhanced Chemical-Bio Oxidation Technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a common technology to cleanup petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater. Sodium percarbonate (SPC) is an oxidant which is activated by iron (Fe) to produce Fenton-like reactions. Western Research Institute, in conjunction with Regenesis and the U.S. Department of Energy, conducted a study that investigated the performance of a 'safe' oxidant, SPC, to cleanup groundwater and soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and associated contaminants (e.g., MTBE). Results from a field pilot test in Frenchglen, Oregon showed VOC concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially within 2 weeks after injecting activated SPC (RegenOx). A protocol was established for determining RegenOx TOD in soils and groundwater. Total oxidant demand tests were necessary to determine the correct dosage of RegenOx to apply in the field and sufficiently degrade the contaminants of concern. Bench studies with RegenOx showed this technology was effective in degrading diesel fuel and 1,4-dioxane. The Fe-silica activator (RegenOx Part B) was tested with another oxidant, sodium persulfate. Bench tests results showed the combination of sodium persulfate and RegenOx Part B was effective in reducing PCE, MTBE, benzene, and n-heptane concentrations in water. Overall, the results of this project indicated that most petroleum contaminants in soil and groundwater can be sufficiently degraded using the RegenOx technology.

Paul Fallgren

2009-02-20

70

In Situ Fabrication of 3D Ag@ZnO Nanostructures for Microfluidic Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we develop an in situ method to grow highly controllable, sensitive, three-dimensional (3D) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates via an optothermal effect within microfluidic devices. Implementing this approach, we fabricate SERS substrates composed of Ag@ZnO structures at prescribed locations inside microfluidic channels, sites within which current fabrication of SERS structures has been arduous. Conveniently, properties of the 3D Ag@ZnO nanostructures such as length, packing density, and coverage can also be adjusted by tuning laser irradiation parameters. After exploring the fabrication of the 3D nanostructures, we demonstrate a SERS enhancement factor of up to ?2 × 10(6) and investigate the optical properties of the 3D Ag@ZnO structures through finite-difference time-domain simulations. To illustrate the potential value of our technique, low concentrations of biomolecules in the liquid state are detected. Moreover, an integrated cell-trapping function of the 3D Ag@ZnO structures records the surface chemical fingerprint of a living cell. Overall, our optothermal-effect-based fabrication technique offers an effective combination of microfluidics with SERS, resolving problems associated with the fabrication of SERS substrates in microfluidic channels. With its advantages in functionality, simplicity, and sensitivity, the microfluidic-SERS platform presented should be valuable in many biological, biochemical, and biomedical applications. PMID:25402207

Xie, Yuliang; Yang, Shikuan; Mao, Zhangming; Li, Peng; Zhao, Chenglong; Cohick, Zane; Huang, Po-Hsun; Huang, Tony Jun

2014-12-23

71

Strong enhancement of Jc and Birr in binary in situ MgB2 wires after cold high pressure densification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cold high pressure densification was found to substantially enhance the critical current density of binary in situ Fe/MgB2 wires. A wire densified at 1.85 GPa exhibited at 20 K and 5 T an increase of Jc by 300% with respect to same wire without the application of pressure. At 4.2 K and 10 T, Jc was found to be increased by 53%. The decrease of the electrical resistance for densified wires reflects an improved connectivity. The values of Birr at 4.2 and 20 K were enhanced up to 0.7 T for densified wires. After applying pressures up to 6.5 GPa at 300 K, the relative mass density dm of the unreacted (B+Mg) mixture inside the filament increased up to 96% of the theoretical density. This corresponds to a relative mass density df in the reacted MgB2 filaments of 73%. A quantitative correlation between filament mass density and critical current density was established.

72

Enhanced chemical vapor deposition of tantalum oxide thin films from in-situ reduction of PtOx electrode  

Science.gov (United States)

Amorphous TaOx thin films were deposited on a PtOx electrode by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) in Ar atmosphere with the use of Ta(OC2H5)5 as a precursor. An in situ reduction of PtOx electrode was found during the LPCVD process, and the active oxygen released from the reduction of the PtOx electrode enhanced the deposition of TaOx films with an activation energy of 0.43+/-0.03 eV lower than the value, 0.57+/-0.01 eV, obtained from deposition on the Pt electrode. The growth of TaOx was controlled by the reduction reaction of PtOx, which had an activation energy of 0.32+/-0.04 eV, and the activated oxidation/decomposition reaction of Ta(OC2H5)5, which had a low activation energy of 0.11+/-0.05 eV. It was also found that the reduction of PtOx roughed the surface of the PtOx electrode, and the rough structure significantly enhanced the capacitance of Pt/TaOx/PtOx although an increase of the leakage current also accompanied it.

Liu, Tzu-Ping; Huang, Wei-Pang; Wu, Tai-Bor

2003-03-01

73

Silver nanoparticles doped agarose disk: highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate for in situ analysis of ink dyes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman spectroscopy is a preferred analytical tool for forensic trace analysis due to its non-invasive nature. This technique has been utilized in examination of organic colorants present in fibers and ink, but high fluorescent nature of these compounds is a problem. In the present study, silver-doped agarose gel disk, having property of quenching fluorescence and enhancing Raman signals, is found to be effective as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for analysis of rhodamine 6G (Rh 6G) and crystal violet (CV) dyes. As-prepared and well characterized by UV, TEM-EDAX and XRD techniques, the investigated silver-doped agarose gel disk proves to have minimal invasive as confirmed by the ATR-FTIR method and effective for in situ SERS analysis of blue and red ballpoint ink. The disk is stable upon storage and hence can be re-used and re-examined. The present method offers new possibilities in trace forensic analysis with minimal destruction. PMID:24314497

Raza, Ali; Saha, Basudeb

2013-12-10

74

Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of in situ doped epitaxial silicon at low temperatures. II. Boron doping  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison of in situ boron doping of epitaxial silicon films deposited from 700 to 800 °C by both very-low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (VLPCVD) and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is presented. Neither the growth rate nor the morphology of films deposited by silane VLPCVD or PECVD are affected by the addition of up to 500 ppm diborane at a total pressure of 6 mTorr. VLPCVD and PECVD boron incorporation depends linearly on diborane partial pressures, and films doped to 1020 B atoms/cm3 have been prepared. VLPCVD boron incorporation is found to increase with increasing temperature. No significant increase in boron incorporation is observed with increasing power for PECVD. Surface decomposition of diborane under low surface coverage conditions is proposed as the rate-controlling step for boron incorporation during doped epitaxial growth at low temperatures. Doping profiles with uniform concentrations in the range 1016-1020 B atoms/cm3 are readily achieved at low temperatures by VLPCVD from diborane-silane mixtures without the need for plasma enhancement.

Comfort, James H.; Reif, Rafael

1989-02-01

75

Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of WO3/Ti photoanode due to in situ formation of a thin interfacial composite layer  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanostructured WO3 thin films were prepared on titanium sheet substrates using a doctor blade technique. X-ray diffraction, Raman and field emission scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that the synthesized WO3 films are having monoclinic crystal structure, porous, polycrystalline with average grain size of ?50 nm. The photoelectrochemical responses of WO3 films prepared on treated Ti sheets were recorded in 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte under simulated 100 mW/cm2 illumination. WO3 film prepared on polished Ti sheet showed considerable enhancement in photocurrent as compared to WO3 films made on unpolished and pre-oxidized Ti sheets. These results suggest that in situ formation of a thin WOx-TiOy interfacial composite layer and improved adhesion of WO3 nanoparticles owing to increased reactive sites on polished Ti substrate play a significant role in enhancing the photoresponse. Such photoanodes are potential candidates in photoelectrochemical water splitting system for hydrogen generation.

Lee, Won Jae; Shinde, Pravin S.; Go, Geun Ho; Doh, Chil Hoon

2013-04-01

76

In situ enhancement of the blue photoluminescence of colloidal Ga2O3 nanocrystals by promotion of defect formation in reducing conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate redox control of defect-based photoluminescence efficiency of colloidal ?-Ga(2)O(3) nanocrystals. Reducing environment leads to an increase in photoluminescence intensity by enhancing the concentration of oxygen vacancies, while the blue emission is suppressed in oxidative conditions. These results enable optimization of nanocrystal properties by in situ defect manipulation. PMID:21607268

Wang, Ting; Radovanovic, Pavle V

2011-07-01

77

FIELD TEST OF CYCLODEXTRIN FOR ENHANCED IN-SITU FLUSHING OF MULTIPLE-COMPONENT IMMISCIBLE ORGANIC LIQUID CONTAMINATION: PROJECT OVERVIEW AND INITIAL RESULTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview and the initial results of a pilot-scale experiment designated to test the use of cyclodextrin for enhanced in-situ flushing of an aquifer contaminated by immiscible liquid. This is the first field test of this technology, terme...

78

Application of steam injection and electrical heating for enhanced in situ soil and ground water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The acceleration of recovery rates of second phase liquid contaminants from the subsurface during gas or water pumping operations is realized by an increase in soil temperature. Of the various methods of delivery of thermal energy to soils and ground water, steam injection appears to be the most economical and versatile technique for soils with sufficient permeability. The use of steam injection to recovery volatile semivolatile, and nonvolatile contaminants from the sub-surface also allows the exploitation of various thermodynamic and hydrodynamic mechanisms. These mechanisms include vaporization of liquids with boiling points below that of water, enhanced evaporation rates of semivolatile components, physical displacement of low viscosity liquids, dilution and displacement of aqueous contaminants, and removal of residual contaminants from low permeability zones by depressurization and vacuum drying. Electrical heating provides a means of preferentially heating the low permeability zones. A recently completed field-scale demonstration of the patented combined steam injection and electrical heating enhanced extraction technology (Dynamic Underground Stripping) to remove gasoline at a site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory confirms the effectiveness of this technique and its applicability to contaminants found above and below the water table

79

Optical Engineering of Uniformly Decorated Graphene Oxide Nanoflakes via in Situ Growth of Silver Nanoparticles with Enhanced Plasmonic Resonance.  

Science.gov (United States)

A nanocomposite of silver-nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide (GO-Ag NPs), enhanced by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect, improved the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). The GO-Ag NPs were fabricated in situ via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (254 nm) of GO and an aqueous solution of AgNO3. The photoexcited GO accelerated reduction of Ag(+) ions into silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) upon UV irradiation, and the Ag NPs spontaneously deposited on the GO nanoflakes because the numerous functional groups on GO enable efficient adsorption of Ag(+) ions and Ag NPs via electrostatic interactions. The strong coupling between the SPR effect of GO-Ag NPs and incident light offers the probability of improved light absorption and corresponding exciton generation rate with enhanced charge collection, resulting in significant enhancement in short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency (PCE). Therefore, the PCE of PSCs based on poly[4,8-bis(2-ethylhexylthiophene-5-yl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene-2,6-diyl]-alt-[2-(2-ethylhexanoyl)thieno[3,4-b]thiophen-4,6-diyl] and [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester has been substantially elevated to 7.54% from 6.58% by introducing GO-Ag NPs at the indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonic acid interface. In addition, the excellent properties of GO-Ag NPs, including its simple preparation, processability in aqueous solution, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability, make it suitable for the roll-to-roll manufacturing of PSCs. PMID:25389764

Yuan, Kai; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang

2014-12-10

80

Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific objectives of the project were (1) to determine the prevalence of biosurfactant producers in oil reservoirs, and (2) to develop a nutrient regime that would stimulate biosurfactant production in the oil reservoir.

M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

2007-09-30

81

The in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery in fractured porous media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These experiments aim to investigate the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technique in fractured porous media using etched-glass micromodels. Three identically patterned micromodels with different fracture angle orientation of inclined, vertical and horizontal with respect to the flow direction were utilized. A non-fractured model was also used to compare the efficiency of MEOR in fractured and non-fractured porous media. Two types of bacteria were employed: Bacillus subtilis (a biosurfactant-producing bacterium) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (an exopolymer-producing bacterium). The results show that higher oil recovery efficiency can be achieved by using biosurfactant-producing bacterium in fractured porous media. Further investigation on the effect of the mentioned bacteria on oil viscosity, porous media permeability and wettability suggests that the plugging of matrix-fracture interfaces by an exopolymer is the main reason for the low performance of the exopolymer-producing bacterium. Oil viscosity reduction as well as the reduction of IFT was also found to be the reason for better microbial recovery efficiencies of biosurfactant-producing bacterium in the fractured models. (author)

Soudmand-asli, Alireza; Ayatollahi, S. Shahab; Zareie, Maryam [School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Mohabatkar, Hassan [Department of Biology, School of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Shariatpanahi, S. Farzad [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)

2007-08-15

82

In situ stimulation vs. bioaugmentation: Can microbial inoculation of plant roots enhance biodegradation of organic compounds?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of plant roots and their associated rhizosphere bacteria for biocontainment and biorestoration offers several advantages for treating soil-dispersed contaminants and for application to large land areas. Plant roots function as effective delivery systems, since root growth transports bacteria vertically and laterally along the root in the soil column (see [ 1,2]). Movement of microbes along roots and downward in the soil column can be enhanced via irrigation [1-4]. For example, Ciafardini et al. [3] increased the nodulation and the final yield of soybeans during pod filling by including Bradyrhizobium japonicum in the irrigation water. Using rhizosphere microorganisms is advantageous for biodegradation of compounds that are degraded mainly by cometabolic processes, e.g., trichloroethylene (TCE). The energy source for bacterial growth and metabolism is supplied by the plant in the form of root exudates and other sloughed organic material. Plants are inexpensive, and by careful choice of species that possess either tap or fibrous root growth patterns, they can be used to influence mass transport of soil contaminants to the root surface via the transpiration stream [5]. Cropping of plants to remove heavy metals from contaminated soils has been proposed as a viable, low-cost, low-input treatment option [6]. The interest in use of plants as a remediation strategy has even reached the popular press [7], where the use of ragweed for the reclamation of sites contaminated with tetraethyl lead and other heavy metals was discussed.

Kingsley, M.T.; Metting, F.B. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Seidler, R.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

1993-06-01

83

In-situ sonication for enhanced recovery of aquifer microbial communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sampling methods for characterization of microbial communities in aquifers should target both suspended and attached microorganisms (biofilms). We investigated the effectiveness and reproducibility of low-frequency (200 Hz) sonication pulses on improving extraction efficiency and quality of microorganisms from a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in Studen (Switzerland). Sonication pulses at different power levels (0.65, 0.9, and 1.1 kW) were applied to three different groundwater monitoring wells. Groundwater samples extracted after each pulse were compared with background groundwater samples for cell and adenosine tri-phosphate concentration. Turbidity values were obtained to assess the release of sediment fines and associated microorganisms. The bacterial community in extracted groundwater samples was analyzed by terminal-restriction-fragment-length polymorphism and compared with communities obtained from background groundwater samples and from sediment cores. Sonication enhanced the extraction efficiency up to 13-fold, with most of the biomass being associated with the sediment fines extracted with groundwater. Consecutive pulses at constant power were decreasingly effective, while pulses with higher power yielded the best results both in terms of extraction efficiency and quality. Our results indicate that low-frequency sonication may be a viable and cost-effective tool to improve the extraction of microorganisms from aquifers, taking advantage of existing groundwater monitoring wells. PMID:23937340

Ugolini, Fabio; Henneberger, Ruth; Bürgmann, Helmut; Zeyer, Josef; Schroth, Martin H

2014-01-01

84

Would increased interstitial fluid flow through in situ mechanical stimulation enhance bone remodeling?  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone accommodates to changes in its functional environment ensuring that sufficient skeletal mass is appropriately positioned to withstand the mechanical loads that result from functional activities. Increasing physical activity will result in increased bone mass, while the removal of functional loading would result in bone loss. Bone is a composite material made up of a collagen-hydroxyapatite matrix and a complex network of lacunae-canaliculi channels occupied by osteocyte and osteoblast processes, immersed in interstitial fluid. There are strong indications that changes in interstitial fluid flow velocity or pressure are the means by which an external load signal is communicated to the cell. In vitro studies indicate that shear stress, induced by interstitial fluid flow, is a potent bone cell behavior regulator. One of the forms of altering interstitial fluid flow is through the mechanical deformation of skeletal tissue in response to applied loads. Other methods include increased intramedullary pressure, negative-pressure tissue regeneration, or external mechanical stimulation. Analysis of these methods poses the question of process effectiveness. The efficacy of each method theoretically will depend on the mechanical efficiency of transmitting an external load and converting it into changes in interstitial fluid flow. In this paper, we combine recent knowledge on the effect of the bone's interstitial fluid flow, different fluid patterns, the role of gap junctions, and the concept of mechanical effectiveness of different methods that influence interstitial fluid flow within bone, and we hypothesize that the efficiency of bone remodeling can be improved if a small mechanical percussion device could be placed directly in contact with the bone, thus inducing local interstitial fluid flow variations. Enhancement of bone repair and remodeling through controlled interstitial fluid flow possesses many clinical applications. Further investigations and in vivo experiments are required. Practical methods and clinical apparatuses need to be conceived and developed to validate and facilitate the clinical use of this technique. PMID:20227836

Letechipia, J E; Alessi, A; Rodriguez, G; Asbun, J

2010-08-01

85

In Situ Normoxia Enhances Survival and Proliferation Rate of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells without Increasing the Risk of Tumourigenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) natively reside in a relatively low-oxygen tension (i.e., hypoxic) microenvironment in human body. Low oxygen tension (i.e., in situ normoxia), has been known to enhance the growth and survival rate of ASCs, which, however, may lead to the risk of tumourigenesis. Here, we investigated the tumourigenic potential of ASCs under their physiological condition to ensure their safe use in regenerative therapy. Human ASCs isolated from subcutaneous fat were cultured in atmospheric O2 concentration (21% O2) or in situ normoxia (2% O2). We found that ASCs retained their surface markers, tri-lineage differentiation potential, and self-renewal properties under in situ normoxia without altering their morphology. In situ normoxia displayed a higher proliferation and viability of ASCs with less DNA damage as compared to atmospheric O2 concentration. Moreover, low oxygen tension significantly up-regulated VEGF and bFGF mRNA expression and protein secretion while reducing the expression level of tumour suppressor genes p16, p21, p53, and pRb. However, there were no significant differences in ASCs telomere length and their relative telomerase activity when cultured at different oxygen concentrations. Collectively, even with high proliferation and survival rate, ASCs have a low tendency of developing tumour under in situ normoxia. These results suggest 2% O2 as an ideal culture condition for expanding ASCs efficiently while maintaining their characteristics. PMID:25615717

Choi, Jane Ru; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Yong, Kar Wey; Poon, Chi Tat; Noor Azmi, Mat Adenan; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Chua, Kien Hui; Xu, Feng; Wan Safwani, Wan Kamarul Zaman

2015-01-01

86

In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study of TiO{sub 2} films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TiO{sub 2} thin films of 300–400 nm were deposited at low pressure (3 mTorr) and temperature (<150 °C) on silicon substrates using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition with different substrate self-bias voltages (V{sub b}). The impact of growth interruptions on the film characteristics was studied by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. The interruptions were carried out by stopping the plasma generation and gas injection once the increase of the layer thickness during each deposition step was about 100 nm. Suitable ellipsometric models were built to account for the structural and optical differences among the layers grown at different stages. When no bias is applied or V{sub b} = ?10 V, the films deposited with and without interruptions are composed of a dense layer near substrate, an intermediate gradient layer and a top roughness layer. But the growth interruptions result in an increase of the dense layer thickness and a decrease of surface roughness. The discrepancy of the refractive index measured by SE between bottom and upper layers can be reduced by growth interruptions or biasing the substrate. In the case of V{sub b} = ?50 V, the film becomes well organized, the top surface appears smoother, and the refractive index can be increased greatly, without significant effect of growth interruptions.

Li, D.; Carette, M.; Granier, A.; Landesman, J.P.; Goullet, A., E-mail: antoine.goullet@univ-nantes.fr

2013-10-15

87

Strong enhancement of trace mercury removal from aqueous solution with sodium thiosulfate by in situ formed Mn-(hydr)oxides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) on trace mercury removal from aqueous solution by in situ MnOx was investigated. Removal efficiency was studied at different molar ratios of Na2S2O3/Mn (0, 0.264, 0.593 and 1.582) and under changes in Mn dosage, reaction time and pH conditions. Additionally, the ionic strength and the mercury removal amount were examined to evaluate the efficiency of trace mercury removal. The results indicated that the presence of thiosulfate clearly improved removal of mercury from solution, and that increases in the ionic strength enhanced removal in a certain range of thiosulfate concentration. At neutral conditions, the mercury removal amount reached to maximum of 64 ?g/mg. It is proposed that the ability of thiosulfate to reduce some MnOx to Mn(2+) as well as transfer the uncharged mercury species to a negatively charged species [Formula: see text] improved trace mercury removal. The mechanism analysis revealed that ternary complexes or large aggregations may be formed because of surface complexation or electrostatic attraction. PMID:25086412

Lu, Xixin; Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yaan; Ma, Jun

2014-11-15

88

In situ surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies of solid electrolyte interphase formation in lithium ion battery electrodes  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of surfaced-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in lithium-ion battery (LIB) and Li-O2 battery studies has proven to be a powerful tool for observing solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) growth, on the electrode's surface, that is crucial in determining the battery's electrochemical performance. Here, we report the use of SiO2-coated Au nanoparticles for in situ SERS studies during electrochemical cycling to directly observe SEI formation on the electrode. The comparison of silicon electrodes with and without the electrolyte additive vinylene carbonate (VC) shows the formation of VC-related reduction products on the electrode's surface before the reduction of ethylene carbonate. Further observation, using normal Raman and SERS, of the silicon band intensity shows different amorphization rates between bulk and surface. These successful proof-of-concept experiments should allow this technique to be extended to other electrode material studies in conjunction with other surface sensitive techniques to further our understanding of surface reactions that heavily influence overall battery performance.

Hy, Sunny; Felix; Chen, Yi-Hsiu; Liu, Jyong-yue; Rick, John; Hwang, Bing-Joe

2014-06-01

89

Direct observation of hydrogen-enhanced plasticity in super duplex stainless steel by means of in situ electrochemical methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ electrochemical hydrogen charging in combination with atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy has been used to study the effect of hydrogen on the austenite phase in super duplex stainless steel. Observations showed that hydrogen charging results in an irreversible deformation of austenite. High residual tensile stresses form in austenite during quench annealing. These stresses, in combination with the activation of dislocation sources by hydrogen, result in formation of slip lines on the austenite surface during in situ hydrogen charging.

90

Rutile-structured TiO{sub 2} deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor on in-situ oxidized Ru electrode  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor as well as in-situ oxidized ruthenium bottom electrode were used to grow rutile-structured titanium dioxide thin layers by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition. Metal–insulator–metal capacitors have been elaborated in order to study the electrical properties of the device. It is shown that this process leads to devices exhibiting excellent results in terms of dielectric constant and leakage current.

Pointet, John; Gonon, Patrice; Latu-Romain, Lawrence; Bsiesy, Ahmad, E-mail: Ahmad.Bsiesy@cea.fr; Vallée, Christophe [Microelectronics Technology Laboratory (LTM), Joseph Fourier University (UJF) and French National Center for Scientific Research - CNRS, CEA – LETI MINATEC, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

2014-01-15

91

Pilot Application of SVE-Enhanced Bioremediation Technology for in situ Clean-up of a Light Oil-Contaminated Site  

OpenAIRE

Light oil (isooctane) removal using soil vapor extraction (SVE) enhanced bioremediation (BR) was investigated by four steps, including: (i) amendment of substrates in batches (ii) continuous induction of contaminants for 15 days (iii) in situ acclimation for 100 days (iv) biodegradation assisted with SVE venting for 120 h at 20 m³·h-1 Results showed that the total removal efficiency was up to 90% after BR-SVE treatments. BR contributed predominantly to isooctane removal during the last 36 h...

Yang, Yuewei; Wu, Guozhong; Li, Xingang; Coulon, Frederic; Li, Hong; Sui, Hong

2012-01-01

92

Rutile-structured TiO2 deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor on in-situ oxidized Ru electrode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor as well as in-situ oxidized ruthenium bottom electrode were used to grow rutile-structured titanium dioxide thin layers by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition. Metal–insulator–metal capacitors have been elaborated in order to study the electrical properties of the device. It is shown that this process leads to devices exhibiting excellent results in terms of dielectric constant and leakage current

93

In situ formation of nanocrystals from a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system to enhance oral bioavailability of fenofibrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available You-Meei Lin1, Jui-Yu Wu2, Ying-Chen Chen3, Yu-Der Su3, Wen-Tin Ke3, Hsiu-O Ho31Department of Pharmacy, Shuang Ho Hospital, 2Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, 3School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROCObjectives: In situ formation of nanocrystals and dissolution profiles of fenofibrate (FFB from a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS were characterized.Methods: SMEDDS formulated with Myritol® and surfactant mixture (Smix of D-?-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS and either Tween® 20 (A, C, E, G, M, S, N, T, O or Tween® 80 (B, D, F, H, P, U, Q, V, R at various oil/Smix ratios (Group I: A and B of 0.42, C and D of 0.25, E and F of 0.11; Group II: G and H of 1.38, M and P of 1.11, S and U of 0.9, N and Q of 0.73, T and V of 0.58, and O and R of 0.46 and water contents (1: 9.5%, 2: 5.0%, 3: 0.0%, G-V: 4.5%. Their dissolutions were conducted at different rotation speeds. Two optimal SMEDDSs containing Tween 80(B2 or a higher oil/Smix ratio(Q and B2(solution were selected for pharmacokinetic study.Results: FFB particles formed within the nanosize range from Group I gradually increased with time but decreased with increasing stirring rates. However, the mean size of FFB formed by B series was as low as 200 nm, which was smaller than that of A series at three stirring rates. The release rate from both groups obviously increased with increasing stirring rate. However, incomplete release was observed for S and N in Tween 20 series, whereas a faster release rate and complete release were observed for Tween 80 series with an insignificant difference among them. Results of pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the highest-ranked area under the curve and Cmax values were for Q(SMEDDS and B2(solution, respectively. The relative bioavailability of Q(SMEDDS with respect to Tricor® was enhanced by about 1.14-1.22-fold.Conclusion: SMEDDS, consisting of Myritol 318 and TPGS combined with Tween 80 at 4:1, was able to enhance the oral bioavailability of FFB.Keywords: SMEDDS, fenofibrate, microemulsion, dissolution, TPGS

Lin YM

2011-10-01

94

Enhanced hydrogen embrittlement of Pd-coated niobium metal membrane detected by in situ small punch test under hydrogen permeation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrogen embrittlement of pure niobium metal membrane was investigated under a hydrogen atmosphere by using a newly developed in situ small punch apparatus. The boundary for the ductile-to-brittle transition of the palladium-coated pure niobium was determined from a series of the in situ small punch tests. The measured boundary was found to be shifted greatly to the lower hydrogen content region as compared to that of palladium non-coated niobium membrane. The present result will provide us a clue to the design of niobium-based permeable membrane against the hydrogen embrittlement

95

Humic Acids Enhanced U(VI) Attenuation in Acidic Waste Plumes: An In-situ Remediation Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In the process of extracting plutonium for nuclear weapons production during the Cold War, large volumes of acidic waste solutions containing low-level radionuclides were discharged for decades into unlined seepage basins in several US Department of Energy (DOE) weapon facilities such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge (OR), and 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Although the basins have been capped and some sites have gone through many years of active remediation, groundwaters currently remain acidic with pH values as low as 3.0 near the basins, and uranium concentrations remain much higher than its maximum contaminant level (MCL). A sustainable U biogeochemical remediation method has not yet been developed, especially under acidic conditions (pH 3-5). Bioreduction-based U remediation requires permanent maintenance of reducing conditions through indefinite supply of electron donor, and when applied in acidic plumes a high-cost pretreatment procedure is required. Methods based on precipitation of phosphate minerals depend on maintenance of high P concentrations. Precipitating of uranyl vanadates can lower U to below its MCL, but this approach is only effective at near-neutral pH. There is an urgent need for developing a sustainable method to control U mobility in acidic conditions. In this paper, we propose a method of using humic acids (HAs) to attenuate contaminant U mobility in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory experiment results show that HAs are able to strongly and quickly adsorb onto aquifer sediments from the DOE’s SRS and OR. With a moderate addition of HA, U adsorption increased to near 100% at pH below 5.0. Because U partitioning onto the HA modified mineral surfaces is so strong, U concentration in groundwaters can be sustainably reduced to below its MCL. We conducted flow through experiments for U desorption by acidic groundwater leaching at pH 3.5 and 4.5 from HA-treated SRS contaminated sediments. The results show that desorption of both U and HA by groundwater leaching are non-detectable over a long period of time (200 days and > 100 PV without further addition of HA). As a natural reactive agent for in-situ remediation, HAs are cost-effective (enormous reservoir in nature), nontoxic, resistant to biodegradation, soluble, and easily introducible to the subsurface. This method has high potential to efficiently and sustainably enhance natural attenuation of U within acidic waste plumes.

Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T. K.

2010-12-01

96

In-situ treatment of hydrocarbons contamination through enhanced bio-remediation and two phase extraction system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It happens frequently to find industrial site affected by contamination of subsoil and groundwater with consequent presence of free phase product floating on the water table. The remediation technologies in this case shall be properly selected and coordinated in a way that the interactions between each activities will help to decontaminate the site. The case study deals with an industrial site located near Turin, in Italy, of about 50 hectares of extension where has been found an area of about 4000 square meters with contamination of subsoil and groundwater. The compounds with higher concentrations are petroleum hydrocarbons found both in soil and in groundwater. Another big problem is represented by the presence of a layer of free product floating on the water table with a maximum measured thickness of 70 cm; this situation can be considered in fact one of the major difficulty in management of selected remediation technologies because the complete recover of the free phase is a priority for any kind of remediation system to apply subsequently. The present work is based upon the selection and implementation of a multiple treatment for definitive remediation of subsoil and groundwater. Free product recovery has been faced with a two-phase extraction technology, then for the remediation of subsoil we implemented a bio-venting system to improve biodegradation processes and finally for groundwater treatment we apply an enhanced in situ bio-remediation injecting oxygen rel situ bio-remediation injecting oxygen release compounds directly into the aquifer. To reach these choices we have to pass through a complex activity of investigation of the site made up of more than 40 sampling point, 8 monitoring wells, about 140 analysis on subsoil samples and 10 on groundwater samples and one well used for an aquifer test. The preliminary design of the remediation system was therefore based on an extensive site characterization that included geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with analytical data. After the study of all data acquired during investigations we could select the proper technologies for site remediation but to define correctly all project data we had to implement several laboratory tests to analyse bio-remediation processes, a series of pilot test for two phase extraction and bio-venting and a pilot test to select the best product for the release of oxygen into groundwater. The collection of the necessary parameters for the implementation of full-scale treatment was carried out throughout a period of several months, both with periodical measurements and sampling and with fixed monitoring probes, in order to record the aquifer changes related to contaminant concentrations, geochemical data, etc. At the end of all the tests we proceeded first with implementation of two phase extraction system through a double line of extraction wells that cover the extension of the area interested by the presence of free phase of LNAPL. The use of this technology instead of other more common system for free product recovery, is due to the fact that two phase extraction system results in an efficient recover of LNAPL and in a low extraction of groundwater that means lower treatment costs. Another important characteristic of this technology is that while extracting oil from the water table it extracts also soil gas from subsoil enhancing hydrocarbons bio-remediation through microbial activity. The second step after the complete recover of free product was to proceed with remediation of subsoil. Bio-remediation processes, enhanced by two phase extraction application, were increased with implementation of a bio-venting system made up of two horizontal wells installed along contaminated area. The injection of air through these wells supply oxygen to subsoil providing necessary aerobic conditions for degradation of hydrocarbon compounds. The results of laboratory tests showed that it would be suitable, to further stimulate microbial activity, to supply micro-nutrient compounds, principally nitrogen and phospho

97

In-situ treatment of a mixed hydrocarbon plume through enhanced bio-remediation and a PRB system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater is frequently polluted with mixtures of contaminants that are amenable to different types of remediation. One example is the combination of petroleum hydrocarbons (BTEX) and chlorinated solvents (PCE, TCE, DCE, VC), as it occurs in the groundwater beneath the industrial site that is the objective of the present case study. The site is located in Italy near a main river (Arno), which is supposed to be the final recipient of the contamination and where a possible exposure might take place. The aim of the treatment is the plume containment within the site boundaries in order to avoid further migration of the contaminants towards the river. The design of the remediation system was based on an extensive site characterization that included - but was not limited to - the following information: geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with analytical data (i.e. contaminant concentrations). Pilot tests were also implemented in order to collect the necessary parameters for the full-scale treatment design and calibration. The monitoring of the site conditions was carried out throughout a period of several months, both with periodical measurements and sampling and with fixed monitoring probes, in order to record the aquifer changes (levels, concentrations, etc.) related both to seasonal variations and to the pilot tests. The groundwater is located in a highly heterogeneous aquifer, with a saturated thickness of 1.5 m and an average hurated thickness of 1.5 m and an average hydraulic conductivity of 2.5 x 10-5 m/s. The seepage velocity is extremely low, with a mean value around 1.3 mm/d. This results in a long residence time and limited volumes per time unit to be treated. The site was contaminated by a mixed plume of more than 15 different contaminants, ranging from BTEX, to MTBE, to PAH, to chlorinated solvents. The concentration peaks were in the order of 1-100 mg/l for each contaminant. Petroleum hydrocarbons are quickly degradable through oxidative mechanisms (especially aerobic biodegradation), whereas fully-chlorinated compounds are only biodegradable via reductive pathways. Therefore, a mixed plume of both types of contaminants requires a combined approach with the application of different treatment technologies. The remediation strategy elaborated combines an enhanced bio-remediation of the hot spots with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) in a funnel and gate configuration for the down-gradient plume containment. Pilot tests were carried out in order to assess the efficiency and feasibility of such technologies in the site of interest. The enhanced bio-remediation is going to be carried out by means of injections of hydrogen release compounds (HRC) and oxygen release compounds (ORC) for the biodegradation of chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons respectively. A pilot test was conducted to determine the degradation rates of the different contaminants. The pilot test was monitored with a periodic sampling and analysis of the groundwater and with a continuous monitoring of the physical-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, conductivity, redox potential and dissolved oxygen) in the monitoring wells placed immediately down-gradient of the injection points. The tests showed the possibility to use the enhanced bio-remediation with the double aim to reduce the hot spot concentrations, in order to lower the contaminant load on the PRB, and to control the lateral spreading of the plume in the side regions. Permeable reactive barriers are passive groundwater treatment systems that are able to decontaminate groundwater as it flows through a permeable treatment medium under natural gradients. The main advantage of this technology over ex-situ and other in-situ groundwater remediation approaches is the reduced operation- and maintenance costs. For the permeable reactive barrier, a funnel and gate configuration was selected. This system uses low permeability materials (funnel) to direct groundwater towards a permeable treatment zone (gate). To ensure that flow beneath the system doe

98

Bacterial-fungal interactions enhance power generation in microbial fuel cells and drive dye decolourisation by an ex situ and in situ electro-Fenton process.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, the potential for sustainable energy production from wastes has been exploited using a combination fungus-bacterium in microbial fuel cell (MFC) and electro-Fenton technology. The fungus Trametes versicolor was grown with Shewanella oneidensis so that the bacterium would use the networks of the fungus to transport the electrons to the anode. This system generated stable electricity that was enhanced when the electro-Fenton reactions occurred in the cathode chamber. This configuration reached a stable voltage of approximately 1000 mV. Thus, the dual benefits of the in situ-designed MFC electro-Fenton, the simultaneous dye decolourisation and the electricity generation, were demonstrated. Moreover, the generated power was effectively used to drive an ex situ electro-Fenton process in batch and continuous mode. This newly developed MFC fungus-bacterium with an in situ electro-Fenton system can ensure a high power output and a continuous degradation of organic pollutants. PMID:24035817

Fernández de Dios, María Ángeles; del Campo, Araceli González; Fernández, Francisco Jesús; Rodrigo, Manuel; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, María Ángeles

2013-11-01

99

MICROCOSM AND IN-SITU FIELD STUDIES OF ENHANCED BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY PHENOL-UTILIZING MICROORGANISMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of different aerobic groundwater microorganisms to cometabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), and 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene (t-DCE) was evaluated both in groundwater-fed microcosms and in situ in a shallow aquifer. Microcosms a...

100

Enhanced production of the polysaccharide arabinogalactan using immobilized cultures of Tinospora cordifolia by elicitation and in situ adsorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immobilized callus cultures of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Miers ex Hooks and Thoms were investigated to find out the combined effect of elicitation, cell permeabilization with chitosan and in situ product recovery by polymeric neutral resin-like Diaion HP 20. In this study, callus cultures of T. cordifolia were immobilized using sodium alginate and calcium chloride and the beads were cultured in Murashige and Skoog's basal medium along with benzyl adenine (BA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 3% sucrose. The immobilized cultures, when subjected to elicitation and cell permeabilization with chitosan and in situ removal of the secondary metabolites by addition of resin, showed a 10-fold increase in production of arabinogalactan (0.490% dry weight) as compared to respective controls devoid of resin and chitosan. This indicates that in situ adsorption may have reduced the feedback inhibition caused by accumulation of secondary metabolites in the media, while the dual effect of elicitation and cell permeabilization by chitosan may have released the intracellular (secreted) berberine and the polysaccharide arabinogalactan, respectively. PMID:16321052

Roja, G; Bhangale, A S; Juvekar, A R; Eapen, S; D'Souza, S F

2005-01-01

101

X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies

102

X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Environmental Science and Engineering Div.; Lowe, K.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Murdoch, L.D. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Slack, W.W. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Houk, T.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States)

1998-03-01

103

The use of 2D non-uniform electric field to enhance in situ bioremediation of 2,4-dichlorophenol-contaminated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ bioremediation is a safe and cost-effective technology for the cleanup of organic-contaminated soil, but its remediation rate is usually very slow, which results primarily from limited mass transfer of pollutants to the degrading bacteria in soil media. This study investigated the feasibility of adopting 2D non-uniform electric field to enhance in situ bioremediation process by promoting the mass transfer of organics to degrading bacteria under in situ conditions. For this purpose, a 2D non-uniform electrokinetic system was designed and tested at bench-scale with a sandy loam as the model soil and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) as the model organic pollutant at two common operation modes (bidirectional and rotational). Periodically, the electric field reverses its direction at bidirectional mode and revolves a given angle at rotational mode. The results demonstrated that the non-uniform electric field could effectively stimulate the desorption and the movement of 2,4-DCP in the soil. The 2,4-DCP was mobilized through soil media towards the anode at a rate of about 1.0 cmd(-1)V(-1). The results also showed that in situ biodegradation of 2,4-DCP in the soil was greatly enhanced by the applied 2D electric field upon operational mode. At the bidirectional mode, an average 2,4-DCP removal of 73.4% was achieved in 15 days, and the in situ biodegradation of 2,4-DCP was increased by about three times as compared with that uncoupled with electric field, whereas, 34.8% of 2,4-DCP was removed on average in the same time period at the rotational mode. In terms of maintaining remediation uniformity in soil, the rotational operation remarkably excelled the bidirectional operation. In the hexagonal treatment area, the 2,4-DCP removal efficiency adversely increase with the distance to the central electrode at the bidirectional mode, while the rotational mode generated almost uniform removal in soil bed. PMID:17418487

Fan, Xiangyu; Wang, Hui; Luo, Qishi; Ma, Jianwei; Zhang, Xihui

2007-09-01

104

Increased Tumor Oxygenation and Drug Uptake During Anti-Angiogenic Weekly Low Dose Cyclophosphamide Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of Weekly Tirapazamine  

OpenAIRE

Metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment is associated with anti-angiogenic activity and is anticipated to generate exploitable hypoxia using hypoxia-activated prodrugs. Weekly administration of tirapazamine (TPZ; 5 mg/kg body weight i.p.) failed to inhibit the growth of 9L gliosarcoma tumors grown s.c. in scid mice. However, the anti-tumor effect of weekly cyclophosphamide (CPA) treatment (140 mg/kg BW i.p.) was substantially enhanced by weekly TPZ administration. An extended tumor free period ...

Doloff, J. C.; Khan, N.; Ma, J.; Demidenko, E.; Swartz, H. M.; Jounaidi, Y.

2009-01-01

105

Microwave-assisted in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-BiVO4 composite photocatalysts and their enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of ciprofloxacin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Microwave-assisted in situ growth of RGO-BiVO4 composite was proposed. ? A relatively small particle size with organic-additives free. ? Graphene was formed during the microwave-heating by oxygen capture. ? GB-2 sample exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (3 times over pure BiVO4). ? The enhancements of activities result from the effective charge separation. -- Abstract: To improve the photodegradation efficiency for ciprofloxacin (CIP), a new-type microwave-assisted in situ growth method is developed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) -BiVO4 composite photocatalysts. The as-produced RGO-BiVO4 composite photocatalysts show extremely high enhancement of CIP degradation ratio over the pure BiVO4 photocatalyst under visible light. Specially, the 2 wt% RGO-BiVO4 composite photocatalyst exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (68.2%) in 60 min, which is over 3 times than that (22.7%) of the pure BiVO4 particles. The enhancement of photocatalytic activities of RGO-BiVO4 photocatalysts can be attributed to the effective separation of electron–hole pairs rather than the improvement of light absorption

106

Microwave-assisted in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts and their enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of ciprofloxacin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? Microwave-assisted in situ growth of RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite was proposed. ? A relatively small particle size with organic-additives free. ? Graphene was formed during the microwave-heating by oxygen capture. ? GB-2 sample exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (3 times over pure BiVO{sub 4}). ? The enhancements of activities result from the effective charge separation. -- Abstract: To improve the photodegradation efficiency for ciprofloxacin (CIP), a new-type microwave-assisted in situ growth method is developed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) -BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts. The as-produced RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts show extremely high enhancement of CIP degradation ratio over the pure BiVO{sub 4} photocatalyst under visible light. Specially, the 2 wt% RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalyst exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (68.2%) in 60 min, which is over 3 times than that (22.7%) of the pure BiVO{sub 4} particles. The enhancement of photocatalytic activities of RGO-BiVO{sub 4} photocatalysts can be attributed to the effective separation of electron–hole pairs rather than the improvement of light absorption.

Yan, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Sun, Shaofang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Yanta Road 126, Xi’an, 710054 (China); Song, Yang; Yan, Xu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Guan, Weisheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Yanta Road 126, Xi’an, 710054 (China); Liu, Xinlin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Shi, Weidong, E-mail: swd1978@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China)

2013-04-15

107

Superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films on silver substrates by in situ plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An in situ microwave plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process was used to fabricate highly c-axis oriented YBa2Cu3O7-x superconducting thin films on metallic Ag substrates. The films were deposited at a reduced substrate temperature of 740 degree C in about 270 Pa of N2O ambient. Magnetic susceptibilities versus temperature of the as-deposited films show attainment of zero resistance of 85 K and composition of single (high Tc) phase. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the films deposited at 740 degree C have highly preferential orientation of the crystallite c axes perpendicular to the substrate surface

108

Low-temperature in situ formation of Y-Ba-Cu-O high Tc superconducting thin films by plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highly textured, highly dense, superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films with mirror-like surfaces have been prepared, in situ, at a reduced substrate temperature as low as 570 degree C by a remote microwave plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process (PE-MOCVD). Nitrous oxide was used as the oxidizer gas. The as-deposited films grown by PE-MOCVD show attainment of zero resistance at 72 K. PE-MOCVD was carried out in a commercial scale MOCVD reactor

109

An in situ study of the enhancement of atomic mobility under neutron irradiation in a Ag-30 at. % Zn alloy using the Zener relaxation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By monitoring the rate of the Zener relaxation, in situ measurements of the dynamic concentration of point defects associated with the bombardment by fast neutrons at intermediate temperatures (0.3 to 0.4 Tsub(m)) have been obtained for a Ag-30 at.% Zn alloy. Enhancement of the atomic mobility by factors ranging from 3 to over 104 were found in the temperature range studied (400C to 1600C) for a flux of 6 x 1011 fast neutrons/cm2.sec. These enhance-ments are discussed in terms of a stationary state model for the defect supersaturation. Information about the emission of 'free' defects by the cascades and the generation rate of dislocation sinks for these defects by cascade collapse has been derived. (author)

110

In-situ-study  

OpenAIRE

Elmex fluid® and Duraphat® have been tested in this in situ study, in view of the effects of fluoride intake on in vitro bred initial caries lesions. Elmex fluid (1 % amine fluoride content, pH value of 4.5) and Duraphat (2.3 % sodium fluoride content, neutral pH value) were examined regarding the fluoride absorption in demineralised human enamel under clinical conditions over a time period of 6 weeks. The aim of the examination was the quantitative analysis of the fluoride adsorptio...

Schleithoff, Lukas

2010-01-01

111

Facile in situ synthesis of hydrophilic RGO-CD-Ag supramolecular hybrid and its enhanced antibacterial properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a novel hydrophilic RGO-CD-Ag hybrid with the supramolecular ?-cyclodextrin (CD) as a conjugation interface was fabricated successfully by a facile in situ synthesis process. The results of several characterizations confirmed that the in situ reaction provided a straightforward approach to deposit the CD wrapped Ag nanoparticles onto the CD chemical functionalized RGO sheets through the head-to-head H-bond interactions between the linker CD molecules. Moreover, it was also found that the CD interface that existed indeed influences the structure and performances of RGO-CD-Ag nanocomposite. The analysis of the static contact angle revealed that the surface property of the hybrid could be transformed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic feature, which highly improved the aqueous dispersibility. And then, the bactericidal test of RGO-CD-Ag was demonstrated and clearly showed the strongest antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria among all samples. In short, this method may readily provide a new family of supramolecular based materials expected to find applications beyond the bactericidal field. PMID:24863236

Li, Tie; Shen, Jianfeng; Li, Na; Ye, Mingxin

2014-06-01

112

Double-wall TiO2 nanotube arrays: enhanced photocatalytic activity and in situ TEM observations at high temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

By decreasing the water content in an NH4F and glycerol-water electrolyte, the transition from single-wall to double-wall TiO2 nanotube arrays was successfully achieved using an anodization method. The double-wall TiO2 nanotube structures exhibited better photocatalytic activity than the typical single-wall structures. After modification with platinum nanoparticles, the photocatalytic activity of both the single- and double-wall TiO2 nanotubes was improved further. In situ observations at the annealing temperature of the TiO2 nanotubes were performed using a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) system. A slower structural failure of the nanotubes was obtained with the introduction of oxygen gas into the TEM column compared with the structural changes observed under high-vacuum conditions without the introduction of oxygen gas. These behaviors suggest that oxygen injection is an important factor in stabilizing the TiO2 nanotubes during the in situ TEM annealing process. The high-magnification TEM images of the double-wall TiO2 nanotubes revealed that the sintering of the inner wall can draw a clear distinction between the inner and outer walls. PMID:25401270

Xue, Chaorui; Narushima, Takashi; Ishida, Yohei; Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Yonezawa, Tetsu

2014-11-26

113

Enhancement of the sweep efficiency of waterflooding operations by the in-situ microbial population of petroleum reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Live cores were obtained from five reservoirs using special precautions to prevent contamination by exogenous microorganisms and minimize exposure to oxygen. The depths from which the cores were obtained ranged from 2,705 ft to 6,568 ft. Core plugs were cut radially from live cores, encased in heat-shrink plastic tubes, placed in core holders, and fitted with inlets and outlets. Nutrient additions stimulated the in-situ microbial population to increase, dissolve stratal material, produce gases, and release oil. Reduction in flow through the core plugs was observed in some cases, while in other cases flow was increased, probably due to the dissolution of carbonates in the formation. A field demonstration of the ability of the in-situ microbial population to increase oil recovery by blocking the more permeable zones of the reservoir is currently underway. This demonstration is being conducted in the North Blowhorn Creek Unit situated in Lamar County, Alabama. Live cores were obtained from a newly drilled well in the field and tested as described above. The field project involves four test patterns each including one injector, four to five producers, and a comparable control injector with its four to five producers. Nutrient injection in the field began November 1994.

Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A.; Stephens, J.O.; Azadpour, A.

1995-12-31

114

Template-Directed In Situ Polymerization Preparation of Nanocomposites of PEDOT:PSS-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Enhanced Thermoelectric Property.  

Science.gov (United States)

A template-directed in situ polymerization preparation of nanocomposites of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with greatly enhanced thermoelectric property is presented. The results reveal that monomeric 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene was successfully polymerized, enwrapping the surfaces of dispersed MWCNTs (templates) with the aid of PSS. The coated morphology was directly observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The coated layer was further characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the interfacial interaction between PEDOT:PSS and MWCNTs was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Finally, the thermoelectric measurements show that the obtained PEDOT:PSS/MWCNT nanocomposites exhibited greatly enhanced electrical conductivities, Seebeck coefficients, and power factors when compared with those of neat PEDOT:PSS. PMID:25339220

Zhang, Zhuang; Chen, Guangming; Wang, Hanfu; Li, Xin

2015-01-01

115

The in situ preparation of novel ?-Fe2O3 nanorods/CNTs composites and their greatly enhanced field emission properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Novel field emitters with ?-Fe2O3 nanorods/CNTs composites were simply prepared by dipping the iron into the oxalic acid solution, drop-coating CNTs to the iron substrate followed by in situ thermal oxidation. The surface morphology of the products has been characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). And further the composition was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of SEM, XRD and XPS showed that CNTs have been homogenously dispersed and partly wrapped on ?-Fe2O3 nanorods. ?-Fe2O3 nanorods/CNTs composites had exhibited greatly enhanced field emission properties with low turn-on field (about 1.211 V/?m), and high field enhancement factor of 8658. Therefore, the ?-Fe2O3 nanorods/CNTs composites are promising field emitters for field emission applications.

116

Enhanced water window x-ray emission from in situ formed carbon clusters irradiated by intense ultra-short laser pulses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enhanced water window x-ray emission (23–44 Å) from carbon clusters, formed in situ using a pre-pulse, irradiated by intense (I > 1017 W/cm2) ultra-short laser pulse, is demonstrated. An order of magnitude x-ray enhancement over planar graphite target is observed in carbon clusters, formed by a sub-ns pre-pulse, interacting with intense main pulse after a delay. The effect of the delay and the duration of the main pulse is studied for optimizing the x-ray emission in the water window region. This x-ray source has added advantages of being an efficient, high repetition rate, and low debris x-ray source

117

In situ polymerization of graphene oxide and cyanate ester-epoxy with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties  

Science.gov (United States)

Uniformly dispersed graphene oxide (GO)/cyanate ester (CE)-epoxy (EP) composites were successfully synthesized by in situ polymerization. Both the results of FT-IR and XPS verified that epoxide groups on the GO sheets reacted with cyanate group (Osbnd Ctbnd N) in the resin. These results could provide excellent dispersion of GO and strong interfacial interaction between GO and CE matrix. TEM confirmed that GO tended to be a single layer. XRD and SEM indicated that matrix molecules could be inserted into the interplanar spacing of GO. The mechanical properties and thermal behavior of the composites were investigated in detail. It is observed that GO reinforced EP-CE composites demonstrated improved mechanical properties and better thermal stability than that of EP-CE matrix, which make them suitable for use in aerospace applications and structural composites.

Ren, Fang; Zhu, Guangming; Ren, Penggang; Wang, Yongkun; Cui, Xiaoping

2014-10-01

118

Tunable near infrared to ultraviolet upconversion luminescence enhancement in (?-NaYF4 :Yb,Tm)/CaF2 core/shell nanoparticles for in situ real-time recorded biocompatible photoactivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A family of upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) with a tunable UV enhancement is developed via a facile approach. The design leads to a maximum 9-fold enhancement in comparison with known optimal ?-phase core/shell UCNPs in water. A highly effective and rapid in situ real-time live-cell photoactivation is recorded for the first time with such nanoparticles. PMID:23696330

Shen, Jie; Chen, Guanying; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y; Kesseli, Samuel J; Buchholz, Steven; Li, Zhipeng; Prasad, Paras N; Han, Gang

2013-10-11

119

Enhanced production of botrallin and TMC-264 with in situ macroporous resin adsorption in mycelial liquid culture of the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, an endophytic fungus from the hybrid "Neva" of Populus deltoides × P. nigra, is a high producer of the bioactive dibenzo-?-pyrones botrallin and TMC-264. However, both the botrallin and TMC-264 produced by Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 were retained as both intracellular and extracellular products. The aim of this study was to evaluate an in situ macroporous resin adsorption for enhancement of botrallin and TMC-264 production in mycelial liquid culture of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12. Production of botrallin and TMC-264 was most effectively enhanced by macroporous resin DM-301 among the thirteen nonionic macroporous resins tested. The highest botrallin yield (51.47 mg/L, which was 2.29-fold higher than the control at 22.49 mg/L) was obtained by adding resin DM-301 at 4.38% (g/mL) to the culture broth on day 24 and allowing a period of 4 days for adsorption. The highest TMC-264 yield reached 47.74 mg/L, which was 11.76-fold higher than that of the control (4.06 mg/L), and was achieved by adding DM-301 resin at 4.38% (w/v) in the culture broth on day 24 and allowing a period of 6 days for adsorption. The results show that in situ resin adsorption is an effective strategy for enhancing production of botrallin and TMC-264, and also for facilitating their recovery from mycelial liquid culture of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12. PMID:25211003

Luo, Haiyu; Liu, Hongwei; Cao, Yuheng; Xu, Dan; Mao, Ziling; Mou, Yan; Meng, Jiajia; Lai, Daowan; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang

2014-01-01

120

Enhanced Production of Botrallin and TMC-264 with in Situ Macroporous Resin Adsorption in Mycelial Liquid Culture of the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, an endophytic fungus from the hybrid “Neva” of Populus deltoides × P. nigra, is a high producer of the bioactive dibenzo-?-pyrones botrallin and TMC-264. However, both the botrallin and TMC-264 produced by Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 were retained as both intracellular and extracellular products. The aim of this study was to evaluate an in situ macroporous resin adsorption for enhancement of botrallin and TMC-264 production in mycelial liquid culture of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12. Production of botrallin and TMC-264 was most effectively enhanced by macroporous resin DM-301 among the thirteen nonionic macroporous resins tested. The highest botrallin yield (51.47 mg/L, which was 2.29-fold higher than the control at 22.49 mg/L was obtained by adding resin DM-301 at 4.38% (g/mL to the culture broth on day 24 and allowing a period of 4 days for adsorption. The highest TMC-264 yield reached 47.74 mg/L, which was 11.76-fold higher than that of the control (4.06 mg/L, and was achieved by adding DM-301 resin at 4.38% (w/v in the culture broth on day 24 and allowing a period of 6 days for adsorption. The results show that in situ resin adsorption is an effective strategy for enhancing production of botrallin and TMC-264, and also for facilitating their recovery from mycelial liquid culture of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12.

Haiyu Luo

2014-09-01

121

Enhanced photocatalytic property of reduced graphene oxide/TiO2 nanobelt surface heterostructures constructed by an in situ photochemical reduction method.  

Science.gov (United States)

A facile method is proposed to assemble graphene oxide (GO) on the surface of a TiO2 nanobelt followed by an in situ photocatalytic reduction to form reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/TiO2 nanobelt surface heterostructures. The special colloidal properties of GO and TiO2 nanobelt are exploited as well as the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 . Using water-ethanol solvent mixtures, GO nanosheets are tightly wrapped around the surface of the TiO2 nanobelts through an aggregation process and are then reduced in situ under UV-light irradiation to form rGO/TiO2 nanobelt surface heterostructures. The heterostructures enhance the separation of the photoinduced carriers, which results in a higher photocurrent due to the special electronic characteristics of rGO. Compared to TiO2 nanobelts, the rGO/TiO2 nanobelt surface heterostructures possess higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange and for the production of hydrogen from water, as well as excellent recyclability, with no loss of activity over five cycles. PMID:24888721

Sang, Yuanhua; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Hao, Pin; Jiang, Huaidong; Liu, Hong; Claverie, Jerome P

2014-09-24

122

Enhanced oral bioavailability of piperine by self-emulsifying drug delivery systems: in vitro, in vivo and in situ intestinal permeability studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The main purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) of piperine to enhance its solubility and bioavailability. The formulation was optimized by solubility test and ternary phase diagrams. Then physiochemical properties and in vitro release of SEDDS were characterized. In vivo pharmacokinetics study and in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion were performed to investigate the effects of SEDDS on the bioavailability and intestinal absorption of piperine. The optimized formulation was composed of ethyl oleate, Tween 80 and Transcutol P (3:5.5:1.5, w/w), with the level of the piperine reached 2.5% (w/w). The in vitro dissolution rates of piperine SEDDS were significantly higher than the self-prepared capsules. In vivo pharmacokinetic study showed Cmax1, Cmax2 and area under the curve of piperine after oral administration of SEDDS in rats were 3.8-, 7.2- and 5.2-fold higher than the self-prepared capsules, respectively, and the relative bioavailability of SEDDS was 625.74%. The in situ intestinal absorption study revealed that the effective permeability and the effective absorption rate values of piperine for SEDDS were significantly improved comparing to solutions (p?piperine effectively. PMID:24670090

Shao, Bing; Cui, Chao; Ji, Hongyu; Tang, Jingling; Wang, Zhiyong; Liu, Hongmei; Qin, Mengnan; Li, Xin; Wu, Linhua

2014-03-27

123

In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

Robertson, Eric P

2011-05-24

124

Usage of waste products from thermal recycling of plastics waste in enhanced oil recovery or in-situ coal conversion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this contribution a thermal method for crude oil mobilization and in-situ liquefaction of coal is discussed, which will finally yield more organic material, as which has been put in from plastics waste originally into the process. The conversion product from thermal treatment is pumped down into exhausted crude oil reservoirs, where the hydrogen can degrade the residual high viscous oil to cause it to become more prone to flow so that it can be recovered. Such a process will envision two goals: 1. more organic raw material (as crude oil) will be recovered than is initially put in as waste product. 2. atmospheric pollutants from the conversion plant will be trapped in the reservoir, which simplifies the construction of the plant. An analogous process may be performed with coal seams. Coal seams with their high porosity and large specific surface are believed to be in particular useful to filter atmospheric pollutants. Depending on the type of coal the mobilization of organic material by this process may be in the background. (orig./SR)

Fink, M.; Fink, J.K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

1998-09-01

125

Dual-drug delivery system based on in situ gel-forming nanosuspension of forskolin to enhance antiglaucoma efficacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was designed to improve the bioavailability of forskolin by the influence of precorneal residence time and dissolution characteristics. Nanosizing is an advanced approach to overcome the issue of poor aqueous solubility of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Forskolin nanocrystals have been successfully manufactured and stabilized by poloxamer 407. These nanocrystals have been characterized in terms of particle size by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. By formulating Noveon AA-1 polycarbophil/poloxamer 407 platforms, at specific concentrations, it was possible to obtain a pH and thermoreversible gel with a pH(gel)/T (gel) close to eye pH/temperature. The addition of forskolin nanocrystals did not alter the gelation properties of Noveon AA-1 polycarbophil/poloxamer 407 and nanocrystal properties of forskolin. The formulation was stable over a period of 6 months at room temperature. In vitro release experiments indicated that the optimized platform was able to prolong and control forskolin release for more than 5 h. The in vivo studies on dexamethasone-induced glaucomatous rabbits indicated that the intraocular pressure lowering efficacy for nanosuspension/hydrogel systems was 31% and lasted for 12 h, which is significantly better than the effect of traditional eye suspension (18%, 4-6 h). Hence, our investigations successfully prove that the pH and thermoreversible polymeric in situ gel-forming nanosuspension with ability of controlled drug release exhibits a greater potential for glaucoma therapy. PMID:20182824

Gupta, Saurabh; Samanta, Malay K; Raichur, Ashok M

2010-03-01

126

Enhanced epsilon-poly-L-lysine production from Streptomyces ahygroscopicus by a combination of cell immobilization and in situ adsorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epsilon-poly-L-lysine (epsilon-PL), produced by Streptomyces or Kitasatospora strains, is a homo-poly-amino acid of Llysine, which is used as a safe food preservative. The present study investigates the combined use of cell immobilization and in situ adsorption (ISA) to produce epsilon-PL in shaken flasks. Loofah sponge-immobilized Streptomyces ahygroscopicus GIM8 produced slightly more epsilon-PL than those immobilized on synthetic sponge, and sugarcane bagasse. Moreover, loofah sponge supported the maximum biomass. Hence, loofah sponge was chosen for cell immobilization. Meanwhile, the ion-exchange resin D152 was employed for ISA. The loofah sponge-immobilized cells produced 0.54 +/- 0.1 g/l epsilon-PL, which significantly increased to 3.64 +/- 0.32 g/l after combining with ISA through the addition of resin bags. The free cells with ISA using the dispersed resin yielded 2.73 +/- 0.26 g/l of epsilon-PL, an increase from 0.82 +/- 0.08 g/l. These data illustrate that the proposed combination method improved production most significantly compared with either immobilization or ISA only. Moreover, the immobilized cells could be repeatedly used and an epsilon-PL total amount of 8.05 +/- 0.84 g/l was obtained. The proposed combination method offers promising perspectives for epsilon-PL production. PMID:22814495

Liu, Shengrong; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Mo, Shuping; Yang, Xiaojuan; Xiao, Chun

2012-09-01

127

Encapsulation of LiFePO4 by in-situ graphitized carbon cage towards enhanced low temperature performance as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries  

Science.gov (United States)

The severe capacity decay of LiFePO4 at low temperatures (?0 °C) limits its wide applications as cathode materials for energy storage batteries. Creating comprehensive carbon network between particles with improved electronic conductivity is a well known solution to this problem. Here, a novel structured LiFePO4/C composite was prepared by a facile solid state route, in which nanosized LiFePO4 spheres were encapsulated by in-situ graphitized carbon cages. With the enhancement in electronic conductivity (2.15e-1 S cm-1), the composite presented excellent rate performance at room temperature and remarkable capacity retention at -40 °C, with charge transfer resistance much lower than commercial LiFePO4.

Yao, Bin; Ding, Zhaojun; Zhang, Jianxin; Feng, Xiaoyu; Yin, Longwei

2014-08-01

128

Enhanced and sustained topical ocular delivery of cyclosporine A in thermosensitive hyaluronic acid-based in situ forming microgels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yijun Wu, Jing Yao, Jianping Zhou, Fatima Zohra Dahmani State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: For nearly a decade, thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gels have been recognized as an interesting and promising ocular topical delivery vehicle for lipophilic drugs. In this study, a series of thermosensitive copolymers, hyaluronic acid-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (HA-g-PNIPAAm, was synthesized, by coupling carboxylic end-capped PNIPAAm to aminated hyaluronic acid through amide bond linkages, and was used as a potential carrier for the topical ocular administration of cyclosporine A (CyA. The lower critical solution temperature of HA-g-PNIPAAm59 in aqueous solutions was measured as 32.7°C, which was not significantly affected by the polymer concentration. Moreover, HA-g-PNIPAAm59 microgels showed a high drug loading efficiency (73.92% and a controlled release profile that are necessary for biomedical application. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM observations showed that HA-g-PNIPAAm microgels were spherical in shape with homogeneous size. Based on the result of the eye irritation test, the HA-g-PNIPAAm microgels formulation was shown to be safe and nonirritant for rabbit eyes. In addition, HA-g-PNIPAAm microgels achieved significantly higher CyA concentration levels in rabbit corneas (1455.8 ng/g of tissue than both castor oil formulation and commercial CyA eye drops. Therefore, these newly described thermoresponsive HA-g-PNIPAAm microgels demonstrated attractive properties to serve as pharmaceutical delivery vehicles for a variety of ophthalmic applications. Keywords: thermosensitive microgels, ophthalmic drug delivery, hyaluronic acid, cyclosporine A

Wu Y

2013-09-01

129

Enhanced repair of the anterior cruciate ligament by in situ gene transfer: evaluation in an in vitro model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inability of the ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee joint to heal spontaneously presents numerous clinical problems. Here we describe a novel, gene-based approach to augment ACL healing. It is based upon the migration of cells from the ruptured ends of the ligament into a collagen hydrogel laden with recombinant adenovirus. Cells entering the gel become transduced by the vector, which provides a basis for the local synthesis of gene products that aid repair. Monolayers of bovine ACL cells were readily transduced by first-generation, recombinant adenovirus, and transgene expression remained high after the cells were incorporated into collagen hydrogels. Using an in vitro model of ligament repair, cells migrated from the cut ends of the ACL into the hydrogel and were readily transduced by recombinant adenovirus contained within it. The results of experiments in which GFP was used as the transgene suggest highly efficient transduction of ACL cells in this manner. Moreover, during a 21-day period GFP+ cells were observed more than 6 mm from the severed ligament. This distance is ample for the projected clinical application of this technology. In response to TGF-beta1 as the transgene, greater numbers of ACL cells accumulated in the hydrogels, where they deposited larger amounts of type III collagen. These data confirm that it is possible to transduce ACL cells efficiently in situ as they migrate from the ruptured ACL, that transduction does not interfere with the cells' ability to migrate distances necessary for successful repair, and that ACL cells will respond in a suitable manner to the products of the transgenes they express. This permits optimism over a possible clinical use for this technology. PMID:15294179

Pascher, Arnulf; Steinert, Andre F; Palmer, Glyn D; Betz, Oliver; Gouze, Jean-Noel; Gouze, Elvire; Pilapil, Carmencita; Ghivizzani, Stephen C; Evans, Christopher H; Murray, Martha Meaney

2004-08-01

130

Origin of springtime ozone enhancements in the lower troposphere over Beijing: in situ measurements and model analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozone (O3) concentrations in the lower troposphere (LT) over Beijing have significantly increased over the past two decades as a result of rapid industrialization in China, with important implications for regional air quality and photochemistry of the background troposphere. We characterize the vertical distribution of lower-tropospheric (0-6 km) O3 over Beijing using observations from 16 ozonesonde soundings made during a field campaign in April-May 2005 and MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft) aircraft measurements over 13 days in the same period. We focus on the origin of LT O3 enhancements observed over Beijing, particularly in May. We use a global 3-D chemistry and transport model (GEOS-Chem CTM) driven by assimilated meteorological fields to examine the transport pathways for O3 pollution, and quantify the sources contributing to O3 and its enhancements in the springtime LT over Beijing. Output from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) CTM is also used. High O3 concentrations (up to 94.7 ppbv) were frequently observed at the altitude of ~1.5-2 km. The CTMs captured the timing of the occurrences but significantly underestimated their magnitude. GEOS-Chem simulations and a case study showed that O3 produced in the Asian troposphere (especially from Asian anthropogenic pollution) made major contributions to the observed O3 enhancements. Contributions from anthropogenic pollution in the European and North American troposphere were reduced during these events, in contrast with days without O3 enhancements, when contributions from Europe and North America were substantial. The O3 enhancements typically occurred under southerly wind and warmer conditions. It is suggested that an earlier onset of the Asian summer monsoon would cause more O3 enhancement events in the lower troposphere over the North China Plain in late spring and early summer.

Huang, J.; Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Chan, C.; Considine, D. B.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhao, C.; Thouret, V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Liu, S. C.; Jones, D. B. A.; Steenrod, S. D.; Damon, M. R.

2014-12-01

131

In situ evaluation of orthodontic elastomeric chains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A hipótese testada foi que a exposição dos elásticos em cadeia ao meio bucal altera sua força de tensão. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o comportamento, in situ, de diferentes cadeias elastoméricas quando tensionadas durante 3 semanas. Três tipos de elásticos em cadeia Plastic Chain ( [...] PC), Memory Chain (MC) e Super Slick Chain (SSC) foram inseridos aleatoriamente em 3 dos quadrantes de 13 pacientes com distância fixa de 16 mm e força inicial de 180 g. Foi realizado ensaio de tração em uma máquina de ensaio universal EMIC nos seguintes intervalos: inicial, 1 h, 24 h, 1 semana, 2 semanas e 3 semanas. O teste ANOVA a dois critérios foi aplicado para verificar a influência do material e do tempo na degradação da força. Subsequentemente, foi utilizado o teste ANOVA a um critério e pós-teste de Tukey para identificar diferenças estatísticas (p Abstract in english The hypothesis tested in this study was that intraoral exposure of elastomeric chains alters their tensile strength. For such purpose, it was evaluated the in situ behavior of different elastomeric chains stretched for 3 weeks. Three kinds of elastomeric chains, Plastic chain (PC), Memory chain (MC) [...] and Super slick chain (SSC), were randomly placed in 3 quadrants of 13 patient in a fixed distance of 16 mm and mean initial force of 180 g. Tensile testing was performed in an universal testing machine at different intervals: initial, 1 h, 24 h, 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks. A two-way ANOVA test was performed to identify the influence of both material and time on the force decrease. A subsequent one-way ANOVAtest with the Tukey's post hoc test was used to identify statistically significant intragroup and intergroup remaining force (g and %) differences at 5% significance level. The effect of both the material and the time factors were significant. All groups showed significant force decrease after the 1-h period (23% for PC and 14% for MC and SSC). At the end of the 3-week period, the remaining force was 57% (96 g), 67% (129 g) and 71% (125 g) for PC, MC and SSC, respectively. In conclusion, intraoral exposure of elastomeric chains altered their tensile strength. In general, the greater force decrease occurred within the first hour. The remaining force of the enhanced chains measured at each time interval was greater than the conventional one (PC). After 3 weeks, only the enhanced chains maintained the force applied over 100 g.

Carolina, Baratieri; Cláudia Trindade, Mattos; Matheus, Alves Jr; Thiago Chon Leon, Lau; Lincoln Issamu, Nojima; Margareth Maria Gomes de, Souza; Monica Tirre, Araujo; Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves, Nojima.

132

Prolonged maturation and enhanced transduction of dendritic cells migrated from human skin explants after in situ delivery of CD40-targeted adenoviral vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Therapeutic tumor vaccination with viral vectors or naked DNA, carrying the genetic code for tumor-associated Ags, critically depends on the in vivo transduction of dendritic cells (DC). Transfection of predominantly nonprofessional APC and only small numbers of DC may hamper proper T cell activation. Aim of this study was, therefore, the targeted, selective, and enhanced in situ transduction of DC. A human skin explant model was used to explore targeted transduction of cutaneous DC after intradermal injection of a bispecific Ab conjugate to link adenoviral (Ad) vectors directly to CD40 on the DC surface. A significantly enhanced transduction efficiency and selectivity, and an increased activation state of migrating DC were thus achieved. Moreover, DC transduced by CD40-targeted Ad maintained their Ag-specific CTL-stimulatory ability for up to 1 wk after the start of migration, in contrast to DC transduced by untargeted Ad, which had lost this capacity by that time. Because DC targeting in vivo might obviate the need for the in vitro culture of autologous DC for adoptive transfer, CD40-targeted Ad vectors constitute a promising new vaccine modality for tumor immunotherapy. PMID:12391253

de Gruijl, Tanja D; Luykx-de Bakker, Sylvia A; Tillman, Bryan W; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J M; Buter, Jan; Lougheed, Sinéad M; van der Bij, Gerben J; Safer, A Mahmoud; Haisma, Hidde J; Curiel, David T; Scheper, Rik J; Pinedo, Herbert M; Gerritsen, Winald R

2002-11-01

133

In situ, field-scale evaluation of surfactant-enhanced DNAPL recovery using a single-well, ``push-pull'' test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall goal of this project was to further develop the single-well, ``push-pull'' test method as a feasibility assessment and site-characterization tool for studying the fundamental fate and transport behavior of injected surfactants and their ability to solubilize and mobilize dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface. The specific objectives were to develop a modified push-pull test for use in identifying and quantifying the effects of sorption, precipitation, and biodegradation on the fate and transport of injected surfactants, use the developed test method to quantify the effects of these processes on the ability of injected surfactants to solubilize and mobilize residual phase trichloroethane (TCE), and demonstrate the utility of the developed test method for performing site characterization and feasibility studies for surfactant-enhanced DNAPL recovery systems in the field. The results from the intermediate-scale laboratory experiments conducted for this project indicate that the single-well, push-pull test method can provide quantitative information on the effectiveness of injected surfactants in enhancing DNAPL solubilization in natural aquifer sediments. Specifically, the results of this research demonstrate the ability of the single-well, push-pull test to characterize the behavior of multi-component surfactants in the presence of natural aquifer sediment under laboratory and in-situ field conditions.

Istok, J.D.; Field, J.A.

1999-10-01

134

Radiation induced dehydrochlorination as an in-situ doping technique for enhancement of the conductivity of polyaniline blends  

Science.gov (United States)

In our earlier studies we have shown that acid doping in PANI/PVC blends can be achieved by radiation induced HCl release from PVC parts. In order to enhance radiation-induced acid doping process in PANI blends we have prepared solution cast films of PANI with the copolymers of vinylidene chloride with vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride. Homogeneous films obtained from these binary systems as well as from PANI/PVC blends were exposed to gamma rays under ambient conditions. The increase in the conductivity of initially non-conducting films was significant, reaching values of 10-2 S/cm from initial values of 10-7 S/cm upon irradiation to 500 kGy dose. Chemical changes leading to relatively high conductivities were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy by following the changes taking place in 1149 cm-1 and 814 cm-1 bands which are indicative of conductivity and chlorine binding in polyaniline.

Bodugöz, Hatice; Güven, Olgun

2005-07-01

135

In situ monitoring of thermal crystallization of ultrathin tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal crystallization of 3, 10, and 60 nm-thick tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) films is studied using surface-enhanced Raman scattering with a constant heating rate. An abrupt higher frequency shift of the quinoline-stretching mode is found to be an indication of a phase transition of Alq3 molecules from amorphous to crystalline. While the 60 nm-thick film shows the same crystallization temperature as a bulk sample, the thinner films were found to have a lower crystallization temperature and slower rate of crystallization. Non-isothermal kinetics analysis is performed to quantify kinetic properties such as the Avrami exponent constants and crystallization rates of ultrathin Alq3 films. PMID:24405952

Muraki, Naoki

2014-01-01

136

Enhancement of the thermoelectric performance of ?-Zn4Sb3 by in situ nanostructures and minute Cd-doping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

?-Zn4Sb3 compounds doped with minute amounts of Cd were synthesized by the MS-SPS technique, which involves melt spinning (MS) followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS), and the microstructures, thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties were systematically characterized. The non-equilibrium MS-SPS technique generates multi-scale nanostructures in the MS-prepared ribbon-shape samples and the resulting compacted bulk materials. These unique multiple nanostructures result in substantial reductions in lattice thermal conductivities, particularly for samples with a large number of ZnSb nanodots with sizes of 10-30 nm. Meanwhile, Cd-doping remarkably improves the electrical properties of the (Zn1-xCdx)4Sb3 compounds by a slight decrease in electrical conductivity and an apparent enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient. Therefore, the dimensionless figure of merits are significantly improved and the maximum value reaches ?1.30 for the (Zn0.99Cd0.01)4Sb3 sample at 700 K, representing ?13% and ?23% improvements compared with the undoped MS-SPS sample and the 1% Cd-doped melting ingot, respectively. In particular, this value shows no degradation after 10 heat cycles from 300 to 700 K or 30 h annealing at 680 K in vacuum, whereas the ZT of neat sample decreases by ?20% to a relatively low value of ?1.0 after 30 h annealing. The enhanced thermal stability of ZTnhanced thermal stability of ZT along with the suppressing effect on the low-temperature ?-? phase transition clearly indicates a large improvement in thermodynamic stability as a result of minute Cd-doping. All the above-mentioned benefits make the minute Cd-doped ?-Zn4Sb3 compound prepared by the MS-SPS technique a promising candidate for mid-range temperature thermoelectric power generation applications.

137

Trans-resveratrol self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) with enhanced bioavailability potential: optimization, pharmacokinetics and in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Trans-resveratrol (t-RVT) is a potent antioxidant. By virtue of extensive pre-systemic metabolism and existence of enterohepatic recirculation, t-RVT bioavailability is almost zero. The current study aimed to develop self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) using long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) of t-RVT in an attempt to circumvent such obstacles. Equilibrium solubility studies indicated the choice of Lauroglycol FCC as lipid, and of Labrasol and Transcutol P as surfactants, for formulating the SNEDDS. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to select the areas of nanoemulsions, and the amounts of lipid (X1) and surfactant (X2) as the critical factor variables. The SNEDDS were optimized using 3(2) central composite design (CCD) and the optimized formulation (OPT) located using overlay plot. The nanometer size range and high negative values of zeta potential depicted non-coalescent nature of the SNEDDS. Optimized formulation indicated marked improvement in drug release profile vis-à-vis pure drug. Cloud point determination and accelerated stability studies ascertained the stability of OPT. Augmentation in the values of Ka (3.29-fold) and AUC (4.31-fold) indicated significant enhancement in the rate and extent of bioavailability by the OPT compared with pure drug. In situ perfusion (SPIP) studies in Wistar rats construed remarkable enhancement in the absorptivity and permeability parameters of SNEDDS vis-à-vis the pure drug. Successful establishment of level A of in vitro/in vivo correlation substantiated the judicious choice of the in vitro dissolution milieu for simulating the in vivo conditions. The present study, therefore, reports the successful development of SNEDDS with distinctly enhanced bioavailability of t-RVT. PMID:24512464

Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S

2014-02-11

138

Design and implementation of two two-week Teacher Enhancement Institutes  

Science.gov (United States)

During this summer, I have been part of a four team effort that planned and executed two two-week Teacher Enhancement Institutes (TEI) for 40 K-8 teachers from this area. The TEI was designed to enhance teachers' background in aeronautics and technology so that they would be better equipped to encourage and to train students in the mathematics, science, and technology fields. The teachers were given a stipend and three graduate credits from Christopher Newport University for their participation in this program. The four ASEE fellows worked together to develop objectives and a schedule of activities for each two-week session based on the program outline given in the grants that were funding this effort. We divided the responsibilities in coordinating and implementing each part of the TEI based on the specific strengths and background of each ASEE fellow. My specific responsibilities were: (1) to develop the course syllabus and generally handle all matters involved with the graduate course; (2) coordinate the follow-up sessions; and (3) design and manage half of the technology sessions that we had scheduled (approximately 30% of the TEI was devoted to technology). Because the first two responsibilities were primarily administrative in nature, I will address only the last. The technology sessions were divided into computer-only and other technologies (e.g., television and digital technology including scanning, digital photography and CD-ROM). I had responsibility for the computer-only technology sessions. The emphasis of these sessions was on use of the Internet specifically to locate and use educational resources. To maximize learning, these sessions were hands-on with two teachers at each computer. Each teacher received instruction in, and actually used, the most popular tools available on the Internet: email (they were given temporary accounts at NASA LaRC), anonymous ftp and archie, gopher and veronica, mosaic, and telnet. Teachers participated in hands-on workshops to learn about these programs, but were also given time during the two-week session to explore on their own and to find resources on the Net that specifically met their needs. In order to ensure that Internet access continues after their return to the classroom, aIl teachers who did not have them also applied for Learning Link accounts (from WHRO, the local public television station) and Virginia Pen accounts (from the Department of Education of Virginia), both of which allow textbased access to Internet. In addition to getting exposure to and practice with Internet tools, teachers were aIso given a hands-on seminar (and also given practice time) on ClarisWorks, an integrated word processing, spreadsheet, database, and paint package. The technology sessions (and TEI as a whole) were enthusiastically received by both new and more experienced teachers as extremely helpful in improving their ability to use technology in developing lesson pIans.

Lambert, Lynn

1994-01-01

139

An innovative bioelectrochemical-anaerobic digestion-coupled system for in-situ ammonia recovery and biogas enhancement: process performance and microbial ecology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ammonia (NH4+/NH3) inhibition during anaerobic digestion process is one of the most frequent problems existing in biogas plants, resulting in unstable process and reduced biogas production. In this study, we developed a novel hybrid system, consisted of a submersed microbial resource recovery cell (SMRC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), to prevent ammonia toxicity during anaerobic digestion by in-situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia concentration in the CSTR decreased from 6 to 0.7 g-N/L with an average recovery rate of 0.18 g-N/L(CSTR)/d. Meanwhile, a maximum power density of 0.71±0.5 W/m2 was produced (10 ?). Both current driven NH4+ migration and free NH3 diffusion were identified as the mechanisms responsible for the ammonia transportation. With an increase in initial ammonia concentration and a decrease in external resistance, the SMRC performance was enhanced. In addition, the coexistence of other cations in CSTR or cathode had no negative effect on the ammonia transportation. In continuous reactor operation, 112% extra biogas production was achieved due to ammonia recovery. High-throughput molecular sequencing analysis showed an impact of ammonia recovery on the microbial community composition in the integrated system. Results clearly indicate the great potential of the SMRC-CSTR-coupled system for efficient and cost-effective ammonia recovery, energy production and treatment of ammonia-rich residues.

Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

140

Enhanced Lithiation of Graphitized SiC: In Situ X-ray Scattering Study at Electrolyte / Graphene / SiC(0001) Interface  

Science.gov (United States)

Silicon carbide is an inert material and not traditionally viewed as a promising electrode material. However, we observed a large enhancement to the electrochemical lithiation capacity for SiC anodes that were electrically activated by the combination of surface graphitization and substrate doping. In-situ X-ray scattering studies for lithiation at the electrolyte/EG/SiC interface show that the interfacial structure of the proposed anode system is stable in the electrolyte and graphene layers remain unaltered. While a decrease in the SiC Bragg peak intensity during lithiation indicates changes to the bulk crystallinity, the emergence of a diffuse scattering feature suggests that lithiation is associated with the development of substrate defects. Characterization via multiple depth resolved spectroscopies shows that Li penetrates the activated SiC upon lithiation. These results illustrate that the electrochemical capacity of a traditionally inert material can be increased substantially by effecting the surface and bulk conductivity [1].[4pt] [1] Chattopadhyay, Lipson et al., Chem. Mater. 24, 3038 (2012); Lipson, Chattopadhyay et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 20949 (2012).

Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna; Lipson, Albert; Karmel, Hunter; Emery, Jonathan; Dravid, Vinayak; Hersam, Mark; Bedzyk, Michael; Fenter, Paul; Fister, Timothy; Thackeray, Michael

2013-03-01

141

Long-term population dynamics and in situ physiology in activated sludge systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal operated with and without nitrogen removal  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the combination of FISH with microautoradiography (MAR) were used in order to study the long-term population dynamics (2.5 years) and the in situ physiology in two parallel activated sludge pilot systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The two systems received the same influent wastewater, but were differently operated (with and without nitrogen removal, respectively). Both systems showed a significant P removal that increased when different substrates (phosphorus (P), acetate and glucose, respectively) were added to the influent wastewater. Rhodocyclus-related bacteria were present in both systems in significant numbers (ranging from 4 to 28%) throughout the whole period. This supports the hypothesis that these bacteria occur in significant numbers in different types of well-operating EBPR activated sludge processes. However, we observed a lower correlation (0.9). The Actinobacteria were the only additional group of bacteria whichshowed a similar degree of correlation to the P content in activated sludge as the Rhodocyclus-related bacteria - but only for the system without nitrogen removal. Significant amounts (less than or equal to12%) of glycogen-accumulating bacteria (GAOs) were detected in the system with nitrogen removal (but not in the other system), but had no, in contrast to previous observations, apparent negative effect on the overall EBPR performance. FISH-MAR indicated that a significant part of the Betaproteobacteria (part of them identified as Rhodocyclus-related bacteria) as well as the Actinobacteria were able to take up P-33(i), [H-3]-acetate and [H-3]-glucose under anaerobic-aerobic conditions. The contribution of anoxic P-33(i) uptake under alternating anaerobic-anoxic conditions was significantly lower. Interestingly, not all Rhodocyclus-related bacteria showed uptake of these three radioactive substrates. This may be due to differences in metabolic state, physiological potential or genotype, not detectable by thepresent probe set for Rhodocyclus-related bacteria. Comparison of the P-33(i), [H-3]-acetate and [H-3]-glucose uptake by activated sludge after different fixation and incubation procedures showed that a part of the observed P-33(i), uptake may have been caused by a combination of a biological and chemical or biologically induced chemical P adsorption.

Lee, N.; Nielsen, P.H.

2003-01-01

142

Three two-week enhancement institutes: Design and implementation of the technology and telecomputing component  

Science.gov (United States)

The Teacher Enhancement Institute (TEI), under the direction of the Center Education Programs Officer offered three two-week workshops to 58 elementary and middle school teachers in science, math, and technology using the Problem Based Learning Model. The 1995 program was designed with input from evaluations and recommendations from previous TEI participants and faculty. The TEI focused on Aviation and Aeronautics as the unifying theme. Four specific objectives were developed. After completing the requirements for the TEI, the participants should be able to: (1) Increase their content knowledge, particularly in aeronautics, science, math, and technology; (2) Design and implement lessons that use scientific inquiry through Problem Based Learning; (3) Demonstrate knowledge of instructional technologies, their uses, and applications to curricula; and (4) Disseminate to their school communities the information acquired through the TEI. Thirty percent of the program was devoted to the effective use of computer technology. SpaceLink, the NASA telecomputing service for educators, was the primary tool used in the technology component of the institute. The training focused on the use of SpaceLink and its many educational services, and Internet tools because of its universal, nongraphical link to any computer plafform the participant may use at his or her school or home. All participants were given Educator Accounts to facilitate the use of E-mail, and access to the Internet and the World Wide Web using their SpaceLink accounts. Classroom demonstrations used videotaped guides and handouts to support concepts presented followed by intensive hands-on activities. Each participant was assigned to an individual Power Mac networked workstation and introduced to the state of the art, graphical, Word Wide Web with the Netscape browser. The methodology proved very effective in reaching the program's goals for technology integration by having the participants learn to use the computer as a tool for communication and research rather than teaching the use of any particular software application alone. However, because of the skill level of the majority of the participants, more hands-on computer time is recommended for future Teacher Enhancement Institutes.

Hale, L. Vincent

1995-01-01

143

Performance enhancements and muscular adaptations of a 16-week recreational football intervention for untrained women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study investigated the performance effects and physiological adaptations over 16 weeks of recreational football training and continuous running for healthy untrained premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group [Football group (FG): n=21; running group (RG): n=18; CO: n=14]. Two weekly 1-h training sessions were performed in FG and RG. After 4 and 16 weeks of training VO(2max) was elevated (P<0.05) by 7% and 15%, respectively, in FG, and by 6% and 10%, respectively, in RG. After 16 weeks, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 performance was 33% and 19% better (P<0.05) for FG and 29% and 21% better (P<0.05) for RG than after 4 and 0 weeks, respectively. Peak sprinting speed was 12% higher (21.0 +/- 0.6 vs 18.8 +/- 0.7 km/h; P<0.05) for FG after the training period, whereas no difference was observed for RG. After 4 weeks citrate synthase (CS) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity was 9% and 8%, respectively, higher (P<0.05) than before training in FG with no furtherchanges during the last 12 weeks. In RG, CS increased (P<0.05) by 12% after 4 weeks and no significant increase was observed for HAD. In FG, the number of capillaries per fiber was 18% higher (P<0.05) after 16 weeks (2.44 +/- 0.15 vs 2.07 +/- 0.05 cap/fiber), with no significant difference for RG. No differences were observed between 0 and 16 weeks for CO. In conclusion, recreational women's football leads to significant increases in VO(2max), performance and muscular adaptations throughout a 16-week training period. Thus, football can be used as an activity to elevate the physical capacity of untrained women.

Bangsbo, Jens; Nielsen, Jens Jung

2010-01-01

144

Electrochemical and in-situ Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic (SERS) study of passive films formed on low-carbon steel in highly alkaline environments  

Science.gov (United States)

In reinforced concrete, a passive layer forms because of the alkaline conditions in the pores of the cement paste, where large concentrations of hydroxides create a solution with pH typically between 12 and 14. The corrosion resistance of the material depends on the characteristics and integrity of the passive film; however, currently very limited information is available about the passive films formed on carbon steel under such conditions. This work presents an electrochemical and in-situ Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic (SERS) study of passive films formed on low-carbon steel in highly alkaline environments. More specifically, the study focuses on the characterization of the films formed on ASTM A36 steel reinforcing bar exposed to aqueous solutions that aim to reproduce the chemistry of the environment typically found within the cement paste. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves, galvanostatic cathodic polarization and linear polarization resistance were employed, in addition to in-situ Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). The experimental setup was built in a way that SERS experiments could be performed simultaneously with potentiodynamic polarization curves, enabling a detailed analysis of the formation and reduction of the surface films as a function of applied potential. Three solutions with different pH levels were used for the polarization and SERS experiments, namely 0.55M KOH + 0.16M NaOH ([OH-]=0.71), 0.08M KOH + 0.02M NaOH ([OH-]=0.10) and 0.008M KOH + 0.002M NaOH ([OH-]=0.01). Additional NaOH solutions in which the pH was varied from 13 to 9 and the ionic strength from 10 -5 to 10-1 were prepared for a pilot study using linear polarization resistance. Results show that the features observed in the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves correlated well with the potential arrests observed in the GCP plots as well as with the changes observed in the SERS spectra, providing valuable information about the formation of passive films on carbon steel in each of the environments studied in this research. Although there are key differences among the films formed in the different solutions tested---particularly regarding their thickness and protectiveness---once the film-formation processes had been completed, generally the films were characterized by an inner layer of Fe(II) and an outer layer of Fe(III). A Fe(OH)2-like species appears consistently as dominating the inner Fe(II) layer, while the outer typically composed mostly by gamma-Fe2O3 and/or gamma-FeOOH. Film thickness varied from about 22 nm to 266 nm depending on the pH of the solution, and decreased as pH was reduced.

Mancio, Mauricio

145

In-situ observation of abnormal electron temperure in the F-region valley associated with the prereversal enhancement in the vertical plasma drift  

Science.gov (United States)

During one of the post sunset rocket launches made on 18-th December 1995 from the equatorial rocket launching station CLA in Alcântara, Brazil a Langmuir probe measured abnormally large electron temperatures below the F-region just before the onset of plasma bubbles but temperatures became normal soon after the onset of bubbles. In-situ measurements made from Brazil recently using rocket-borne swept-bias Langmuir Probes show that the electron temperatures in the valley region between the equatorial E and F regions get modified before the onset of plasma bubbles, probably associated with the prereversal enhancement in the vertical plasma drift. On 2-nd December 2011 a Brazilian VS-30 single stage rocket was launched from the equatorial rocket launching station CLBI in Natal, Brazil carrying a Langmuir probe operating alternately in swept and constant bias modes to measure both electron temperature and electron density respectively. The ground equipments operated during the rocket launch clearly showed the rapid rise of the F-region base indicating the prereversal enhancement of the F-region vertical drift. At the time of launch the bubble activity was also at its peak. The electron density and temperature height profiles could be estimated from the LP data up to the rocket apogee altitude of 139km. During the rocket upleg and downleg the valley region showed the presence of electron temperatures as high as 2000 ºK while the temperatures expected from the existing models are around 500 ºK. A two stage VS-30/Orion rocket was again launched on 8-th December 2012 soon after sunset carrying a Langmuir Probe operating alternately in swept and constant bias modes. At the time of launch ground equipments operated at equatorial stations showed rapid rise in the base of the F-layer and creating ionospheric conditions favorable for the generation of plasma bubbles. Electron temperatures as high as 3500ºK were observed in the valley region during the rocket upleg and downleg. These profiles are compared with model electron density and temperature profiles as well as with electron density and temperature profiles observed under conditions of no plasma bubbles.

Muralikrishna, Polinaya; Batista, Inez S.; Odriozola, Siomel

146

Enhancement in statistical and image analysis for in situ µSXRF studies of elemental distribution and co-localization, using Dioscorea balcanica  

OpenAIRE

Synchrotron-radiation-based X-ray microfluorescence has been used for in situ investigation of the distribution of micronutrient and macronutrient elements in an unstained cross section of a stem of monocotyledonous liana plant Dioscorea balcanica Košanin. The elemental allocation has been quantified and the grouping/co-localization in straight and twisted stem internodes has been analysed.

Duc?ic?, Tanja; Borchert, Manuela; Savic?, Aleksandar; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Mitrovic?, Aleksandra; Radotic?, Ksenija

2013-01-01

147

In situ NMR systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ NMR is becoming an established technology for applications in bioprocessing and metabolic engineering. The in situ NMR biosensor acts as a noninvasive pH, ion, and concentration meter, with 31P and 13C as the two main isotopes of study. A substantial data base now exists for phosphorus and carbon spectra of bacteria and yeast. In situ NMR can provide many of the state variables needed for modeling glycolytic pathway function. NMR micro-reactor technology has improved significantly in the last decade. Several designs for immobilized cell reactors have been tested, and in particular, considerable gains have been made in the feasibility of studying aerobic, chemostat cultures with in situ NMR. Acquisition of 31P spectra from cell suspensions of 3-5% v/v under controlled conditions can be made in 3-7 minute time resolution in several systems. PMID:11471540

Shanks, J V

2001-01-01

148

Enhanced morphological and thermal stabilities of nickel germanide with an ultrathin tantalum layer studied by ex situ and in situ transmission electron microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation and morphological evolution of germanides formed in a ternary Ni/Ta-interlayer/Ge system were examined by ex situ and in situ annealing experiments. The Ni germanide film formed in the Ni/Ta-interlayer/Ge system maintained continuity up to 550°C, whereas agglomeration of the Ni germanide occurred in the Ni/Ge system without Ta-interlayer. Through microstructural and chemical analysis of the Ni/Ta-interlayer/Ge system during and after in situ annealing in a transmission electron microscope, it was confirmed that the Ta atoms remained uniformly on the top of the newly formed Ni germanide layer during the diffusion reaction. Consequently, the agglomeration of the Ni germanide film was retarded and the thermal stability was improved by the Ta incorporation. PMID:23920187

Lee, Jae-Wook; Kim, Hyung-Kyu; Bae, Jee-Hwan; Park, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyoungsub; Ryu, Jiho; Yang, Cheol-Woong

2013-08-01

149

Ad-hoc surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy methodologies for the detection of artist dyestuffs: thin layer chromatography-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and in situ on the fiber analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tailored ad-hoc methods must be developed for successful identification of minute amounts of natural dyes on works of art using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). This article details two of these successful approaches using silver film over nanosphere (AgFON) substrates and silica gel coupled with citrate-reduced Ag colloids. The latter substrate functions as the test system for the coupling of thin-layer chromatography and SERS (TLC-SERS), which has been used in the current research to separate and characterize a mixture of several artists' dyes. The poor limit of detection of TLC is overcome by coupling with SERS, and dyes which co-elute to nearly the same spot can be distinguished from each other. In addition, in situ extractionless non-hydrolysis SERS was used to analyze dyed reference fibers, as well as historical textile fibers. Colorants such as alizarin, purpurin, carminic acid, lac dye, crocin, and Cape jasmine were thus successfully identified. PMID:19317457

Brosseau, Christa L; Gambardella, Alessa; Casadio, Francesca; Grzywacz, Cecily M; Wouters, Jan; Van Duyne, Richard P

2009-04-15

150

Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Metformin-induced activation of AMPK has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent upon AMPK signaling. Methods: Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given muscle-specific kinase ?2 dead AMPK mice (KD) and wild type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 weeks. Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot analyzes. Results: Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (45%, P

Kristensen, Jonas MØller; Treebak, Jonas Thue

2014-01-01

151

In-situ remediation strategy for enhanced microbial de-acidification of geogenic sulphuric acid mining lakes - mesocosmic studies; In situ-Sanierungsstrategie zur Foerderung der mikrobiellen Entsaeuerung von geogen schwefelsauren Bergbaurestseen - Mesokosmosstudien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author investigated whether neutralisation of acid mining lakes can be enhanced by adding low-cost, complex organic carbon sources. Subjects: Selection of a complex carbon source suited for stimulation of dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction; design and observation of a near-natural landscape compartment (mesocosmos) at different scales as a preparation for the field study; Description of reactions in the mesocosmic lake water and sediment; Assessment of neutralisation equivalents and neutralisation rates on the basis of an identification of reduced iron and sulphur compounds. [German] Die Hypothese, dass durch Zugabe kostenguenstiger komplexer organischer Kohlenstoffquellen in die sedimentnahe Wasserzone eines sauren Tagebaurestsees seeinterne Neutralisierungsprozesse gefoerdert werden, liegt dieser Arbeit zu Grunde. Seeinterne Neutralisationsprozesse, wie die dissimilatorische Eisen- und Sulfatreduktion, fuehren ueber die Akkumulierung von reduzierten Eisen- und Schwefelverbindungen im Sediment zur Alkalinitaetsbildung im Gewaessersystem und im Seewasser zu hoeheren pH-Werten. Daher leiten sich folgende Ziele fuer diese Arbeit ab: - Auswahl einer geeigneten komplexen Kohlenstoffquelle zur Stimulierung der dissimilatorischen Eisen- und Sulfatreduktion - Design und Beobachtung eines naturnahen Landschaftsausschnittes (Mesokosmos) unterschiedlicher Massstabsebenen in Vorbereitung fuer die Fallstudie im Freiland - Beschreibung von Stoffumsetzungen im Seewasser und -sediment der Mesokosmen - Abschaetzung von Neutralisationsaequivalenten und Bestimmung von Neutralisationsraten anhand der Identifizierung reduzierter Eisen- und Schwefelverbindungen. (orig.)

Froemmichen, R.

2001-07-01

152

In Situ Measurements of Carbonyl Sulfide and Methyl Chloride  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past 3 years, in situ measurements of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) have been made at the NOAA baseline observatories. Four gas chromatographs make air measurements once an hour at Alaska, Hawaii, American Samoa, and the South Pole. Each air measurement is referenced to a pair of calibrated gas standards to calculate the atmospheric mixing ratio. Both COS and CH3Cl have common sources such as oceans and biomass burning. However both of their budgets are poorly balanced. Current source estimates for CH3Cl are 20% lower than sink estimates. Continuous in situ measurements can reveal information about the sources and sinks of these compounds. \\ At the coastal station on American Samoa, large rapid enhancements of CH3Cl of up to 200 parts-per-trillion (ppt) over background levels of about 550 ppt have been observed. Virtually all high mixing ratios of CH3Cl occur during light or no wind, indicating a local source. However, COS is not enhanced during these episodes. Gradual changes of COS over weeks of nearly 35 ppt above ambient levels of 500 ppt ( ~7% enhancements) are measured while CH3Cl remains unchanged. These opposing behaviors point to differences in the oceanic source regions or source strengths of these gases. Observations made at Mauna Loa, Hawaii often show diurnal variations in CH3Cl of about 50 ppt as well as larger events of about 100 ppt ( ~10% enhancements). The diurnal cycle is caused by daytime upslope winds that rapidly bring air from coastal areas. At nighttime the air cools and flows down Mauna Loa causing down slope winds that bring air from the free troposphere. COS does not show a diurnal cycle, however there are multi-day enhancements of nearly 100 ppt ( ~20% enhancements) that are correlated with some of the increased levels of CH3Cl.

Dutton, G. S.; Montzka, S. A.; Hall, B. D.; Thompson, T. M.; Elkins, J. W.

2001-12-01

153

Enhanced performance of polymer solar cell with ZnO nanoparticle electron transporting layer passivated by in situ cross-linked three-dimensional polymer network  

Science.gov (United States)

An in situ cross-linked three-dimensional polymer network has been developed to passivate ZnO nanoparticles as an electron transporting layer (ETL) to improve the performance of inverted organic solar cells. The passivated ZnO ETL-based devices achieve efficiencies of 3.26% for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and 7.37% for poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b?]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

Wu, Zhongwei; Song, Tao; Xia, Zhouhui; Wei, Huaixin; Sun, Baoquan

2013-12-01

154

In situ compressive sensing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compressive sensing (CS) is a framework that exploits the compressible character of most natural signals, allowing the accurate measurement of an m-dimensional signal u in terms of n << m measurements v. The CS measurements may be represented in terms of an n × m matrix that defines the linear relationship between v and u. In this paper, we demonstrate that similar linear mappings of the form u ? v are manifested naturally by wave propagation in general media, and therefore in situ CS measurements may be performed simply by exploiting the propagation and scattering properties of natural environments. The connection between the propagation medium and the basis in which u is sparsely rendered is quantified in terms of a mutual-coherence factor, which plays an important role in defining the number of required in situ CS measurements. In addition to presenting the basic in situ CS framework, a simple but practical example problem is considered in detail from multiple perspectives

155

In situ groundwater bioremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

Hazen, Terry C.

2009-02-01

156

Polyaniline-Decorated {001} Facets of Bi2O2CO3 Nanosheets: In Situ Oxygen Vacancy Formation and Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyaniline (PANI)-decorated {001} facets of Bi2O2CO3 nanosheets were synthesized by a low-temperature chemical method. We demonstrate that the strong interfacial interactions between Bi2O2CO3 {001} facets and PANI could promote in situ formation of oxygen vacancy at the interface confirmed by both density functional theory calculations and electron spin resonance experiments, which is due to the high oxygen density characteristic of Bi2O2CO3 {001} facets. In addition, such interfacial interaction also leads to a 0.38 eV positive shifting of the valence band of Bi2O2CO3. Importantly, the decorated PANI can stabilize these interfacial oxygen vacancies. Therefore, the migration and separation of photogenerated carriers have been improved significantly evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence-decay spectra, resulting in a 4.5 times higher activity toward photodegradation of Rhodamine B and a 6 times higher photocurrent density compared to their corresponding bare Bi2O2CO3. The finding of the in situ oxygen vacancy formation at the interface could provide some hints for the deep understanding of the interactions between PANI and crystal facets of semiconductors to develop highly efficient photocatalysts. PMID:25495565

Zhao, Ziyan; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Kunhao; Yu, Shan; Cao, Kun

2015-01-14

157

In situ preparation of novel p–n junction photocatalyst BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Novel p–n junction photocatalysts BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 with different contents of BiOI were in situ synthesized by simple etching (BiO)2CO3 precursor with hydroiodic acid (HI). XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, FT-IR, EDS and DRS were employed to study the structures, morphologies and optical properties of the as-prepared samples. Under visible light (? > 420 nm), BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 hybrid displayed much higher photocatalytic activity than pure (BiO)2CO3 and BiOI for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The increased photocatalytic activity of BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 could be attributed to the formation of the p–n junction between p-BiOI and n-(BiO)2CO3, which effectively suppresses the recombination of photoinduced electron–hole pairs. Moreover, the tests of radical scavengers confirmed that ·O2?and h+ were the main reactive species for the degradation of MO. Highlights: ? BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 was synthesized using an in situ hydroiodic acid etching way. ? BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 displayed excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light. ? ·O2? and h+ played the major roles for MO degradation over BiOI/(BiO)2CO3. ? p-BiOI/n-(BiO)2CO3 junction significantly affected MO degradation. - Abstract: Novtion. - Abstract: Novel p–n junction photocatalysts BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 with different contents of BiOI were in situ synthesized by etching (BiO)2CO3 precursor with hydroiodic acid (HI) solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) were employed to study the structures, morphologies and optical properties of the as-prepared samples. Under visible light (? > 420 nm), BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 hybrid displayed much higher photocatalytic activity than pure (BiO)2CO3 and BiOI for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The increased photocatalytic activity of BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 could be attributed to the formation of the p–n junction between p-BiOI and n-(BiO)2CO3, which effectively suppresses the recombination of photoinduced electron–hole pairs. Moreover, the tests of radical scavengers confirmed that ·O2? and h+ were the main reactive species for the degradation of MO.

158

Two weeks of metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of AMPK kinase dead but not wild type mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metformin is used as an anti-diabetic drug. Metformin ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity in liver and skeletal muscle. Reduced mitochondrial content has been reported in type 2 diabetic muscles and it may contribute to decreased insulin sensitivity characteristic for diabetic muscles. The molecular mechanism behind the effect of metformin is not fully clarified but inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and also activation of the 5'AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported in muscle. Furthermore, both AMPK activation and metformin treatment have been associated with stimulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. However, a causal relationship in skeletal muscle has not been investigated. We hypothesized that potential effects of in vivo metformin treatment on mitochondrial function and protein expressions in skeletal muscle are dependent upon AMPK signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead ?(2) (KD) AMPK mice and wild type (WT) littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice.We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems to be unrelated to AMPK, and does not involve changes in key mitochondrial proteins. PMID:23341947

Kristensen, Jonas M; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn W; Dela, Flemming; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

2013-01-01

159

Uranium in situ leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the depressed situation that has affected the uranium industry during the past years, the second Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium In Situ Leaching, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and held in Vienna from 5 to 8 October 1992, has attracted a relatively large number of participants. A notable development since the first meeting was that the majority of the contributions came from the actual operators of in situ leaching uranium production. At the present meeting, presentations on operations in the USA were balanced by those of the eastern European and Asian countries. Contributions from Bulgaria, China, Czechoslovakia, Germany (from the operation in the former German Democratic Republic), the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan represent new information not commonly available. In situ leach mining is defined in one of the paper presented as a ''mining method where the ore mineral is preferentially leached from the host rock in place, or in situ, by the use of leach solutions, and the mineral value is recovered. Refs, figs and tabs

160

In situ hydrogenation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of an experimental study to assess the potential of in situ hydrogenation as a method for production of heavy oils are summarized in this report. This project was designed to determine whether improvements in chemical and physical properties of oils produced by treatment of heavy oils at conditions proposed for in situ hydrogenation result from hydrogen incorporation or are primarily a consequence of thermal alteration. An experimental program was conducted in which parallel experiments were carried our under both hydrogen and nitrogen at conditions which might be expected in a reservoir under in situ hydrogenation conditions. Four different heavy oils were used as substrates: Cat Canyon crude from Santa Barbara County, California, a heavy tar from South Texas (Saner Ranch), and two Alaskan North Slope heavy oils. Reactions were carried out over simulated reservoir sands, in the presence of either water or brines representative of those in the reservoir, at temperatures ranging from 550{degree} F to 750{degree} F. Some experiments were also carried out to test the potential of catalysis of in situ hydrogenation. 29 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

Stapp, P.R.

1989-12-01

161

Melanotan-associated melanoma in situ.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injectable synthetic melanotropic peptides (often called melanotan) to enhance tanning are available over the Internet despite being unlicensed compounds with an unproven safety record. There have been reports of dysplastic naevi and melanoma associated with the use of melanotropic peptides. We report a case of melanotan-associated melanoma in situ. PMID:22724573

Ong, Suyin; Bowling, Jonathan

2012-11-01

162

The enhanced Jc and Birr of in situ MgB2 wires and tapes alloyed with C4H6O5 (malic acid) after cold high pressure densification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cold high pressure densification, a method recently introduced at GAP in Geneva, was applied for improving the transport critical current density, Jc, and the irreversibility field, Birr, of monofilamentary in situ MgB2 wires and tapes alloyed with 10 wt% C4H6O5 (malic acid). Tapes densified at 1.48 GPa exhibited after reaction an enhancement of Jc from 2 to 4 x 104 A cm-2 at 4.2 K/10 T and from 0.5 to 4 x 104 A cm-2 at 20 K/5 T, while the Birr was enhanced from 19.3 to 22 T at 4.2 K and from 7.5 to 10.0 T at 20 K. Cold densification also caused a strong enhancement of B(104), the field at which Jc takes the value 1 x 104 A cm-2. For tapes subjected to 1.48 GPa, B(104)|| and B(104)perpendicular at 4.2 K were found to increase from 11.8 and 10.5 T to 13.2 and 12.2 T, respectively. Almost isotropic conditions were obtained for rectangular wires with aspect ratios a/b4)||=12.7 and B(104)perpendicular=12.5 T were obtained. At 20 K, the wires exhibited an almost isotropic behavior, with B(104)||=5.9 T and B(104)perpendicular=5.75 T, Birr(20 K) being ?10 T. These values are equal to or higher than the highest values reported higher than the highest values reported so far for isotropic in situ wires with SiC or other carbon based additives. Further improvements are expected on optimizing the cold high pressure densification process, which has the potential for fabrication of MgB2 wires of industrial lengths.

163

In situ mass spectrometry  

OpenAIRE

Mass spectrometers offer a powerful combination of speed, sensitivity, versatility, and high information content. There is an increasing need for chemical instrumentation that can be utilized in situ for applications such as transportation security, industrial hygiene, environmental monitoring, and astrobiology. Mass spectrometry (MS) has so far been limited to the laboratory setting largely due to the high vacuum conditions required for ion generation and ion processing. This research has de...

Soparawalla, Santosh

2011-01-01

164

In situ synthesis of hierarchical flower-like Bi2S3/BiOCl composite with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Novel BiOCl micro-flower was synthesized by a facile method and used as a precursor to produce Bi2S3/BiOCl composites. The Bi2S3/BiOCl composites, synthesized by in situ etching of BiOCl precursor with thiacetamide (TAA) solution, maintain the hierarchical flower-like structure and exhibit a large surface area. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) were employed to study the structures, morphologies and optical properties of the as-prepared samples. Under visible light (? > 400 nm), the flower-like Bi2S3/BiOCl composite displayed much higher photocatalytic activity than single Bi2S3, BiOCl and 2D plate-like Bi2S3/BiOCl composite for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB). The increased photocatalytic activity of Bi2S3/BiOCl could be attributed to the formation of the heterostructure between Bi2S3 and BiOCl and large surface area of the hierarchical structure, which effectively separate the photoinduced electron–hole pairs and suppress their recombination.

165

An in situ SEM-FIB-based method for contrast enhancement and tomographic reconstruction for structural quantification of porous carbon electrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new in situ Scanning Electron Microscope-Focused Ion Beam-based method to study porous carbon electrodes involving Pt filling of pores from gaseous precursors has been demonstrated to show drastically improved image contrast between the carbon and porous phases when compared with the Si-resin vacuum-impregnation method. Whereas, the latter method offered up to 20% contrast, the new method offers remarkably higher contrast (42%), which enabled fast semi-automated demarcation of carbon boundaries and subsequent binarization of the images with very high fidelity. Tomographic reconstruction of the porous carbon electrode was then obtained from which several morphological parameters were quantified. The porosity was found to be 72±2%. The axial and radial tortuosites were 1.45±0.04 and 1.43±0.04, respectively. Pore size, which is defined to be the distance from the medial axis of the pore to the nearest solid boundary, was quantified. Average pore size determined from the pore size distribution was 90 nm and the corresponding 1 sigma ranges from 45 to 134 nm. Surface-to-volume ratio of the carbon phase was 46.5 µm(-1). The ratio of total surface area to the total volume of electrode including pores (i.e., specific surface area) was 13 µm(-1). PMID:25088604

Eswara-Moorthy, Santhana K; Balasubramanian, Prasanth; van Mierlo, Willem; Bernhard, Jörg; Marinaro, Mario; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret; Jörissen, Ludwig; Kaiser, Ute

2014-10-01

166

The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-component DNAPLS with surfactant solutions. Topical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Laboratory studies were conducted at the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY) while numerical simulation and field work were undertaken by INTERA Inc. in collaboration with Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc. at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Kentucky. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). Ten of these were capable of solubilizing TCE to concentrations greater than 15,000 mg/L, compared to its aqueous solubility of 1,100 mg/L. Four surfactants were identified as good solubilizers of all three chlorinated solvents. Of these, a secondary alcohol ethoxylate was the first choice for in situ testing because of its excellent solubilizing ability and its low propensity to sorb. However, this surfactant did not meet the Commonwealth of Kentucky`s acceptance criteria. Consequently, it was decided to use a surfactant approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration as a food-grade additive. As a 1% micellar-surfactant solution, this sorbitan monooleate has a solubilization capacity of 16,000 mg TCE/L, but has a higher propensity to sorb to clays than has the alcohol ethoxylate.

NONE

1995-01-01

167

Determination of HER-2 status on FNAC material from breast carcinomas using in situ hybridization with dual chromogen visualization with silver enhancement (dual SISH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last years, HER-2 status kits and protocols for chromogen visualization of hybridization signals have come on the market. The first generation using chromogen visualization used single color probes. The second generation, now emerging on the market, uses dual chromogen visualization. The aim of this study has been to test a new dual color chromogen kit (Ventana INFORM HER2 Dual Colour ISH Roche ® and compare the results with our in-house method(s. The material consisted primarily of cytological material from invasive breast carcinomas in 49 women. Dual SISH was done on all 49 cytological and histological specimens. The histological specimens were treated according to the manufacturer?s recommendations. The procedure was modified in several steps in order to adapt it to the cytological material. Hybridization failed in two cytological specimens. Dual SISH showed concordant results on cytological and histological material as to amplified/not amplified. The included cases had the same HER-2 expression in the invasive and the in situ components on histology. Four IDC showed HER-2 amplification (8.5%. Polysomy was found in two cases. All dual SISH results except for one concurred with the results of the in-house method(s (1/47=2.1%. The dual SISH is suitable for cytological examination of HER-2 status. The protocol must be optimized for cytological material.

Beraki Elsa

2010-01-01

168

Evaluation of an in situ forming hydrogel wound dressing based on oxidized alginate and gelatin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wound dressings that can be formed in situ offer several advantages over the use of preformed dressings such as conformability without wrinkling or fluting in the wound bed, ease of application and improved patient compliance and comfort. Here we describe such an in situ forming hydrogel wound dressing from gelatin, oxidized alginate and borax. Periodate oxidized alginate rapidly cross-links proteins such as gelatin in the presence of borax to give in situ forming hydrogels that are both non-toxic and biodegradable. The composite matrix has the haemostatic effect of gelatin, the wound healing-promoting feature of alginate and the antiseptic property of borax to make it a potential wound dressing material. The hydrogel was found to have a fluid uptake of 90% of its weight which would prevent the wound bed from accumulation of exudates. The water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) of the hydrogel was found to be 2686+/-124 g/m2/day indicating that the hydrogel can maintain a moist environment over wound bed in moderate to heavily exuding wound which would enhance epithelial cell migration during the healing process. The wound healing efficacy of hydrogel was evaluated in experimental full thickness wounds using a rat model which demonstrated that within 2 weeks, the wound covered with gel was completely filled with new epithelium without any significant adverse reactions. These in situ forming hydrogels fulfil many critical elements desirable in a wound dressing material. PMID:15919113

Balakrishnan, Biji; Mohanty, M; Umashankar, P R; Jayakrishnan, A

2005-11-01

169

High prognostic value of minimal residual disease detected by flow-cytometry-enhanced fluorescence in situ hybridization in core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML).  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is generally regarded as a disorder of stem cells, known as leukemic initiating cells (LICs), which initiate the disease and contribute to relapses. Although the phenotype of these cells remains unclear in most patients, they are enriched within the CD34(+)CD38(-) population. In core-binding factor (CBF) AML, the cytogenetic abnormalities also exist in LIC. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic power of minimal residual disease (MRD) measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in CD34(+)CD38(-) cells sorted by flow cytometry at different periods during therapy. Thirty-six patients under 65 years of age with de novo CBF-AML treated with intensive chemotherapy were retrospectively included in this study. Correlations with relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analyses. FISH efficiently identified LICs in the CD34(+)CD38(-) population. The presence of FISH(+)CD34(+)CD38(-) cells before consolidation was negatively associated with cumulative incidence of relapse (64 vs 18 %, P = .012), which showed prognostic value for RFS (12 vs 68 %, P = .008) and OS (11 vs 75 %, P = .0005), and retained prognostic significance for RFS in multivariate analysis. The detection of FISH(+)CD34(+)CD38(-) cells before consolidation therapy significantly correlated with long-term survival. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-FISH could be potentially adopted as a MRD monitor approach in clinical practice to identify CBF-AML patients at risk of treatment failure during therapy. PMID:24844781

Wang, Libing; Gao, Lei; Xu, Sheng; Gong, Shenglan; Liu, Min; Qiu, Huiying; Xu, Xiaoqian; Ni, Xiong; Chen, Li; Lu, Shuqing; Chen, Jie; Song, Xianmin; Zhang, Weiping; Yang, Jianmin; Hu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Jianmin

2014-10-01

170

Solvothermal in situ synthesis of Fe3O4-multi-walled carbon nanotubes with enhanced heterogeneous Fenton-like activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: After purification, the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) act as seeds for Fe3O4 nanoparticles heterogeneous nucleation. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles with diameter range of 4.2–10.0 nm synthesized in situ on the MWCNTs under solvothermal condition. The formed nano Fe3O4-MWCNTs decolorized the Acid Orange II effectively via Fenton-like reaction. Highlights: ? The amount of water tunes size and size distribution of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FNs). ? FNs are homogeneously coated on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). ? FNs have diameters in the range of 4.2–10.0 nm, average grain size of 7.4 nm. ? Fe3O4-MWCNTs are used as a Fenton-like catalyst to decompose Acid Orange II. ? Fe3O4-MWCNTs displayed a higher activity than nanometer-size Fe3O4. -- Abstract: Fe3O4-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Fe3O4-MWCNTs) hybrid materials were synthesized by a solvothermal process using acid treated MWCNTs and iron acetylacetonate in a mixed solution of ethylene glycol and ultrapure water. The materials were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results showed that a small amount of water in the synthesis system played a role in controlling crystal phase formation, size of Fe3O4, and the homogeneous distribution of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles deposited on the MWCNTs. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles had diameters in the range of 4.2–10.0 nm. They displayed good superparamagnetism at room temperature and their magnetization was influenced by the reaction conditions. They were used as a Fenton-like catalyst to decompose Acid Orange II and displayed a higher activity than nanometer-size Fe3O4.

171

Characterization of Pure Ductal Carcinoma In Situ on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging: Do Nonhigh Grade and High Grade Show Different Imaging Features?  

OpenAIRE

To characterize imaging features of pure DCIS on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI), 31 consecutive patients (37-81 years old, mean 56), including 2 Grade I, 16 Grade II, and 13 Grade III, were studied. MR images were reviewed retrospectively and the morphological appearances and kinetic features of breast lesions were categorized according to the ACR BI-RADS breast MRI lexicon. DCE-MRI was a sensitive imaging modality in detecting pure DCIS. MR imaging showed enhancing lesions in...

Carpenter, Philip M.; Orhan Nalcioglu; Min-Ying Su; Mehta, Rita S.; Muqing Lin; Garima Agrawal; Siwa Chan; Jeon-Hor Chen

2010-01-01

172

Solvothermal in situ synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-multi-walled carbon nanotubes with enhanced heterogeneous Fenton-like activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: After purification, the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) act as seeds for Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles heterogeneous nucleation. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with diameter range of 4.2–10.0 nm synthesized in situ on the MWCNTs under solvothermal condition. The formed nano Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs decolorized the Acid Orange II effectively via Fenton-like reaction. Highlights: ? The amount of water tunes size and size distribution of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (FNs). ? FNs are homogeneously coated on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). ? FNs have diameters in the range of 4.2–10.0 nm, average grain size of 7.4 nm. ? Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs are used as a Fenton-like catalyst to decompose Acid Orange II. ? Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs displayed a higher activity than nanometer-size Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. -- Abstract: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs) hybrid materials were synthesized by a solvothermal process using acid treated MWCNTs and iron acetylacetonate in a mixed solution of ethylene glycol and ultrapure water. The materials were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results showed that a small amount of water in the synthesis system played a role in controlling crystal phase formation, size of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and the homogeneous distribution of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles deposited on the MWCNTs. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles had diameters in the range of 4.2–10.0 nm. They displayed good superparamagnetism at room temperature and their magnetization was influenced by the reaction conditions. They were used as a Fenton-like catalyst to decompose Acid Orange II and displayed a higher activity than nanometer-size Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}.

Deng, Jingheng [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wen, Xianghua, E-mail: xhwen@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Qinian [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China)

2012-11-15

173

A NEW METHOD FOR IN-SITU CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTANT ACTINIDES AND TECHNETIUM COMPOUNDS VIA FIBEROPTIC SURFACE ENHANCED RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY (SERS)  

Science.gov (United States)

This project serves to fill information gap through the development of a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to selectively and sensitively monitor and characterize the chemical speciation of radionuclides at trace levels. The SERS technique permits both o...

174

FIELD TEST OF CYCLODEXTRIN FOR ENHANCED IN-SITU FLUSHING OF MULTIPLE-COMPONENT IMMISCIBLE ORGANIC LIQUID CONTAMINATION: COMPARISON TO WATER FLUSHING  

Science.gov (United States)

A pilot-scale field experiment was conducted to compare the remediation effectiveness of an enhanced-solubilization technique to that of water flushing for removal of multicomponent nonaqueous-phase organic liquid (NAPL) contaminants form a phreatic aquifer. This innovative remed...

175

In situ-toughened silicon carbide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new processing strategy based on atmospheric pressure sintering is presented for obtaining dense SiC-based materials with microstructures consisting of (1) uniformly distributed elongate-shaped ?-SiC grains and (2) relatively high amounts (20 vol%) of second-phase yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG). This strategy entails the sintering of ?-SiC powder doped with ?-SiC, Al2O3, and Y2O3. The Al2O3 and Y2O3 aid in the liquid-phase sintering of SiC and form in situ YAG, which has a significant thermal expansion mismatch with SiC. During a subsequent grain-growth heat treatment, it is postulated that the ?-SiC ''seeds'' assist in controlling in situ growth of the elongated ?-SiC grains. The fracture pattern in the in situ-toughened SiC is intergranular with evidence of copious crack-wake bridging, akin to toughened Si3N4 ceramics. The elongate nature of the ?-SiC grains, together with the high thermal-residual stresses in the microstructure, enhance the observed crack-wake bridging. This bridging accounts for a measured twofold increase in the indentation toughness of this new class of in situ-toughened SiC relative to a commercial SiC

176

Prolonged and enhanced suppression of thymidylate synthase by weekly 24-h infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil  

OpenAIRE

We have recently demonstrated that HDFL (high-dose 5-FU 2600?mg m–2 week–1 and leucovorin 500?mg m–2 week–1, weekly 24-h infusion) is highly active in the treatment of gastric cancer. To further clarify the possible mechanism underlying the improved activity of HDFL compared with conventional 5-FU regimens, we conducted in vitro studies examining the effect of these regimens on the differential regulation of thymidylate synthase (TS) in NCI-N87, a human gastric cancer cell line. T...

Yeh, K-h; Yeh, S-h; Hsu, C-h; Wang, T-m; Ma, I-f; Cheng, A-l

2000-01-01

177

Enhancement of the thermoelectric performance of {beta}-Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} by in situ nanostructures and minute Cd-doping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{beta}-Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} compounds doped with minute amounts of Cd were synthesized by the MS-SPS technique, which involves melt spinning (MS) followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS), and the microstructures, thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties were systematically characterized. The non-equilibrium MS-SPS technique generates multi-scale nanostructures in the MS-prepared ribbon-shape samples and the resulting compacted bulk materials. These unique multiple nanostructures result in substantial reductions in lattice thermal conductivities, particularly for samples with a large number of ZnSb nanodots with sizes of 10-30 nm. Meanwhile, Cd-doping remarkably improves the electrical properties of the (Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}){sub 4}Sb{sub 3} compounds by a slight decrease in electrical conductivity and an apparent enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient. Therefore, the dimensionless figure of merits are significantly improved and the maximum value reaches {approx}1.30 for the (Zn{sub 0.99}Cd{sub 0.01}){sub 4}Sb{sub 3} sample at 700 K, representing {approx}13% and {approx}23% improvements compared with the undoped MS-SPS sample and the 1% Cd-doped melting ingot, respectively. In particular, this value shows no degradation after 10 heat cycles from 300 to 700 K or 30 h annealing at 680 K in vacuum, whereas the ZT of neat sample decreases by {approx}20% to a relatively low value of {approx}1.0 after 30 h annealing. The enhanced thermal stability of ZT along with the suppressing effect on the low-temperature {alpha}-{beta} phase transition clearly indicates a large improvement in thermodynamic stability as a result of minute Cd-doping. All the above-mentioned benefits make the minute Cd-doped {beta}-Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} compound prepared by the MS-SPS technique a promising candidate for mid-range temperature thermoelectric power generation applications.

Wang Shanyu; Li Han; Qi Dekui; Xie Wenjie [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Tang Xinfeng, E-mail: tangxf@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

2011-07-15

178

In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

2011-11-01

179

In situ Elektroporation adhärenter Säugerzellen  

OpenAIRE

Säugerzellen wurden auf Goldelektroden kultiviert, um in diesem System die in situ Elektroporation (EP) adhärenter und konfluenter Zellschichten zu charakterisieren. Über die Permeabilisierung von Zellen durch Applikation von Wechselspannungspulsen sollten zur Manipulation Moleküle aus dem Extrazellularraum in die Zellen eingetragen werden. Zunächst wurden durch theoretische Betrachtungen zur EP die optimalen Parameter ermittelt. Durch in situ EP von NRK-Zellen konnte der Eintrag fluo...

Albermann, S.

2004-01-01

180

In situ growth of vanadia-titania nano/micro-porous layers with enhanced photocatalytic performance by micro-arc oxidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Micro-arc oxidation process was used to synthesize V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-TiO{sub 2} porous layers for the first time. Surface morphology and topography of the layers were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were also employed to evaluate phase structure and chemical composition of the layers. It was found that the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-TiO{sub 2} layers consisted of anatase, rutile, and vanadium pentoxide phases fraction of which varied with the applied voltage and the electrolyte concentration. It was also revealed that pore size and surface roughness increased with the applied voltage and the electrolyte concentration. Optical properties of the layers were studied by a UV-vis spectrophotometer, and the band gap energies of the MAO-grown pure TiO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-TiO{sub 2} layers were respectively calculated as 3.21 and 2.56 eV. Furthermore, the composite layers exhibited a significantly enhanced photo-activity when compared to pure TiO{sub 2} layers. The photocatalytic reaction rate constants of degradation of methylene blue on the surface of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-TiO{sub 2} layers under ultraviolet and visible irradiations were measured as 0.0228 and 0.0117 min{sup -1}, respectively. As a consequence, micro-arc oxidation was deduced to be an appropriate and efficient method for synthesis of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-TiO{sub 2} porous layers.

Bayati, M.R., E-mail: bayati@iust.ac.i [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-195, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moshfegh, A.Z. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 14588-89694, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golestani-Fard, F. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-195, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-03-30

181

In situ growth of vanadia-titania nano/micro-porous layers with enhanced photocatalytic performance by micro-arc oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Micro-arc oxidation process was used to synthesize V2O5-TiO2 porous layers for the first time. Surface morphology and topography of the layers were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were also employed to evaluate phase structure and chemical composition of the layers. It was found that the V2O5-TiO2 layers consisted of anatase, rutile, and vanadium pentoxide phases fraction of which varied with the applied voltage and the electrolyte concentration. It was also revealed that pore size and surface roughness increased with the applied voltage and the electrolyte concentration. Optical properties of the layers were studied by a UV-vis spectrophotometer, and the band gap energies of the MAO-grown pure TiO2 and V2O5-TiO2 layers were respectively calculated as 3.21 and 2.56 eV. Furthermore, the composite layers exhibited a significantly enhanced photo-activity when compared to pure TiO2 layers. The photocatalytic reaction rate constants of degradation of methylene blue on the surface of the V2O5-TiO2 layers under ultraviolet and visible irradiations were measured as 0.0228 and 0.0117 min-1, respectively. As a consequence, micro-arc oxidation was deduced to be an appropriate and efficies deduced to be an appropriate and efficient method for synthesis of V2O5-TiO2 porous layers.

182

In situ micro Raman investigation of the laser crystallization in Si thin films plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition-grown from He-diluted SiH4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cw Ar+ laser crystallization has been performed locally (on a 2 ?m sized spot), using a Raman microscope, on plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition-grown Si films. The deposition has been carried out from differently He-diluted SiH4 so that no high temperature dehydrogenation has been required before the laser treatment. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra of the deposited films reveal their amorphous nature whereas infrared spectra would indicate a larger degree of local order in the high dilution (HD) material (SiH4/He=0.02) if compared to the low dilution (LD) one (SiH4/He?3). Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images show large, well defined outgrowths, few hundreds of nanometers-sized, on the surface of the HD film whereas these are few tens of nanometers-sized in the case of the LD film. The threshold laser power densities (LPDs) required to attain the crystallization of the HD and the LD materials (in the range of times of irradiation investigated) are 1.2x105 and 2.0x105 W cm-2, respectively. The relative ease to crystallize the HD material possibly originates from the fact that the heavy dilution of the reacting gas implies a lower rate of growth and so a larger degree of order. Large crystalline fractions (?0.8) have been observed for the laser-treated HD material. Using a phenomenological model, the diameters of the nanocrystallites from theters of the nanocrystallites from the Raman shift of the crystalline peaks have been estimated. The size of the small crystals increases with the time of irradiation (up to a certain time). The smallest nanocrystals would have been fabricated irradiating the LD material at the threshold LPD for the shortest time of irradiation considered in this work. This low temperature process is of great technological interest (e.g., optoelectronics, microelectronics) because it allows the patterning down to a micrometric scale of (amorphous) a-Si:H films deposited onto glass and/or plastic substrates

183

Publication bias in situ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Publication bias, as typically defined, refers to the decreased likelihood of studies' results being published when they are near the null, not statistically significant, or otherwise "less interesting." But choices about how to analyze the data and which results to report create a publication bias within the published results, a bias I label "publication bias in situ" (PBIS. Discussion PBIS may create much greater bias in the literature than traditionally defined publication bias (the failure to publish any result from a study. The causes of PBIS are well known, consisting of various decisions about reporting that are influenced by the data. But its impact is not generally appreciated, and very little attention is devoted to it. What attention there is consists largely of rules for statistical analysis that are impractical and do not actually reduce the bias in reported estimates. PBIS cannot be reduced by statistical tools because it is not fundamentally a problem of statistics, but rather of non-statistical choices and plain language interpretations. PBIS should be recognized as a phenomenon worthy of study – it is extremely common and probably has a huge impact on results reported in the literature – and there should be greater systematic efforts to identify and reduce it. The paper presents examples, including results of a recent HIV vaccine trial, that show how easily PBIS can have a large impact on reported results, as well as how there can be no simple answer to it. Summary PBIS is a major problem, worthy of substantially more attention than it receives. There are ways to reduce the bias, but they are very seldom employed because they are largely unrecognized.

Phillips Carl V

2004-08-01

184

In-situ uranium leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention provides a method for improving the recovery of mineral values from ore bodies subjected to in-situ leaching by controlling the flow behaviour of the leaching solution. In particular, the invention relates to an in-situ leaching operation employing a foam for mobility control of the leaching solution. A foam bank is either introduced into the ore bed or developed in-situ in the ore bed. The foam then becomes a diverting agent forcing the leaching fluid through the previously non-contacted regions of the deposit

185

FISH - (Fluoresence In Situ Hybridization)  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a process which vividly paints chromosomes or portions of chromosomes with fluorescent molecules. This technique is useful for identifying chromosomal abnormalities and gene mapping.

Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)

2005-04-04

186

Effectiveness of weekly cognitive stimulation therapy for people with dementia and the additional impact of enhancing cognitive stimulation therapy with a carer training program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jennifer Cove,1 Nicola Jacobi,2 Helen Donovan,3 Martin Orrell,4 Josh Stott,5 Aimee Spector5 1Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, 2Department of Psychology, City University, London, 3Clinical Psychology Service, South Essex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Bedford, 4Department of Psychiatry, 5Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UKPurpose of the study: Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST is a widely used, evidence-based intervention for people with dementia (PwD. Although designed as a 14 session, twice weekly intervention, many services in the UK deliver CST once a week for 14 weeks. However, this method of delivery has yet to be evaluated. In addition, CST does not include any formal carer training. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of once weekly CST and determine any additional impact when enhanced with a carer training program.Design and methods: A single blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty eight PwD and their carers were recruited through three community Memory Assessment Services. PwD and their carers were randomized to one of three conditions: CST plus carer training, CST only, or a wait list control. PwD were administered standardized measures of cognition, quality of life, and quality of relationship with carer at baseline and the 15 week follow-up.Results: There were no baseline differences across the three groups. At follow-up, there were no significant differences between PwD in the three groups on any outcomes. Implications: Weekly CST with or without carer training may not be an effective form of delivery. Several possible explanations for the outcomes are proposed. Weekly CST may not offer the necessary “dose” required to combat decline, and equally the carer training may have been too brief to have made a difference. Services currently offering weekly CST should collect routine outcome data to support its use and provide practice-based evidence.Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, cognition, intervention, caregiver

Cove J

2014-12-01

187

In situ sensitive fluorescence imaging of neurons cultured on a plasmonic dish using fluorescence microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A plasmonic dish was fabricated as a novel cell-culture dish for in situ sensitive imaging applications, in which the cover glass of a glass-bottomed dish was replaced by a grating substrate coated with a film of silver. Neuronal cells were successfully cultured over a period of more than 2 weeks in the plasmonic dish. The fluorescence images of their cells including dendrites were simply observed in situ using a conventional fluorescence microscope. The fluorescence from neuronal cells growing along the dish surface was enhanced using the surface plasmon resonance field. Under an epi-fluorescence microscope and employing a donut-type pinhole, the fluorescence intensity of the neuron dendrites was found to be enhanced efficiently by an order of magnitude compared with that using a conventional glass-bottomed dish. In a transmitted-light fluorescence microscope, the surface-selective fluorescence image of a fine dendrite growing along the dish surface was observed; therefore, the spatial resolution was improved compared with the epi-fluorescence image of the identical dendrite. PMID:25321614

Tawa, Keiko; Yasui, Chikara; Hosokawa, Chie; Aota, Hiroyuki; Nishii, Junji

2014-11-26

188

Triplex in-situ hybridization  

Science.gov (United States)

Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

Fresco, Jacques R. (Princeton, NJ); Johnson, Marion D. (East Windsor, NJ)

2002-01-01

189

In situ growth and activity and modes of penetration of Escherichia coli in unconsolidated porous materials.  

OpenAIRE

Statistically reliable data on the in situ rates of growth, substrate consumption, and product formation are required to test the validity of the mathematical models developed for microbially enhanced oil recovery and in situ bioremediation processes. A simple, replicable porous-core system that could be aseptically divided into sections at various times was developed to follow the kinetics of microbial growth and metabolism in situ. This core system was used to study the kinetics of growth a...

Sharma, P. K.; Mcinerney, M. J.; Knapp, R. M.

1993-01-01

190

In situ uranium stabilization by microbial metabolites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microbial melanin production by autochthonous bacteria was explored in this study as a means to increase U immobilization in U contaminated soil. This article demonstrates the application of bacterial physiology and soil ecology for enhanced U immobilization in order to develop an in situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >106 cells per g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U complexing and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in a field test demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments

191

In situ uranium stabilization by microbial metabolites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial melanin production by autochthonous bacteria was explored in this study as a means to increase U immobilization in U contaminated soil. This article demonstrates the application of bacterial physiology and soil ecology for enhanced U immobilization in order to develop an in situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >10(6) cells per g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U complexing and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in a field test demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments. PMID:18222573

Turick, Charles E; Knox, Anna S; Leverette, Chad L; Kritzas, Yianne G

2008-06-01

192

In situ solution mining technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of in situ solution mining is disclosed in which a primary leaching process employing an array of 5-spot leaching patterns of production and injection wells is converted to a different pattern by converting to injection wells all the production wells in alternate rows

193

'In situ' expanded graphite extinguishant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is concerning the development of the extinguishant for sodium fire and the investigation of its extinguishing property. The experiment result shows that 'in situ' expanded graphite developed by the authors is a kind of extinguishant which extinguishes sodium fire quickly and effectively and has no environment pollution during use and the amount of usage is little

194

An enhanced postnatal autoimmune profile in 24 week-old C57BL/6 mice developmentally exposed to TCDD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Developmental exposure of mice to the environmental contaminant and AhR agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), causes persistent postnatal suppression of T cell-mediated immune responses. The extent to which prenatal TCDD may induce or exacerbate postnatal autoimmune disease remains unknown. In the present study, time-pregnant high affinity AhR C57BL/6 mice received a single oral administration of 0, 2.5, or 5 ?g/kg TCDD on gestation day (gd) 12. Offspring of these mice (n = 5/gender/treatment) were evaluated at 24 weeks-of-age and showed considerable immune dysregulation that was often gender-specific. Decreased thymic weight and percentages of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, and increased CD4+CD8- thymocytes, were present in the female but not male offspring. Males but not females showed decreased CD4-CD8+ T cells, and increased V?3+ and V?17a+ T cells, in the spleen. Males but not females also showed increased percentages of bone marrow CD24-B220+ B cell progenitors. Antibody titers to dsDNA, ssDNA and cardiolipin displayed increasing trends in both male and female mice, reaching significance for anti-dsDNA in both genders and for ssDNA in males at 5 ?g/kg TCDD. Immunofluorescent staining of IgG and C3 deposition in kidney glomeruli increased in both genders of prenatal TCDD-exposed mice, suggestive of early stages of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Ces of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Collectively, these results show that exposure to TCDD during immune system development causes persistent humoral immune dysregulation as well as altered cell-mediated responses, and induces an adult profile of changes suggestive of increased risk for autoimmune disease

195

An overview of in situ air sparging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ air sparging (IAS) is becoming a widely used technology for remediating sites contaminated by volatile organic materials such as petroleum hydrocarbons. Published data indicate that the injection of air into subsurface water saturated areas coupled with soil vapor extraction (SVE) can increase removal rates in comparison to SVE alone for cases where hydrocarbons are distributed within the water saturated zone. However, the technology is still in its infancy and has not been subject to adequate research, nor have adequate monitoring methods been employed or even developed. Consequently, most IAS applications are designed, operated, and monitored based upon the experience of the individual practitioner. The use of in situ air sparging poses risks not generally associated with most practiced remedial technologies: air injection can enhance the undesirable off-site migration of vapors and ground water contamination plumes. Migration of previously immobile liquid hydrocarbons can also be induced. Thus, there is an added incentive to fully understand this technology prior to application. This overview of the current state of the practice of air sparging is a review of available published literature, consultation with practitioners, a range of unpublished data reports, as well as theoretical considerations. Potential strengths and weaknesses of the technology are discussed and recommendations for future investigations are givenen

196

Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine, E-mail: griselda.barrera@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Basso, Nara R.S. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Quijada, Raul [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

2011-07-01

197

In situ bioremediation of pentachlorophenol  

OpenAIRE

The first known attempt to implement in situ anaerobic bioremediation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was successfully initiated at a former wood treatment site located in Tippecanoe County, Indiana, USA. The objective of this study was to determine factors limiting PCP biodegradation in the field. This is the first detailed examination of the effect of soil mass to solution volume (m/V) ratio on PCP toxicity. It was possible to reduce the aqueous concentration and toxicity of PCP to anaerobic PCP...

Frisbie, Andrew Jay

2000-01-01

198

Work hardening mechanism in high nitrogen austenitic steel studied by in situ neutron diffraction and in situ electron backscattering diffraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With a focus on microstructural hierarchy, work hardening behaviour in high nitrogen-bearing austenitic steel (HNS) was investigated mainly by a combined technique of in situ neutron diffraction and in situ electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). Stress partitioning due to difference in deformability among grains is enhanced in HNS. The larger stress partitioning among [h k l]-oriented family grains seems to realize high work hardening at a small strain. At a larger strain, dislocation density is higher in HNS than in low nitrogen austenitic steel (LNS), which is a possible reason for high work hardening after straining proceeds, resulting in large uniform elongation.

Ojima, M., E-mail: 07nd602g@hcs.ibaraki.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawa, 316-8511 Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Adachi, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Tomota, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawa, 316-8511 Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, K. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Hikari, Kashima, Ibaraki 314-0014 (Japan); Kamiyama, T. [Institute of Material Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Katada, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

2009-12-15

199

Direct in situ RT-PCR  

OpenAIRE

In situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a histological technique that exploits the advantages of PCR for detection of mRNA directly in tissue sections. It somehow conjugates together PCR and in situ hybridization that is more traditionally employed for mRNA localization in cell organelles, intact cells, or tissue sections. This chapter describes the application of in situ PCR for neuropeptide mRNA localization. We provide here a detailed protocol for direct in situ reverse transcription (R...

Merighi, Adalberto; Gambino, Graziana; Lossi, Laura; Salio, Chiara

2011-01-01

200

Oldest biliary endoprosthesis in situ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advantages of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography over open surgery have made it the predominant method of treating patients with choledocholithiasis. After sphincterotomy, however, 10%-15% of common bile duct stones cannot be removed with a basket or balloon. The methods for managing “irretrievable stones” include surgery, mechanical lithotripsy, intraductal or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and biliary stenting. The case presented was a referred 82-year-old Caucasian woman with a 7-year-old plastic biliary endoprosthesis in situ. To the best of our knowledge the examined endoprosthesis is the oldest endoprosthesis in situ reported in the literature. Endoscopic biliary endoprosthesis placement remains a simple and safe procedure for patients with stones that are difficult to manage by conventional endoscopic methods and for patients who are unfit for surgery or who are high surgical risks. To date no consensus has been reached regarding how long a biliary prosthesis should remain in situ. Long-term biliary stenting may have a role in selected elderly patients if stones extraction has failed because the procedure may prevent stones impaction and cholangitis.

Pierluigi Consolo

2013-01-01

201

Noise canceling in-situ detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Technologies applicable to noise canceling in-situ NMR detection and imaging are disclosed. An example noise canceling in-situ NMR detection apparatus may comprise one or more of a static magnetic field generator, an alternating magnetic field generator, an in-situ NMR detection device, an auxiliary noise detection device, and a computer.

Walsh, David O.

2014-08-26

202

In Situ Magnetic Separation for Extracellular Protein Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new approach for in situ product removal from bioreactors is presented in which high-gradient magnetic separation is used. This separation process was used for the adsorptive removal of proteases secreted by Bacillus licheniformis. Small, non-porous bacitracin linked magnetic adsorbents were employed directly in the broth during the fermentation, followed by in situ magnetic separation, Proof of the concept was first demonstrated in shake flask culture, then scaled up and applied during a fed batch cultivation ill a 3.7 L bioreactor. It could be demonstrated that growth of B. licheniformis was not influenced by the in situ product removal step. Protease production also remained the same after the separation step. Furthermore, degradation of the protease, which followed first order kinetics, was reduced by using the method. Using a theoretical modeling approach, we Could show that protease yield in total was enhanced by using in situ magnetic separation. The process described here is a promising technique toimprove overall yield in No production processes which are often limited due to weak downstream operations, Potential limitations encountered during a bioprocess can be overcome such as product inhibition or degradation. We also discuss the key points where research is needed to implement in situ magnetic separation in industrial production.

Kappler, T.; Cerff, Martin

2009-01-01

203

IN SITU URANIUM STABILIZATION BY MICROBIAL METABOLITES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil contaminated with U was the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >106 cells/g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U chelating and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in field tests demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments.

Turick, C; Anna Knox, A; Chad L Leverette,C; Yianne Kritzas, Y

2006-11-29

204

Fungal biodegradation of phthalate plasticizer in situ.  

Science.gov (United States)

This unique study describes how Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium brocae and Purpureocillium lilacinum, three novel isolates of our laboratory from heavily plastics-contaminated soil completely utilized the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) bound to PVC blood storage bags (BB) in simple basal salt medium (BSM) by static submerged growth (28 °C). Initial quantification as well as percentage utilization of DEHP blended to BB were estimated periodically by extracting it into n-hexane. A two-stage cultivation strategy was employed for the complete mycoremediation of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, about two-third parts of total (33.5% w/w) DEHP bound to BB were utilized in two weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.32 g per g BB) and sharp declining (to ~3) of initial pH (7.2). At this stagnant growth state (low pH), spent medium was replaced by fresh BSM (pH, 7.2), and thus in the second stage the remaining DEHP (one-third) in BB was utilized completely. The ditches and furrows seen from the topology of the BB as seen by the 3D AFM image further confirmed the bioremediation of DEHP physically bound to BB in situ. Of the three mycelial fungi employed, P. lilacinum independently showed highest efficiency for the complete utilization of DEHP bound to BB, whose activity was comparable to that of the consortium comprising all the three fungi described herein. To sum up, the two-stage cultivation strategy demonstrated in this study shows that a batch process would efficiently remediate the phthalic acid esters blended in plastics on a large scale, and thus it offers potentials for the management of plastics wastes. PMID:22903609

Pradeep, S; Faseela, P; Josh, M K Sarath; Balachandran, S; Devi, R Sudha; Benjamin, Sailas

2013-04-01

205

Dual growth factor-loaded in situ gel-forming bulking agent: passive and bioactive effects for the treatment of urinary incontinence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is one of the major medical problems for adult females and has a devastating effect on their quality of life. The major cause of the development of the SUI is dysfunction of the urethral supporting tissues as a result of aging and childbirth. In this study, in situ gel-forming bulking agent loaded with dual growth factors, nerve growth factor (NGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), was fabricated. The bulking agent consisted of three components; (i) polycaprolactone (PCL) beads, (ii) bFGF-loaded nanogels, and (iii) NGF-loaded in situ gel forming solution. The bulking agent can provide an initial passive bulking effect (from the PCL beads) and regenerate malfunctioning tissues around the urethra (from the sequential and continuous release of growth factors from the hydrogel) for the effective treatment of SUI. The PCL beads were located stably at the applied urethra site (urinary incontinent SD rat) without migration to provide a passive bulking effect. The sequential release of the growth factors (NGF within a week and bFGF for more than 4 weeks) from the bulking agent provided regeneration of damaged nerve and smooth muscle, and thus enhanced biological function around the urethra. From the findings, we suggest that dual growth factor (NGF and bFGF)-loaded in situ gel-forming bulking agent may be a promising injectable bioactive system for the treatment for SUI. PMID:25578713

Oh, Se Heang; Bae, Jin Woo; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, In Gul; Son, Joo Young; Lee, Ji Youl; Park, Ki Dong; Lee, Jin Ho

2015-01-01

206

Architecture Week  

Science.gov (United States)

Based in Eugene, Oregon, Architecture Week is a magazine that is intended for design and building professionals, and their work includes profiles of new building techniques, historic preservation issues, and architectural practice. Visitors can view the current issues online here, and they will also want to look through their "And More" area. Here they will find sections like "Blog Center", "New Products", "Jobs" and "Conferences". Also, visitors can subscribe to their "ArchitectureWeek Notes", which is a weekly email newsletter. Recent articles on the site have included a piece on historic sites in the United States that are at risk of being demolished and another piece on the importance of listening to clients before starting a major architectural project.

207

Developments in in situ hybridisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ hybridisation (ISH) is an established family of closely related methods for the detection and visualisation of specific nucleic acid sequences (DNA, RNA) in tissue sections, cytological preparations and whole organisms. The technique has a history of refinements and applications going back over several decades and is routinely employed in laboratories where visualisation of gene expression directly within the tissue of interest is necessary. This article will focus on ISH methods for the demonstration of messenger RNA (mRNA) and micro RNA (miRNA) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues with emphasis on non-radioactive signal detection strategies currently available. PMID:24747923

Cassidy, Andrew; Jones, Julia

2014-11-01

208

Gold-Facilitated in Situ Hybridization : A Bright-Field Autometallographic Alternative to Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization for Detection of HER-2/neu Gene Amplification  

OpenAIRE

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) represents an excellent method for profiling gene amplification in situ, but correlation with tissue morphology is difficult because of dark-field visualization. Validation of a bright-field assay for assessment of HER-2/neu gene amplification was investigated. Streptavidin-Nanogold was used to generate bright-field gene copy signals using GoldEnhance gold-based autometallography, catalyzed reported deposition, and a biotin-labeled probe. One hundred ...

Tubbs, Raymond; Pettay, James; Skacel, Marek; Powell, Richard; Stoler, Mark; Roche, Patrick; Hainfeld, James

2002-01-01

209

Final report: In situ radio frequency heating demonstration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A field demonstration of in situ radio frequency heating was performed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the US Department of Energy-Office of Technology Development`s Integrated Demonstration. The objective of the demonstration was to investigate the effectiveness of in situ radio frequency (RF) heating as an enhancement to vacuum extraction of residual solvents (primarily trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene) held in vadose zone clay deposits. Conventional soil vacuum extraction techniques are mass transfer limited because of the low permeabilities of the clays. By selectively heating the clays to temperatures at or above 100{degrees}C, the release or transport of the solvent vapors will be enhanced as a result of several factors including an increase in the contaminant vapor pressure and diffusivity and an increase in the effective permeability of the formation with the release of water vapor.

Jarosch, T.R.; Beleski, R.J.; Faust, D.

1994-01-05

210

In situ remediation integrated program: Development of containment technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) is supporting the development of subsurface containment barrier technology for use in site restoration applications at contaminated sites throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The types of subsurface barriers being developed include impermeable barriers and sorbent barriers. The specific containment technology projects described in this paper include frozen soil barriers, flowable grout techniques, hydraulic and diffusion barriers, horizontal grout barriers, chemically enhanced barriers, and viscous liquid barriers

211

In Situ Forming Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems  

OpenAIRE

In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan,...

Madan, M.; Bajaj, A.; Lewis, S.; Udupa, N.; Baig, J. A.

2009-01-01

212

Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ  

Science.gov (United States)

Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ to increase the amount of DNA associated with a chromosome or chromosome region is described. The amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ provides for the synthesis of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) painting probes from single dissected chromosome fragments, the production of cDNA libraries from low copy mRNAs and improved in Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) procedures.

Christian, Allen T. (Tracy, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Livermore, CA); Tucker, James D. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

213

In situ trace element microanalysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of particle-track-radiography and X-ray- fluorescence techniques in the in situ measurement of trace (less than 1000 ppm) elements in single mineral phases of polished sections is surveyed, and examples of their application to ordinary, carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites are provided. Radiographic methods surveyed include fission-track radiography (for U, Th, and Pu-244), alpha radiography using nuclear reactions (for Li and B), alpha autoradiography (for Bi and Pb), and beta autoradiography (for several elements in synthetic or biological samples). Two X-ray-fluorescence methods are compared: (1) photon-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and (2) the potential use of synchrotron radiation. The latter is shown to allow much greater sensitivity than current PIXE technology and a much broader range of elements than particle-track radiography: the ppm analysis of 10-micron grains for all elements heavier than Na. These advantages are seen as balancing the high cost of accelerator use.

Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

1983-01-01

214

In situ treatability test plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes the plans for the in situ treatment zone (ISTZ) treatability test for groundwater contaminated with strontium-90. The treatability test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, in a portion of the 100-N Area adjacent to the Columbia River referred to as N-Springs. The purpose of the treatability test is to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative technology to prevent the discharge of strontium-90 contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River. The ISTZ is a passive technology that consists of placing a treatment agent in the path of the groundwater. The treatment agent must restrict target radioactive contaminants and provide time for the contaminant to decay to acceptable levels. The permeability of the treatment zone must be greater than or equal to that of the surrounding sediments to ensure that the contaminated groundwater flows through the treatment zone agent and not around the agent

215

Carcinoma in situ in testicular biopsies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carcinoma in situ of the testis is an abnormality of the seminiferous epithelium characterized by aneuploid cells with clear cytoplasm located along the tubular basement membrane or in the lumina of tubules. Morphological, cytogenetic, and histochemical features of this anomaly are presented. An adequate fixation of testicular tissue samples is necessary for correct diagnosis. The fact that approximately 50% of carcinoma in situ may develop into malignant germ cell tumours of the testis in 5 years and the investigations of the testicular tissue adjacent to these tumours support the malignant nature and invasive potential of testicular carcinoma in situ. The incidence of carcinoma in situ in persons at risk is reviewed. PMID:2700185

Mazanec, K; Vorechovsky, I

1989-01-01

216

Brain Week!  

Science.gov (United States)

This week-long exploration of brain structure and function through hands-on experiments and web Treasure Hunts ends with an open inquiry on the brain designed by students. Exploration topics include brain parts and their functions, surface area, optic nerve activity, touch receptors, muscle spindle fibers, motor learning, neuroscientists, and the effects of drugs on the brain. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2004 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Rachel Gillis (Arsenal Technical High School)

2005-05-01

217

In Situ Analytical Electron Microscopy for Probing Nanoscale Electrochemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oxides and their tailored structures are at the heart of electrochemical energy storage technologies and advances in understanding and controlling the dynamic behaviors in the complex oxides, particularly at the interfaces, during electrochemical processes will catalyze creative design concepts for new materials with enhanced and better-understood properties. Such knowledge is not accessible without new analytical tools. New innovative experimental techniques are needed for understanding the chemistry and structure of the bulk and interfaces, more importantly how they change with electrochemical processes in situ. Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is used extensively to study electrode materials ex situ and is one of the most powerful tools to obtain structural, morphological, and compositional information at nanometer scale by combining imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy, e.g., EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry) and Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry (EELS). Determining the composition/structure evolution upon electrochemical cycling at the bulk and interfaces can be addressed by new electron microscopy technique with which one can observe, at the nanometer scale and in situ, the dynamic phenomena in the electrode materials. In electrochemical systems, for instance in a lithium ion battery (LIB), materials operate under conditions that are far from equilibrium, so that the materials studied ex situ may not capture the processes that occur in situ in a working battery. In situ electrochemical operation in the ultra-high vacuum column of a TEM has been pursued by two major strategies. In one strategy, a 'nano-battery' can be fabricated from an all-solid-state thin film battery using a focused ion beam (FIB). The electrolyte is either polymer based or ceramic based without any liquid component. As shown in Fig. 1a, the interfaces between the active electrode material/electrolyte can be clearly observed with TEM imaging, in contrast to the composite electrodes/electrolyte interfaces in conventional lithium ion batteries, depicted in Fig.1b, where quantitative interface characterization is extremely difficult if not impossible. A second strategy involves organic electrolyte, though this approach more closely resembles the actual operation conditions of a LIB, the extreme volatility In Situ Analytical Electron Microscopy for Probing Nanoscale Electrochemistry by Ying Shirley Meng, Thomas McGilvray, Ming-Che Yang, Danijel Gostovic, Feng Wang, Dongli Zeng, Yimei Zhu, and Jason Graetz of the organic electrolytes present significant challenges for designing an in situ cell that is suitable for the vacuum environment of the TEM. Significant progress has been made in the past few years on the development of in situ electron microscopy for probing nanoscale electrochemistry. In 2008, Brazier et al. reported the first cross-section observation of an all solid-state lithium ion nano-battery by TEM. In this study the FIB was used to make a 'nano-battery,' from an all solid-state battery prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In situ TEM observations were not possible at that time due to several key challenges such as the lack of a suitable biasing sample holder and vacuum transfer of sample. In 2010, Yamamoto et al. successfully observed changes of electric potential in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery in situ with electron holography (EH). The 2D potential distribution resulting from movement of lithium ions near the positive-electrode/electrolyte interface was quantified. More recently Huang et al. and Wang et al. reported the in situ observations of the electrochemical lithiation of a single SnO{sub 2} nanowire electrode in two different in situ setups. In their approach, a vacuum compatible ionic liquid is used as the electrolyte, eliminating the need for complicated membrane sealing to prevent the evaporation of carbonate based organic electrolyte into the TEM column. One main limitation of this approach is that EELS spectral imaging is not possible due to the high plasmon si

Graetz J.; Meng, Y.S.; McGilvray, T.; Yang, M.-C.; Gostovic, D.; Wang, F.; Zeng, D.; Zhu, Y.

2011-10-31

218

In situ vitrification: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in situ vitrification process (ISV) converts contaminated soils and sludges to a glass and crystalline product. The process appears to be ideally suited for on site treatment of both wet and dry wastes. Basically, the system requires four molybdenum electrodes, an electrical power system for vitrifying the soil, a hood to trap gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system, an off-gas cooling system, and a process control station. Mounted in three transportable trailers, the ISV process can be moved from site to site. The process has the potential for treating contaminated soils at most 13 m deep. The ISV project has won a number of outstanding achievement awards. The process has also been patented with exclusive worldwide rights being granted to Battelle Memorial Institute for nonradioactive applications. While federal applications still belong to the Department of Energy, Battelle transferred the rights of ISV for non-federal government, chemical hazardous wastes to a separate corporation in 1989 called Geosafe. This report gives a review of the process including current operational behavior and applications

219

Precision in situ volume measurement of micro droplets  

Science.gov (United States)

This research presents an in situ droplet volume measurement system which is applied to the one drop fill (ODF) process of liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacture. The system developed utilizes a stroboscopic technique to synchronize the triggering of a strobe light and a CCD camera. A steady image of the droplet flying in free space can be captured in situ by the CCD camera. The method of precise volume estimation is based on a rotationally symmetric model of the droplet's shape. Polynomial fitting is used to reconstruct the droplet profile. The image resolution can thus be enhanced by a subpixel technique. Compared to a precision electronic balance, the total weight measured by this system has an error within ± 0.3%, and the computation time for each droplet is about 0.4 s. This satisfies the actual ODF requirements.

Fan, Kuang-Chao; Chen, Jhih-Yuan; Wang, Ching-Hua; Pan, Wen-Chueh

2009-01-01

220

In-situ Ground-Based and Airborne Formaldehyde Measurements in the Houston Area During TexAQS-II  

Science.gov (United States)

Formaldehyde is considered to play a significant role in summertime photochemistry in the Houston area, in particular it is considered an important source for radicals. Secondary formation seems to be the most important fraction of ambient HCHO. Enhanced nighttime values may indicate primary sources. Potential sources may include mobile sources such as traffic exhaust, in particular not well maintained Diesel engines. Other possible sources may include point sources such as coffee roasting and flares from refineries. In this study we focused on the TexAQS-II continuous in-situ formaldehyde data set based on Hantzsch reaction which was obtained in the Ship Channel area (HRM3 and Lynchburg Ferry site) and at the Moody Tower for several weeks. We also include in-situ HCHO measurements obtained with the same technique aboard the Baylor aircraft during TexAQS-II flight missions. Formaldehyde data was compared to several trace gases that are supposed to be coemitted including CO (traffic), ethylene (flares), and SO2 (industry). In order to keep photochemical processes at a minimum special focus was on nighttime data. Case studies will be discussed where meteorological conditions including recirculation and boundary layer developments seem to play a major role in the redistribution of HCHO. Observations will be compared to CMAQ model studies.

Rappenglueck, B.; Byun, D.; Alvarez, S.; Buhr, M.; Coarfa, V.; Czader, B.; Dasgupta, P.; Estes, M.; Kim, S.; Leuchner, M.; Luke, W.; Shauck, M.; Zanin, G.

2007-12-01

221

In vivo and in situ evaluation of a wireless magnetoelastic sensor array for plastic biliary stent monitoring.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the in vivo and in situ evaluation of a system that wirelessly monitors the accumulation of biliary sludge in a plastic biliary stent. The sensing element, located within the stent, is a passive array of magnetoelastic resonators that is queried by a wireless electromagnetic signal. The in vivo and in situ testing uses commercially-available plastic biliary stents, each enhanced with an array of ribbon sensors (formed from Metglas™ 2826 MB). The sensor array is approximately 70 mm long and contains individual resonators that are 1 mm in width and have lengths of 10 mm, 14 mm, and 20 mm. The array is anchored into the 2.8 mm inner-diameter stent using a thermal staking technique. For the in situ testing, an instrumented stent is placed in various locations within the abdominal cavity of a female domestic swine carcass to evaluate the wireless range of the system; these results show that a wireless signal can be obtained from a range of at least 7.5 cm from a sensor array covered in bile. The in vivo testing includes the endoscopic implantation of an instrumented stent into the bile duct of a swine. After implantation, the swine was housed for a period of 4 weeks, during which the animal showed no ill effects and followed the expected growth curve from 29 kg to 42 kg. At the conclusion of the in vivo test, the animal was euthanized, and the instrumented stent explanted and examined. The results presented in this paper indicate that the monitoring system does not adversely affect the health of the animal and can feasibly provide sufficient wireless range after implantation. PMID:23460136

Green, Scott R; Kwon, Richard S; Elta, Grace H; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

2013-06-01

222

Detection of in-situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes by atomic force microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection of in situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes provides important information about gene mappings and about analysis of chromosomal disorders. We applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to the detection of in situ hybridization to get better resolution as compared to light microscopy. Chromosomes were spread over a glass substrate and hybridized with DNA probes labeled with biotin or digoxigenin. The hybridized probes were reacted with streptavidin or anti-digoxigenin antibody, both of which were conjugated with 5-nm gold colloidal particles. We missed direct detection of the conjugated gold colloidal particles by micro-meter scale AFM scanning , but obtained clear topographic difference between the site of hybridization and the chromosome arm with the help of silver enhancement. We thus clearly detected the in situ hybridization using chromosome painting probes, alpha satellite probes, and locus specific gene probes by AFM. The in situ hybridization to DNA fiber was also detected by AFM. The detection of in situ hybridization by AFM has advantages over fluorescence in situ hybridization: no reduction of signal intensity under light irradiation. Application of AFM to the detection of in situ hybridization will be a useful method to analyze chromosomes.

Okamoto, Naoaki; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

2000-04-01

223

Development, characterization and application of in situ gel systems for intranasal delivery of tacrine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to develop an in situ gel formulation for intranasal delivery of tacrine (THA), an anti-Alzheimer's drug. Thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F-127 was used to prepare THA in situ gels. Sol-gel transition temperature (Tsol-gel), rheological properties, in vitro release, and in vivo nasal mucociliary transport time were optimized. The pharmacokinetics and brain dispositions of in situ gel were compared with that from THA oral solution in rats. The in situ gel demonstrated a liquid state with Newtonian fluid behavior under 20 °C, while it exhibited as non-flowing gel with pseudoplastic fluid behavior beyond its Tsol-gel of 28.5 °C. Based on nasal mucociliary transport time, the in situ gel significantly prolonged its retention in nasal cavity compared to solution form. Moreover, the in situ gel achieved 2-3 fold higher peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) of THA in plasma and brain tissue, but lowered Cmax and AUC of the THA metabolites compared to that of oral solution. The enhanced nasal residence time, improved bioavailability, increased brain uptake of parent drug and decreased exposure of metabolites suggested that the in situ gel could be an effective intranasal formulation for THA. PMID:24709220

Qian, Shuai; Wong, Yin Cheong; Zuo, Zhong

2014-07-01

224

Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination of TCE in a Basalt Aquifer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A field evaluation of enhanced reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in ground water has been in progress since November 1998 to determine whether in situ biodegradation can be significantly enhanced through the addition of an electron donor (lactate). An in situ treatment cell was established in the residual source area of a large TCE plume in a fractured basalt aquifer utilizing continuous ground water extraction approximately 150 meters downgradient of the injection location. After a 1-month tracer test and baseline sampling period, the pulsed injection of lactate was begun. Ground water samples were collected from 11 sampling points on a biweekly basis and in situ water quality parameters were recorded every 4 hours at two locations. Within 2 weeks after the initial lactate injection, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were observed to decrease substantially at all sampling locations within 40 m of the injection well. Decreases in nitrate and sulfate concentrations were also observed. Both quantitative in situ rate estimation methods and qualitative measures such as changes in redox conditions, decreases in chlorine number, and changes in biomass indicator parameters are being used throughout the test to evaluate the extent to which biodegradation of TCE is enhanced.

Sorenson, Kent Soren; Peterson, Lance Nutting; Ely, R. L.

1999-04-01

225

Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination of TCE in a Basalt Aquifer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A field evaluation of enhanced reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater has been in progress since November 1998 to determine whether in situ biodegradation can be significantly enhanced through the addition of an electron donor (lactate). An in situ treatment cell was established in the residual source area of a large TCE plume in a fractured basalt aquifer utilizing continuous ground water extraction approximately 150 meters downgradient of the injection location. After a 1-month tracer test and baseline sampling period, the pulsed injection of lactate was begun. Ground water samples were collected from 11 sampling points on a biweekly basis and in situ water quality parameters were recorded every 4 hours at two locations. Within 2 weeks after the initial lactate injection, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were observed to decrease substantially at all sampling locations within 40 m of the injection well. Decreases in nitrate and sulfate concentrations were also observed. Both quantitative in situ rate estimation methods and qualitative measures such as changes in redox conditions, decreases in chlorine number, and changes in biomass indicator parameters are being used throughout the test to evaluate the extent to which biodegradation of TCE is enhanced.

K. S. Sorenson; L. N. Peterson (INEEL); R. Ely (U of Idaho)

1999-04-01

226

Scientific rationale of Saturn's in situ exploration  

CERN Document Server

Remote sensing observations meet some limitations when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. A remarkable example of the superiority of in situ probe measurements is illustrated by the exploration of Jupiter, where key measurements such as the determination of the noble gases abundances and the precise measurement of the helium mixing ratio have only been made available through in situ measurements by the Galileo probe. This paper describes the main scientific goals to be addressed by the future in situ exploration of Saturn placing the Galileo probe exploration of Jupiter in a broader context and before the future probe exploration of the more remote ice giants. In situ exploration of Saturn's atmosphere addresses two broad themes that are discussed throughout this paper: first, the formation history of our solar system and second, the processes at play in planetary atmospheres. In this context, we detail the reasons why measurements of Saturn's bulk element...

Mousis, O; Lebreton, J -P; Wurz, P; Cavalié, T; Coustenis, A; Courtin, R; Gautier, D; Helled, R; Irwin, P G J; Morse, A D; Nettelmann, N; Marty, B; Rousselot, P; Venot, O; Atkinson, D H; Waite, J H; Reh, K R; Simon-Miller, A; Atreya, S; André, N; Blanc, M; Daglis, I A; Fischer, G; Geppert, W D; Guillot, T; Hedman, M M; Hueso, R; Lellouch, E; Lunine, J I; Murray, C D; O'Donoghue, J; Rengel, M; Sanchez-Lavega, A; Schmider, F -X; Spiga, A; Spilker, T; Petit, J -M; Tiscareno, M S; Ali-Dib, M; Altwegg, K; Bouquet, A; Briois, C; Fouchet, T; Guerlet, S; Kostiuk, T; Lebleu, D; Moreno, R; Orton, G S; Poncy, J

2014-01-01

227

In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts  

CERN Document Server

Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

2013-01-01

228

'Closed' in Situ Vein Infrainguinal Bypass  

OpenAIRE

The autologous greater saphenous vein is considered to be the best bypass material for below knee femoropopliteal and femorocnual arterial reconstructions . . The history of the greater saphenous vein arterial bypass in humans started in 1949, with its first introduction by Kunlin. Upto 1959, when Rob performed the first in situ saphenous vein bypass, the reversed saphenous vein technique of Kunlin was the standard procedure. The first publication about the in situ bypass wa...

Dijk, L. C.

1996-01-01

229

In situ hybridization with fluoresceinated DNA.  

OpenAIRE

We have used fluorescein-11-dUTP in a nick-translation format to produce fluoresceinated human nucleic acid probes. After in situ hybridization of fluoresceinated DNAs to human metaphase chromosomes, the detection sensitivity was found to be 50-100 kb. The feasibility and the increase in detection sensitivity of microscopic imaging of in situ hybridized, fluoresceinated DNA with an integrating solid state camera for rapid cosmid mapping is illustrated. Combination of fluoresceinated DNA with ...

Wiegant, J.; Ried, T.; Nederlof, P. M.; Ploeg, M.; Tanke, H. J.; Raap, A. K.

1991-01-01

230

DOE In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. In situ manipulation technologies subprogram plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRP) supports and manages a balanced portfolio of applied research and development activities in support of DOE environmental restoration and waste management needs. ISRP technologies are being developed in four areas: containment, chemical and physical treatment, in situ bioremediation, and in situ manipulation (including electrokinetics). the focus of containment is to provide mechanisms to stop contaminant migration through the subsurface. In situ bioremediation and chemical and physical treatment both aim to destroy or eliminate contaminants in groundwater and soils. In situ manipulation (ISM) provides mechanisms to access contaminants or introduce treatment agents into the soil, and includes other technologies necessary to support the implementation of ISR methods. Descriptions of each major program area are provided to set the technical context of the ISM subprogram. Typical ISM needs for major areas of in situ remediation research and development are identified.

Yow, J.L. Jr.

1993-12-22

231

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M

2013-01-01

232

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contibuting to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more benefical technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

LisaGieg

2013-06-01

233

Aquifer restoration at uranium in situ leach sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ mining of uranium involves injection of a leaching solution (lixiviant) into an ore-bearing aquifer. Frequently, the ground water in the mined aquifer is a domestic or livestock water supply. As the lixiviant migrates through the ore body, uranium and various associated elements such as arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, vanadium and radium-226 are mobilized in the ground water. Aquifer restoration after in situ mining is not fully understood. Several methods have been developed to restore mined aquifers to pre-mining (baseline) quality. Commonly used methods include ground water sweeping, clean water injection, and treatment by ion exchange and reverse osmosis technologies. Ammonium carbonate lixiviant was used at one RandD in situ mine. Attempts were made to restore the aquifer using a variety of methods. Efforts were successful in reducing concentrations of the majority of contaminants to baseline levels. Concentrations of certain parameters, however, remained at levels above baseline six months after restoration ceased. Relatively large quantities of ground water were processed in the restoration attempt considering the small size of the project (1.25 acre). More thorough characterization of the hydrogeology of the site may have enhanced the effectiveness of restoration and reduced potential environmental impacts associated with the project. This paper presents some of the findings of a research project conducted by the Mineral Resources Waste Management Team e Mineral Resources Waste Management Team at the University of Idaho in Moscow, Idaho. Views contained herein do not reflect U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy

234

Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the '70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid '80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern

235

Reinforcing bioceramic scaffolds with in situ synthesized ?-polycaprolactone coatings.  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (?-CL) was performed to coat ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting in order to enhance their mechanical performance while preserving the predesigned macropore architecture. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from ?-TCP commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a three-dimensional mesh of interpenetrating rods. Then, ?-CL was in situ polymerized within the ceramic structure using a lipase as catalyst and toluene as solvent, to obtain a highly homogeneous coating and full impregnation of in-rod microporosity. The strength and toughness of scaffolds coated by ?-polycaprolactone (?-PCL) were significantly increased (twofold and fivefold increase, respectively) over those of the bare structures. Enhancement of both properties is associated to the healing of preexisting microdefects in the bioceramic rods. These enhancements are compared to results from previous work on fully impregnated structures. The implications of the results for the optimization of the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. PMID:23629876

Martínez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Miranda, Pedro; Guiberteau, Fernando; Pajares, Antonia

2013-12-01

236

Bodcau in situ combustion project. [Bellevue field in Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bellevue In Situ Combustion Demonstration Project is an enhanced oil recovery project. This report documents the reservoir description, site selection and program plan for the project. The project site was chosen in the SW/4 of Section 11-T19N-R11W, Bossier Parish, Louisiana. Development of the project site involved the drilling of 29 producing wells, 5 injection wells, one water disposal and one water supply well. The combustion process involves dry burn, simultaneous water/air injection, and water injection. (DLC)

Little, T.P.

1977-03-01

237

In-situ-study about the effect of remineralisation of Duraphat® and elmex® fluid  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this in situ study was to determine the short term effects (six weeks) of Duraphat® and elmex® fluid on the remineralisation of initial artificial lesions during optimal mouth hygiene in situ. Out of 96 human molars, 192 tooth enamel samples were prepared, each of which was covered up to one third with nail varnish (control) and later demineralised (pH 5,0 ; 14 d). Half of the surfaces of the initial lesions were coated with nail varnish as well (control-demineralisation). ...

Mu?ller-ugur, Derya

2010-01-01

238

In situ forming polymeric drug delivery systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DL-lactic acid, poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide and poly-caprolactone. The choice of solvents like water, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methyl pyrrolidone, triacetin and 2-pyrrolidone for these formulations depends on the solubility of polymer used. Mainly in situ gels are administered by oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable and intraperitoneal routes. The in situ gel forming polymeric formulations offer several advantages like sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems. The article presents a detailed review of these types of polymeric systems, their evaluation, advancements and their commercial formulations. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost.

Madan M

2009-01-01

239

Excursion control at in situ uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intensive research and development of in situ uranium mining took place in the United States during the 1970's. By the end of the decade, nearly 10% of all uranium production came from in situ mines. Recent poor market conditions, however, forced the closure of all domestic in situ uranium mines. When market conditions improve, domestic in situ mining is expected to make a modest recovery. Successful licensing of future in situ mines depends to a large extend on the ability to contain the leach solutions (lixiviant) within the ore zone. Uncontrolled movement of lixiviant beyond the ore zone is called an excursion. Early detection of an excursion is a necessary prelude to the implementation of timely corrective action to return escaping fluid to the well-field. Without timely corrective action, a large quantity of valuable production fluid may be irretrievably lost and serious contamination of adjacent groundwater resources may result. Two types of excursion are recognized: horizontal and vertical. In horizontal excursions lixiviant remains strata bound but migrates laterally away from the production well-field. In vertical excursions lixiviant escapes into aquifers above or below the ore bearing strata

240

ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

241

In situ bioremediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated water by a resting-cell methanotrophic microbial filter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is testing and developing an in situ microbial filter technology for remediating migrating subsurface plumes contaminated with low concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE). Their current focus is the establishment of a replenishable bioactive zone (catalytic filter) along expanding plume boundaries by the Injection of a representative methanotrophic bacterium, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. We have successfully demonstrated this microbial filter strategy using emplaced, attached resting cells (no methane additions) in a 1.1-m flow-through test bed loaded with water-saturated sand. Two separate 24 h pulses of TCE (109 ppb and 85 ppb), one week apart, were pumped through the system at a flow velocity of 1.5 cm/h; no TCE (<0.5 ppb) was detected on the downstream side of the microbial filter. Subsequent excavation of the wet sand confirmed the existence of a TCE-bioactive zone 19 days after it had been created. An enhanced longevity of the cellular, soluble-form methane monooxygenase produced by this methanotroph Is a result of our laboratory bioreactor culturing conditions. Additional experiments with cells in sealed vials and emplaced in the 1.1-m test bed yielded a high resting-cell finite TCE biotransformation capacity of ? 0.25 mg per mg of bacteria; this is suitable for a planned sand-filled trench field demonstration at a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site

242

Aquifer restoration at in-situ leach uranium mines: evidence for natural restoration processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments with aquifer sediments and leaching solution (lixiviant) from an in-situ leach uranium mine. The data from these laboratory experiments and information on the normal distribution of elements associated with roll-front uranium deposits provide evidence that natural processes can enhance restoration of aquifers affected by leach mining. Our experiments show that the concentration of uranium (U) in solution can decrease at least an order of magnitude (from 50 to less than 5 ppM U) due to reactions between the lixiviant and sediment, and that a uranium solid, possibly amorphous uranium dioxide, (UO/sub 2/), can limit the concentration of uranium in a solution in contact with reduced sediment. The concentrations of As, Se, and Mo in an oxidizing lixiviant should also decrease as a result of redox and precipitation reactions between the solution and sediment. The lixiviant concentrations of major anions (chloride and sulfate) other than carbonate were not affected by short-term (less than one week) contact with the aquifer sediments. This is also true of the total dissolved solids level of the solution. Consequently, we recommend that these solution parameters be used as indicators of an excursion of leaching solution from the leach field. Our experiments have shown that natural aquifer processes can affect the solution concentration of certain constituents. This effect should be considered when guidelines for aquifer restoration are established.

Deutsch, W.J.; Serne, R.J.; Bell, N.E.; Martin, W.J.

1983-04-01

243

Aquifer restoration at in-situ leach uranium mines: evidence for natural restoration processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments with aquifer sediments and leaching solution (lixiviant) from an in-situ leach uranium mine. The data from these laboratory experiments and information on the normal distribution of elements associated with roll-front uranium deposits provide evidence that natural processes can enhance restoration of aquifers affected by leach mining. Our experiments show that the concentration of uranium (U) in solution can decrease at least an order of magnitude (from 50 to less than 5 ppM U) due to reactions between the lixiviant and sediment, and that a uranium solid, possibly amorphous uranium dioxide, (UO2), can limit the concentration of uranium in a solution in contact with reduced sediment. The concentrations of As, Se, and Mo in an oxidizing lixiviant should also decrease as a result of redox and precipitation reactions between the solution and sediment. The lixiviant concentrations of major anions (chloride and sulfate) other than carbonate were not affected by short-term (less than one week) contact with the aquifer sediments. This is also true of the total dissolved solids level of the solution. Consequently, we recommend that these solution parameters be used as indicators of an excursion of leaching solution from the leach field. Our experiments have shown that natural aquifer processes can affect the solution concentration of certain constituents. This effect should be considered when guidelines for aquifer be considered when guidelines for aquifer restoration are established

244

In situ Micrometeorological Measurements during RxCADRE  

Science.gov (United States)

The Prescribed Fire Combustion and Atmospheric Dynamics Research Experiment (RxCADRE) was a collaborative research project designed to fully instrument prescribed fires in the Southeastern United States. Data were collected on pre-burn fuel loads, post burn consumption, ambient weather, in situ atmospheric dynamics, plume dynamics, radiant heat release (both from in-situ and remote sensors), in-situ fire behavior, and select fire effects. The sampling was conducted at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, and the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center in Newton, Georgia, from February 29 to March 6, 2008. Data were collected on 5 prescribed burns, totaling 4458 acres. The largest aerial ignition totaled 2,290 acres and the smallest ground ignition totaled 104 acres. Quantifying fire-atmospheric interactions is critical for understanding wildland fire dynamics and enhancing modeling of smoke plumes. During Rx-CADRE, atmospheric soundings using radiosondes were made at each burn prior to ignition. In situ micrometeorological measurements were made within each burn unit using five portable, 10-m towers equipped with sonic and prop anemometers, fine-wire thermocouples, and a carbon dioxide probes. The towers were arranged within the burn units to capture the wind and temperature fields as the fire front and plume passed the towers. Due to the interaction of fire lines following ignition, several of the fire fronts that passed the towers were backing fires and thus less intense. Preliminary results indicate that the average vertical velocities associated with the fire front passage were on the order of 3-5 m s-1 and average plume temperatures were on the order of 30-50 °C above ambient. During two of the experimental burns, radiosondes were released into the fire plumes to determine the vertical structure of the plume temperature, humidity, and winds. A radiosonde released into the plume during the burn conducted on 3 March 2008 indicated a definite plume boundary in the potential temperature and dew point temperature structure. The plume height immediately downwind of the fire front was approximately 150 m AGL and heating within this layer was on the order of 3 K. One interesting feature of the plume was the enhanced wind velocity at the top of the plume. Winds increased by 2 m s-1 in a shallow layer at the very top of the plume boundary indicating enhanced acceleration due to the increase in buoyancy. This experience highlights the dynamism of interacting fire lines within prescribed burns as well as the difficulty of measuring fire-atmospheric interactions on large prescribed fire ignitions.

Clements, C. B.; Hiers, J. K.; Strenfel, S. J.

2009-12-01

245

In Situ Imaging of Atomic Quantum Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

One exciting progress in recent cold atom experiments is the development of high resolution, in situ imaging techniques for atomic quantum gases.1-3 These new powerful tools provide detailed information on the distribution of atoms in a trap with resolution approaching the level of single atom and even single lattice site, and complement the welldeveloped time-of-flight method that probes the system in momentum space. In a condensed matter analogy, this technique is equivalent to locating electrons of a material in a snap shot. In situ imaging has offered a new powerful tool to study atomic gases and inspired many new research directions and ideas. In this chapter, we will describe the experimental setup of in situ absorption imaging, observables that can be extracted from the images, and new physics that can be explored with this technique.

Hung, Chen-Lung; Chin, Cheng

2015-09-01

246

In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Buried Waste Program was established in October, 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a recommended long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Feasibility Study format to identify methods for the long-term management of the mixed waste buried. This In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan gives a brief description of the site, work breakdown structure, and project organization: the in situ vitrification technology; the purpose of the tests and demonstrations; and the equipment and materials required for the tests and demonstration. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

247

Oil companies push in-situ recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possibly, a third Athabaska tar-sand plant using surface mining will be built in the 1980's, but future development beyond that point will probably depend on in-situ recovery. The discussion of in-situ recovery focusses on the effect it will have on the Canadian chemical industry, for example, the market for sodium hydroxide. To obtain the highest yields of oil from bitumen, an external source of hydrogen is necessary; for example Syncrude imports natural gas to make hydrogen for desulphurization. Gasification of coal is a possible source of hydrogen. Research on hydrocracking is progressing. Use of a prototype CANDU OCR reactor to raise the hot steam necessary for in-situ recovery has been suggested. Venezuela is interested in Canadian upgrading technology. (N.D.H.)

248

Scientific rationale for Saturn's in situ exploration  

Science.gov (United States)

Remote sensing observations meet some limitations when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. A remarkable example of the superiority of in situ probe measurements is illustrated by the exploration of Jupiter, where key measurements such as the determination of the noble gases' abundances and the precise measurement of the helium mixing ratio have only been made available through in situ measurements by the Galileo probe. This paper describes the main scientific goals to be addressed by the future in situ exploration of Saturn placing the Galileo probe exploration of Jupiter in a broader context and before the future probe exploration of the more remote ice giants. In situ exploration of Saturn's atmosphere addresses two broad themes that are discussed throughout this paper: first, the formation history of our solar system and second, the processes at play in planetary atmospheres. In this context, we detail the reasons why measurements of Saturn's bulk elemental and isotopic composition would place important constraints on the volatile reservoirs in the protosolar nebula. We also show that the in situ measurement of CO (or any other disequilibrium species that is depleted by reaction with water) in Saturn's upper troposphere may help constraining its bulk O/H ratio. We compare predictions of Jupiter and Saturn's bulk compositions from different formation scenarios, and highlight the key measurements required to distinguish competing theories to shed light on giant planet formation as a common process in planetary systems with potential applications to most extrasolar systems. In situ measurements of Saturn's stratospheric and tropospheric dynamics, chemistry and cloud-forming processes will provide access to phenomena unreachable to remote sensing studies. Different mission architectures are envisaged, which would benefit from strong international collaborations, all based on an entry probe that would descend through Saturn's stratosphere and troposphere under parachute down to a minimum of 10 bar of atmospheric pressure. We finally discuss the science payload required on a Saturn probe to match the measurement requirements.

Mousis, O.; Fletcher, L. N.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Wurz, P.; Cavalié, T.; Coustenis, A.; Courtin, R.; Gautier, D.; Helled, R.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Morse, A. D.; Nettelmann, N.; Marty, B.; Rousselot, P.; Venot, O.; Atkinson, D. H.; Waite, J. H.; Reh, K. R.; Simon, A. A.; Atreya, S.; André, N.; Blanc, M.; Daglis, I. A.; Fischer, G.; Geppert, W. D.; Guillot, T.; Hedman, M. M.; Hueso, R.; Lellouch, E.; Lunine, J. I.; Murray, C. D.; O`Donoghue, J.; Rengel, M.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Schmider, F.-X.; Spiga, A.; Spilker, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Ali-Dib, M.; Altwegg, K.; Bolton, S. J.; Bouquet, A.; Briois, C.; Fouchet, T.; Guerlet, S.; Kostiuk, T.; Lebleu, D.; Moreno, R.; Orton, G. S.; Poncy, J.

2014-12-01

249

In situ simulation: Taking reported critical incidents and adverse events back to the clinic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction In situ simulation offers a novel approach to training in the healthcare setting. It models clinical processes in a real clinical environment and provides the opportunity to correct errors and adjust team interactions without endangering patients. Training in the simulation laboratory does not tap into situational resources, e.g. individual, team, and organisational characteristics such as routines, personal relations, distributed skill-levels etc. Therefore, it fails to fully mimic real clinical team processes. Alternatively, in situ simulation offers a unique opportunity to explore and improve team processes in the clinical environment. Though research on in situ simulation in healthcare is in its infancy, literature is abundant on patient safety, medical simulation, team training and human factors1. Patient safety reporting systems that identify risks to patients can improve patient safety if coupled with training and organisational support2. Insight into the nature of reported critical incidents and adverse events can be used in writing in situ simulation scenarios and thus lead to interventions that enhance patient safety. The patient safety literature emphasises well-developed non-technical skills in preventing medical errors3. Furthermore, critical incidents and adverse events reporting systems comprise a knowledgebase to gain in-depth insights into patient safety issues. This study explores the use of critical incidents and adverse events reports to inform in situ simulation to improve patient safety. Design and purpose The study uses a case study design of in situ simulation training tailored to two emergency departments in the Central Denmark Region. We aim to: - Develop a model that integrates critical incidents and adverse events, a contextual needs analysis and short-term observations in the design of in situ simulation. - Deliver and evaluate the usability of in situ simulation training to interprofessional emergency teams. Methods The project has a triple strategy: 1) Patient safety data analysis and literature review, 2) Video observational study on interprofessional emergency teams, and 3) In situ simulation intervention study with evaluation of training. Reported critical incidents and adverse events will be collected from the Danish Patient Safety Database in the Central Denmark Region and analysed using the qualitative software programme NVivo 10 for content analysis4 and thematic analysis5. Medical experts and simulation faculty will design scenarios for in situ simulation training based on the analysis. Short-term observations using time logs will be performed along with interviews with key informants at the departments. Video data will be collected and used for debriefing6 focusing on team communication and team adaptation7 after in situ simulation training. Perspective and relevance First, this study might help taking reported critical incidents and adverse events back to the clinic. Second, reported critical incidents and adverse events coupled with a contextual needs analysis and short-term observations might aid in scenario design for in situ simulation. This will shed light on how to develop specific learning goals for in situ simulation based on clinical challenges in acute healthcare settings. Third, in situ simulation offers a unique way to study team interactions associated with effective interprofessional teamwork. In particular, team non-technical skills and team adaptation, and their interplay will be scrutinised. In summary, this study offers in situ simulation faculty with a model for integrating reported critical incidents and adverse events with contextual needs analysis and short-term observations. This study generates system knowledge that might lead to changes on the individual, team, and organisational level, and thus enhancing patient safety. References (1) Rosen MA, Hunt EA, Pronovost PJ, Federowicz MA, Weaver SJ. In situ simulation in continuing medical education for the health care professions: A systematic review. J Contin Educ Health Prof 2012; 32(4):243-254.

Juul, Jonas; Paltved, Charlotte

250

In situ Investigation of the Silver-CTAB system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research has shown that biologically inspired approaches to materials synthesis and self-assembly, hold promise of unprecedented atomic level control of structure and interfaces. In particular, the use of organic molecules to control the production of inorganic technological materials has the potential for controlling grain structure to enhance material strength; controlling facet expression for enhanced catalytic activity; and controlling the shape of nanostructured materials to optimize optical, electrical and magnetic properties. In this work, we use organic molecules to modify silver crystal shapes towards understanding the metal-organic interactions that lead to nanoparticle shape control. Using in situ electrochemical AFM (EC-AFM) as an in situ probe, we study the influence of a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylamminobromide (CTAB) on Ag growth during electrochemical deposition on Ag(100). The results show that the organic surfactant promotes the growth of steps on the (100) surface and changes the surface evolution from island nucleation to step flow growth. Overall, this leads to a smoother, faster growing (100) surface, which may promote plate-formation

251

Breast Ductal Carcinoma in Situ: Morphologic and Kinetic MRI Findings  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Adequate diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) could lead to efficacious treatment. Due to the fact that DCIS lesions can progress to invasive carcinomas and that the sensitivity of the standard examination – mammography – is between 70 and 80%, use of a more sensitive diagnostic tool was needed. In detection of DCIS, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) has the sensitivity up to 96%. Objectives Morphological features and kinetic parameters were evaluated to define the most regular morphological, kinetic and morpho-kinetic patterns on MRI assessment of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Patients and Methods We retrospectively assessed eighteen patients with 23 histologically confirmed lesions (mean age, 52.4 ± 10.5 years). All patients were clinically and mammographically examined prior to MRI examination. Results DCIS appeared most frequently as non-mass-like lesions (12 lesions, 52.17%). The differences in the frequency of lesion types were statistically significant (P0.05). There was no significant difference in the frequency of morpho-kinetic patterns. Conclusion Non-mass-like lesions, lesions with focal or segmental distribution, with a “plateau” enhancement curve type were the most frequent findings of DCIS lesions on MRI. PMID:24046788

Nadrljanski, Mirjan M.; Markovi?, Biljana B.; Miloševi?, Zorica ?.

2013-01-01

252

In situ lyophilisation of nifedipine directly in hard gelatine capsules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrophobic drugs present a challenge due to: (i) adhesion and agglomeration; hence the choice of the suitable processing technique to have the drugs into orally administered dosage forms is critical. (ii) Poor dissolution and poor aqueous solubility; hence poor bioavailability. A novel method which is in situ lyophilisation directly in hard gelatin capsule shells was used in this research to enhance the dissolution of nifedipine (a model hydrophobic drug) in the presence of co-povidone, Pluronic(®)F-127 and inulin as enhancement excipients (to the best of our knowledge those excipients have not been previously used with nifedipine in lyophilised forms). Solutions of nifedipine and excipients in a range of concentrations (0.5, 1, 5 and 10%w/v) were prepared using a co-solvent system of tert- butyl alcohol/water mixture. These solutions were filled directly into bodies of size 000 hard gelatin capsule shells and freeze dried. Pure drug and all formulations were characterised by solubility, wetting studies and in vitro dissolution. Also, conformational integrity and thermal characteristics of nifedipine formulations were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The in situ lyophilisation of nifedipine with excipients, looks a promising method not only to improve the hydrophobic drug dissolution but also to be cost effective. PMID:22992055

Crum, Matthew; Elkordy, Amal Ali; Zarara, Moataz; Elkordy, Eman Ali

2013-01-01

253

In situ lithotripsy of ureteral calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 7,000 kidneys and ureters have been treated with lithotripsy at the authors institution. Included among this group were 541 ureters containing single calculi that were treated in situ after retrograde manipulations had failed. One hundred thirty-five (25%) of these calculi were located in the distal ureter, below the superior border of the SI joint. The remainder were located in the middle or upper ureter. All but one of these calculi were successfully treated with lithotripsy and combined radiologic and urologic interventions. The number and type of interventions have been examined. In situ lithotripsy of ureteral calculi after unsuccessful retrograde manipulation has been shown to be feasible

254

In-situ observation of ettringite crystals  

Science.gov (United States)

In-situ observation of growing ettringite crystals in solution has been carried out and the morphology change of ettringite has been investigated under various conditions. In particular, the acceleration behavior of ettringite growth in the presence of calcite, the cause of which is not yet understood, is examined. Spherulite with calcite in its core is formed first followed by the generation of acicular crystals. Compared with the in-situ observation result of crystal growth in a solution with no calcite, the effect of added calcite can be explained as a decrease in the activation energy of nucleation for ettringite around calcite.

Komatsu, Ryuichi; Mizukoshi, Norihiro; Makida, Koji; Tsukamoto, Katsuo

2009-01-01

255

Osteogenic efficiency of in situ gelling poloxamine systems with and without bone morphogenetic protein-2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In situ gelling solutions for minimally invasive local application of bone growth factors are attracting increasing attention as efficient and patient-friendly alternative to bone grafts and solid scaffolds for repairing bone defects. Poloxamines, i.e., X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide-poly(propylene oxide block copolymers with an ethylenediamine core (Tetronic®, were evaluated both as an active osteogenic component and as a vehicle for rhBMP-2 injectable implants. After cytotoxicity screening of various poloxamine varieties, Tetronic 908, 1107, 1301 and 1307 solutions were chosen as the most cytocompatible and their sol-to-gel transitions were rheologically characterized. Viscoelastic gels, formed at 37 ºC, sustained protein release under physiological-like conditions. Formulations of rhBMP-2 led to differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts, quantified as alkaline phosphatase activity with a maximum at day 7, and to mineralized nodules. Interestingly, poloxamine solely gels led to an initial proliferation of the mesenchymal stem cells (first week, followed by differentiation to osteoblasts (second to third week. Histochemical analysis revealed that Tetronic 908 is only osteoinductive; Tetronic 1107 is mostly osteoinductive, although its use leads to a minor differentiation to adipocytes; Tetronic 1307, solely or loaded with rhBMP-2, causes differentiation of both osteoblasts and adipocytes. Enhanced expression levels of CBFA-1 and collagen type I were observed for Tetronic 908, 1107 and 1307, both solely and combined with rhBMP-2. The intrinsic osteogenic activity of poloxamines (not observed for Pluronic F127 offers novel perspectives for bone regeneration using minimally invasive procedures (i.e., injectable scaffolds and overcoming the safety and the cost/effectiveness concerns associated with large scale clinical use of recombinant growth factors.

A Rey-Rico

2011-04-01

256

Optische in situ Spektroskopie an organischen Dünnschichten  

OpenAIRE

Die optische in situ-Charakterisierung des Aufwachsens organischer Molekülschichten auf isolierenden und metallischen Substraten (Kaliumchlorid, -bromid und Glimmer, beziehungsweise Gold) ist Gegenstand dieser Arbeit. Am Beispiel der Substanzen Perylen-3,4,9,10- tetrakarbonsäuredianhydrid (PTCDA) und Titanylphthalozyanin (TiOPc), die mittels Molekularstrahlepitaxie abgeschieden werden, wird der Einfluss der Anordnung der Moleküle und der gegebenenfalls hinzugefügten Dotierung auf die mess...

Dienel, Thomas

2009-01-01

257

Recovering uranium from coal in situ  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An underground carbonaceous deposit containing other mineral values is burned in situ. The underground hot zone is cooled down to temperature below the boiling point of a leachig solution. The leaching solution is percolated through the residial ash, with the pregnant solution recovered for separation of the mineral values in surface facilities

258

Parametric melting studies for in situ vitrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a series of simulation studies which examine heat conduction and electric heating during in situ vitrification (ISV). The simulation studies determine the effects of soil parameter changes on the ISV process. Changes in heat capacity, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity are considered. The results of these studies provide a basis for experimental measurement accuracy requirements

259

Design Games for In-Situ Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The mobile culture has spawned a host of context-based products, like location-based and tag-based applications. This presents a new challenge for the designer. There is a need of design methods that acknowledge the context and allows it to influence the design ideas. This article focuses on a design problem where an in-situ design practice may further the early design process: the case of designing a pervasive game. Pervasive games are computer games, played using the city as a game board and often using mobile phones with GPS. Some contextual design methods exist, but the author proposes an approach that calls for the designer to conceptualise and perform ideas in-situ, that is on the site, where the game is supposed to be played. The problem was to design a creativity method that incorporated in-situ design work and which generated game concepts for pervasive games. The proposed design method, called sitestorming, is based on a game using Situationistic individual exploration of the site and different types of game cards, followed by a joint evaluation of the generated ideas. A series of evaluations showed that the designers found the method enjoyable to use, that the method motivated idea generation, and that using in-situ design influenced their design ideas.

Kristiansen, Erik

2013-01-01

260

Squamous carcinoma in situ of the ovary.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of a squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the ovary in a patient previously submitted to radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for an epidermoid carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The histogenesis of epidermoid tumors of the ovary and their association with squamous malignancies of the uterine cervix are discussed. PMID:9415529

Pellegrino, A; Cormio, G; Cappellini, A; Perego, P; Rossi, R

1997-01-01

261

"In Situ" Generation of Compressed Inverted Files.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of index construction for large text collections highlights a new indexing algorithm designed to create large compressed inverted indexes "in situ." Topics include a computational model, inversion, index compression, merging, experimental test results, effect on retrieval performance, memory restrictions, and dynamic collections.…

Moffat, Alistair; Bell, Timothy A. H.

1995-01-01

262

In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of Energy's Hazardous Facilities'', found that conventional glass fiber HEPA filters are structurally weak and easily damaged by water or fire. The structurally stronger sintered metal and ceramic filters would reduce the potential of a catastrophic HEPA filter failure due to filter media breakthrough in the process ventilation system. An in situ regenerable system may also find application in recovering nuclear materials, such as plutonium, collected on glove box exhaust HEPA filters. This innovative approach of the in situ regenerative filtration system may be a significant improvement upon the shortfalls of conventional disposable HEPA filters.

Adamson, D. J.; Terry, M. T.

2002-02-28

263

In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conduces. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of Energy's Hazardous Facilities'', found that conventional glass fiber HEPA filters are structurally weak and easily damaged by water or fire. The structurally stronger sintered metal and ceramic filters would reduce the potential of a catastrophic HEPA filter failure due to filter media breakthrough in the process ventilation system. An in situ regenerable system may also find application in recovering nuclear materials, such as plutonium, collected on glove box exhaust HEPA filters. This innovative approach of the in situ regenerative filtration system may be a significant improvement upon the shortfalls of conventional disposable HEPA filters

264

In situ transmission electron microscopy study of the strength and stability of nanoscaled structural materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interest for nanoscaled structural materials, which increased during the last years, is essentially based on their enhanced mechanical strength due to grain refinement. In situ TEM experiments may provide valuable information on mechanisms responsible for both specific mechanical properties and structural stability of nanoscaled materials. (orig.)

Louchet, F.; Veron, M. [Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (FR). Lab. de Thermodynamique et Physico-Chimie Metallurgique (LTPCM); Blandin, J.J. [Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Saint-Martin-d' Heres (FR). Genie Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux (GPM2)

2001-08-01

265

The determination of the in situ structure by nuclear spin contrast variation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polarized neutron scattering from polarized nuclear spins in hydrogenous substances opens a new way of contrast variation. The enhanced contrast due to proton spin polarization was used for the in situ structure determination of tRNA of the functional complex of the E.coli ribosome.

Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS Forschungszentrum, Geesthacht (Germany); Nierhaus, K.H. [Max-Planch-Institut fuer Molekulare Genetik, Berlin (Germany)

1994-12-31

266

In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed

267

Weekly Epidemiological Record  

Science.gov (United States)

... RSS Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) Menu WER Home 2015: Volume 90 ... Volume 85 2009: Volume 84 Archives The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) serves ...

268

Characterizing In Situ Uranium and Groundwater Flux  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this project is to develop a new sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of uranium and groundwater fluxes. The sensor uses two sorbents and resident tracers to measure uranium flux and specific discharge directly; but, sensor principles and design should also apply to fluxes of other radionuclides. Flux measurements will assist with obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) and further advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. Project efforts will expand our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in uranium fluxes and those for salient electron donor/acceptors, and groundwater are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The new sensor uses an anion exchange resin to measure uranium fluxes and activated carbon with resident tracers to measure water fluxes. Several anion-exchange resins including Dowex 21K and 21K XLT, Purolite A500, and Lewatit S6328 were tested as sorbents for capturing uranium on the sensor and Lewatit S6328 was determined to be the most effective over the widest pH range. Four branched alcohols proved useful as resident tracers for measuring groundwater flows using activated carbon for both laboratory and field conditions. The flux sensor was redesigned to prevent the discharge of tracers to the environment, and the new design was tested in laboratory box aquifers and the field. Geochemical modeling of equilibrium speciation using Visual Minteq and an up-to-date thermodynamic data base suggested Ca-tricarbonato-uranyl complexes predominate under field conditions, while calculated uranyl ion activities were sensitive to changes in pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkaline earth metals. Initial field tests at the Rifle IFRC site were conducted to assess ambient groundwater and uranium fluxes, monitor microbial growth on the sensor during field deployment, and further resolve any unforeseen problems evolving from field deployment. Ten flux sensors were deployed in five wells for three weeks from mid-November to early December 2009. Observed water fluxes varied from 1.2 - 5.3 cm/d while uranium fluxes ranged from 0.01 - 2.2 ug/cm2d. Uranium and water flux variations corresponded closely with changes in lithology. Uranium fluxes were typically observed to increase with depth. Stochastic simulations were conducted to estimate the magnitude of uranium discharge over a 10.5 m2 transect. The mean discharge was approximately 52 mg/d with a narrow 90% confidence interval of ± 11%.

Cho, J.; Newman, M. A.; Stucker, V.; Peacock, A.; Ranville, J.; Cabaniss, S.; Hatfield, K.; Annable, M. D.; Klammler, H.; Perminova, I. V.

2010-12-01

269

Fermentation with In-situ-Extraction and In-situ-Electroextraction  

OpenAIRE

With many fermentations the products limit the metabolism of the applied microorganisms. In this work the application of the process-integrated material separation procedures in-situ-extraction and in-situ-electroextraction was examined with continuous fermentations of the thermophilic, strictly anaerobic microorganism Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum. The simultaneous separation of the inhibitive fermentation products ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid from the cul...

Klose, Martin C.

2007-01-01

270

Late post-traumatic flap dislocation and macrostriae after laser in situ keratomileusis  

OpenAIRE

We report an unusual flap-related complication that occurred 4 years after uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) performed in the eye of a 20-year-old woman. She developed dislocation with partial infolding of the LASIK flap with macrostriae and epithelial ingrowth in her left eye after trauma by a wooden chip. The flap was refloated, stretched, smoothened, and hydrated on both under and outer surfaces after epithelial debridement. At 1 week, the uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 ...

Sinha, Rajesh; Shekhar, Himanshu; Tinwala, Sana; Gangar, Anita; Titiyal, Jeewan S.

2014-01-01

271

The production and degradation of trichloroacetic acid in soil: Results from in situ soil column experiments  

OpenAIRE

Previous work has indicated that the soil is important to understanding biogeochemical fluxes of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in the rural environment, in forests in particular. Here, the hydrological and TCA fluxes through 22 in situ soil columns in a forest and moorland-covered catchment and an agricultural grassland field in Scotland were monitored every two weeks for several months either as controls or in TCA manipulation (artificial dosing) experiments. This was supplemented by laboratory...

Heal, M. R.; Dickey, C. A.; Heal, K. V.; Stidson, R. T.; Matucha, M.; Cape, J. N.

2010-01-01

272

Synthesis and Characterization of Encapsulated Nanosilica Particles with an Acrylic Copolymer by in Situ Emulsion Polymerization Using Thermoresponsive Nonionic Surfactant  

OpenAIRE

Nanocomposites of encapsulated silica nanoparticles were prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization of acrylate monomers. The synthesized material showed good uniformity and dispersion of the inorganic components in the base polymer, which enhances the properties of the nanocomposite material. A nonionic surfactant with lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was used to encapsulate the silica nanoparticles in the acrylic copolymer matrix. This in situ method combined the surface modifica...

Daryoosh Vashaee; Lobat Tayebi; Babak Fathi; Elaheh Motamedi; Tannaz Pourvala; Mostafa Yazdimamaghani

2013-01-01

273

In Vivo and In Situ Evaluation of a Wireless Magnetoelastic Sensor Array for Plastic Biliary Stent Monitoring  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the in vivo and in situ evaluation of a system that wirelessly monitors the accumulation of biliary sludge in a plastic biliary stent. The sensing element, located within the stent, is a passive array of magnetoelastic resonators that is queried by a wireless electromagnetic signal. The in vivo and in situ testing uses commercially-available plastic biliary stents, each enhanced with an array of ribbon sensors (formed from Metglas™ 2826MB). The sensor array is approximat...

Green, Scott R.; Kwon, Richard S.; Elta, Grace H.; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

2013-01-01

274

New in situ crosslinking chemistries for hydrogelation  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last half century, hydrogels have found immense value as biomaterials in a vast number of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. One subset of hydrogels receiving increased attention is in situ forming gels. Gelling by either bioresponsive self-assembly or mixing of binary crosslinking systems, these technologies are useful in minimally invasive applications as well as drug delivery systems in which the sol-to-gel transition aids the formulation's performance. Thus far, the field of in situ crosslinking hydrogels has received limited attention in the development of new crosslinking chemistries. Moreover, not only does the chemical nature of the crosslinking moieties allow these systems to perform in situ, but they contribute dramatically to the mechanical properties of the hydrogel networks. For example, reversible crosslinks with finite lifetimes generate dynamic viscoelastic gels with time-dependent properties, whereas irreversible crosslinks form highly elastic networks. The aim of this dissertation is to explore two new covalent chemistries for their ability to crosslink hydrogels in situ under physiological conditions. First, reversible phenylboronate-salicylhydroxamate crosslinking was implemented in a binary, multivalent polymeric system. These gels formed rapidly and generated hydrogel networks with frequency-dependent dynamic rheological properties. Analysis of the composition-structure-property relationships of these hydrogels---specifically considering the effects of pH, degree of polymer functionality, charge of the polymer backbone and polymer concentration on dynamic theological properties---was performed. These gels demonstrate diverse mechanical properties, due to adjustments in the binding equilibrium of the pH-sensitive crosslinks, and thus have the potential to perform in a range of dynamic or bioresponsive applications. Second, irreversible catalyst-free "click" chemistry was employed in the hydrogelation of multivalent azide-functionalized polymers with divalent electron-deficient alkyne crosslinkers. Elastic hydrogels formed at physiological temperature; however the gelation kinetics was found to be too slow for effective performance in most in situ crosslinking hydrogel applications. Therefore, a small molecule kinetics study using model crosslinking moieties was performed to evaluate the ability to expedite gelation via compositional changes in the alkyne dipolarophile. With further synthetic development, this crosslinking chemistry is likely to be useful in a number of applications requiring the formation of permanent, elastic networks in situ.

Roberts, Meredith Colleen

275

Application of 1 nm gold probes on paraffin wax sections for in situ hybridisation histochemistry.  

OpenAIRE

An in situ hybridisation technique that uses 1 nm immunogold reagents and silver enhancement was devised to detect biotinylated DNA viral probes in formalin fixed, paraffin wax sections of human cervix. DNA probes labelled with biotin-11-deoxyuridine triphosphate were detected after hybridisation to nucleic acid sequences by an antibiotin antibody, followed by a gold labelled secondary antibody. Silver enhancement then permitted visualisation of the signal at the light microscopic level. The ...

Jackson, P.; Dockey, D. A.; Lewis, F. A.; Wells, M.

1990-01-01

276

Effects of a glass-ionomer cement on the remineralization of occlusal caries: an in situ study Efeito de um cimento de ionômero de vidro sobre a remineralização de cárie na superfície oclusal: estudo in situ  

OpenAIRE

This work evaluated the remineralization of demineralized enamel of pits and fissures of human third molars sealed with a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX, GC Corporation - Japan) or with a Bis-GMA sealant (Delton - Dentsply). Ten volunteers participated in this in situ study that consisted of two thirty-day periods using intra-oral devices, with a week’s interval in between. Four experimental treatment procedures and one control were randomly assigned to the volunteers’ specimens: Group I, ...

Mônica Tostes Amaral; Antônio Carlos Guedes-Pinto; Orlando Chevitarese

2006-01-01

277

Impregnation of ?-tricalcium phosphate robocast scaffolds by in situ polymerization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (?-CL) and L-lactide (LLA) was performed to impregnate ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from ?-TCP commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a 3D mesh of interpenetrating rods. ?-CL and LLA were in situ polymerized within the ceramic structure by using a lipase and stannous octanoate, respectively, as catalysts. The results show that both the macropores inside the ceramic mesh and the micropores within the ceramic rods are full of polymer in either case. The mechanical properties of scaffolds impregnated by in situ polymerization (ISP) are significantly increased over those of the bare structures, exhibiting similar values than those obtained by other, more aggressive, impregnation methods such as melt-immersion (MI). ISP using enzymatic catalysts requires a reduced processing temperature which could facilitate the incorporation of growth factors and other drugs into the polymer composition, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the composite scaffold. The implications of these results for the optimization of the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. PMID:23526780

Martínez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Perera, Fidel H; van der Meulen, Inge; Heise, Andreas; Pajares, Antonia; Miranda, Pedro

2013-11-01

278

Software Tools for In-Situ Documentation of Built Heritage  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents open source software tools developed by the author to facilitate in-situ documentation of architectural and archæological heritage. The design choices are exposed and related to a general issue in conservation and documentation: taking decisions about a valuable object under threat . The questions of level of objectivity is central to the three steps of this process. It is our belief that in-situ documentation has to be favoured in this demanding context, full of potential discoveries. The very powerful surveying techniques in rapid development nowadays enhance our vision but often tend to bring back a critical part of the documentation process to the office. The software presented facilitate a direct treatment of the data on the site. Emphasis is given to flexibility, interoperability and simplicity. Key features of the software are listed and illustrated with examples (3D model of Gothic vaults, analysis of the shape of a column, deformation of a wall, direct interaction with AutoCAD).

Smars, P.

2013-07-01

279

Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery  

Science.gov (United States)

An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

2014-04-29

280

BEATRIX-II: In situ tritium test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The BEATRIX-II irradiation experiment is an in-situ tritium release experiment being carried out in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor to evaluate the tritium release characteristics of fusion solid breeder materials. A sophisticated tritium gas handling system has been developed to continuously monitor the tritium recovery from the specimens and facilitate tritium removal from the experiment's sweep gas flow stream. The in-situ recovery experiment accommodates two different in-reactor specimen canisters with individual gas streams and temperature monitoring/control. Ionization chambers have been specifically designed to respond to the rapid changes in the tritium release rate at the anticipated tritium concentrations. Two ceramic electrolysis cells have proved effective in reducing the moisture in the gas streams to hydrogen/tritium. A tritium getter system, capable of reducing the tritium level by a factor greater than 4000, is used to reduce the tritium in the sweep gas to a level acceptable for release

281

In situ indentation testing of elastomers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the contact is crucial in indentation testing, yet only limited knowledge exists on the true contact size for compliant materials. In this investigation the contact evolution and the deformation behavior of polydimethylsiloxane was studied during indentation in situ inside a scanning electron microscope and by observation in a light microscope. Since detailed information on the true contact area and the amount of sink-in can be acquired from finite element analysis, simulations on the indentation process have been performed in order to complement the in situ testing. Comparison of results revealed that the contact areas calculated according to the standard Oliver-Pharr procedure deviated from the real contact size by approximately 10% for the elastomeric PDMS material

282

In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment - various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field preliminary results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

283

In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

284

LIGHT ENHANCEMENT OF MERCURY EMISSIONS: IN SITU OCCURRENCE. (R825249)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

285

PREPARATION OF NANOCOMPOSITES BY IN SITU POLIMERIZATION  

OpenAIRE

Polyethylene nanocomposites were obtained by in situ polymerization using both montmorillonite (natural clay) and montmorillonite organically modified with octadecylamine (O-Clo). In this proposed methodology the clays were added directly in the reactor together with the catalytic system (metallocene catalyst and methylaluminoxane) and ethylene. The nanocomposites were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and t...

PAULA ZAPATA; RAÚL QUIJADA; JAIME RETUER; EDWIN MONCADA

2008-01-01

286

Excursion control at in situ uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes excursions (uncontrolled movement of lixiviant beyond the ore zone) based on case histories of 8 in situ uranium mines (7 in Wyoming and 1 in Texas). These case histories were compiled from data provided by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, and the Texas Department of Water Resources. Most of these data were provided to the above agencies by mining companies in response to regulatory requirements pertaining to licensing actions

287

In-situ investigation of problematical soils  

OpenAIRE

Problematical soils occur in many parts of the world, both naturally and as a result of man-made activity, thus making their behaviour a truly global problem. In-situ properties are often variable and difficult to predict, so effective site investigation is essential for the optimum characterisation and prediction of soil behaviour. Commonly, site investigations favour established techniques such as penetration tests, trial pits and boreholes. These provide useful but limited data, being obta...

Evans, Robert D.; Jefferson, Ian; Northmore, Kevin J.; Jackson, Peter

2004-01-01

288

In Situ Fluorescence Imaging of Myelination  

OpenAIRE

We describe a novel fluorescent dye, 3-(4-aminophenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (termed case myelin compound or CMC), that can be used for in situ fluorescent imaging of myelin in the vertebrate nervous system. When administered via intravenous injection into the tail vein, CMC selectively stained large bundles of myelinated fibers in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the CNS, CMC readily entered the brain and selectively localized in myelinated regions...

Wang, Changning; Popescu, Daniela C.; Wu, Chunying; Zhu, Junqing; Macklin, Wendy; Wang, Yanming

2010-01-01

289

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugiyama, Asami

1997-12-31

290

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

291

Femtosecond laser in laser in situ keratomileusis  

OpenAIRE

Flap creation is a critical step in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Efforts to improve the safety and predictability of the lamellar incision have fostered the development of femtosecond lasers. Several advantages of the femtosecond laser over mechanical microkeratomes have been reported in LASIK surgery. In this article, we review common considerations in management and complications of this step in femtosecond laser–LASIK and concentrate primarily on the IntraLase laser because most...

Saloma?o, Marcella Q.; Wilson, Steven E.

2010-01-01

292

In situ determination of salinity by PGNAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salinity is a very important environmental issue all around the world. In many cases salinity was produced from human activities like farming and mining. Different soluble salts contribute to salinity, however, NaCl is the most common salt producing salinity. This work deals with the application of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique for in situ determination of salinity. The technique is based on the measurement of chlorine, a component of the common salt, by PGNAA

293

In situ determination of salinity by PGNAA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salinity is a very important environmental issue all around the world. In many cases salinity was produced from human activities like farming and mining. Different soluble salts contribute to salinity, however, NaCl is the most common salt producing salinity. This work deals with the application of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique for in situ determination of salinity. The technique is based on the measurement of chlorine, a component of the common salt, by PGNAA. PMID:16448819

Borsaru, M; Smith, C; Merritt, J; Aizawa, T; Rojc, A

2006-05-01

294

In situ health monitoring of piezoelectric sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

An in situ health monitoring apparatus may include an exciter circuit that applies a pulse to a piezoelectric transducer and a data processing system that determines the piezoelectric transducer's dynamic response to the first pulse. The dynamic response can be used to evaluate the operating range, health, and as-mounted resonance frequency of the transducer, as well as the strength of a coupling between the transducer and a structure and the health of the structure.

Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

295

Optimization and analysis of NF3 in situ chamber cleaning plasmas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on the optimization and analysis of a dilute NF3 in situ plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber cleaning plasma for an Applied Materials P-5000 DxL chamber. Using design of experiments methodology, we identified and optimized operating conditions within the following process space: 10-15 mol % NF3 diluted with helium, 200-400 sccm NF3 flow rate, 2.5-3.5 Torr chamber pressure, and 950 W rf power. Optical emission spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to endpoint the cleaning processes and to quantify plasma effluent emissions, respectively. The results demonstrate that dilute NF3-based in situ chamber cleaning can be a viable alternative to perfluorocarbon-based in situ cleans with added benefits. The relationship between chamber clean time and fluorine atom density in the plasma is also investigated

296

In situ Raman spectroscopy for growth monitoring of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes in plasma reactor  

Science.gov (United States)

Portable and highly sensitive Raman setup was associated with a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor enabling in situ growth monitoring of multi-wall carbon nanotubes despite the combination of huge working distance, high growth speed and process temperature and reactive plasma condition. Near Edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was used for ex situ sample analysis as a complementary method to in situ Raman spectroscopy. The results confirmed the fact that the "alternating" method developed here can accurately be used for in situ Raman monitoring under reactive plasma condition. The original analytic tool can be of great importance to monitor the characteristics of these nanostructured materials and readily define the ultimate conditions for targeted results.

Labbaye, T.; Canizarès, A.; Gaillard, M.; Lecas, T.; Kovacevic, E.; Boulmer-Leborgne, Ch.; Strunskus, T.; Raimboux, N.; Simon, P.; Guimbretière, G.; Ammar, M. R.

2014-11-01

297

Design and Development of pH-monitered in situ Gel of Lomefloxacin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present Study was focused on Design and Development of in situ gel of Lomefloxacin HCL.Lomefloxacin HCL is an antibacterial agent which exhibits rapid precorneal elimination and poor ocular bioavailability, when given in the form of conventional ophthalmic solutions. To overcome this, an attempt has been made to formulate pH-triggered in situ gelling system of Lomefloxacin HCL to provide sustained release of drug based on polymeric carriers that undergo sol-to-gel transition upon change in pH. The Lomefloxacin HCL in situ gelling system formulated by using poly acrylic acid (Carbopol 940 and in combination with hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC which acted as viscosity enhancing agent. The developed formulation was stable, non-irritant and provided sustained release over 8-hour period and it is a viable alternative to conventional eye drops.

Jayant Deshpande

2013-02-01

298

NASAL IN SITU GEL: A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM  

OpenAIRE

Over the past few decades, advances in the in situ gel technologies have spurred development in manymedical and biomedical applications including controlled drug delivery. Many novel in situ gel baseddelivery matrices have been designed and fabricated to fulfill the ever increasing needs of thepharmaceutical and medical fields. In situ gelling systems are liquid at room temperature but undergogelation when in contact with body fluids or change in pH. In situ gel forming drug delivery is a typ...

Dhrupesh panchal; Dr.Upendra patel; Bhavin bhimani; Dhiren daslaniya; Ghanshyam patel

2012-01-01

299

In situ cosmogenic isotopes in geological applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Understanding in situ cosmogenic nuclides production is essential for geological applications. In situ produced cosmogenic nuclides have been one of important tools in geological studies in exposure histories for moraine boulders, glacial events, volcanic flows, and impact debris as well as more complicated studies involved in uplift, ablation rates, sedimentation rates, and burial times of transported or deposited eroded materials. In this review paper, several important parameters in surface exposure dating, such as production rate, geomagnetic latitude and altitude dependence, erosion rate, and geometric conditions are discussed. Also, the concentration build-ups of 10Be, 14C, and 26Al n quartz with respect to various erosion rates are described. The production mechanisms of cosmogenic nuclides on the surface are due to neutron spallation, muon interactions, and radiogenic production. Surface exposure dating technique is based on the production from neutron spallation only. However, in the case of samples associated with a high erosion rate or that have recently been exposed to the air, it is necessary to eliminate any muon or radiogenic production of cosmogenic nuclides in order to obtain an accurate exposure age. A comparison between in situ produced 10Be in quartz and radiocarbon dating shows that the determination of production rates of cosmogenic nuclides for various geographic locations is feasible when historical oic locations is feasible when historical or geological data are available along with other age information. Some 10Be surface exposure dating results are described in this paper

300

IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes REV 02. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in REV 02 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what conditions, the tests were conducted. The descriptions and analyses provide data useful for refining and confirming the understanding of flow, drift seepage, and transport processes in the UZ. The UZ testing activities included measurement of permeability distribution, quantification of the seepage of water into the drifts, evaluation of fracture-matrix interaction, study of flow along faults, testing of flow and transport between drifts, characterization of hydrologic heterogeneity along drifts, estimation of drying effects on the rock surrounding the drifts due to ventilation, monitoring of moisture conditions in open and sealed drifts, and determination of the degree of minimum construction water migration below drift. These field tests were conducted in two underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) drift, and the cross-drift for Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB), as described in Section 1.2. Samples collected in boreholes and underground drifts have been used for additional hydrochemical and isotopic analyses for additional understanding of the UZ setting. The UZ transport tests conducted at the nearby Busted Butte site (see Figure 1-4) are also described in this scientific analysis report.

J.S.Y. YANG

2004-11-08

301

Hybridization for HER2 testing in gastric carcinoma: a comparison of fluorescence in situ hybridization with a novel fully automated dual-color silver in situ hybridization  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Aims: Amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene has been reported in gastric carcinoma (GC). Accordingly, trastuzumab plus chemotherapy has recently become the new standard treatment for HER2 positive advanced GCs. Methods and results: We sought to compare the alleged gold standard for hybridization (FISH) with a novel fully automated brightfield dual-color silver enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH) in a series of 166 GC samples. Additi...

Lopez-rios, Fernando; Garcia-garcia, Elena; Gomez-martin, Carlos; Angulo, Barbara; Conde, Esther; Suarez-gauthier, Ana; Adrados, Magdalena; Perna, Cristian; Rodriguez-peralto, Jose Luis; Hidalgo, Manuel

2011-01-01

302

High temperature in-situ observations of multi-segmented metal nanowires encapsulated within carbon nanotubes by in-situ filling technique  

OpenAIRE

Multi-segmented one-dimensional metal nanowires were encapsulated within carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through in-situ filling technique during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and environmental TEM were employed to characterize the as-prepared sample at room temperature and high temperature. The selected area electron diffractions revealed that the Pd4Si nanowire and face-centered-cubic Co nanowire on top of the Pd nanowire were encapsulated...

Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Iijima, Toru; Iwata, Takuya; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki; Sasaki, Katsuhiro; Kuroda, Kotaro

2012-01-01

303

Next generation in-situ optical Raman sensor for seawater investigations  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce the next generation of optical sensors based on a combination of surfaced enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) suited for investigations of tiny concentrations of pollutions in the seawater. First field measurements were carried out in the Arctic area which is of global interest since it is more affected by global warming caused climatic changes than any other areas of our planet and it is a recipient for many toxic organic pollutants. A significant long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants to Svalbard is mainly originated from industrialized countries in Europe and North America during the last decades. Therefore, the main interest is to investigate the Arctic water column and also the sediments. Standard chemical methods for water/sediment analysis are extremely accurate but complex and time-consuming. The primary objective of our study was to develop a fast response in-situ optical sensor for easy to use and quick analysis. The system comprises several components: a handheld measurement head containing a 671 nm microsystem diode laser and the Raman optical bench, a laser driver electronics board, a custom-designed miniature spectrometer with an optical resolution of 8 cm-1 and a netbook to control the spectrometer as well as for data evaluation. We introduced for the first time the portable Raman sensor system on an Artic sea-trial during a three week cruise on board of the James Clark Ross research vessel in August 2011. Numerous Raman and SERS measurements followed by SERDS evaluations were taken around locations 78° N and 9° E. Different SERS substrates developed for SERS measurements in sea-water were tested for their capability to detect different substances (PAHs) in the water down to very small (nmol/l) concentrations. Stability tests of the substrates were carried out also for the applicability of our system e.g. on a mooring. Details of the in-situ Raman sensor were presented together with the measurements results from the Arctic area.

Kolomijeca, A.; Kwon, Y.-H.; Ahmad, H.; Kronfeldt, H.-D.

2012-04-01

304

Effects of in-situ NH3 post plasma treatment on the surface passivation layer  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiNx:H) using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is widely used in photovoltaic industry as an antireflection coating and passivation layer. The samples with or without in-situ NH3 post-plasma treatment had the following structures: SiNx/N-type Si/SiNx versus in-situ NH3 post-plasma treated SiNx/N-type Si/SiNx. The wafer was dipped in saw-damage-etching solution and wet cleaning process was treated. After the dry process with N2 atmosphere, SiNx thin film was deposited on back surface. Then SiNx thin film was deposited on the front surface with or without in-situ NH3 post-plasma treatment process. In order to minimize the plasma induced surface damage, we used lower power than the process power during the NH3 post-plasma treatment. After the in-situ NH3 post-plasma-treatment, we analyzed the effect of this in-situ NH3 post-plasma-treatment for passivation. The minority carrier lifetime was observed by means of quasi-steady-state photoconductance and microwave photoconductance.

Lee, Kyung Dong; Kang, Min Gu; Kim, Young Do; Tark, Sung Ju; Park, Sungeun; Kim, Donghwan

2011-12-01

305

Air-coupled acoustic thermography for in-situ evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Acoustic thermography uses a housing configured for thermal, acoustic and infrared radiation shielding. For in-situ applications, the housing has an open side adapted to be sealingly coupled to a surface region of a structure such that an enclosed chamber filled with air is defined. One or more acoustic sources are positioned to direct acoustic waves through the air in the enclosed chamber and towards the surface region. To activate and control each acoustic source, a pulsed signal is applied thereto. An infrared imager focused on the surface region detects a thermal image of the surface region. A data capture device records the thermal image in synchronicity with each pulse of the pulsed signal such that a time series of thermal images is generated. For enhanced sensitivity and/or repeatability, sound and/or vibrations at the surface region can be used in feedback control of the pulsed signal applied to the acoustic sources.

Zalameda, Joseph N. (Inventor); Winfree, William P. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

306

In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell

2005-12-27

307

21 CFR 866.4700 - Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems... Automated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) enumeration systems...Automated Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) Enumeration...

2010-04-01

308

In vivo endothelization of tubular vascular grafts through in situ recruitment of endothelial and endothelial progenitor cells by RGD-fused mussel adhesive proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of tissue mimics in vivo, including patterned vascular networks, is expected to facilitate the regeneration of functional tissues and organs with large volumes. Maintaining patency of channels in contact with blood is an important issue in the development of a functional vascular network. Endothelium is the only known completely non-thrombogenic material; however, results from treatments to induce endothelialization are inconclusive. The present study was designed to evaluate the clinical applicability of in situ recruitment of endothelial cells/endothelial progenitor cells (EC/EPC) and pre-endothelization using a recombinant mussel adhesive protein fused with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide (MAP-RGD) coating in a model of vascular graft implantation. Microporous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated with salt leaching methods and their surfaces were modified with collagen and MAP-RGD. We then evaluated their anti-thrombogenicity with an in vitro hemocompatibility assessment and a 4-week implantation in the rabbit carotid artery. We observed that MAP-RGD coating reduced the possibility of early in vivo graft failure and enhanced re-endothelization by in situ recruitment of EC/EPC (patency rate: 2/3), while endothelization prior to implantation aggravated the formation of thrombosis and/or IH (patency rate: 0/3). The results demonstrated that in situ recruitment of EC/EPC by MAP-RGD could be a promising strategy for vascular applications. In addition, it rules out several issues associated with pre-endothelization, such as cell source, purity, functional modulation and contamination. Further evaluation of long term performance and angiogenesis from the luminal surface may lead to the clinical use of MAP-RGD for tubular vascular grafts and regeneration of large-volume tissues with functional vascular networks. PMID:25599716

Kang, Tae-Yun; Lee, Jung Ho; Kim, Bum Jin; Kang, Jo-A; Hong, Jung Min; Kim, Byoung Soo; Cha, Hyung Joon; Rhie, Jong-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

2015-01-01

309

In Situ Analysis of Nitrifying Biofilms as Determined by In Situ Hybridization and the Use of Microelectrodes  

OpenAIRE

We investigated the in situ spatial organization of ammonia-oxidizing and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in domestic wastewater biofilms and autotrophic nitrifying biofilms by using microsensors and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. The combination of these techniques made it possible to relate in situ microbial activity directly to the occurrence of nitrifying bacterial populations. In situ hybridization revealed that bacteria belon...

Okabe, Satoshi; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

1999-01-01

310

Improved hybrid solar cells via in situ UV-polymerization.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One approach for making inexpensive inorganic-organic hybrid photovoltaic (PV) cells is to fill highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube (NT) arrays with solid organic hole conductors such as conjugated polymers. Here, a new in situ UV polymerization method for growing polythiophene (UV-PT) inside TiO{sub 2} NTs is presented and compared to the conventional approach of infiltrating NTs with pre-synthesized polymer. A nanotubular TiO{sub 2} substrate is immersed in a 2,5-diiodothiophene (DIT) monomer precursor solution and then irradiated with UV light. The selective UV photodissociation of the C-I bond produces monomer radicals with intact {pi}-ring structure that further produce longer oligothiophene/PT molecules. Complete photoluminescence quenching upon UV irradiation suggests coupling between radicals created from DIT and at the TiO{sub 2} surface via a charge transfer complex. Coupling with the TiO{sub 2} surface improves UV-PT crystallinity and {pi}-{pi} stacking; flat photocurrent values show that charge recombination during hole transport through the polymer is negligible. A non-ideal, backside-illuminated setup under illumination of 620-nm light yields a photocurrent density of {approx} 5 {micro}A cm{sup -2} - surprisingly much stronger than with comparable devices fabricated with polymer synthesized ex situ. Since in this backside architecture setup we illuminate the cell through the Ag top electrode, there is a possibility for Ag plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion. By using this simple in situ UV polymerization method that couples the conjugated polymer to the TiO{sub 2} surface, the absorption of sunlight can be improved and the charge carrier mobility of the photoactive layer can be enhanced.

Tepavcevic, S.; Darling, S. B.; Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Rajh, T.; Sibener, S. J.; Univ. of Chicago

2009-08-03

311

Improved hybrid solar cells via in situ UV polymerization.  

Science.gov (United States)

One approach for making inexpensive inorganic-organic hybrid photovoltaic (PV) cells is to fill highly ordered TiO(2) nanotube (NT) arrays with solid organic hole conductors such as conjugated polymers. Here, a new in situ UV polymerization method for growing polythiophene (UV-PT) inside TiO(2) NTs is presented and compared to the conventional approach of infiltrating NTs with pre-synthesized polymer. A nanotubular TiO(2) substrate is immersed in a 2,5-diiodothiophene (DIT) monomer precursor solution and then irradiated with UV light. The selective UV photodissociation of the C--I bond produces monomer radicals with intact pi-ring structure that further produce longer oligothiophene/PT molecules. Complete photoluminescence quenching upon UV irradiation suggests coupling between radicals created from DIT and at the TiO(2) surface via a charge transfer complex. Coupling with the TiO(2) surface improves UV-PT crystallinity and pi-pi stacking; flat photocurrent values show that charge recombination during hole transport through the polymer is negligible. A non-ideal, backside-illuminated setup under illumination of 620-nm light yields a photocurrent density of approximately 5 microA cm(2)-surprisingly much stronger than with comparable devices fabricated with polymer synthesized ex situ. Since in this backside architecture setup we illuminate the cell through the Ag top electrode, there is a possibility for Ag plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion. By using this simple in situ UV polymerization method that couples the conjugated polymer to the TiO(2) surface, the absorption of sunlight can be improved and the charge carrier mobility of the photoactive layer can be enhanced. PMID:19367599

Tepavcevic, Sanja; Darling, Seth B; Dimitrijevic, Nada M; Rajh, Tijana; Sibener, Steven J

2009-08-01

312

Challenges in subsurface in situ remediation of chlorinated solvents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chlorinated solvent source zones in the subsurface pose a continuous threat to groundwater quality at many sites worldwide. In situ remediation of these sites is particularly challenging in heterogeneous fractured media and where the solvents are present as DNAPL. In situ remediation by chemical as well as biological degradation of chlorinated solvents is a contact sport and requires direct contact between the contaminant and the reactants and/or degrading microorganisms. In fractured geologic media, where contaminants have spread to the low permeability matrix by diffusion, the contact between contaminant and reactant is limited by slow back diffusion of contaminant and in-diffusion of reactant if the only access for the reactant is via the high permeability fractures/conduits. Where DNAPL is present the mass distribution is very heterogeneous and the reactive degradation is often limited by dissolution of the DNAPL. Most recent research has been aimed at overcoming these challenges by enhanced and targeted reactant delivery methods. These include a wide range of very diverse technologies such as: enhanced injection methods, including fracturing; electrokinetic enhancement of delivery; ZVI-clay mixing for contact; hydrophobic and/or mobile nano-reactants targeting DNAPL. The complexity of the technologies varies greatly and the current level of implementation ranges from multiple full scale applications to bench scale testing. However, the basic degradation reaction involved is usually well established. Enhanced injection with fracturing increases the access to contaminants in clay/clayey media matrixes by shortening the diffusive distance and with ZVI-clay technology by physically mixing the reactant with the contaminated clay/clayey media. The efficiency of the injection technologies has been very variable and rather unpredictable in heterogeneous geologic media, hence, further developments are needed. The novel techniques involving electrokinetics induce migration of primarily ionic species/reactants independent of hydraulic permeability differences, hence transporting the reactant into the contaminated matrix and may be applicable for limestone/bedrock as well as clayey media. Only laboratory studies of electrokinetic enhancement have yet been published, and there is a need for thorough pilot scale studies and supporting laboratory studies. Injectable nano-particles with an affinity for DNAPL surfaces (or phases) may overcome dissolution limitations and provide direct contact with contaminant, limiting reactions with other reactive sites in the subsurface. Challenges lie in obtaining stability and mobility in water, affinity for DNAPL and at the same time maintain reactivity with contaminants. Upscaling to production for pilot studies without loss of efficiency is not trivial. In conclusion there continues to be a need for research and development and in particular for well documented pilot/full scale field studies.

Broholm, Mette Martina; FjordbØge, Annika Sidelmann

2014-01-01

313

Suppression of self-interstitials in silicon during ion implantation via in-situ photoexcitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of in-situ photoexcitation during low temperature implantation on self-interstitial agglomeration following annealing has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A reduction in the level of as-implanted damage determined by RBS and TEM occurs athermally during 150 keV self-ion implantation. The damage reduction following a 300 C anneal suggests that it is mostly divacancy related. Subsequent thermal annealing at 800 C resulted in the formation of (311) rod like defects or dislocation loops for samples with and without in-situ photoexcitation, respectively. Estimation of the number of self-interstitials bound by these defects in the sample without in-situ photoexcitation corresponds to the implanted dose; whereas for the in-situ photoexcitation sample a suppression of ?2 orders in magnitude is found. The kinetics of the athermal annealing process are discussed within the framework of either a recombination enhanced defect reaction mechanism, or a charge state enhanced defect migration and Coulomb interaction

314

TSSM: The in situ exploration of Titan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) mission was born when NASA and ESA decided to collaborate on two missions independently selected by each agency: the Titan and Enceladus mission (TandEM), and Titan Explorer, a 2007 Flagship study. TandEM, the Titan and Enceladus mission, was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call. The mission concept is to perform remote and in situ investigations of Titan primarily, but also of Enceladus and Saturn's magentosphere. The two satellites are tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TSSM will study Titan as a system, including its upper atmosphere, the interactions with the magnetosphere, the neutral atmosphere, surface, interior, origin and evolution, as well as the astrobiological potential of Titan. It is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini- Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time for Titan, several close flybys of Enceladus). One overarching goal of the TSSM mission is to explore in situ the atmosphere and surface of Titan. In the current mission architecture, TSSM consists of an orbiter (under NASA's responsibility) with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus and Titan flybys before stabilizing in an orbit around Titan alone, therein delivering in situ elements (a Montgolfière, or hot air balloon, and a probe/lander). The latter are being studied by ESA. The balloon will circumnavigate Titan above the equator at an altitude of about 10 km for several months. The probe will descend through Titan's atmosphere and land on a liquid surface (at the North pole, in a lake according to the current design). The currently envisaged strawman payload for these elements will be presented. Instruments aboard the balloon would provide high resolution vistas of the surface of Titan as the balloon cruises at 10 km altitude, as well as make compositional measurements of the surface, detailed sounding of crustal layering, and chemical measurements of aerosols. A magnetometer, unimpeded by Titan's ionosphere, would permit sensitive detection of induced or intrinsic fields. The short-lived probe would splash into a large northern sea and spend several hours floating during which direct chemical and physical sampling of the liquid—a carrier for many dissolved organic species— would be undertaken. During its descent the Mare Explorer would provide the first in situ profiling of the winter northern hemispheric atmosphere, which is distinctly different from the equatorial atmosphere where Huygens descended and the balloon will arrive. Coordinated radio science experiments aboard the orbiter and in situ elements would be capable of providing detailed information on Titan's tidal response, and hence its crustal rigidity and thickness.

Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Lebreton, J. P.; Matson, D.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Erd, C.

2008-09-01

315

Enhance  

Science.gov (United States)

It doesn't take a Photoshop expert to create attractive graphics for the Web. To prove this, the folks at MicroFrontier have released three graphic creation/editing packages for the Macintosh, each aimed at a different user level. All three applications support Photoshop 3.0 compatible plug-ins and basic features such as scanner support, image and resolution scaling, and basic image enhancement. Enhance, aimed at the graphics professionals, adds even more features, including multiple layers, opacity control, sixteen levels of undo, convolution filter effects, and CYMK support. A save-disabled demo version of each application is available at the MicroFrontier Website. The price for Enhance is $100 .

1998-01-01

316

In-situ thermal testing program strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past year the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has implemented a new Program Approach to the licensing process. The Program Approach suggests a step-wise approach to licensing in which the early phases will require less site information than previously planned and necessitate a lesser degree of confidence in the longer-term performance of the repository. Under the Program Approach, the thermal test program is divided into two principal phases: (1) short-term in situ tests (in the 1996 to 2000 time period) and laboratory thermal tests to obtain preclosure information, parameters, and data along with bounding information for postclosure performance; and (2) longer-term in situ tests to obtain additional data regarding postclosure performance. This effort necessitates a rethinking of the testing program because the amount of information needed for the initial licensing phase is less than previously planned. This document proposes a revised and consolidated in situ thermal test program (including supporting laboratory tests) that is structured to meet the needs of the Program Approach. A customer-supplier model is used to define the Project data needs. These data needs, along with other requirements, were then used to define a set of conceptual experiments that will provide the required data within the constraints of the Program Approach schedule. The conceptual thermal tests presented in this document represent a consolidation and update of previously defined tests that should result in a more efficient use of Project resources. This document focuses on defining the requirements and tests needed to satisfy the goal of a successful license application in 2001, should the site be found suitable

317

In-situ burning: NIST studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In-situ burning of spilled oil has distinct advantages over other countermeasures. It offers the potential to convert rapidly large quantities of oil into its primary combustion products, carbon dioxide and water, with a small percentage of other unburned and residue byproducts. Because the oil is converted to gaseous products of combustion by burning, the need for physical collection, storage, and transport of recovered fluids is reduced to the few percent of the original spill volume that remains as residue after burning. Burning oil spills produces a visible smoke plume containing smoke particulate and other products of combustion which may persist for many kilometers from the burn. This fact gives rise to public health concerns, related to the chemical content of the smoke plume and the downwind deposition of particulate, which need to be answered. In 1985, a joint Minerals Management Service (MMS) and Environment Canada (EC) in-situ burning research program was begun at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This research program was designed to study the burning of large crude oil spills on water and how this burning would affect air quality by quantifying the products of combustion and developing methods to predict the downwind smoke particulate deposition. To understand the important features of in-situ burning, it is necessary to perform both laboratory and mesoscale experiments. Finally, actual burns of spilled oil at sea will be necessarrns of spilled oil at sea will be necessary to evaluate the method at the anticipated scale of actual response operations. In this research program there is a continuing interaction between findings from measurements on small fire experiments performed in the controlled laboratory environments of NIST and the Fire Research Institute (FRI) in Japan, and large fire experiments at facilities like the USCG Fire Safety and Test Detachment in Mobile, Alabama where outdoor liquid fuel burns in large pans are possible

318

MRI characteristics of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate and recognize the dynamic and morphological MRI characteristics of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast and provide imaging information for the early detection and treatment planning. Methods: All MRI data in 71 patients with histologically proved DCIS were analyzed retrospectively. The 71 patients were divided into two groups, N1 (pure DCIS, 44 patients) and N2 (DCIS with microinvasion, 27 patients). According to the BI-RADS descriptors, all lesions were defined as a focus (smaller than 5 mm in diameter), mass and no-mass-like three enhancement types. The morphological features (M1 = focus, M2 =linear or linear-branched, M3 = branching-ductal, M4 = segmental, M5 = focal, M6 = regional, M7 = diffuse, M8 = mass) and the time-intensity curve (TIC) pattern [type ? (persistent enhancement curves), type ? (plateau), type ? (washout) and type ? (the same enhancement as glandular tissue)] were described. Chi-square test was used for the morphological characteristics of lesions. Results: The 73 DCIS lesions were found in 71 patients, and 5.5% (n=4) were stippled lesions, 87.7% (n=64) were no-mass like lesions, 6.8% (n=5) were mass-like lesions. In no-mass-like lesions (n= 64), M3 was found in 15 cases, M4 in 34 cases, M5 in 9 cases and M6 in 6 cases, respectively, M3 and M4 were the most common distribution patterns. In N1 group (n=45) and N2 group (n=28), M3, M4, M5, M6 were found in 7 and 8, 21 and 13, 7 and 2, 3 and 3 cases, respectively. There were no statistic differences between two groups (P>0.05). In 31 showed heterogeneous enhancement, both M3 and M4 were observed in 35.5% (11/31). In 26 clustered ring enhancement lesions, M4 was observed in 88.5% (23/26). Four lesions showed reticular enhancement, 2 lesions showed a clumped enhancement and 1 lesion showed homogeneous enhancement. In 5 mass-like lesions, N1 group had 3 cases, N2 group had 2 cases. Four lesions showed lobulated margin, 4 lesions showed speculated margin, 1 mass showed smooth margin. Five mass showed heterogeneous enhancement. Type ?, type ?, type ? and type ? TIC (n=25) were demonstrated in 8, 11, 3 and 3 lesions, respectively. Conclusions: M3, M4, especially segmental clustered ring enhancement, are the most common morphological characteristics of DCIS. Type ? and type ? TIC are the most common types. (authors)

319

Apparatus for in situ monitoring of copper in coastal waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apparatus is designed and tested to determine metals in situ in seawater. Voltammetry with a vibrating gold microwire electrode (VGME) is combined with a battery powered potentiostat and a processor board and is tested for in situ monitoring of copper (Cu) in coastal waters. The VGME was combined with solid state reference and counter electrodes to make a single vibrating probe which was rated up to a depth of 40 m. The measuring mode for Cu was square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry whilst dissolved oxygen (DO) was monitored by a linear sweep scan in a negative potential direction. The working electrode was reactivated between measurements using a suitable potential sequence. The novelties of this work are the field-testing of apparatus incorporating a VGME for copper monitoring, which eliminates the need for pumping and reagents, but has sufficient sensitivity for low ambient levels of copper, and the use of a novel potential sequence to stabilise the response over a long time period. The apparatus has a measuring time of about 6 weeks and a measuring frequency of 12 h(-1). Measurement is reagent-free and power use is low as no pump is required. Experiments are carried out to test the stability of response of the system at various temperatures and its robustness with respect to long-term copper monitoring. Preliminary data were obtained during autonomous deployment over several weeks on a buoy in the Irish Sea. Vertical movement of the buoy caused individual measurements to have a variability of about 15%. It was found that longer term variability of the electrode could be minimised by normalisation of the Cu response over that of DO as the response was related to diffusion through the electrode surface which was similarly affected. The detected fraction of Cu (labile Cu) amounted to 1.5-4 nM during different deployments at a total Cu concentration of ?10 nM. The same ratio was found by voltammetry in samples taken to the laboratory. The new apparatus has demonstrated that metals in coastal waters can be monitored at trace level, much facilitating the monitoring of outfalls and local water contamination. Because of its sensitivity the apparatus would be of use in estuarine as well as coastal waters, with the aim of monitoring intermittent variability in the copper concentration. PMID:22983404

Chapman, Conrad S; Cooke, Richard D; Salaün, Pascal; van den Berg, Constant M G

2012-10-26

320

In-situ nanoindentation in the SEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the past few decades scanning electron microscopes (SEMs have become commonplace instruments in both academic and industrial settings. With their superior spatial resolution, SEMs have replaced visible-light microscopes in many applications, particularly as the surge in interest in nanotechnology dictates smaller and smaller structures. The limits of these microscopes are now being pushed even further with the development of new in-situ testing methods. Combining SEM imaging with complementary characterization techniques can help to paint a more complete picture of materials behavior. Here we report on progress in the development of a compact, vacuum-compatible instrument capable of quantitative nanomechanical testing in the SEM1.

Julia D. Nowak

2010-01-01

321

In-situ experiments in fractured granite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two heater tests, a migration test and several corrosion tests were performed in fractured granite near surface. Predicted rock temperatures agreed well with those observed at no fracture zone. On the other hand, measured rock temperatures were lower than predicted temperatures at fracture zone because of the heat convection due to groundwater flow in a fracture zone. Migration tests were carried out in a single fracture zone of experimental room, and the results were analyzed by a single fracture model. Stress corrosion cracking test for ten kinds of metal for candidate canister materials was carried out under in-situ condition

322

Environmental monitoring and in situ gamma spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ gamma ray spectrometry is widely used for monitoring of natural as well as man-made radionuclides and corresponding gamma fields in the environment or working places. It finds effective application in the operational and accidental monitoring of nuclear facilities and their vicinity, spent fuel storages and waste depositories, radioactive contamination measurements and mapping, environmental, radiohygienic and radiation safety studies, geological prospecting and mapping, etc. Progressive spectrometric methods based on scintillation and semiconductor spectrometry and spectral deconvolution are discussed, including experimental arrangement as well as detection system responses/response matrixes simulation using stochastic (Monte Carlo) models. Methods for ground-level and airborne measurements are presented. (author)

Kluson, J. E-mail: kluson@br.fjfi.cvut.cz

2001-06-01

323

Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

2009-05-01

324

GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In Task 1, Blade Path Aerodynamics, design options were evaluated using CFD in terms of burnout, increase of power output, and possible hot streaking. It was concluded that Vane 1 injection in a conventional 4-stage turbine was preferred. Vane 2 injection after vane 1 injection was possible, but of marginal benefit. In Task 2, Combustion and Emissions, detailed chemical kinetics modeling, validated by Task 3, Sub-Scale Testing, experiments, resulted in the same conclusions, with the added conclusion that some increase in emissions was expected. In Task 4, Conceptual Design and Development Plan, Siemens Westinghouse power cycle analysis software was used to evaluate alternative in situ reheat design options. Only single stage reheat, via vane 1, was found to have merit, consistent with prior Tasks. Unifying the results of all the tasks, a conceptual design for single stage reheat utilizing 24 holes, 1.8 mm diameter, at the trailing edge of vane 1 is presented. A development plan is presented.

D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert; R.A. Newby P.G.A. Cizmas

2004-05-17

325

WIPP/SRL in situ testing program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first series of in situ, high-level waste form leaching tests to be conducted in the United States was started on July 22, 1986. This effort, the WIPP Materials Interface Interactions Tests (MIIT), involves the underground test emplacement of almost 1900 (nonradioactive) waste form, metal container, and geologic samples in the bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Samples were supplied from seven countries and are being analyzed by laboratories and universities in the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Belgium, Japan, the United Kingdom, and Sweden. Post test analyses of samples removed after 0.5 and 1 year of testing are in progress. The MIIT data complement other laboratory and international in situ efforts involving underground field testing of Savannah River Laboratory simulated nuclear waste glasses. The MIIT international program is a joint effort conducted and managed by Sandia National Laboratories and Savannah River Laboratory at the WIPP, and is sponsored by the US Department of Energy

326

Molecular cytogenetics using fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific probes enables several new areas of cytogenetic investigation by allowing visual determination of the presence and normality of specific genetic sequences in single metaphase or interphase cells. in this approach, termed molecular cytogenetics, the genetic loci to be analyzed are made microscopically visible in single cells using in situ hybridization with nucleic acid probes specific to these loci. To accomplish this, the DNA in the target cells is made single stranded by thermal denaturation and incubated with single-stranded, chemically modified probe under conditions where the probe will anneal only with DNA sequences to which it has high DNA sequence homology. The bound probe is then made visible by treatment with a fluorescent reagent such as fluorescein that binds to the chemical modification carried by the probe. The DNA to which the probe does not bind is made visible by staining with a dye such as propidium iodide that fluoresces at a wavelength different from that of the reagent used for probe visualization. We show in this report that probes are now available that make this technique useful for biological dosimetry, prenatal diagnosis and cancer biology. 31 refs., 3 figs.

Gray, J.W.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lucas, J.; Pinkel, D.; Weier, H-U.; Yu, Loh-Chung.

1990-12-07

327

Disappearance of the in situ component  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Local recurrence after conservative treatment of breast cancer is associated with a significant risk for metastasis. In order to identify criteria predictive of metastasis in this subset of women, a series of 35 patients with local relapse was analyzed among 512 consecutive patients treated with tumorectomy and radiotherapy. When relapse occurred within 2 years of initial treatment, overall 2-year survival from the time of local relapse was 39.5%. When local relapse occurred more than 2 years from initial therapy, 2-year survival was 80.5% (p<0.001). Pathological slides of both initial and recurrent tumors were reviewed and compared. In 17 patients, local relapse and initial tumor had the same morphological features, with an in-situ component either absent or present in the same proportion. Metastasis occurred in two of these patients. In contrast, 9 of 12 patients in whom the proportion of non-invasive carcinoma had decreased at the time of local recurrence developed metastasis. Overall 2-year survival from the time of relapse was significantly better in the former group of patients (93.3% versus 52.5%, p<0.05). It is concluded that early relapses have a poor prognostic significance and that disappearance of the in-situ component or increase of the invasive component at the time of relapse is a feature predictive of tumor-related death and that more intensive therapy might benefit to this subset of women. (author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs1 fig., 4 tabs

328

In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert's interest

329

In situ PEM fuel cell water measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efficient PEM (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) fuel cell performance requires effective water management. To achieve a deeper understanding of water transport and performance issues associated with water management, we have conducted in situ water examinations to help understand the effects of components and operations. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and Neutron imaging were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells, with various conditions, including current density, relative humidity, inlet flows, flow orientation and variable Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) properties. High resolution neutron radiography was used to image fuel cells during a variety of conditions. The effect of specific operating conditions, including flow direction (co-flow or counter-flow) was examined. Counter-flow operation was found to result in higher water content than co-flow operation, which correlates to lower membrane resistivity. A variety of cells were used to quantify the membrane water in situ during exposure to saturated gases, during fuel cell operation, and during hydrogen pump operation. The quantitative results show lower membrane water content than previous results suggested.

Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, Daniel S [NIST; Jacobson, David L [NIST; Arif, Muhammad [NIST

2009-01-01

330

In situ migration experiment in argillaceous formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International cooperative R and D has been performed within the five years framework of the bilateral agreement between PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) and SCK/CEN (Studiecentrum voor Kernergie/Centre D'etude de L'energie Nucleaire, Mol, Belgium) which is focused on 'The Migration Experiment in argillaceous formation.' This Tertiary argillaceous formation, called Boom clay, is located at about 230m depth in Mol-Dessel area, Belgium. The argillaceous rock is considered to have a high capability for retardation to radionuclides when they migrate in geosphere because of a high content of clay minerals and dissolved carbon-rich pore water. The main purpose of this collaboration work is to characterize the migration phenomena in sedimentary rock through understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides migration in the argillaceous formation. The present report describes the preliminary results of in situ one-dimensional migration experiment with labelled clay core emplaced in borehole under advective condition. In the experiment, radioactive tracer Sr-85 and Eu-152+154 have been used in order to determine the apparent dispersion coefficient and retardation factor of Boom clay. Finally, the following conclusions were obtained by in situ measurement and calculation based on a appropriate migration model; a) From the Sr-85 experiment, diffusive behavior is interpreted to be a dominant phenomena on radionuclides transportation. b) From the Eu-152+154 experiment, very small non-retarded fraction is observed. (author)

331

Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presenteweight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

332

Dimensional characterisation of collagen constructs in situ  

Science.gov (United States)

We present results of a non contacting instrument based on the confocal scanning technique for assessing the thickness and structure of collagen substrates and tissue constructs. There is an unmet need in the creation of tissue constructs to quantitatively evaluate their dimensional characteristics during manufacture. With this knowledge more effective structures can be produced. The measurement is complicated by the need to make these measurements in situ. For many processes, including the plastic compression of collagen gels for generating 3D structures, the constructs are situated in a liquid solution contained in a well plate or similar container. It is therefore necessary to perform the measurements through an interfering medium and this confounds many measurement techniques. A system has therefore been developed that utilizes a scanning confocal arrangement to accurately measure the dimensional characteristics of these constructs in situ. A fiber based optical arrangement using compact, proven components from the telecommunications industry has been integrated into a dedicated system architecture so that the constructs can be measured whilst in production. This architecture is particularly important due to the "wet" nature of the samples. The meter can measure constructs with thicknesses from a few tens of micrometers up to 0.9 millimeters with sub-micrometer resolution. Results are presented that show how the meter has been used to evaluate changes in these collagen constructs whilst in production. This was little understood prior to these measurements and the greater understanding of how the materials behave has allowed the process to be greatly improved.

Taylor, R.; Reynolds, J.; Chikkanna, B.; Daly, D.; Brown, R. A.; Tan, N. S.

2014-02-01

333

Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

2010-04-01

334

Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Revision 1, Demonstration system design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last nine years IIT Research Institute (IITRI) has been developing and testing the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. The vaporized contaminants, water vapor and air are recovered from the heated zone by means of a vacuum manifold system which collects gases from below surface as well as from the soil surface. A vapor barrier is used to prevent fugitive emissions of the contaminants and to control air infiltration to minimize dilution of the contaminant gases and vapors. The recovered gases and vapors are conveyed to an on site vapor treatment system for the clean up of the vent gases. Electrical energy is applied to the soil by forming an array of electrodes in the soil which are electrically interconnected and supplied with power. The electrodes are placed in drilled bore holes which are made through the contaminated zone. There are two versions of the in situ heating and soil treatment process: the f irst version is called the In Situ Radio Frequency (RF) Soil Decontamination Process and the second version is called the In Situ Electromagnetic (EM) Soil Decontamination Process. The first version, the RF Process is capable of heating the soil in a temperature range of 100 degrees to 400 degrees C. The soil temperature in the second version, the EM Process, is limited to the boiling point of water under native conditions. Thus the soil will be heated to a temperature of about 85 degrees to 95 degrees C. In this project IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site due to the fact that most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 degrees to 95 degrees C

335

Banned Books Week  

Science.gov (United States)

Next week is Banned Books Week, and the American Library Association (ALA) offers this site giving background on Banned Books Week and censorship as well as resources to help teachers, librarians, and booksellers observe the week. Once again, the Harry Potter series tops this year's list of most challenged books. At the ALA site, users will find the complete list as well as the most challenged books of the past decade. In addition, the site hosts a press kit, resources for sale to celebrate the week, links to other banned books sites, and a page on book burning.

2000-01-01

336

In situ biodegradation potential of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic groundwaters  

Science.gov (United States)

Three types of experiments were conducted to assess the potential for enhancing the in situ biodegradation of nine aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic, leachate-impacted aquifers at North Bay, Ontario, and at Canada Forces Base Borden. Laboratory micrososms containing authentic aquifer material and groundwater from the North Bay site were amended with nitrate and glucose. No significant losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were observed compared to unamended controls, over a period of 187 days. A total of eight in situ biodegradation columns were installed in the North Bay and Borden aquifers. Remedial additions included electron acceptors (nitrate and sulphate) and primary substrates (acetate, lactate and yeast extract). Six aromatic hydrocarbons [toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, cumene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene ( 1,2,4-TMB)] were completely degraded in at least one in situ column at the North Bay site. Only toluene was degraded in the Borden aquifer. In all cases, aromatic hydrocarbon attenuation was attributed to biodegradation by methanogenic and fermentative bacteria. No evidence of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation was observed in columns remediated with nitrate or primary substrates. A continuous forced gradient injection experiment with sulphate addition was conducted at the North Bay site over a period of 51 days. The concentration of six aromatic hydrocarbons was monitored over time in the injection wells and at piezometer fences located 2, 5 and 10 m downgradient. All compounds except toluene reached injection concentration between 14 and 26 days after pumping began, and showed some evidence of selective retardation. Toluene broke through at a subdued concentration (˜ 50% of injection levels), and eventually declined to undetectable levels on day 43. This attenuation was attributed to adaptation and biodegradation by anaerobic bacteria. The results from these experiments indicate that considerable anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in landfill leachate plumes does occur. The acclimatized population rapidly biodegraded toluene, much more rapidly than reported in other laboratory studies. This biodegradation is selective, at least in the time frame of our experiments, with benzene and chlorobenzene remaining recalcitrant.

Acton, D. W.; Barker, J. F.

1992-04-01

337

Studies on the intercalation of naproxen into layered double hydroxide and its thermal decomposition by in situ FT-IR and in situ HT-XRD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Layered double hydroxides, novel anionic clay, meet the first requirement as inorganic matrices for encapsulating functional drugs or biomolecules with negative charge in aqueous media. In this study, naproxen has been intercalated into Mg-Al layered double hydroxide by the methods of ion exchange. The structure and composition of the intercalated material have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. A schematic model has been proposed. Furthermore, in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, in situ high-temperature XRD, and thermogravimetry (TG) have been used to characterize the thermal decomposition of the hybrid material. It has been found that the thermal stability of the intercalated naproxen is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation, which suggests that this drug-inorganic layered material may have prospective application as the basis of a novel drug delivery system

338

Studies on the intercalation of naproxen into layered double hydroxide and its thermal decomposition by in situ FT-IR and in situ HT-XRD  

Science.gov (United States)

Layered double hydroxides, novel anionic clay, meet the first requirement as inorganic matrices for encapsulating functional drugs or biomolecules with negative charge in aqueous media. In this study, naproxen has been intercalated into Mg-Al layered double hydroxide by the methods of ion exchange. The structure and composition of the intercalated material have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. A schematic model has been proposed. Furthermore, in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, in situ high-temperature XRD, and thermogravimetry (TG) have been used to characterize the thermal decomposition of the hybrid material. It has been found that the thermal stability of the intercalated naproxen is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation, which suggests that this drug-inorganic layered material may have prospective application as the basis of a novel drug delivery system.

Wei, Min; Shi, Shuxian; Wang, Ji; Li, Yong; Duan, Xue

2004-07-01

339

In situ vitrification large-scale operational acceptance test analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A thermal treatment process is currently under study to provide possible enhancement of in-place stabilization of transuranic and chemically contaminated soil sites. The process is known as in situ vitrification (ISV). In situ vitrification is a remedial action process that destroys solid and liquid organic contaminants and incorporates radionuclides into a glass-like material that renders contaminants substantially less mobile and less likely to impact the environment. A large-scale operational acceptance test (LSOAT) was recently completed in which more than 180 t of vitrified soil were produced in each of three adjacent settings. The LSOAT demonstrated that the process conforms to the functional design criteria necessary for the large-scale radioactive test (LSRT) to be conducted following verification of the performance capabilities of the process. The energy requirements and vitrified block size, shape, and mass are sufficiently equivalent to those predicted by the ISV mathematical model to confirm its usefulness as a predictive tool. The LSOAT demonstrated an electrode replacement technique, which can be used if an electrode fails, and techniques have been identified to minimize air oxidation, thereby extending electrode life. A statistical analysis was employed during the LSOAT to identify graphite collars and an insulative surface as successful cold cap subsidence techniques. The LSOAT also showed that even under worst-case conditions, the off-gas system exceeds the flow requirements necessary to maintain a negative pressure on the hood covering the area being vitrified. The retention of simulated radionuclides and chemicals in the soil and off-gas system exceeds requirements so that projected emissions are one to two orders of magnitude below the maximum permissible concentrations of contaminants at the stack

340

Osteogenic potential of in situ TiO2 nanowire surfaces formed by thermal oxidation of titanium alloy substrate  

Science.gov (United States)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire surface structures were fabricated in situ by a thermal oxidation process, and their ability to enhance the osteogenic potential of primary osteoblasts was investigated. Human osteoblasts were isolated from nasal bone and cultured on a TiO2 nanowires coated substrate to assess its in vitro cellular interaction. Bare featureless Ti-6Al-4V substrate was used as a control surface. Initial cell adhesion, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell mineralization, and osteogenic related gene expression were examined on the TiO2 nanowire surfaces as compared to the control surfaces after 2 weeks of culturing. Cell adhesion and cell proliferation were assayed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Alamar Blue reduction assay, respectively. The nanowire surfaces promoted better cell adhesion and spreading than the control surface, as well as leading to higher cell proliferation. Our results showed that osteoblasts grown onto the TiO2 nanowire surfaces displayed significantly higher production levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), extracellular (ECM) mineralization and genes expression of runt-related transcription factor (Runx2), bone sialoprotein (BSP), ostoepontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) compared to the control surfaces. This suggests the potential use of such surface modification on Ti-6Al-4V substrates as a promising means to improve the osteointegration of titanium based implants.

Tan, A. W.; Ismail, R.; Chua, K. H.; Ahmad, R.; Akbar, S. A.; Pingguan-Murphy, B.

2014-11-01

341

A simplified in-situ electrochemical decontamination of lead from polluted soil (abstract)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports a simplified In-Situ electrochemical method for remediation of field soil contaminated with lead. A series of electrochemical decontamination experiments including variable conditions such as operating duration and application of enhancement reagent were performed to demonstrate the efficiency of lead removal from spiked and polluted soil samples collected from Lahore, Pakistan. The results showed that the efficiency of lead removal from the contaminated soil increased with increasing the operating duration under a set of experimental conditions. The reagent used as complexing and solubilizing agent i.e. EDTA was found to be efficient in removing lead from the polluted soil. After 15 days duration, 85 % lead removal efficiency was observed in spiked soil under enhanced conditions , however, 63 % lead removal was achieved from the polluted soil samples by the simplified In-situ electrochemical decontamination method. The method is simple, rapid, cheaper and suitable for soil remediation purposes. (author)

342

Chitosan/glucose 1-phosphate as new stable in situ forming depot system for controlled drug delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chitosan (CS)-based thermosensitive solutions that turn into semi-solid hydrogels upon injection at body temperature have increasingly drawn attention over the last decades as an attractive new type of in situ forming depot (ISFD) drug delivery system. Despite the great potential of the standard CS/?-glycerophosphate (?-GP) thermogelling solutions, their lack of stability over time at room temperature as well as at refrigerated conditions renders them unsuitable as ready-to-use drug product. In the present study, we investigated Glucose-1-Phosphate (G1-P) as an alternative gelling agent for improving the stability of CS-based ISFD solutions. The in vitro release performance of CS/G1-P formulations was assessed using several model compounds. Furthermore, the local tolerance of subcutaneously implanted CS/G1-P hydrogels was investigated by histological examination over three weeks. The thermogelling potential of CS/G1-P solutions, determined by rheology, is dependent on the polymer molecular weight (Mw) and concentration as well as on the G1-P concentration. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements confirmed that sol/gel transition takes place at around body temperature and is not fully thermo-reversible. The long term storage stability was evaluated through the appearance, pH, viscosity and gelation time at 37°C of the solution. The results emphasized an enhanced stability of the CS/G1-P system compared to the standard CS/?-GP. CS solution with 0.40 mmol/g G1-P is stable for at least 9 months at 2-8°C, versus less than 1 month when using ?-GP as gelling agent. Furthermore, the solution is easy to inject, as evidenced from injectability evaluation using 23-30 G needles. In vitro release experiments showed a sustained release over days to weeks for hydrophilic model compounds, demonstrating thereby that CS/G1-P may be suitable for the prolonged delivery of drugs. The inflammatory reaction observed in the tissue surrounding the hydrogel in rats was a typical foreign body reaction, similar to the one observed for CS/?-GP hydrogels. These features confirm the potential of CS/G1-P solutions as an injectable ready-to-use in situ forming hydrogel. PMID:24859306

Supper, Stephanie; Anton, Nicolas; Boisclair, Julie; Seidel, Nina; Riemenschnitter, Marc; Curdy, Catherine; Vandamme, Thierry

2014-10-01

343

Advances in the application of in situ electrical resistance heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) is an aggressive in situ thermal remediation technology that was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy from the original oil production technology to enhance vapor extraction remediation technologies in low permeability soils. Soil and groundwater are heated by the passage of electrical current through saturated and unsaturated soil between electrodes, not by the electrodes themselves. It is the resistance to the flow of electrical current that results in increased subsurface temperatures, and this is typically applied to the boiling point of water. It is estimated that more than 75 ERH applications have been performed. Capacity to perform these projects has increased over the years, and as many as 15 to 20 of these applications now being performed at any given time, mainly in North America, with some European applications. While the main focus has been to vaporize volatile organic compounds, as one would expect other semi-volatile and non-volatile organic compounds have also been encountered, resulting in observations of chemical and physical reactions that have not been normally incorporated into environmental restoration projects. One such reaction is hydrolysis, which is slow under normal groundwater temperatures, becomes very rapid under temperatures that can easily be achieved using ERH. As a result, these chemical and physical reactions are increasing the applicability of ERH in environmental restoration projects, treatienvironmental restoration projects, treating a wider variety of compounds and utilizing biotic and abiotic mechanisms to reduce energy costs. For the treatment of oil and coal tar residues from manufactured gas plants, a process TRS has called steam bubble floatation is used to physically remove the coal and oil tar from the soils for collection using conventional multi-phase collection methods. Heat-enhanced hydrolysis has been used to remediate dichloromethane from soils and groundwater at a site in Illinois, while heat-enhanced biotic and abiotic dehalogenation has been observed at the vast majority of the sites where ERH has been applied. With disposal options becoming more limited around the world, alternate in situ treatment methods for soil and groundwater restoration are becoming more important. Over the 10 years of commercialization of the ERH technology, soil and groundwater remediation mechanisms and processes that were not envisioned by the technology's developers expand the range of chemicals that have successfully been treated. This paper will discuss these processes and how these processes have been used to effect remediation of soil and groundwater where ERH has been employed. (authors)

344

The LISA1 experiment: In-situ tritium release investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LISA1 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium release. Conducted in the SILOE reactor at CEN Grenoble, the experiment uses the same facilities as the LILA1. The experiment has six capsules, four with Li2SiO3, one with Li4SiO4 and one with LiAlO2. Each capsule is separately purged. The tritium activity is determined by ionization chambers and scintillation counting. An important difference as compared to LILA1 is the use of zinc beds to reduce tritiated water and thereby prevent sorption of T2O on the lines. Irradiation began on October 25, 1985 and was continued for three 3-weeks-cycles. The testing included systematic variation of four parameters: temperature (450 to 7300C), neutron flux (0.8 to 2.7x1017 m-2 s-1), sweep gas flow rate (1.8 to 7.0 l/h), and sweep gas composition (He, He+0.1% H2, He+0.2% O2). Preliminary results are given. (orig.)

345

The LISA1 experiment: in-situ tritium release investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LISA1 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium release. Conducted in the SILOE reactor at CEN Grenoble, the experiment uses the same facilities as the LILA1. The experiment has six capsules, four with Li2SiO3, one with Li4SiO4 and one with LiA102. Each capsule is separately purged. The tritium activity is determined by ionization chambers and scintillation counting. An important difference as compared to LILA1 is the use of zinc beds to reduce tritiated water and thereby prevent sorption of T2O on the lines. Irradiation began on October 25, 1985 and was continued for three 3-week-cycles. The testing included systematic variation of four parameters: temperature (450 to 7300C), neutron flux (0.8 to 2.7 x 1013 1/cm2.s), sweep gas flow rate (1.8 to 7.0 L/h), and sweep gas composition (He,He+0.1% H2, He+0.2% O2). Preliminary results are given

346

In-situ Characterization of Cast Stainless Steel Microstructures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) was commonly used in selected designs of nuclear power reactor systems for corrosion resistance and enhanced durability in service. CASS materials are generally coarse-grained and elastically anisotropic in nature, and are consequently difficult to inspect ultrasonically, largely due to detrimental effects of ultrasonic wave interactions with the coarse-grain microstructures. To address the inspection needs for these materials, new approaches that are robust to these phenomena are being developed. However, to enhance the probability of detecting flaws, knowledge of the microstructure and the corresponding acoustic properties of the material may be required. This paper discusses the application of ultrasonic backscatter measurement methods for classifying the microstructure of CASS components, when making measurements from the outside surface of the pipe or component. Results to date from laboratory experiments demonstrate the potential of these measurements to classify the material type of CASS for two homogeneous microstructures—equiaxed-grain material or columnar-grain material. Measurements on mixed or banded microstructures also show correlation with the estimated volume-fraction of columnar grains in the material. However, several operational issues will need to be addressed prior to applying this method for in-situ characterization of CASS microstructure.

Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Moran, Traci L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Watson, Bruce E.; Mathews, Royce; Harris, Robert V.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.

2012-09-01

347

Implications of repetitive amendment additions for in situ phytostabilization of trace elements in contaminated soils  

OpenAIRE

Phytostabilization is a non-invasive remediation technique that combines the utilization of amendments and plants to enhance natural attenuation mechanisms (adsorption, precipitation and complexation) that immobilize trace elements in soil (Adriano et al., 2004). In addition, phytostabilization might reduce soil erosion and run-off transport of contaminated particles. While this low-cost technique has potential for in situ treatment of extensive areas moderately contaminated, it h...

Pe?rez Mora, Alfredo; Madejo?n, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco; Madejo?n, Engracia

2010-01-01

348

In Situ-Synthesized Virulence and Marker Gene Biochip for Detection of Bacterial Pathogens in Water? †  

OpenAIRE

Pathogen detection tools with high reliability are needed for various applications, including food and water safety and clinical diagnostics. In this study, we designed and validated an in situ-synthesized biochip for detection of 12 microbial pathogens, including a suite of pathogens relevant to water safety. To enhance the reliability of presence/absence calls, probes were designed for multiple virulence and marker genes (VMGs) of each pathogen, and each VMG was targeted by an average of 17...

Miller, Sarah M.; Tourlousse, Dieter M.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Baushke, Samuel W.; Herzog, Amanda B.; Wick, Lukas M.; Rouillard, Jean Marie; Gulari, Erdogan; Tiedje, James M.; Hashsham, Syed A.

2008-01-01

349

Radiation sensitivity of DNA molecules in situ in normal and neoplastic tissues of mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity to radiation of DNA molecules in situ in various tissues was estimated by alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation. The sensitivity of DNA in liver, thymus, spleen and cerebellum was found to be of the same order of magnitude. The oxygen enhancement ratios of DNA in spleen, thymus and cerebellum were all approximately three. Sensitivity of DNA molecules in the tumour was about half of that in normal tissues, probably because of its hypoxicity. (Auth.)

350

Thermally Triggered Mucoadhesive In Situ Gel of Loratadine: ?-Cyclodextrin Complex for Nasal Delivery  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the present study was to increase the solubility of an anti-allergic drug loratadine by making its inclusion complex with ?-cyclodextrin and to develop it’s thermally triggered mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel so as to overcome first-pass effect and consequently enhance its bioavailability. A total of eight formulations were prepared by cold method and optimized by 23 full factorial design. Independent variables (concentration of poloxamer 407, concentration of carbopol 934 P, and...

Singh, Reena M. P.; Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Kamla

2013-01-01

351

Preparation and thermal properties of mesoporous silica/phenolic resin nanocomposites via in situ polymerization  

OpenAIRE

In order to enhance the adhesion between inorganic particles and polymer matrix, in this paper, the mesoporous silica SBA-15 material was synthesized by the sol-gel method. The surface of SBA-15 was modified using ?-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOTMS) as a coupling agent, and then mesoporous silica/phenolic resin (SBA-15/PF) nanocomposites were prepared via in situ polymerization. The structural parameters and physical properties of SBA-15, SBA-15-GOTMS (SBA-15 surface treated usin...

Lv, J.; Meng, L. T.; Wei, C.; Yu, C. B.; Liu, H. X.

2012-01-01

352

Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA d...

Hovhannisyan Galina G

2010-01-01

353

Comparación de las técnicas in situ, in vitro y enzimática (celulasa) para estimar la digestibilidad de forrajes en ovinos / Comparison of the in situ, in vitro and Enzimatic (Cellulase) Techniques for Digestibility Estimation of Forages in Sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se comparó los resultados de las técnicas in vitro, in situ y enzimática (celulasa) para estimar la digestibilidad de forrajes de diferente calidad nutritiva en ovinos. Se colectó muestras de forraje de tres calidades: alta (rye grass de 2-4 semanas), media (rye grass de 8 semanas y heno de alfalfa) [...] y baja (paja de avena). Las muestras fueron secadas, molidas y pasaron por tamiz de 1 mm para la técnica in vitro y celulasa y 3 mm para la técnica in situ. Se determinó la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS), digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca (DISMS) y digestibilidad a la celulasa de la materia seca (DCMS). Se emplearon tres ovinos con fístula ruminal y alimentados con maíz forrajero y heno de alfalfa. Se usó un diseño experimental con arreglo factorial de 4 x 3 (4 calidades de forraje y 3 técnicas). La DISMS fue superior (p Abstract in english The objective of the study was to compare the efficiency of the in situ, in vitro and enzymatic (cellulose) techniques in estimating the digestibility of forage with different nutritional quality in sheep. Samples of three qualities of forage were collected: high (rye grass of 2-4 weeks), medium (ry [...] e grass of 8 weeks and alfalfa hay), and low (oat straw). The samples were dried, grounded and passed through 1 mm sieve for the in vitro and cellulose technique and 3 mm sieve for the in situ technique. The in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDDM), in situ digestibility of dry matter (ISDDM), and cellulose digestibility of dry matter (CDDM) were determined. Three adult rams with ruminal fistula and fed with a diet based on alfalfa hay and corn stalk. A complete randomized 4 x 3 experimental design (4 quality forages and 3 techniques) was used. The ISDDM was higher (p

Giovanna, Torres G.; Teresa, Arbaiza F.; Fernando, Carcelén C.; Orlando, Lucas A..

354

In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics  

OpenAIRE

Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible...

Wright, Dana L.; Thomas Leeuw; Boss, Emmanuel S.

2013-01-01

355

Modelling in situ enzyme potential of soils: a tool to predict soil respiration from agricultural fields  

Science.gov (United States)

The fate of soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting future climate and terrestrial ecosystem functions. Extra-cellular enzymes, produced by microorganisms, perform the very first step in SOC degradation and serve as key components in global carbon cycling. Very little information is available about the seasonal variation in the temperature sensitivity of soil enzymes. Here we aim to model in situ enzyme potentials involved in the degradation of either labile or recalcitrant organic compounds to understand the temporal variability of degradation processes. To identify the similarities in seasonal patterns of soil respiration and in situ enzyme potentials, we compared the modelled in situ enzyme activities with weekly measured soil CO2 emissions. Arable soil samples from two different treatments (4 years fallow and currently vegetated plots; treatments represent range of carbon input into soil) were collected every month from April, 2012 to April, 2013, from two different study regions (Kraichgau and Swabian Alb) in Southwest Germany. The vegetation plots were under crop rotation in both study areas. We measured activities of three enzymes including ?-glucosidase, xylanase and phenoloxidase at five different temperatures. We also measured soil microbial biomass in form of microbial carbon (Cmic). Land-use and area had significant effects (P soil moisture. We calculated the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of enzyme activities based on laboratory measurements of enzyme activities at a range of incubation temperatures. Q10 of ?-glucosidase activity changed significantly across the year (Q10 values ranges from 1.5 to 2.0 in Kraichgau and 1.6 to 2.1 in Swabian Alb), while for xylanase activity, no significant effects were found (Q10 values ranges from 1.2 to 3.0 in Kraichgau and 1.3 to 3.3 in Swabian Alb) in both study regions. By using laboratory based enzyme activities, calculated Q10 values, and daily soil temperature data, we modelled in situ enzyme potentials in soils for labile and recalcitrant carbon pools for both study regions. We observed an increase in modelled in situ enzyme activities during the summer period and a substantial decrease during winter indicating temperature as a strong controlling factor. A significant higher positive correlation of soil surface CO2 flux with modelled in situ ?-glucosidase activity was found in both study regions compared to modelled in situ xylanase activity. These results demonstrate that (1) Q10 values are site and season specific and should be added into carbon models and (2) the indication of the relevance of greater contribution of labile carbon pool to soil CO2 emissions.

Shahbaz Ali, Rana; Poll, Christian; Demyan, Scott; Nkwain Funkuin, Yvonne; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Kandeler, Ellen

2014-05-01

356

PREPARATION OF NANOCOMPOSITES BY IN SITU POLIMERIZATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polyethylene nanocomposites were obtained by in situ polymerization using both montmorillonite (natural clay and montmorillonite organically modified with octadecylamine (O-Clo. In this proposed methodology the clays were added directly in the reactor together with the catalytic system (metallocene catalyst and methylaluminoxane and ethylene. The nanocomposites were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and by tensile stress-strain tests. It was found that the catalytic activity increased around 20% when natural clay was used compared with the standard polymer. But when modified clay was used the catalytic activity did not show important changes. On the other hand, XRD and TEM showed that the clays are in a disordered state and well dispersed in the polyethylene matrix. Finally, the nanocomposites showed an increase of about 30% in Young's modulus compared with the standard polymer

PAULA ZAPATA

2008-03-01

357

In situ studies of fracture in solids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron microscope studies were made of the propagation of microcracks during in situ tensile deformation of stainless steel, molybdenum and magnesium oxide representing ductile, semi-brittle and brittle solids. As the stress is applied, the cracks are initiated at the edge of holes in the thinned foils. The extent of plastic activity around the cracks is measured in terms of the density and the distribution of dislocations and is sensitive to the ductile/brittle nature of the solid. The slip systems of the dislocations are determined by contrast analysis and stereoscopic observation. In stainless steel and magnesium oxide, the dislocations are relatively straight and they lie nearly perpendicular to the direction of the crack propagation, whereas in molybdenum the dislocations are in the form of irregular tangles which are stretched along the direction of the crack propagation. These observations are discussed in terms of the model of Dugdale concerning the formation of plastic zones under uniaxial loading in plane stress conditions

358

In situ investigations at Avery Island  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Descriptions and representative data are given for the in situ investigations being performed in the Avery Island Mine. Sufficient detail is presented such that investigators can judge whether any of the studies being performed would be valuable for their numerical modeling exercises. The basic investigations being performed include heater tests, brine migration experiments, and flatjack tests. The heater tests consist of the emplacement of single simulated waste canisters with different power levels. The bulk thermal and mechanical response is measured of the salt surrounding the emplacement. The brine migration studies involve the measurement of moisture inflow into heated boreholes. The flatjack studies are an investigation of the deformation of the borehole when subjected to controlled boundary conditions of stress and temperature

359

In situ TEM observation of magnetic materials.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic nanostructures and thin films display novel magnetization reversal behavior as a function of size and shape, which makes them appropriate for a range of technological applications. The spatial resolution of in situ transmission electron microscopy techniques such as Lorentz TEM (LTEM) and off-axis electron holography are well suited to analysis of the magnetic domain structure and magnetization behavior of these magnetic nanostructures and thin films. In this article the various techniques that are applicable are described, including the qualitative LTEM imaging modes and the differential phase contrast technique. In addition, quantitative methods for mapping the magnetic induction via phase reconstruction are discussed. In each case the advantages and limitations are presented. Application of the techniques to various types of magnetic structures is then presented, and the article ends with a short summary and a discussion of future developments in this field.

Tanase, M.; Petford-Long, A. K.; Materials Science Division

2009-01-01

360

High resolution in situ ultrasonic corrosion monitor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ultrasonic corrosion monitor is provided which produces an in situ measurement of the amount of corrosion of a monitoring zone or zones of an elongate probe placed in the corrosive environment. A monitoring zone is preferably formed between the end of the probe and the junction of the zone with a lead-in portion of the probe. Ultrasonic pulses are applied to the probe and a determination made of the time interval between pulses reflected from the end of the probe and the junction referred to, both when the probe is uncorroded and while it is corroding. Corresponding electrical signals are produced and a value for the normalized transit time delay derived from these time interval measurements is used to calculate the amount of corrosion

361

In situ erosion of cohesive sediment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been increasing interest in tidal power schemes and the effect of a tidal energy barrage on the environment. A large man-made environmental change, such as a barrage, would be expected to have significant effects on the sediment distribution and stability of an estuary and these effects need to be assessed when considering a tidal barrage project. This report describes the development of apparatus for in-situ measurements of cohesive sediment erosion on inter-tidal mudflats. Development of the prototype field erosion bell and field testing was commissioned on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry by the Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU). This later work commenced in August 1991 and was completed in September 1992. (Author)

362

Reverse osmosis membrane allows in situ regeneration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of mineral membranes on metallic supports has provided a novel solution to the problem of filtration by the reverse osmosis process. A new reverse osmosis membrane is described which is capable of resisting high operational temperatures (1200C), fluctuations in pH(3 to 12) and high pressure (100 bar), as well as significant chlorine concentrations. In addition, the membrane can be regenerated in-situ on the same porous metal support. Numerous membranes can thus be used over the multi-year life of the porous support. Moreover, accidental damage to the membrane is of no great consequence as the membrane itself can be easily replaced. The life of the installation can thus be extended and the overall cost of filtration reduced. The membrane's various applications include water and effluent treatment in the nuclear power industry. (author)

363

In situ chemisorption of radiocesium from seawater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel approach to in situ extraction of Cs radionuclides from seawater is described which offers many advantages over previous methods. Cesium (stable and radioactive) is partially stripped from seawater as it passes in series through a tandem cartridge consisting of twin beds of ion exchange resin impregnated with cupric ferrocyanide. It is demonstrated that, when seawater passes through this cartridge at a constant flow-rate, collection efficiencies of each bed are the same, allowing the calculation of the seawater Cs nuclide concentration. The cartridge is made of inexpensive, readily available, PVC pipe fittings and is easily deployed under various field conditions. Procedures are described for resin preparation and desorption and radiochemical purification of the collected Cs. Thousands of liters of seawater can be stripped of Cs in this way, permitting substantial improvement in the sensitivity of measurement of 134Cs and 137Cs. (Auth.)

364

Mathematical modeling of in-situ vitrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In-situ vitrification (ISV) is a new technology used for treating radioactive, organic and inorganic contaminated soils. In this process, electricity is applied through electrodes buried in the contaminated soil to melt it and form an environmentally stable glass-like solid. The organic contaminants and volatile metals are vaporized during heating up, the non-volatile inorganic elements are dissolved and incorporated into the melt. In present full-scale operation, the ISV process can treat 4 to 6 tons of soil per hour at consumption of about 1,000 kWh per ton of soil. In this study, various configurations of electrodes were examined in a mathematical model. The results may be used to optimize the ISV process

365

Mars in Situ Resource Utilization Technology Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

We have examined the technologies required to enable Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) because our understanding of Mars resources has changed significantly in the last five years as a result of recent robotic missions to the red planet. Two major developments, (1) confirmation of the presence of near-surface water in the form of ice in very large amounts at high latitudes by the Phoenix Lander and (2) the likely existence of water at lower latitudes in the form of hydrates or ice in the top one meter of the regolith, have the potential to change ISRU technology selection. A brief technology assessment was performed for the most promising Mars atmospheric gas processing techniques: Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) and Methanation (aka Sabatier), as well as an overview of soil processing technology to extract water from Martian soil.

Muscatello, Anthony C.; Santago-Maldonado, Edgardo

2012-01-01

366

PREPARATION OF NANOCOMPOSITES BY IN SITU POLIMERIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Polyethylene nanocomposites were obtained by in situ polymerization using both montmorillonite (natural clay) and montmorillonite organically modified with octadecylamine (O-Clo). In this proposed methodology the clays were added directly in the reactor together with the catalytic system (metallocen [...] e catalyst and methylaluminoxane) and ethylene. The nanocomposites were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and by tensile stress-strain tests. It was found that the catalytic activity increased around 20% when natural clay was used compared with the standard polymer. But when modified clay was used the catalytic activity did not show important changes. On the other hand, XRD and TEM showed that the clays are in a disordered state and well dispersed in the polyethylene matrix. Finally, the nanocomposites showed an increase of about 30% in Young's modulus compared with the standard polymer

PAULA, ZAPATA; RAÚL, QUIJADA; JAIME, RETUER; EDWIN, MONCADA.

1359-13-01

367

in situ film deposition of superconducting borocarbides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recently discovered intermetallic superconducting compounds with the general formula REM2B2C (M = Pd, Ni, Pt and RE = Y + rare earths) present a record critical temperature for intermetallic compounds and other interesting properties related to the anisotropic layered structure and to an intriguing interplay between superconductivity and magnetism when RE is magnetic. Here they present the results of a wide collaboration between different groups of physicists and chemists that allowed the preparation of in situ thin films by two different techniques, namely the magnetron sputtering technique of non-magnetic YNi2B2C and the high vacuum laser ablation for YNi2B2C and for magnetic ErNi2B2C and HoNi2B2C. The best results were obtained on MgO substrates, buy superconducting films of lower quality were also obtained on sapphire and LaAlO3 substrates

368

Chemoport anchoring – the in situ technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemoports are subcutaneously placed long term central venous access devices usually inserted under local anaesthesia. Rare complications include port inversion or flip over. These can be prevented by anchoring the port to the tissues at its base. We describe an in situ technique of port anchoring. Here, the port is first ‘fixed’ temporarily to the overlying skin by Huber needle, thus facilitating placement of fixing sutures without port manipulation. The described technique is safe and we have not encountered complications. In addition, ex - planting the port was easier due to the use of delayed absorbable sutures. It is safer to anchor the port even if the port pocket ensures that the port fits in snugly. This described technique results in minimal manipulation of portcatheter system thereby ensuring that the catheter tip which is properly placed remains unaltered.

Yagachikatte Chikkanarasaiah Madhu

2011-04-01

369

Kinetic measurements from in situ TEM observations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental transmission or scanning transmission electron microscope is ideally suited to observe gas solid interactions at nanoscale. It is shown that the time and temperature resolved data, obtained from in situ observations, can be used to obtain reaction rates and understand the kinetics of the processes. Low or high magnification images provide the change in length, area or volume with time at constant temperature and pressure conditions during nitridation of Cu-Cr thin films, deposition of Au particles, growth of Si nanowire and carbon nanotubes. Effect of electron beam is estimated by making observations with and without constant electron beam exposure. Quantitative electron energy loss spectroscopy is employed to measure the reduction rate of Ce(+4) in pure ceria, mixed oxides (ceria-zirconia) and catalyst (Rh-ceria-zirconia) powders. PMID:19130611

Sharma, Renu

2009-03-01

370

In situ vitrification applications to hazardous wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Situ Vitrification is a new hazardous waste remediation alternative that should be considered for contaminated soil matrices. According to the authors the advantages of using ISV include: technology demonstrated at field scale; applicable to a wide variety of soils and contaminants; pyrolyzer organics and encapsulates inorganics; product durable over geologic time period; no threat of harm to the public from exposure; and applications available for barrier walls and structural support. The use of ISV on a large scale basis has thus far been limited to the nuclear industry but has tremendous potential for widespread applications to the hazardous waste field. With the ever changing regulations for the disposal of hazardous waste in landfills, and the increasing positive analytical data of ISV, the process will become a powerful source for on-site treatment and hazardous waste management needs in the very near future

371

In situ soil remediation: Bacteria or fungi?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contamination of the environment is not a new problem. For most of recorded history, the unwanted byproducts of industrial and residential processes have been dumped into unlined pits or nearby streams. Although disposal techniques have greatly improved, significant quantities of hazardous materials are still being released to the environment via accidental spills and leaking underground storage tanks. One particular group of contaminants of critical environmental concern is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH-contaminated sites typically cover large areas; therefore, the development of in situ remediation techniques such as bioremediation is strongly emphasized. In situations when inherent microorganisms are not capable of degrading the contaminants, foreign strains must be used. Bioremediation experiments were conducted to compare the remediation efficiencies of a bacteria and a fungus for an industrially PAH contaminated soil. Specifically, the use of three supplemental nutrient solutions were investigated in conjunction with the bacteria Achromobacter sp. and fungus Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans

372

In situ soil remediation: Bacteria or fungi?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contamination of the environment is not a new problem. For most of recorded history, the unwanted byproducts of industrial and residential processes have been dumped into unlined pits or nearby streams. Although disposal techniques have greatly improved, significant quantities of hazardous materials are still being released to the environment via accidental spills and leaking underground storage tanks. One particular group of contaminants of critical environmental concern is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH-contaminated sites typically cover large areas; therefore, the development of in situ remediation techniques such as bioremediation is strongly emphasized. In situations when inherent microorganisms are not capable of degrading the contaminants, foreign strains must be used. Bioremediation experiments were conducted to compare the remediation efficiencies of a bacteria and a fungus for an industrially PAH contaminated soil. Specifically, the use of three supplemental nutrient solutions were investigated in conjunction with the bacteria Achromobacter sp. and fungus Cunninghamella echinulata var. elegans.

Cutright, T.J.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-07-01

373

Condition of in situ unexploded ordnance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unexploded ordnance (UXO) become point contamination sources when their casings fail and their explosive fill dissolve. To determine the modes of failure, we documented the condition of UXO found on military training ranges and sampled soils for explosives beneath 42 in situ UXO. We found that oxidation caused the metal UXO casings to swell and fail catastrophically. Unlike previous work, pitting of the metal casings was not found to be an important release route for explosives. Of the 42 UXO sampled, eight were leaking explosives into the soil and of these, four had perforated or cracked casings, three were corroded and one was a partially detonated round. We estimated a surface density of 74 UXO per hectare for a subset of UXO sampled. We used the relative concentrations of explosives and their transformation products in the soil to determine if the explosives had recently dissolved or were from past military training. PMID:25461079

Taylor, Susan; Bigl, Susan; Packer, Bonnie

2015-02-01

374

Support Routines for In Situ Image Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

This software consists of a set of application programs that support ground-based image processing for in situ missions. These programs represent a collection of utility routines that perform miscellaneous functions in the context of the ground data system. Each one fulfills some specific need as determined via operational experience. The most unique aspect to these programs is that they are integrated into the large, in situ image processing system via the PIG (Planetary Image Geometry) library. They work directly with space in situ data, understanding the appropriate image meta-data fields and updating them properly. The programs themselves are completely multimission; all mission dependencies are handled by PIG. This suite of programs consists of: (1)marscahv: Generates a linearized, epi-polar aligned image given a stereo pair of images. These images are optimized for 1-D stereo correlations, (2) marscheckcm: Compares the camera model in an image label with one derived via kinematics modeling on the ground, (3) marschkovl: Checks the overlaps between a list of images in order to determine which might be stereo pairs. This is useful for non-traditional stereo images like long-baseline or those from an articulating arm camera, (4) marscoordtrans: Translates mosaic coordinates from one form into another, (5) marsdispcompare: Checks a Left Right stereo disparity image against a Right Left disparity image to ensure they are consistent with each other, (6) marsdispwarp: Takes one image of a stereo pair and warps it through a disparity map to create a synthetic opposite- eye image. For example, a right eye image could be transformed to look like it was taken from the left eye via this program, (7) marsfidfinder: Finds fiducial markers in an image by projecting their approximate location and then using correlation to locate the markers to subpixel accuracy. These fiducial markets are small targets attached to the spacecraft surface. This helps verify, or improve, the pointing of in situ cameras, (8) marsinvrange: Inverse of marsrange . given a range file, re-computes an XYZ file that closely matches the original. . marsproj: Projects an XYZ coordinate through the camera model, and reports the line/sample coordinates of the point in the image, (9) marsprojfid: Given the output of marsfidfinder, projects the XYZ locations and compares them to the found locations, creating a report showing the fiducial errors in each image. marsrad: Radiometrically corrects an image, (10) marsrelabel: Updates coordinate system or camera model labels in an image, (11) marstiexyz: Given a stereo pair, allows the user to interactively pick a point in each image and reports the XYZ value corresponding to that pair of locations. marsunmosaic: Extracts a single frame from a mosaic, which will be created such that it could have been an input to the original mosaic. Useful for creating simulated input frames using different camera models than the original mosaic used, and (12) merinverter: Uses an inverse lookup table to convert 8-bit telemetered data to its 12-bit original form. Can be used in other missions despite the name.

Deen, Robert G.; Pariser, Oleg; Yeates, Matthew C.; Lee, Hyun H.; Lorre, Jean

2013-01-01

375

Effect of surface charge on the brain delivery of nanostructured lipid carriers in situ gels via the nasal route.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the nanocarrier surface charge on brain delivery of a model hydrophilic drug via the nasal route. Anionic and cationic nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were prepared and optimized for their particle size and zeta potential. The optimum particles were incorporated in poloxamer in situ gels and their in vivo behavior was studied in the plasma and brain after administration to rats. Optimum anionic and cationic NLCs of size NLCs (A7), and destruction of the lining mucosal nasal epithelium in rats treated with the cationic NLCs (C7L). The absolute bioavailability of both drug loaded anionic and cationic NLCs in situ gels was enhanced compared to that of the intranasal solution (IN) of the drug with values of 44% and 77.3%, respectively. Cationic NLCs in situ gel showed a non significant higher Cmax (maximum concentration) in the brain compared to the anionic NLCs in situ gel. Anionic NLCs in situ gel gave highest drug targeting efficiency in the brain (DTE%) with a value of 158.5 which is nearly 1.2 times that of the cationic NLCs in situ gel. PMID:25062866

Gabal, Yasmine M; Kamel, Amany O; Sammour, Omaima A; Elshafeey, Ahmed H

2014-10-01

376

Simulation of in situ uraninite leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ leaching of uraninite is relevant to both uranium production processes and environmental remediation. In situ leaching of uraninite and calcite by H2O2-NH4HCO3-(NH4)2CO3 solutions has been simulated using a partial equilibrium model which incorporates a one-parameter mixing cell model of solution flow. Rate laws for UO2 dissolution and for CaCO3 dissolution/precipitation were taken from the literature, as were equilibrium constants for solution phase reactions. Parameters of the model include the UO2 and CaCO3 ore grades, the concentrations of the H2O2, NH4HCO3, and (NH4)2CO3 components, porosity, exit solution flow rate, ore and mineral densities, and mineral rate constants and surface areas. Mineral conversions, component and species concentrations, and porosity are among the time-dependent quantities calculated using the model. For the conditions simulated, calcite dissolved somewhat faster than uraninite. The results emphasize the importance of the coupling between the mineral reactions and solution flow. Changes in the concentrations of the CO2-3 and HCO-3 species are particularly complicated and not predictable from the calcite kinetics alone or from a purely equilibrium model; although the simulations did not reveall; although the simulations did not reveal any conditions under which the solution would become saturated with CaCO3, the pH continued to change throughout the calcite dissolution and is buffered only after calcite has been consumed

377

A novel in situ trigger combination method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and system performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding of the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, that were combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a W boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. We compare the inclusion and novel in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF WH search. This new combination method, by virtue of its scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and insensitivity to correlations between triggers, will benefit future long-running collider experiments, including those currently operating on the Large Hadron Collider

378

A novel in situ trigger combination method  

Science.gov (United States)

Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and system performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding of the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, that were combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a W boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. We compare the inclusion and novel in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF WH search. This new combination method, by virtue of its scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and insensitivity to correlations between triggers, will benefit future long-running collider experiments, including those currently operating on the Large Hadron Collider.

Buzatu, Adrian; Warburton, Andreas; Krumnack, Nils; Yao, Wei-Ming

2013-05-01

379

PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring

380

In situ accessibility of murine macrophage gangliosides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gangliosides are implicated in cell signal transduction. Prior to investigating this phenomenon in macrophages, the in situ accessibility of gangliosides to macromolecules was assessed for peritoneal macrophages isolated from normal C3H/HeN and endotoxin-hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ mice. C3H/HeJ resident and thioglycolate-elicited macrophage ganglioside patterns are the same as normal strains, and no strain differences in galactose oxidase accessibility for resident or thioglycolate-elicited macrophage gangliosides were found. The only gangliosides accessible to galactose oxidase in resident macrophages are GM1a structures. In thioglycolate-elicited macrophages, an additional ganglioside is accessible. For Escherichia coli-activated macrophages, where ganglioside distribution differs between strains, a difference in galactose oxidase-accessible gangliosides also exists. Escherichia coli-activated C3H/HeN patterns show three triplets absent in C3H/HeJ patterns. There were no differences in ganglioside accessibility to Vibrio cholerae sialidase between the thioglycolate-elicited C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeN macrophages. However, despite differences in sialidase-sensitive ganglioside content between E.coli-activated macrophages of these strains, sialidase accessibility for E.coli-activated macrophages was also similar. Sialidase-susceptible GM3 was cryptic in either strain under all conditions examined. The accessibility of murine macrophage gangliosides to galactose oxidase or sialidase was independent of their sialic acid species and chain length of the ceramide fatty acid. With the exception of GM3, major murine macrophage gangliosides are accessible in situ to macromolecules, especially to exogenous pathogenic bacterial sialidase which can alter macrophage cell surface characteristics. Altered macrophage ganglioside accessibility appears sometimes as a consequence, but not a cause, of C3H/HeJ endotoxin hyporesponsiveness. PMID:7772869

Macala, L J; Yohe, H C

1995-02-01

381

In-situ burning of spilled oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation provided an overview of results from the Minerals Management Service's (MMS) funded research on in situ burning of spilled oil. The program began in 1983 to determine the limitations of this innovative response strategies. Specific physical variables evaluated were slick thickness, degree of weathering (sparging), sea state, wind velocities, air and water temperatures, degrees of emulsification and degree of ice-coverage. All of the oils tested burned with 50 to 95 percent removal ratios as long as emulsification had not occurred. Slick thickness of 3mm or thicker were required to sustain ignition and extinguishment occurred when the slick reached approximately 1mm thick. The next phase of the research involved quantitative analysis of the pollutants created by in situ burning including chemical composition of the parent oil, burn residue, and airborne constituents. These studies were conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with emphasis on particulate, and gaseous components created by the burning process. Research efforts over several years, and a variety of crude oils, yielded data which indicated that aldehydes ketones, dioxans, furans, and polyaromatic compounds (PAHS) were not formed in the burning process. The airborne pollutants reflected similar concentrations of these compounds that were present in the parent oil. Lighter molecular weight PAHs tended to be converted to higher molecular weight compounds. Heavie higher molecular weight compounds. Heavier molecular weight compounds are considered less acutely toxic than lighter molecular weight PAHS. Predominant burn products released into the air were by weight: 75% carbon dioxide, 12% water vapor, 10% soot, 3% carbon monoxide and 0.2% other products including those listed above

382

In Situ Field Testing of Processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

J. Wang

2001-12-14

383

In Situ Field Testing of Processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR

384

PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring.

N.T. Raczka

2000-05-23

385

In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) Technologies; New Challenges for Exploration  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's human exploration initiative poses great opportunity and great risk for manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Engineers and Scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are continuing to evaluate current technologies for in situ resource-based exploration fabrication and repair applications. Several technologies to be addressed in this paper have technology readiness levels (TRLs) that are currently mature enough to pursue for exploration purposes. However, while many technologies offer promising applications, these technologies must be pulled along by the demands and applications of this great initiative. The In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) Element will supply and push state of the art technologies for applications such as habitat structure development, in situ resource utilization for tool and part fabrication, and repair and non-destructive evaluation W E ) of common life support elements. As an overview of the ISFR Element, this paper will address rapid prototyping technologies, their applications, challenges, and near term advancements. This paper will also discuss the anticipated need to utilize in situ resources to produce replacement parts and fabricate repairs to vehicles, habitats, life support and quality of life elements. Overcoming the challenges of ISFR development will provide the Exploration initiative with state of the art technologies that reduce risk, and enhance supportability.

Bassler, Julie A.; Bodiford, Melanie P.; Hammond, Monica S.; King, Ron; Mclemore, Carole A.; Hall, Nancy R.; Fiske, Michael R.; Ray, Julie A.

2006-01-01

386

Outcomes of pregnancies in women with hysteroscopically placed micro-inserts in situ.  

Science.gov (United States)

This was a retrospective review of all pregnancies reported after Essure in situ in the Netherlands. Pregnancies included those that were unintentional (resulting from lack of protocol adherence and/or misread confirmation tests) and those that were intentional (resulting from off-label use of Essure micro-inserts for hydrosalpinx closure before in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection with embryo transfer or in vitro fertilization with embryo transfer after regret of sterilization). The outcomes of 50 pregnancies in women with 1 or 2 micro-inserts in situ were evaluated. Eight unintended pregnancies and 18 intended pregnancies resulted in birth of a full-term healthy baby. Seven infants were delivered via cesarean-section. Two women delivered prematurely by C-section, (singleton after 34 weeks 1 day, twins after 35 weeks 3 days). All babies are healthy and without any congenital anomalies. There were 2 stillbirths after 20 weeks; however, it is unlikely that this was related to the presence of the micro-inserts. In conclusion, it is unlikely that the presence of intratubal micro-inserts interferes with implantation and the developing amniotic sac and fetus. PMID:24184075

Veersema, Sebastiaan; Mijatovic, Velja; Dreyer, Kim; Schouten, Helga; Schoot, Dick; Emanuel, Mark Hans; Hompes, Peter; Brölmann, Hans

2014-01-01

387

Melanoma "in situ" tratado con Imiquimod Melanoma in situ treated with Imiquimod  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comunicamos un caso con dos melanomas "in situ", en un varón de 86 años, localizados en ambos lados de la cara con alto riesgo quirúrgico, quien fuera tratado con imiquimod al 5% una vez al día durante dos meses; los resulta