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Chemically enhanced in situ recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Sale, T. [CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States); Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K. [Surtek, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

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Innovative technology summary report: in situ enhanced soil mixing.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Situ Enhanced Soil Mixing (ISESM) is a treatment technology that has been demonstrated and deployed to remediate soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The technology has been developed by industry and has been demonstrated with the...

1996-01-01

3

Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately 750 000 sites of contaminated land exist across Europe. The harmful chemicals found in Finnish soils include heavy metals, oil products, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols, and pesticides. Petroleum and petroleum products enter soil from ruptured oil pipelines, land disposal of refinery products, leaking storage tanks and through accidents. PAH contamination is caused by the spills of coal tar and creosote from coal gasification and wood treatment sites in addition to oil spills. Cleanup of soil by bioremediation is cheaper than by chemical and physical processes. However, the cleaning capacity of natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation is limited. The purpose of this thesis was to find feasible options to enhance in situ remediation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The aims were to increase the bioavailability of the contaminants and microbial activity at the subsurface in order to achieve higher contaminant removal efficiency than by intrinsic biodegradation alone. Enhancement of microbial activity and decrease of soil toxicity during remediation were estimated by using several biological assays. The performance of these assays was compared in order to find suitable indicators to follow the progress of remediation. Phytoremediation and chemical oxidation are promising in situ techniques to increase the degradation of hydrocarbons in soil. Phytoremediation is plant-enhanced decontamination of soil and water. Degradation of hydrocarbons is enhanced in the root zone by increased microbial activity and through the detoxifying enzymes of plants themselves. Chemical oxidation of contaminants by Fenton's reaction can produce degradation products which are more biodegradable than the parent compounds. Fenton's reaction and its modifications apply solutions of hydrogen peroxide and iron for the oxidation of organic chemicals. The cost of oxidation can be reduced by aiming at partial instead of full oxidation of contaminants and by integrating the process to biological treatment, in which the formed degradation products can be biodegraded. Phytoremediation was used to remove fresh and aged petroleum hydrocarbons from soil, and modified FentonAEs reaction combined with biodegradation was used to remove aged creosote oil from soil. The effects of hydrocarbon aging, different plant species and soil amendments on the removal efficiency were studied in phytoremediation experiments. Lab-scale experiments were made with fresh diesel fuel, and a field study was made with aged hydrocarbons deriving from diesel fuel and lubricants. The used plant species were pine, poplar, a grass mixture and a legume mixture. The experiments with modified Fenton's treatment were carried out in soil columns, to which concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was added simulating in situ injection. Iron was not added since the soil was rich in iron. After FentonAEs treatment, the soil was incubated in serum bottles to determine the effects on bioavailability of PAHs by modified FentonAEs oxidation and to simulate the potential of intrinsic remediation. In addition to hydrocarbon analyses, the effects of both methods on soil microbial activities and toxicity were determined. In the presence of white clover and green pea, pine or poplar, 89 to 98 % of diesel fuel was removed, whereas the presence of grasses did not increase diesel fuel removal compared to treatment without plants, where up to 86 % of diesel fuel was removed. When diesel was applied to the trees for a second time, reduction in one month was 9 to 25 % higher than what was achieved after first month of first application. During the four growing season study with soil contaminated with aged hydrocarbon contaminants, the presence of vegetation did not increase hydrocarbon removal in unfertilised soil. Vegetation cover was denser in amended soil than in unfertilised soil. The addition of compost or NPK fertiliser enhanced hydrocarbon removal. However, the toxicity of aged hydrocarbon contaminated soil to Vibrio fischeri (a luminesc

Palmroth, M.

2006-07-01

4

In situ enhanced soil mixing. Innovative technology summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Situ Enhanced Soil Mixing (ISESM) is a treatment technology that has been demonstrated and deployed to remediate soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The technology has been developed by industry and has been demonstrated with the assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and Technology and the Office of Environmental Restoration. The technology is particularly suited to shallow applications, above the water table, but can be used at greater depths. ISESM technologies demonstrated for this project include: (1) Soil mixing with vapor extraction combined with ambient air injection. [Contaminated soil is mixed with ambient air to vaporize volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The mixing auger is moved up and down to assist in removal of contaminated vapors. The vapors are collected in a shroud covering the treatment area and run through a treatment unit containing a carbon filter or a catalytic oxidation unit with a wet scrubber system and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter.] (2) soil mixing with vapor extraction combined with hot air injection [This process is the same as the ambient air injection except that hot air or steam is injected.] (3) soil mixing with hydrogen peroxide injection [Contaminated soil is mixed with ambient air that contains a mist of diluted hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution. The H2O2 solution chemically oxidizes the VOCs to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water.] (4) soil mixing with grout injection for solidification/stabilization [Contaminated soil is mixed as a cement grout is injected under pressure to solidify and immobilize the contaminated soil in a concrete-like form.] The soils are mixed with a single-blade auger or with a combination of augers ranging in diameter from 3 to 12 feet

1996-01-01

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IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration...

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IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC., - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration...

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Passive in-situ cometabolic biotreatment of gasoline and diesel in soil and groundwater: An electrokinetic enhanced bioremediation case history  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of passive in-situ biotreatment of gasoline and diesel conducted at the subject facility in Hayward, California. Past spills of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels from an underground storage tank farm caused soil and shallow groundwater contamination in the clayey Bay Mud. The soil contamination was limited to a depth of about 10 feet with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration of 100 to 3,900 ppm. Due to the low permeability of the clayey Bay Mud, a passive in-situ biotreatment (PISB) system was designed and implemented for both soil and groundwater plumes. The PISB consisted of a system of electrokinetic, oxygen, nutrient and moisture enhancement units covering the soil and groundwater plumes. The electrokinetic system was installed to promote rapid migration of nutrient oxidant between electrodes to enhance the in-situ biodegradation processes. The gasoline and diesel in soil was remediated to less than 100 ppm of TPH. The TPH in groundwater was remediated to less than 10 ppm of TPH. The TPH in groundwater was remediated to less than 10 ppm. The groundwater remediation is in progress and the target cleanup levels were to be less than 10 ppm TPH and BTEX to less than 0.005, 1.0, 0.7 and 10.0 ppm respectively which are all below the MCL under the EPA primary drinking water standard. The total duration of this PISB was completed in less than 4 weeks

1994-12-01

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DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) is designed to remove volatile compounds such as halogenated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons, and semi-volatile compounds from contaminated soils in situ. The vapor pressures of most contaminants will increase by the addition of ste...

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Changes in normal and abnormal colony formation of thyroid cells in vivo, when transplanted at 1 day or 6 weeks after X-irradiation in situ  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid cells were given 5.5 Gy X-rays in situ and transplanted after 1 day or after 6 weeks to form colonies in fat pads. The colony-forming efficiency unexpectedly decreased by a factor of about 2 with this increase in delay time before transplantation. In addition, there was a concomitant marked increase above the control levels in the proportion of new structures of thyroid origin containing abnormal follicles. These quantitative and qualitative increases in injury may be related to the gradual expression of thyroid abnormalities following irradiation in situ, and they may have implications for the recovery of functional tissue subunits in other organs. (author)

1994-06-01

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An integrated numerical and physical modeling system for an enhanced in situ bioremediation process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater contamination due to releases of petroleum products is a major environmental concern in many urban districts and industrial zones. Over the past years, a few studies were undertaken to address in situ bioremediation processes coupled with contaminant transport in two- or three-dimensional domains. However, they were concentrated on natural attenuation processes for petroleum contaminants or enhanced in situ bioremediation processes in laboratory columns. In this study, an integrated numerical and physical modeling system is developed for simulating an enhanced in situ biodegradation (EISB) process coupled with three-dimensional multiphase multicomponent flow and transport simulation in a multi-dimensional pilot-scale physical model. The designed pilot-scale physical model is effective in tackling natural attenuation and EISB processes for site remediation. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed system is effective in modeling the EISB process, and can thus be used for investigating the effects of various uncertainties. - An integrated modeling system was developed to enhance in situ bioremediation processes

2006-12-01

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Application Research of Enhanced in-situ micro-ecological Remediation for Oil Contaminated Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reduction of the oil content in soil contaminated by the exploitation of oil field in Zhongyuan District that was then recovered for use has been realized in this paper, through the enhanced in-situ micro-ecological remediation method that is micro-ecological remediation technique, by which the cultivation of alfalfa is combined with the regulation of soil environmental factors by means of the enhanced in-situ microbial communities companied with physical and chemical means. The experimental results showed that the oil contents in the contaminated soil with the average 2898.25 mg/kg can be reduced to about 99.37% after the in-situ micro-ecological remediation after the above mentioned recovery for 99 days, which demonstrated the effectiveness of the in-situ micro-ecological remediation methods for oil contaminated soil in this district, meanwhile, the practical and feasible application of these methods have been explored in this paper.

Sheng Zhang

2013-12-01

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First Steps of in Situ Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering During Shipboard Experiments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is shown that the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique can be applied to detect organic molecules during in situ experiments. To this purpose, we used trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (BPE) as a target molecule. Adsorbed on the SERS chemosensor surface and excited under laser, the vibration modes of the molecules can be identified. SERS chemosensors are based on quartz substrates functionalized by silanization and partially coated with gold nanoparticles. SERS measurements du...

Peron, Olivier; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Colas, Florent; Lehaitre, Michel; Compere, Chantal

2010-01-01

13

In situ combustion - an effective method to enhance oil recovery in Romania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experience gained in operating in situ combustion projects in Romania oil fields is discussed in connection with 3 industrial projects and 13 pilot tests, of which 7 are to be expanded to industrial operations. The in situ combustion process has been applied as both secondary and tertiary method to oil reservoirs, containing oils ranging in density from 840 kg/cu m (37 API) to 960 kg/cu m (16 API), occurring at depths varying between 100 m and 1200 m; the reservoirs consist of one or several pay zones. A series of data concerning the large project conducted in the Suplacu de Barcau field and the important project to be started in the near future in Videle-Balaria field is presented to illustrate the status of in situ combustion technology in Romania. The main difficulties encountered in field operations are presented with the total or partial solutions that have been worked out. It has been estimated that from the total enhanced oil recoverable reserves in Romania, 41% will be produced by in situ combustion. 21 references.

Carcoana, A.N.; Machedon, V.C.; Pantazi, I.G.; Petcovici, V.C.

1983-01-01

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Enhancing the design of in situ chemical barriers with multicomponent reactive transport modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the need for systematic control of field-scale performance in the emplacement and operation of in situ chemical treatment barriers; in particular, it addresses the issue of how the local coupling of reaction kinetics and material heterogeneities at the laboratory or bench scale can be accurately upscaled to the field. The authors have recently developed modeling analysis tools that can explicitly account for all relevant chemical reactions that accompany the transport of reagents and contaminants through a chemically and physically heterogeneous subsurface rock or soil matrix. These tools are incorporated into an enhanced design methodology for in situ chemical treatment technologies, and the new methodology is demonstrated in the ongoing design of a field experiment for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) project at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The ISRM design approach, which systematically integrates bench-scale and site characterization information, provides an ideal test for the new reactive transport techniques. The need for the enhanced chemistry capability is demonstrated by an example that shows how intra-aqueous redox kinetics can affect the transport of reactive solutes. Simulations are carried out on massively parallel computer architectures to resolve the influence of multiscale heterogeneities on multicomponent, multidimensional reactive transport. The technology will soon be available to design larger-scale remediation schemes

1994-11-07

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Enhancing the design of in situ chemical barriers with multicomponent reactive transport modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses the need for systematic control of field-scale performance in the emplacement and operation of in situ chemical treatment barriers; in particular, it addresses the issue of how the local coupling of reaction kinetics and material heterogeneities at the laboratory or bench scale can be accurately upscaled to the field. The authors have recently developed modeling analysis tools that can explicitly account for all relevant chemical reactions that accompany the transport of reagents and contaminants through a chemically and physically heterogeneous subsurface rock or soil matrix. These tools are incorporated into an enhanced design methodology for in situ chemical treatment technologies, and the new methodology is demonstrated in the ongoing design of a field experiment for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) project at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The ISRM design approach, which systematically integrates bench-scale and site characterization information, provides an ideal test for the new reactive transport techniques. The need for the enhanced chemistry capability is demonstrated by an example that shows how intra-aqueous redox kinetics can affect the transport of reactive solutes. Simulations are carried out on massively parallel computer architectures to resolve the influence of multiscale heterogeneities on multicomponent, multidimensional reactive transport. The technology will soon be available to design larger-scale remediation schemes.

Sevougian, S.D.; Steefel, C.I.; Yabusaki, S.B.

1994-11-01

16

IPCS: An integrated process control system for enhanced in-situ bioremediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To date, there has been little or no research related to process control of subsurface remediation systems. In this study, a framework to develop an integrated process control system for improving remediation efficiencies and reducing operating costs was proposed based on physical and numerical models, stepwise cluster analysis, non-linear optimization and artificial neural networks. Process control for enhanced in-situ bioremediation was accomplished through incorporating the developed forecasters and optimizers with methods of genetic algorithm and neural networks modeling. Application of the proposed approach to a bioremediation process in a pilot-scale system indicated that it was effective in dynamic optimization and real-time process control of the sophisticated bioremediation systems. - A framework of process control system was developed to improve in-situ bioremediation efficiencies and reducing operating costs

2008-02-01

17

Controlled in situ nanoscale enhancement of gold nanowire arrays with plasmonics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The controlled in situ growth of ordered gold nanoparticles and nanowire arrays has been studied by optically tracking changes in the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectrum. A spectrometer and custom-programmed analysis software track changes in the LSPR spectrum. The peak position, peak height (i.e. extinction intensity) and peak width (e.g. radius of curvature) were tracked over time to quantify the dynamic growth of gold as soon as the system was exposed to a commercial gold enhancement solution. This enables the controlled dynamic growth of nano-objects without the necessity of characterizing the growth and aggregation kinetics of the gold enhancement solution. The result was the successful enhancement of their electrically conductive and plasmonic properties, as well as the controlled growth and transformation of line-patterned nanoparticles into conductive particle-based nanowires.

MacKenzie, Robert; Fraschina, Corrado; Sannomiya, Takumi; Voeroes, Janos, E-mail: janos.voros@biomed.ee.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, ETH Zurich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

2011-02-04

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Observations of in-situ generated gravity waves during a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE event  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evidence for in situ generated atmospheric gravity waves associated with a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE are presented. The signatures of two sets of gravity waves are observed by molecular-aerosol lidar in conjunction with the early December 2000 STE event above Sondrestrom, Greenland. The first set of gravity waves shows downward phase progression with a vertical wavelength of ~8 km while the second set shows upward phase progression with a vertical wavelength of ~9 km. With estimates of the background wind fields from synoptic analyses, the various intrinsic gravity wave parameters of these two wave structures are found. The observed wave features compare well to previous numerical modeling predictions.

A. J. Gerrard

2011-11-01

19

The ductal carcinoma in situ in contrast enhanced dynamic MR mammography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To define the value of contrast-enhanced MR mammography in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). In a group of 35 patients with DCIS, the results of MR imaging were compared to histopathology and immunohistochemistry in a retrospective study. In 35 patients with DCIS, a signal enhancement was found in 25 cases (72%). In 15 of these cases, the signal time curve was typical for malignancy. The other 10 patients had non-specific signal curves. Six of 35 patients (11%) had no enhancement within the tumour region. Four of 35 patients (11%) had bilateral diffuse signal increase, and regions of DCIS could not be identified clearly. Three DCIS were visualised exclusively by MR mammography. The configuration of signal enhancement was sharp (32%), unsharp (48%) or dendritic (20%). DCIS of the comedo type showed a significantly higher enhancement than the non-comedo type. A significant correlation between the grade of vascularisation in immunohistochemistry and signal enhancement in MR mammography could not be demonstrated. Dynamic MR mammography does not reliably visualise DCIS. (orig.)

1996-04-01

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Enhanced luminescence of Eu3+ by Gd3+ in ternary chelate doped in gel glasses via in situ technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rare-earth ternary chelates EuXGd1-X(TFA)3(TPPO)2 (X=0.2, 0.3, 0.4,...,1.0) were synthesized in gel glasses via in situ technique. Corresponding pure chelates were also synthesized for a comparative investigation and were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra and elemental analysis. Photoluminescence (PL) properties of the in situ chelates in gel glasses and the pure chelates have been studied comparatively. It is found that the enhanced luminescence of Eu3+ ions by Gd3+ ions (energy transfer from Gd3+ ions to Eu3+ ions) occurs in both pure and in situ ternary chelates

2006-06-01

 
 
 
 
21

Integrated modelling of enhanced in situ biodenitrification in a fractured aquifer: biogeochemistry and isotope geochemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced in-situ biodenitrification is a feasible technology to recovery groundwater polluted by nitrates and achieves drinking water standards. Under optimum conditions, nitrate is reduced by autochthonous bacteria trough different reactions until arrive to harmless dinitrogen gas. Isotopic fractionation monitoring in field applications allows knowing the exact degree and the real scope of this technology. Using the Rayleigh equation the change in the isotope ratio of the nitrate molecule (?15N-NO3-, ?18O-NO3-) is related to the fraction of molecules remaining as a result of biodenitrification. However, Rayleigh application at field scale is sometimes limited due to other processes involved during groundwater flow such as dispersion or adsorption and geological media heterogeneities that interferes in concentration values. Then, include isotope fractionation processes in reactive transport models is a useful tool to interpret and predict data from in-situ biodenitrification. We developed a reactive transport model of enhanced in situ application at field scale in a fractured aquifer that considers biogeochemical processes as well as isotope fractionation to enable better monitoring and management of this technology. Processes considered were: microbiological- exogenous and endogenous nitrate and sulfate respiration coupled with microbial growth and decay, geochemical reactions (precipitation of calcite) and isotopic fractionation (?15N-NO3-; ?18O- NO3- and carbon isotope network). The 2-D simulations at field scale were developed using PHAST code. Modeling of nitrate isotope geochemistry has allowed determining the extent of biodenitrification in model domain. We have quantified which is the importance in decreasing of nitrate concentrations due to biodegradation (percentage of biodegradation, 'B%') and due to dilution process (percentage of dilution, 'D%'). On the other hand, the stable carbon isotope geochemistry has been modeled. We have considered the isotopic carbon fractionation of different carbon species involved in enhanced biodenitrification: external organic carbon, biomass, inorganic carbon (in different forms) and calcite. The inclusion of carbon isotopes in the model, which are involved in both direct (oxidation of organic carbon) and indirect (carbonate mineral interaction) processes of enhanced biodenitrification, improves the evaluation of the overall model consistency due to the central role of carbon in the reaction network.

Rodríguez-Escales, Paula; Folch, Albert; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Vidal-Gavilan, Georgina; Soler, Albert

2014-05-01

22

A novel and sensitive in situ instrument using incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for trace gas measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) is a technique with high sensitivity to quantify trace gas concentrations based on their absorption features. The design and calibration of an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) setup employing a 20 m long optical cavity is described for sensitive in situ measurements of light extinction between 630 nm and 690 nm. The setup was installed at the SAPHIR atmospheric simulation chamber during an intercomparison of instruments for nitrate (NO3) radical detection. The long cavity was stable for the entire duration of the two week campaign. A detection limit of ca. 2 pptv for NO3 with a stable acquisition time of 5 s was achieved. In addition to monitoring NO3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were simultaneously retrieved and compared against concurrent measurements by a chemiluminescence detector. The spectral analysis of NO3¬ and NO2 from the SAPHIR chamber studies and comparison with a long path DOAS instrument are presented. Moreover, results from a field campaign at Roches Point, Ireland, will be discussed.

Ruth, A. A.; Varma, R. M.; Venables, D. S.; Heitmann, U.; Schlosser, E.; Dixneuf, S.

2009-04-01

23

Microbial and Chemical Enhancement of In-Situ Carbon Mineralization in Geological Formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Predictions of global energy usage suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere unless major changes are made to the way energy is produced and used. Various carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are currently being developed, but unfortunately little is known regarding the fundamental characteristics of CO2-mineral reactions to allow a viable in-situ carbon mineralization that would provide the most permanent and safe storage of geologically-injected CO2. The ultimate goal of this research project was to develop a microbial and chemical enhancement scheme for in-situ carbon mineralization in geologic formations in order to achieve long-term stability of injected CO2. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of CO2-mineral-brine systems were systematically performed to develop the in-situ mineral carbonation process that utilizes organic acids produced by a microbial reactor. The major participants in the project are three faculty members and their graduate and undergraduate students at the School of Engineering and Applied Science and at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University: Alissa Park in Earth and Environmental Engineering & Chemical Engineering (PI), Juerg Matter in Earth and Environmental Science (Co-PI), and Kartik Chandran in Earth and Environmental Engineering (Co-PI). Two graduate students, Huangjing Zhao and Edris Taher, were trained as a part of this project as well as a number of graduate students and undergraduate students who participated part-time. Edris Taher received his MS degree in 2012 and Huangjing Zhao will defend his PhD on Jan. 15th, 2014. The interdisciplinary training provided by this project was valuable to those students who are entering into the workforce in the United States. Furthermore, the findings from this study were and will be published in referred journals to disseminate the results. The list of the papers is given at the end of the report for reference.

Matter, J.; Chandran, K.

2013-05-31

24

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes enhance electrochemical properties of titanium to determine in situ bone formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) enhance osteoblast (bone-forming cell) calcium deposition compared to currently implanted materials (such as titanium). In this study, MWCNTs were grown out of nanopores anodized on titanium (MWCNT-Ti). The electrochemical responses of MWCNT-Ti were investigated in an attempt to ascertain if MWCNT-Ti can serve as novel in situ sensors of bone formation. For this purpose, MWCNT-Ti was subjected to a ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple and its electrochemical behavior measured. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed an enhanced redox potential for the MWCNT-Ti. These redox signals were superior to that obtained with bare unmodified Ti, which did not sense either oxidation or reduction peaks in the CVs. A further objective of this study was to investigate the redox reactions of MWCNT-Ti in a solution of extracellular components secreted by osteoblasts in vitro. It was found that MWCNT-Ti exhibited well-defined and persistent CVs, similar to the ferri/ferrocyanide redox reaction. The higher electrodic performance and electrocatalytic activity of the MWCNT-Ti compared to the bare titanium observed in this study were likely due to the fact that MWCNTs enhanced direct electron transfer and facilitated double-layer effects, leading to a strong redox signal. Thus these results encourage the further study and modification of MWCNT-Ti to sense new bone growth in situ next to orthopedic implants and perhaps monitor other events (such as infection and/or harmful scar tissue formation) to improve the current clinical diagnosis of orthopedic implants

2008-07-23

25

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes enhance electrochemical properties of titanium to determine in situ bone formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) enhance osteoblast (bone-forming cell) calcium deposition compared to currently implanted materials (such as titanium). In this study, MWCNTs were grown out of nanopores anodized on titanium (MWCNT-Ti). The electrochemical responses of MWCNT-Ti were investigated in an attempt to ascertain if MWCNT-Ti can serve as novel in situ sensors of bone formation. For this purpose, MWCNT-Ti was subjected to a ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple and its electrochemical behavior measured. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed an enhanced redox potential for the MWCNT-Ti. These redox signals were superior to that obtained with bare unmodified Ti, which did not sense either oxidation or reduction peaks in the CVs. A further objective of this study was to investigate the redox reactions of MWCNT-Ti in a solution of extracellular components secreted by osteoblasts in vitro. It was found that MWCNT-Ti exhibited well-defined and persistent CVs, similar to the ferri/ferrocyanide redox reaction. The higher electrodic performance and electrocatalytic activity of the MWCNT-Ti compared to the bare titanium observed in this study were likely due to the fact that MWCNTs enhanced direct electron transfer and facilitated double-layer effects, leading to a strong redox signal. Thus these results encourage the further study and modification of MWCNT-Ti to sense new bone growth in situ next to orthopedic implants and perhaps monitor other events (such as infection and/or harmful scar tissue formation) to improve the current clinical diagnosis of orthopedic implants.

Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Webster, Thomas J [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)], E-mail: Thomas_Webster@Brown.edu

2008-07-23

26

Laboratory observations of permeability enhancement by fluid pressure oscillation of in situ fractured rock  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on laboratory experiments designed to investigate the influence of pore pressure oscillations on the effective permeability of fractured rock. Berea sandstone samples were fractured in situ under triaxial stresses of tens of megapascals, and deionized water was forced through the incipient fracture under conditions of steady and oscillating pore pressure. We find that short-term pore pressure oscillations induce long-term transient increases in effective permeability of the fractured samples. The magnitude of the effective permeability enhancements scales with the amplitude of pore pressure oscillations, and changes persist well after the stress perturbation. The maximum value of effective permeability enhancement is 5 × 10-16 m2 with a background permeability of 1 × 10-15 m2; that is, the maximum enhanced permeability is 1.5 × 10-15 m2. We evaluate poroelastic effects and show that hydraulic storage release does not explain our observations. Effective permeability recovery following dynamic oscillations occurs as the inverse square root of time. The recovery indicates that a reversible mechanism, such as clogging/unclogging of fractures, as opposed to an irreversible one, like microfracturing, is responsible for the transient effective permeability increase. Our work suggests the feasibility of dynamically controlling the effective permeability of fractured systems. The result has consequences for models of earthquake triggering and permeability enhancement in fault zones due to dynamic shaking from near and distant earthquakes.

Elkhoury, Jean E.; Niemeijer, André; Brodsky, Emily E.; Marone, Chris

2011-02-01

27

In situ synthesis of Pt/carbon nanofiber nanocomposites with enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pt/carbon nanofiber (Pt/CNF) nanocomposites were facilely synthesized by the reduction of hexachloroplatinic acid (H(2)PtCl(6)) using formic acid (HCOOH) in aqueous solution containing electrospun carbon nanofibers at room temperature. The obtained Pt/CNF nanocomposites were characterized by TEM and EDX. The Pt nanoparticles could in situ grow on the surface of CNFs with small particle size, high loading density, and uniform dispersion by adjusting the concentration of H(2)PtCl(6) precursor. The electrocatalytic activities of the Pt/CNF nanocomposites were also studied. These Pt/CNF nanocomposites exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation reaction compared with commercial E-TEK Pt/C catalyst. The results presented may offer a new approach to facilely synthesize direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) catalyst with enhanced electrocatalytic activity and low cost. PMID:22082800

Wang, Dawei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Jianshe; You, Tianyan

2012-02-01

28

{In Situ} Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater via Enhanced Reductive Dehalogenation and Dual-Screened Wells  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater contaminated by chlorinated solvents, principally cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), was cleaned {in situ} by a technology that combines enhanced reductive dechlorination with dual-screened treatment wells. The prolonged historic presence of cis-DCE at the contaminated site suggested that natural attenuation rates were limited by the supply of electron donors. Therefore, propionate was added to the contaminated groundwater to serve as an electron donor and to accelerate the reductive dechlorination process. Propionate was added from the ground surface via a pair of dual-screened wells emplaced in the contaminated portion of the aquifer. The wells were screened at two depths, from 3.0--7.6 m below ground surface (bgs) and from 9.1--12.2 m bgs. These wells functioned to intercept the contaminant plume, augment the contaminated water with propionate, recirculate a portion of the contaminated water, and release treated water for continued downgradient migration. Treatment occurred wholly {in situ}. Within the recirculation zone of the well pair, cis-DCE was effectively removed during a two-month period of operation. In the lower aquifer zone, 800 ? g/L cis-DCE was converted stoichiometrically to ethene. In the upper aquifer zone, the concentration of cis-DCE was reduced from over 400 ? g/L to less than 40 ? g/L. Dechlorination was accompanied by significant sulfate reduction, but not by methanogenesis. The hydraulics of the groundwater flow are described with a relatively simple analytical mathematical model. Measured concentrations of a bromide tracer agree very well with model predictions, suggesting that the model is valid for this contaminated site. At this site, it appears sufficient to model the aquifer as consisting of two homogeneous layers separated by an impermeable aquitard; smaller-scale heterogeneity in the hydraulic conductivity can apparently be ignored.

Cunningham, J. A.; Hoelen, T. P.; Hopkins, G. D.; Reinhard, M.; Lebrón, C. A.

2003-12-01

29

ENHANCEMENT OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE PULP BY IN-SITU FILLER PRECIPITATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate in bagasse fibers resulted in a very significant increase in specific scattering coefficient and consequently large improvements in opacity and brightness of the handsheets made from such pulp. At the same level of filler loading, the scattering coefficient of in-situ precipitated pulp was much greater than for directly loaded pulp. In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate caused a drop in strength properties of bagasse pulp, but such loss could be recovered to a large extent by blending with other pulps. The effect of in-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate on pulp fibers was quite different for bagasse pulp from hardwood pulp. In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate on hardwood fibers showed neither much improvement in optical properties nor much reduction in strength properties.

Pradeep Kumar

30

In situ fluorine-modified organosilicate glass prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ fluorine-modified organosilicate glass (FOSG) thin films and OSG thin films were deposited at various temperatures (250-400 °C) by the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. The fluorine content in the FOSG films was adjusted by varying the SiF4/trimethylsilane gas flow ratio from 0.5 to 2. Film characteristics were investigated by examining the bonding configuration, index of refraction, surface composition, hardness, leakage current density, and breakdown field strength. The absorbance spectrum of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows that the frequency of the Si-O stretching vibration mode in the FOSG films is shifted to a higher wave number (blueshift) with the increase of fluorine incorporation, while that at higher temperatures is shifted to a lower wave number (redshift). Meanwhile, the refractive index increases and decreases slightly with increasing fluorine content and deposition temperature, respectively. The dielectric constant of the FOSG is slightly lower than that of the OSG films. The FOSG films with higher fluorine content also exhibit higher mechanical hardness and higher dielectric breakdown voltage. The higher mechanical strength of the FOSG films relative to that of the OSG films is achieved as a consequence of the structural change accompanied by the incorporation of fluorine.

Jangjean, Shiuh-Ko; Wang, Ying-Lang; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Hwang, Weng-Sing; Tseng, Wei-Tsu; Liu, Chi-Wen

2003-07-01

31

Microemulsion enhanced in-situ remediation - recycling concepts for the additive  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently hydraulic in-situ remediation technologies have become increasingly important for the removal of underground contamination. To enhance the traditional pump-and-treat technique, systems such as microemulsions can be used which solubilise the contaminants. For this method to be cost effective, an optimised waste water treatment is essential. On the one hand the contaminants have to be removed from the extracted groundwater and on the other hand the microemulsions have to be recycled for re-use in the remediation procedure. In the course of the project network 'Optimisation of Microemulsions for the Remediation of Contaminated Aquifers', a microemulsion will be applied for a field test pilot remediation. The microemulsion used in that project consists of the main components rape oil methyl ester (RME), anionic surfactant, nonionic surfactant, and brine. During the remediation process an emulsion of water, microemulsion, and contaminant is extracted which has to be treated. First, solids such as soil particles must be separated from the mixture by a sedimentation process, for example. In the next step the water-microemulsion-contaminant mixture will be split. For this purpose two different techniques have been examined: evaporation and stripping with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as contaminant at different degrees of dilution of the microemulsion. (orig.)

Memminger, B.; Barczewski, B.; Fuetterer, N. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany); Schluepen, J.; Fuerst, L. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. Sedimentaere Systeme; Hasse, H. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamic und Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

2003-07-01

32

Proangiogenic Growth Factors Potentiate In Situ Angiogenesis and Enhance Antifungal Drug Activity in Murine Invasive Aspergillosis  

Science.gov (United States)

In invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, direct invasion and occlusion of pulmonary vasculature by Aspergillus hyphae causes tissue hypoxia, which is enhanced by secreted fungal metabolites that downregulate compensatory angiogenic signaling pathways. We assessed the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on survival rates, fungal burden, and in situ angiogenesis in a murine invasive pulmonary aspergillosis model. bFGF and VEGF monotherapy significantly increased survival rates and potentiated the activity of amphotericin B. bFGF-containing regimens were associated with reduced tissue fungal burdens. bFGF and VEGF reversed the antiangiogenic activity of Aspergillus fumigatus; however, VEGF induced the formation of immature neovessels, providing an explanation for its lesser efficacy. Treatment with bFGF plus amphotericin B was associated with neutrophil influx into Aspergillus-infected pulmonary tissue, suggesting that this combination limits fungal growth through neutrophil trafficking. Vasculogenic pathways are unexplored targets for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and may potentiate both innate immunity and antifungal drug activity against A. fumigatus.

Ben-Ami, Ronen; Albert, Nathaniel D.; Lewis, Russell E.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

2013-01-01

33

Proangiogenic growth factors potentiate in situ angiogenesis and enhance antifungal drug activity in murine invasive aspergillosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, direct invasion and occlusion of pulmonary vasculature by Aspergillus hyphae causes tissue hypoxia, which is enhanced by secreted fungal metabolites that downregulate compensatory angiogenic signaling pathways. We assessed the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on survival rates, fungal burden, and in situ angiogenesis in a murine invasive pulmonary aspergillosis model. bFGF and VEGF monotherapy significantly increased survival rates and potentiated the activity of amphotericin B. bFGF-containing regimens were associated with reduced tissue fungal burdens. bFGF and VEGF reversed the antiangiogenic activity of Aspergillus fumigatus; however, VEGF induced the formation of immature neovessels, providing an explanation for its lesser efficacy. Treatment with bFGF plus amphotericin B was associated with neutrophil influx into Aspergillus-infected pulmonary tissue, suggesting that this combination limits fungal growth through neutrophil trafficking. Vasculogenic pathways are unexplored targets for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and may potentiate both innate immunity and antifungal drug activity against A. fumigatus. PMID:23303813

Ben-Ami, Ronen; Albert, Nathaniel D; Lewis, Russell E; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

2013-04-01

34

In situ fluorine-modified organosilicate glass prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ fluorine-modified organosilicate glass (FOSG) thin films and OSG thin films were deposited at various temperatures (250-400 deg. C) by the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. The fluorine content in the FOSG films was adjusted by varying the SiF4/trimethylsilane gas flow ratio from 0.5 to 2. Film characteristics were investigated by examining the bonding configuration, index of refraction, surface composition, hardness, leakage current density, and breakdown field strength. The absorbance spectrum of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows that the frequency of the Si-O stretching vibration mode in the FOSG films is shifted to a higher wave number (blueshift) with the increase of fluorine incorporation, while that at higher temperatures is shifted to a lower wave number (redshift). Meanwhile, the refractive index increases and decreases slightly with increasing fluorine content and deposition temperature, respectively. The dielectric constant of the FOSG is slightly lower than that of the OSG films. The FOSG films with higher fluorine content also exhibit higher mechanical hardness and higher dielectric breakdown voltage. The higher mechanical strength of the FOSG films relative to that of the OSG films is achieved as a consequence of the structural change accompanied by the incorporation of fluorine

2003-07-01

35

Field test for treatment verification of an in-situ enhanced bioremediation study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to a leakage from a 12-inch pressurized diesel steel pipe four years ago, an area of approximately 30,000 square meters was contaminated. A pilot study applying the technology of in-situ enhanced bioremediation was conducted. In the study, a field test kit and on-site monitoring equipment were applied for site characterization and treatment verification. Physically, the enhanced bioremediation study consisted of an air extraction and air supply system, and a nutrition supply network. Certain consistent sampling methodology was employed. Progress was verified by daily monitoring and monthly verification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capabilities of indigenous microorganisms to biodegrade the petroleum hydrocarbons with provision of oxygen and nutrients. Nine extraction wells and eight air sparging wells were installed. The air sparging wells injected the air into geoformation and the extraction wells provided the underground air circulation. The soil samples were obtained monthly for treatment verification by a Minuteman drilling machine with 2.5-foot-long hollow-stem augers. The samples were analyzed on site for TPH-diesel concentration by a field test kit manufactured by HNU-Hanby, Houston, Texas. The analytical results from the field test kit were compared with the results from an environmental laboratory. The TVPH concentrations of the air extracted from the vadose zone by a vacuum blower and the extraction wells were routinely monitored by a Foxboro FID and Cosmos XP-311A combustible air detector. The daily monitoring of TVPH concentrations provided the reliable data for assessing the remedial progress

1995-10-28

36

In situ surface chemical modification of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes for enhanced organic fouling resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane-based water separation process with potential applications in a host of environmental and industrial processes. Nevertheless, membrane fouling remains a technical obstacle affecting this technology, increasing operating costs and decreasing membrane life. This work presents the first fabrication of an antifouling thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane by an in situ technique without postfabrication treatment. The membrane was fabricated and modified in situ, grafting Jeffamine, an amine-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) derivative, to dangling acyl chloride surface groups on the nascent polyamide active layer. Surface characterization by contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and fluorescence microscopy, confirms the presence of Jeffamine on the membrane surface. We demonstrate the improved fouling resistance of the in situ modified membranes through accelerated dynamic fouling FO experiments using a synthetic wastewater feed solution at high concentration (250 mg/L) of alginate, a model macromolecule for the hydrophilic fraction of wastewater effluent organic matter. Our results show a significantly lower flux decline for the in situ modified membranes compared to pristine polyamide (14.3 ± 2.7% vs 2.8 ± 1.4%, respectively). AFM adhesion force measurements between the membrane and a carboxylate-modified latex particle, a surrogate for the organic (alginate) foulant, show weaker foulant-membrane interactions, further confirming the enhanced fouling resistance of the in situ modified membranes. PMID:24066902

Lu, Xinglin; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Shaffer, Devin L; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

2013-11-01

37

Photonic Crystal Biosensor with In-Situ Synthesized DNA Probes for Enhanced Sensitivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report on a nearly 8-fold increase in multi-hole defect photonic crystal biosensor response by incorporating in-situ synthesis of DNA probes, as compared to the conventional functionalization method employing pre-synthesized DNA probe immobilization.

Hu, Shuren [Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Zhao, Y. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Weiss, Sharon [Vanderbilt University, Nashville

2013-01-01

38

Enhanced utilization of oxidants for in situ chemical oxidation of chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons  

Science.gov (United States)

Potentially viable strategies were sought for enhanced utilization of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and Fenton's reagent during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). An innovative concept of controlled release of oxidant was introduced and organic-coated, completely or partially microencapsulated KMnO4 (MEPP) particles (874 +/- 377 mum) were created to serve a material that can be specifically targeted to a contaminant source zone. Paraffin wax was employed as the coating material because it is biodegradable, inert to KMnO4, insoluble in water and yet soluble in hydrophobic contaminants such as perchloroethylene (PCE). KMnO4 was released very slowly into water, but the oxidant was rapidly released into PCE. The estimated times for 90% release of the oxidant were 1.6 months, 19.3 years, and 472 years for paraffin wax to KMnO4 mass ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 5:1, respectively. The MEPP particles preferentially accumulated at the PCE-water interface, and the KMnO4 was rapidly released into PCE (dissolved. These findings suggest that enhanced contact between the target contaminant and the locally high concentrations of KMnO 4 could be achieved at the interfacial region between PCE and water. Fenton's oxidative destruction was investigated for aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene; BTEX) present as dissolved and adsorbed phases, and chlorinated hydrocarbon (PCE) present mostly as dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) (>93% of total PCE mass) in batch reactors (soil: solution = 1 g/L). An enhanced mass removal was observed by combining 300 mM H2O2, 2 mM Fe(III) and 2 mM N-(2-hydroxyethyl)iminodiacetic acid (HEIDA) at near-neutral pH. The PCE degradation was maximal at 600 mM H2O2, 5 mM Fe(III) and 5 mM HEIDA at pH 3. The observed BTEX mass removal rate constants (3.6--7.8 x 10-4 s-1) were compared to the estimated ones (4.1--10.1 x 10-3 s-1) using a semi-quantitative kinetic model. The model sensitivity analyses indicate that iron oxides and soil organic matter could play important roles in the non-specific losses of both H 2O2 and ·OH. These findings suggest that system design could be optimized with respect to process variables in remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater with Fenton's reagent.

Kang, Namgoo

39

In situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroelectrochemistry of oxygen species.  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) combined with electrochemical analysis is applied to the determination of oxygen species on silver electrodes in alkaline hydroxide aqueous solution at room temperature and gold electrodes in carbonate melts at high temperature. This technique, referred to as SERS spectroelectrochemistry, reveals Raman spectral lines in the 500-1100 cm(-1) range under electrode potential scanning, assignable to superoxide ions (O2-) and peroxide ions (O2(2-)) on the electrode surface. These lines for oxygen molecule species have potential dependence with changing potential. In the alkaline hydroxide aqueous solution, the Raman peaks due to oxygen molecules are observed at potentials between 0.2 V and -0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) only in the cathodic scan. This irreversible behavior in cyclic voltammograms indicates the existence of an intermediate stage in the oxygen reduction process, in which oxygen is released from the AgO films on the electrode at potentials corresponding to the onset of the last current peak in the voltammogram. This liberated oxygen molecule remains in solution at the interface until hydroxyls or water molecules are formed when the potential reaches the potential zero charge (PZC). In the high-temperature carbonate melts, Raman lines at 1047, 1080, and 800 cm(-1) are apparent for the eutectic (62 + 38) mol% (Li + K)CO3 melt at 923 K, and at 735 cm(-1) for the Li2CO3 melt at 1123 K. These results suggest that oxygen reduction in the Li2CO3 melt involves only peroxide ions, while that in (62 + 38) mol% (Li + K)CO3 involves both peroxide and superoxide ions at the three-phase boundary interface. PMID:16833110

Itoh, Takashi; Maeda, Toshiteru; Kasuya, Atsuo

2006-01-01

40

A highly effective gene delivery vector--hyperbranched poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) from in situ deactivation enhanced ATRP.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hyperbranched 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) based polymer has been synthesised by a one-pot in situ deactivation enhanced atom transfer radical polymerisation (DE-ATRP); it exhibits much higher transfection ability than linear poly(DMAEMA) and is comparable to the well known branched poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and the SuperFect dendrimer but with lower cytotoxicity. PMID:20514386

Newland, Ben; Tai, Hongyun; Zheng, Yu; Velasco, Diego; Di Luca, Andrea; Howdle, Steven M; Alexander, Cameron; Wang, Wenxin; Pandit, Abhay

2010-07-14

 
 
 
 
41

Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS) for in Situ Identification of Indigo and Iron Gall Ink on Paper.  

Science.gov (United States)

Confirmatory, nondestructive, and noninvasive identification of colorants in situ is of critical importance for the understanding of historical context and for the long-term preservation of cultural heritage objects. Although there are several established techniques for analyzing cultural heritage materials, there are very few analytical methods that can be used for molecular characterization when very little sample is available, and a minimally invasive approach is required. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is a powerful analytical technique whose key features include high mass sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and precise positioning of the tip. In the current proof-of-concept study we utilized TERS to identify indigo dye and iron gall ink in situ on Kinwashi paper. In addition, TERS was used to identify iron gall ink on a historical document with handwritten text dated to the 19th century. We demonstrate that TERS can identify both of these colorants directly on paper. Moreover, vibrational modes from individual components of a complex chemical mixture, iron gall ink, can be identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of in situ TERS for colorants of artistic relevance directly on historical materials. Overall, this work demonstrates the great potential of TERS as an additional spectroscopic tool for minimally invasive compositional characterization of artworks in situ and opens exciting new possibilities for cultural heritage research. PMID:24848305

Kurouski, Dmitry; Zaleski, Stephanie; Casadio, Francesca; Van Duyne, Richard P; Shah, Nilam C

2014-06-18

42

Interactive oxidation-reduction reaction for the in situ synthesis of graphene-phenol formaldehyde composites with enhanced properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a facile in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-phenol formaldehyde (PF) composites with an interactive oxidation-reduction reaction. In this interactive chemical reaction, graphene oxide (GO) was reduced to RGO by phenol, and simultaneously phenol was oxidized to benzoquinone. The noncovalently adsorbed phenol on the RGO surface can not only serve as an effective reductant but also participate in the in situ polymerization and guide the formation of PF on the RGO surface. RGO-PF composites with different RGO contents were prepared successfully and further characterized with fluorescent spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and thermal resistance of the created RGO-PF were investigated. The results indicated that the dispersity of RGO in the PF matrix and the interfacial interaction between RGO and PF were improved greatly because of formation of the RGO-PF hybrid in the in situ synthesis. The homogeneous dispersion and in situ polymerization of RGO sheets help to enhance the thermal conductivity of RGO-PF composites from 0.1477 to 0.3769 W m(-1) K(-1) and endow the composites with a good electrical conductivity. In addition, the well-dispersed RGO-PF composites are much more effective in improving their mechanical property and heat resistance. PMID:24588055

Zhao, Xiaojia; Li, Yang; Wang, Jinhui; Ouyang, Zhaofei; Li, Jingfeng; Wei, Gang; Su, Zhiqiang

2014-03-26

43

Microcosm and in situ field studies of enhanced biotransformation of trichloroethylene by phenol-utilizing microorganisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is the most frequently observed volatile organic contaminant at RCRA sites and in ground water. In situ aerobic bioremediation of aquifers contaminated with TCE, c-DCE, T-DCE, and vinyl chloride, is a potential means of restoring the aquifers. This study looks at field in situ data on chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon (CAH) transformation by indigenous microorganisms with a substrate other than methane in order to obtain a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of different substrates for CAH transformation. Phenol was used for this study. The results indicate that with rapidly growing aerobic bacteria it is difficult to develop and maintain a uniform population in situ; however, bioremediation using micoorganisms grown on phenol is a possibility. 29 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Hopkins, G.D.; McCarty, P.L. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Semprini, L. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

1993-07-01

44

SETTING DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR THERMALLY ENHANCED, IN SITU REMEDIATION PROJECTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The design and implementation of an in-situ technology requires an up-front and clear understanding of the remedial objectives of the technology application and the data that will be collected to track the progress of remediation and to assess the ultimate success of in-sit...

45

Oral characteristics of bergenin and the effect of absorption enhancers in situ, in vitro and in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore the absorption characteristics of bergenin (CAS 477-90-7) and to improve its bioavailability by modulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption using two enhancers (borneol and Poloxamer 188, resp. F68) based on in situ absorption model, in vitro Caco-2 monolayer and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies and comparing the results obtained. The effect of borneol and F68 on drug absorption was quantified at two concentration levels (1 or 4 mg/ml). The observations from in situ and in vitro model indicated that the oral absorption of bergenin is limited and passive diffusion could be the main manner. After oral administration alone (60 mg/kg), a biphasic characteristic was observed. AUC0-->infinity was only 1.95 +/- 0.29 microg x h/ml and Cmax was 0.44 +/- 0.11 microg/ml. From the results of in situ experiments, both of the enhancers were able to increase the absorption percentage of bergenin. Significantly increased (P bergenin in rats was improved in the presence of borneol or F68. AUC0-->infinity increased significantly (P bergenin in the GI tract. PMID:20486470

Qin, Xuan; Yuan, Fang; Zhou, Dan; Huang, Yuan

2010-01-01

46

In situ nitrogen-doped graphene grown from polydimethylsiloxane by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to its unique electronic properties and wide spectrum of promising applications, graphene has attracted much attention from scientists in various fields. Control and engineering of graphene’s semiconducting properties is considered to be the key of its applications in electronic devices. Here, we report a novel method to prepare in situ nitrogen-doped graphene by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) as a solid carbon source. Based on this approach, the concentration of nitrogen-doping can be easily controlled via the flow rate of nitrogen during the CVD process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the nitrogen atoms doped into graphene lattice were mainly in the forms of pyridinic and pyrrolic structures. Moreover, first-principles calculations show that the incorporated nitrogen atoms can lead to p-type doping of graphene. This in situ approach provides a promising strategy to prepare graphene with controlled electronic properties.

Wang, Chundong; Zhou, Yungang; He, Lifang; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Hong, Guo; Wu, Qi-Hui; Gao, Fei; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Wenjun

2013-01-21

47

Laboratory observations of permeability enhancement by fluid pressure oscillation of in situ fractured rock  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report on laboratory experiments designed to investigate the influence of pore pressure oscillations on the effective permeability of fractured rock. Berea sandstone samples were fractured in situ under triaxial stresses of tens of megapascals, and deionized water was forced through the incipient fracture under conditions of steady and oscillating pore pressure. We find that short?term pore pressure oscillations induce long?term transient increases in effective permeabil...

Elkhoury, J. E.; Niemeijer, A.; Brodsky, E. E.; Marone, C.

2011-01-01

48

Cyclodextrin-enhanced in situ bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated soils and plant uptake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In situ bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) polluted soils can be improved by the augmentation of degrading microbial populations and by the increase of hydrocarbon bioavailability. ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) significantly accelerate the induction of hydrocarbon biodegradation, but it is not still clear its effectiveness during final, slower stages of degradation. Moreover, it is yet not known if the PAH uptake from plants is influenced by the presence of CD. A field study w...

Belviso, Simona; Bertolone, Eleonora; Opsi, Francesca; Ajmone Marsan, Franco; Bardi, Laura; Marzona, Mario

2007-01-01

49

Ultrasound-enhanced rapid in situ transesterification of marine macroalgae Enteromorpha compressa for biodiesel production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ transesterification of Enteromorpha compressa algal biomass was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The maximum methyl esters (ME) yield of 98.89% was obtained using ultrasonic irradiation. Tetra hydro furan (THF) and acid catalyst (H2SO4) was found to be an appropriate co-solvent and catalyst for high free fatty acids (FFA) content E. compressa biomass to increase the efficiency of the reactive in situ process. The optimization study was conducted to obtain the maximum yield and it was determined as 30vol% of THF as a co-solvent, 10wt% of H2SO4, 5.5:1 ratio of methanol to algal biomass and 600rpm of mixing intensity at 65°C for 90min of ultrasonic irradiation time. The produced biodiesel was characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) analysis. Kinetic studies revealed that the reaction followed the first-order reaction mechanism. Rapid in situ transesterification was found to be suitable technique to produce biodiesel from marine macroalgae feedstock. PMID:24508906

Suganya, Tamilarasan; Kasirajan, Ramachandran; Renganathan, Sahadevan

2014-03-01

50

JV Task 59-Demonstration of Accelerated In Situ Contaminant Degradation by Vacuum-Enhanced Nutrient Distribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at a former Mohler Oil site in Bismarck, North Dakota. The remedial strategy was based on the application of two innovative concepts: (1) design and deployment of the mobile extraction, treatment, and injection units to overcome site limitations associated with urban settings in high-traffic areas and (2) vacuum-controlled nutrient injection within and on the periphery of an induced hydraulic and pneumatic depression. Combined contaminant recovery since the beginning of the project in June 2003 totals over 13,600 lb ({approx}6,170 kg) of hydrocarbons, equivalent to 2176 gallons (8236 l) of product. In situ delivery of 1504 Ib (682 kg) of ionic nitrate and 540 Ib (245 kg) of dissolved oxygen translates into further reduction of about 489 Ib (222 kg) of benzene for the same period and provides for long-term stimulation of the natural attenuation process. In addition to contaminant recovered by extraction and reduced by in situ biodegradation, a total of 4136 Ib (1876 kg) of oxygen was delivered to the saturated zone, resulting in further in situ reduction of an estimated 1324 lb (600 kg) of dissolved-phase hydrocarbons. Based on the results of the EERC demonstration, the North Dakota Department of Health approved site abandonment and termination of the corrective action.

Jaroslav Solc

2007-03-15

51

Dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition growth of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres: in situ spectroscopy and plasma current dependence  

Science.gov (United States)

Dc plasma-enhanced CVD growth of nanotubes and nanofibres is studied as a function of plasma power (3 40 W). The dependence of the nanotube/nanofibre morphology for growth on thin iron films and lithographically prepared individual nickel dots is investigated. In both cases, large differences in the morphology of the carbon nanostructures are observed as the plasma power is changed. In situ optical emission spectroscopy is used to obtain insight into the important parameters affecting the growth. The best growth results are found for intermediate plasma powers (15 W).

Jönsson, M.; Nerushev, O. A.; Campbell, E. E. B.

2007-08-01

52

Microcosm and in situ field studies of enhanced biotransformation of trichloroethylene by phenol-utilizing microorganisms.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability of different aerobic groundwater microorganisms to cometabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), and 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene (t-DCE) was evaluated both in groundwater-fed microcosms and in situ in a shallow aquifer. Microcosms amended with phenol or toulene were equally effective in removing c-DCE (> 90%) followed by TCE (60 to 70%), while the microcosm fed methane was most effective in removing t-DCE (> 90%). The microcosm fed ammonia was t...

1993-01-01

53

Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: In situ FTIR investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalyst on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO2 is produced as the final product during the reaction process. Highlights: ? Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI photocatalysts showed enhanced photocatalytic activity. ? Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. ? CO2 was produced as the final product during the reaction process. ? The high efficiency of charge separation was mainly ascribed to the hybrid effect. - Abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalysts on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO2 is determined as the final product during the reaction process.

2012-11-30

54

In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy on probing the enhanced electrochemical activity of ternary PtRu@Pb catalysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cumulative synergistic effect generated by the combination of the components is a promising route for developing active ternary catalysts with reduced Pt content. In this article, synthesis, electrochemical property and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of a novel ternary catalyst PtRu@Pb/C have been reported. This ternary PtRu@Pb/C catalyst shows tenfold increase in the peak current density for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in comparison to the commercial state-of-the-art PtRu catalyst. To understand the mechanistic pathways and plausible reasons behind higher current density of PtRu@Pb, XAS and ?? analysis in combination with ab initio FEFF8 calculations have been performed. The results reveal the direct evidence of strong charge transfer from lead to platinum shedding the light on this enhanced activity. The electrochemical study in conjunction with the in situ spectroscopy affirms the different role played by Pb and Ru, where ligand mechanism is induced by Pb and the bi-functional mechanism is mostly operated by ruthenium both being responsible in the enhancement of high current density for MOR

2013-10-01

55

In-situ decorated gold nanoparticles on polyaniline with enhanced electrocatalysis toward dopamine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gold nanoparticles were in-situ decorated on top of a polyaniline film (GNPs-PANI) via the direct electroreduction of the adsorbed AuCl4- ions on a glassy carbon electrode that previously was coated with PANI by electropolymerization. The GNPs-PANI composite and the performance of the resultant sensors were investigated in some detail. The sensor was applied to the oxidation of dopamine (DA) with improved catalytic activity. Its catalytic current showed wide linear response toward dopamine ranging from 3 to 115 ?M, with a low detection limit of 0. 8 ?M (S/N=3). In addition, the sensor exhibits easy-operation, fast response to dopamine, as well as excellent reproducibility and stability. (author)

2010-12-01

56

In-Situ Fabrication of Expanded Graphite-Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite with Enhanced Thermal Conductivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D expanded graphite-carbon nanotube (EG-CNT nanocomposite was prepared by in situ growing CNTs between graphite layers in thermally expanded graphite. The morphology and microstructure of the nanocomoposite were characterized by SEM, TEM, Raman and XRD analyses, respectively. The results show that intimately contacted EG-CNT interface has been formed within the multilayered composite architecture. Furthermore, paraffin was used as a filler to occupy the free spaces of the EG-CNT nanocomposite for thermal application. The as-obtained composite structure is inclined to conduct heat isotropically and shows a thermal conductivity higher than 10 W/m·K at a paraffin loading of 49 wt.%, which indicates that EG-CNT nanocomposite could be promising candidates for thermal management in electronic package.

Jun Cao

2013-10-01

57

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE NASAL IN-SITU GEL USING FULVIC ACID AS NOVEL PERMEATION ENHANCER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sumatriptan succinate is a 5-HT1D (5-hydroxy tryptamine 1D-receptor agonist, used in the treatment of migraine and cluster headache Sumatriptan succinate has been shown to have a low oral bioavailability in human volunteers (15% because of high first pass metabolism.. Subcutaneous administration is an alternative; however, dislike of injections or inability to self-administer by this route makes subcutaneous treatment unacceptable to some individuals. These all above things justify a need of nasal drug delivery. To improve the nasal retention time of Sumatriptan succinate, it has been formulated as in situ mucoadhesive gel by using Pluronic PF127 and carbopol 974P. The objective of this work was to improve the nasal bioavailability of Sumatriptan succinate by increasing its nasal retention time as well as by means of nasal permeation. Nasal permeation of Sumatriptan succinate was improved by using fulvic acid extracted from Shilajit as a novel permeation enhancer. For the same the nasal in situ gel of Sumatriptan succinate and its complex with fulvic acid extracted from shilajit was made by cold method. The prepared in-situ gel was evaluated for gelation temperature, drug content, mucoadhesive force, gel strength and viscosity measurement. Further insitu gels prepared with and without permeation enhancer (Fulvic acid were evaluated for its In vitro drug diffusion study by Fran’s Diffusion Cell. The data of In vitro drug diffusion study of insitu gel prepared with and without permeation enhancer showed non Fickian or anomalous diffusion mechanism. The optimized batch C3 and F3 of insitu gel prepared with and without permeation enhancer respectively shows drug release in a controlled manner with higher permeation rate for 250min.. The drug permeation study across sheep nasal mucosa was conducted using C3 and F3 batch. The study showed that the insitu gel having fulvic acid have a significantly higher permeability as compared to the insitu gel which do not contain the fulvic acid. The higher permeation rate of C3 formulation as compare to F3 formulation is might be due to polymeric polyphenolic nature of fulvic acid because of which it have a tendency to interact with number of component resulting in higher permeation rate.

Shyam D. Badgujar

2010-10-01

58

In-situ measurements of topside ionosphere electron density enhancements during an HF-modification experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

A Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite measured an electron density enhancement of approximately 30% at 840 km altitude on 25 February 2008 during an overpass of the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) research station in Alaska where ionosphere modification experiments were being conducted. An upward ion velocity enhancement of 200 m/s was also observed. Simulation results from a one-dimensional self-consistent ionosphere model indicate that topside electron density enhancements similar in magnitude to the observed enhancements at HAARP follow from electron temperature enhanced ambipolar diffusion, lifting atomic oxygen ions from the peak density layer along the geomagnetic field line up to the DMSP satellite orbit altitude. Assuming the HF pump heats the ionosphere electrons uniformly over a 10 km layer, the effective volume heating rate inferred from the model calculations is approximately 1 nW/m3.

Fallen, Christopher T.; Secan, James A.; Watkins, Brenton J.

2011-04-01

59

In situ protein-DNA interactions at a dioxin-responsive enhancer associated with the cytochrome P1-450 gene.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We used an in situ exonuclease III protection technique (C. Wu, Nature [London] 309:229, 1984) to analyze protein-DNA interactions at a dioxin-responsive enhancer. Our results imply that the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-receptor complex interacts with the dioxin-responsive enhancer to activate transcription of the cytochrome P1-450 gene.

Durrin, L. K.; Whitlock, J. P.

1987-01-01

60

In situ identification of paper chromatogram spots by surface enhanced Raman scattering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of silver hydrosols to enhance the Raman scattering of paper chromatogram spots has been used successfully. This enhancement technique, which is dependent on the interaction between the substrate, silver particles, and paper fibers, has been applied to detection and identification of ng amounts of crystal violet, malachite green, and basic fuchsin with an argon laser of only 4 mW. This technique enhances the resonance of the Raman scattering so that the Raman cross sections of the spots are approximately 9 to 10 orders of magnitude higher than those observed for non-enhanced systems. The limit of detection of the techniques is defined as the amount of dye spot that yields a signal to noise ratio of 2 when excited with the 4MeV.

Tran, C.D.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Novel approach for in situ biohazard detection utilizing surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel structural architecture of the substrate for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy utilizes the effect of light localization in macroporous material and results in significant improvement of low-concentrated detection of contaminants in solution.

Sona, L.; Heathcote, J.; Sklyarov, A.; Klaper, R.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

2005-04-01

62

In situ synthesis of CoS{sub 2}/RGO nanocomposites with enhanced electrode performance for lithium-ion batteries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •CoS{sub 2}/RGO was in situ synthesized by employing graphene oxides as oxidizer and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} as reductor. •The CoS{sub 2} particles of 150 nm were uniformly dispersed on the RGO nanosheets. •The enhanced properties can be attributed to the small particle size and the RGO networks. -- Abstract: This study reports a novel strategy of preparing CoS{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxides (RGO) nanocomposites by employing graphene oxides (GO) as an oxidizing agent and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a reducing agent. CoS{sub 2} can be in situ synthesized with GO being reduced. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical test are used to characterize the nanocomposite. The CoS{sub 2} particles with the size of 150 nm are dispersed in the networks made from thin RGO nanosheets. The CoS{sub 2}/RGO nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries can deliver excellent reversible capacity retention (640 mA hg{sup ?1}) after cycling 50 times when tested at 100 mA g{sup ?1} and rate performance. The enhanced electrochemical properties can be attributed to the nanoscale particles sizes of CoS{sub 2} in addition to the effects of RGO networks in preventing the agglomeration of CoS{sub 2} and absorbing lithium polysulfides during the charge-discharge processes.

Qiu, Bin; Zhao, Xiuyun [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Xia, Dingguo, E-mail: dgxia@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Theory and Technology of Advanced Battery Materials, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2013-12-05

63

Increased Tumor Oxygenation and Drug Uptake During Anti-Angiogenic Weekly Low Dose Cyclophosphamide Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of Weekly Tirapazamine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment is associated with anti-angiogenic activity and is anticipated to generate exploitable hypoxia using hypoxia-activated prodrugs. Weekly administration of tirapazamine (TPZ; 5 mg/kg body weight i.p.) failed to inhibit the growth of 9L gliosarcoma tumors grown s.c. in scid mice. However, the anti-tumor effect of weekly cyclophosphamide (CPA) treatment (140 mg/kg BW i.p.) was substantially enhanced by weekly TPZ administration. An extended tumor free period ...

Doloff, J. C.; Khan, N.; Ma, J.; Demidenko, E.; Swartz, H. M.; Jounaidi, Y.

2009-01-01

64

Evaluation of Immunohistochemistry and Silver-Enhanced In Situ Hybridization Results for HER2/neu Manually and with Image Analysis System in Human Breast Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: HER2/neu (ErbB2 gene status is one of the important information while planing terapy in breast carcinoma. For HER2/ neu testing there is not standart assay that has been agreed on. Silver enhanced in situ hybridization is a cantitative and highly reproducible assay. Immunohistochemistry is a cheap and easy assay that has disadvantage of being less reproducible. Recently developed pathologist assisted computerized image analysis systems decrease the ratio of subjectivity due to manual evaluation, enable tele-consultation and make it easy to evaluate tumor morphology and markers. Our aim is to investigate the consistency of manual and computerized interpretation of the results of immunohistochemistry and silver enhanced in situ hybridization.Material and Method: Immunohistochemisty and silver enhanced in situ hybridization of 73 invasive breast carcinoma results were evaluated manually to determine HER2/neu status. Later, silver enhanced in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry results were reevaluated with Ventana Image Analysis System. Afterwards correlation of both methods with image analysis system and manuel interpretation were calculated.Result: All cases were score 2 with immunohistochemistry. With image analysis system, 5 cases were score 1, 56 cases were score 2 and 12 cases were score 3. When in situ hybridization results were reevaluated with image analysis system, 6 cases were discordant compared with manual interpretation.Conclusion: The correlation rate of immunohistochemistry interpretation results between manuel method and image analysis system was %76; but silver enhanced in situ hybridization interpretation results between manuel method and image analysis system were %91 concordant and it was statistically significant (k= 0.832 and p<0.001.

Do?u? ÖZDEM?R

2010-09-01

65

A chemical additive for enhancing in situ thermal recovery from oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed a series of laboratory experiments conducted to assess the performance of a steam additive as a means of enhancing steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production processes. Experiments were conducted to simulate SAGD processes both with, and without the steam additive. A modified bitumen determination technique was used to analyze the samples for their bitumen content. A high speed autoclave was used to evaluate the performance of the steam additive under high local shear stress. The experiments demonstrated that at dosage rates of 100 to 1000 ppm, the RE8374SAW additive significantly enhanced bitumen recovery from McMurray formation oil sands. Corrosion tests showed no negative impacts on mild steel, and no impacts on crude oil quality in relation to downstream applications. The study concluded by recommending field trials and on-site bottle testing to develop chemicals for resolving reverse emulsion from the treated reservoir. 9 refs., 5 figs.

Srivastava, P.; Sadetsky, V.; Debord, J.; Stefan, B. [Baker Hughes Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

66

In situ Fenton-enhanced cathodic reaction for sustainable increased electricity generation in microbial fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reports that Fenton's reaction is capable of facilitating cathodic reaction and thus increasing the current output in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The hydroxyl radicals (.OH) produced via Fenton's reaction are demonstrated to be vital to the enhancement of electricity generation in MFCs. In a two-chamber MFC employing expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) laminated cloth as a separator, the power output is enhanced approximately four times with Fenton's reaction. However, the enhancement lasts only a short time period due to the rapid consumption of Fenton's reagents. To overcome this problem, a Fe {sup rate} {sup at} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/carbon felt (CF) composite cathode is made, which results in a greater and, more importantly, sustainable power output. In the composite cathode, Fe {sup rate} {sup at} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} functions as a controllably releasing Fenton iron reagent and CF functions as an air-fed cathode to electro-generate H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. This newly developed MFC with a Fenton system can ensure a continuous high power output, and also provides a potential solution to the simultaneous electricity generation and degradation of recalcitrant contaminants. (author)

Zhuang, Li; Zhou, Shungui; Liu, Tinglin; Huang, Deyin [Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li, Yongtao [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

2010-03-01

67

Nitrogen fate model for gas-phase ammonia-enhanced in situ bioventing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subsurface bioremediation of contaminants is sometimes limited by the availability of nitrogen. Introduction of gaseous ammonia to the subsurface is a feasible and economical approach to enhance biodegradation in some environments. A gaseous nutrient source may be a practical option for sites where surface application of liquid nutrients is not possible, such as sites with shallow groundwater or sites with surface operations. A conceptual nitrogen fate model was developed to provide remediation scientists and engineers with some practical guidelines in the use of ammonia-enhanced bioventing. Ammonia supplied to the subsurface dissolves readily in soil moisture and sorbs strongly to soil particles. The ammonium ion is the preferred nutrient form of many microorganisms. Some of the ammonia will be converted to nitrate by ammonia-oxidizing organisms. Field monitoring data from an operating ammonia-enhanced bioventing remediation site for diesel fuel contamination are presented. Conservative additions of ammonia promoted appreciable increases in evolved carbon dioxide and rate of oxygen utilization. An overabundance of added ammonia promoted formation of methane from likely anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation in the presence of nitrate as the electron acceptor

1995-04-24

68

In situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic study of formic acid electrooxidation on spontaneously deposited platinum on gold.  

Science.gov (United States)

Present formic acid fuel cell efficiency is limited by low kinetics at the anode, indicating the need for effective catalysts to improve the formic acid oxidation. As a prerequisite, the nature of adsorbed species and specifically the reaction intermediates formed in this process needs to be examined. This work focuses on the electrooxidation of formic acid and the nature of the intermediates at a platinum-modified gold surface prepared through spontaneous deposition using a combination of electrochemistry and in situ surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This Pt-modified gold electrode surface assists in oxidizing formic acid at potentials as low as 0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl which is 0.15 V more negative than a bare Pt surface. The oxidation current obtained on the Pt-modified gold electrode is 72 times higher than on a bare Au surface and 5 times higher than on a bare Pt surface at the same potential. In situ SERS has revealed the involvement of formate at a low frequency as the primary intermediate in this electrooxidation process. While previous studies mainly focused on the formate mode at ca. 1322 cm(-1), it is the first time that a formate peak at ca. 300 cm(-1) was observed on a Pt or Pt-associated surface. A unique relationship has been observed between the formic acid oxidation currents and the SERS intensity of this formate adsorbate. Furthermore, the characteristic Stark effect of the formate proves the strong interaction between the adsorbate and the catalyst. Both electrochemical and spectroscopic results suggest that the formic acid electrooxidation takes place by the dehydrogenation pathway involving a low frequency formate intermediate on the Pt-modified gold electrode catalyst. PMID:23674096

Muralidharan, Ranjani; McIntosh, Michael; Li, Xiao

2013-06-28

69

Adhesion enhancement of biomimetic dry adhesives by nanoparticle in situ synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel method to increase the adhesion strength of a gecko-inspired dry adhesive is presented. Gold nanoparticles are synthesized on the tips of the microfibrils of a polymeric dry adhesive to increase its Hamaker constant. Formation of the gold nanoparticles is qualitatively studied through a colour change in the originally transparent substance and quantitatively analysed using ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. A pull-off force test is employed to quantify the adhesion enhancement. Specifically, adhesion forces of samples with and without embedded gold nanoparticles are measured and compared. The experimental results indicate that an adhesion improvement of 135% can be achieved. (paper)

2013-10-01

70

Innovative Protocols for in SITU MTBE Degradation by Using Molecular Probes-An Enhanced Chemical-Bio Oxidation Technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a common technology to cleanup petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater. Sodium percarbonate (SPC) is an oxidant which is activated by iron (Fe) to produce Fenton-like reactions. Western Research Institute, in conjunction with Regenesis and the U.S. Department of Energy, conducted a study that investigated the performance of a 'safe' oxidant, SPC, to cleanup groundwater and soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and associated contaminants (e.g., MTBE). Results from a field pilot test in Frenchglen, Oregon showed VOC concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially within 2 weeks after injecting activated SPC (RegenOx). A protocol was established for determining RegenOx TOD in soils and groundwater. Total oxidant demand tests were necessary to determine the correct dosage of RegenOx to apply in the field and sufficiently degrade the contaminants of concern. Bench studies with RegenOx showed this technology was effective in degrading diesel fuel and 1,4-dioxane. The Fe-silica activator (RegenOx Part B) was tested with another oxidant, sodium persulfate. Bench tests results showed the combination of sodium persulfate and RegenOx Part B was effective in reducing PCE, MTBE, benzene, and n-heptane concentrations in water. Overall, the results of this project indicated that most petroleum contaminants in soil and groundwater can be sufficiently degraded using the RegenOx technology.

Paul Fallgren

2009-02-20

71

Surface-enhanced in-situ Raman-sensor applied in the arctic area for analyses of water and sediment  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations on the seafloor in the arctic area are of great scientific interest as well as of progressive economic importance. Therefore, measurements in the water column and of sediments were carried out by applying different analytical methods. In JCR 253 arctic cruise a microsystem diode laser with reflection Bragg grating emitting at 671 nm was introduced and integrated into an optode housing which was laboratory pressure tested up to 200 bar. The connection to the mobile spectrometer is realized through an optical fiber. All performed measurements were carried out on the James-Clark-Ross research vessel during a three week experiment in August 2011. Conventional Raman spectra and SERS spectra of arctic surface water and sediment acquired from locations around 78° N and 9° E will be presented. Selected SERS substrates developed for SERS measurements in sea-water were tested for their capability to detect different substances in the water down to very small (pmol/l) concentrations. Additionally, the applicability of shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) and a combination of SERS with SERDS for analytical applications during sea-trials for in-situ analyses of sea-water and sediments will be discussed.

Kolomijeca, Anna; Kwon, Yong-Hyok; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

2012-05-01

72

Application of steam injection and electrical heating for enhanced in situ soil and ground water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The acceleration of recovery rates of second phase liquid contaminants from the subsurface during gas or water pumping operations is realized by an increase in soil temperature. Of the various methods of delivery of thermal energy to soils and ground water, steam injection appears to be the most economical and versatile technique for soils with sufficient permeability. The use of steam injection to recovery volatile semivolatile, and nonvolatile contaminants from the sub-surface also allows the exploitation of various thermodynamic and hydrodynamic mechanisms. These mechanisms include vaporization of liquids with boiling points below that of water, enhanced evaporation rates of semivolatile components, physical displacement of low viscosity liquids, dilution and displacement of aqueous contaminants, and removal of residual contaminants from low permeability zones by depressurization and vacuum drying. Electrical heating provides a means of preferentially heating the low permeability zones. A recently completed field-scale demonstration of the patented combined steam injection and electrical heating enhanced extraction technology (Dynamic Underground Stripping) to remove gasoline at a site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory confirms the effectiveness of this technique and its applicability to contaminants found above and below the water table

1994-10-09

73

Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for in situ measurements of NO2 with a blue light emitting diode  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the development of Incoherent Broadband Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) using a blue light emitting diode (LED) for the detection of NO2 in laboratory ambient air. Absorption of the oxygen collisional pair in the atmosphere was also detected in the same spectral range. The mirror reflectivity was determined using a standard gas sample mixture of NO2, and calibrated with the help of the absorption spectrum of the oxygen collisional pair in pure oxygen at atmospheric pressure. Optimization of the experimental parameters was investigated and is discussed in detail. For the first time in IBBCEAS involving broadband absorption spectra, averaging time for signal-to-noise ratio enhancement has been optimized using Allan variance plot. 18.1 ppbv NO2 in laboratory ambient air has been retrieved from the absorption spectra using differential fitting method over a 40 nm spectral region centered at 470 nm. A minimum detection sensitivity of about 2.2 ppbv (1 ?) for NO2 at atmospheric pressure has been achieved using the optimal averaging time of 100 s by means of a high finesse optical cavity formed with two moderate reflectivity (˜99.55%) mirrors. No purging of the cavity mirrors by high purity He or N2 gas streams was necessary to prevent contamination of the mirror faces for the in situ measurements.

Wu, T.; Zhao, W.; Chen, W.; Zhang, W.; Gao, X.

2009-01-01

74

In-situ phosphrous doping in ZnTe nanowires with enhanced p-type conductivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single-crystalline undoped and phosphrous-doped (P-doped) p-type ZnTe nanowires (NWs) were synthesized via a simple vapor transport and deposition method. Both undoped and P-doped ZnTe nanowires have zinc blende structure and uniform geometry. X-ray diffraction peaks of the P-doped ZnTe nanowires show an obvious shift toward higher diffraction angle as compared with the undoped ZnTe nanowires. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the existence of P-dopant in the ZnTe nanowires. Field-effect transistors based on both undoped and P-doped ZnTe nanowires were fabricated and characterized. Electrical measurements demonstrated that P-doping led to an enhancement in ptype conductivity of ZnTe nanowires. A defect reaction mechanism was proposed to explain the p-type behaviors of both undoped and P-doped ZnTe nanowires. PMID:22755058

Cao, Y L; Liu, Z T; Chen, L M; Tang, Y B; Luo, L B; Lee, S T; Lee, C S

2012-03-01

75

Local enhancement effect in the photoluminescence intensity of Si quantum dots: Single Medusa-type particles investigated by in situ microscope spectrometer  

Science.gov (United States)

Photoluminescence intensity enhancement of a silicon quantum dot solution was investigated using in situ photoluminescence/dark-field microscope spectrometer. The intensity was enhanced by Medusa-type silver particle, composed of a sphere 760 nm in diameter and many nanochains. The enhancement factor (EF) was carefully estimated, based on various corrections and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations. The EF was changed from 33 to 42 000. Spectroscopic and FDTD analyses proved valuables to evaluate local enhancement effect. Wavelength dependences of EF and scattering spectrum indicated that the enhancement is attributed to the electric field localized on particle, given by not photoluminescence light but excitation light.

Tamamitsu, Hironori; Saitow, Ken-ichi

2014-01-01

76

Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific objectives of the project were (1) to determine the prevalence of biosurfactant producers in oil reservoirs, and (2) to develop a nutrient regime that would stimulate biosurfactant production in the oil reservoir.

M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

2007-09-30

77

Observing reduction of 4-nitrobenzenthiol on gold nanoparticles in situ using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, reduction of 4-nitrobenzenthiol (4-NBT) on Au nanoparticles (NPs) was characterized using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Plasmon-driven chemical transformation from 4-NBT dimering into p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) has been investigated on the surface of Au NPs. The laser power-dependent SERS spectra of 4-NBT on the surface of Au substrates were studied, and show that the laser power has an influence on the SERS signals of 4-NBT on Au NPs and production of DMAB by a plasmon-driven surface-catalyzed chemical reaction tends to be much easier under relative high laser power. Furthermore, we have used simple and efficient Au substrates (gold NPs with a size around 45 nm) exhibiting both catalytic properties and SERS activities to monitor the catalytic reaction of surface catalytic reaction process with borohydride solution. The experiments prove that the nitro-to-amino group conversion could be completed by borohydride at ambient conditions on Au substrates. Illuminated with high laser power, 4-NBT molecules and already formed DMAB molecules are further reduced into 4-aminobenzenthiol (4-ABT) by the addition of borohydride, While with low laser power 4-NBT molecules are transformed into 4-ABT with DMAB as the intermediate, which proves Au NPs are a mild and promising catalyst. Our studies might be helpful in extending the understanding of chemical reactions of 4-NBT and related research as well as providing a new strategy synthesis of azo dyes and anilines. PMID:23873410

Ren, Xiaoqian; Tan, Enzhong; Lang, Xiufeng; You, Tingting; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Hongyan; Yin, Penggang; Guo, Lin

2013-09-14

78

The in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery in fractured porous media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These experiments aim to investigate the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technique in fractured porous media using etched-glass micromodels. Three identically patterned micromodels with different fracture angle orientation of inclined, vertical and horizontal with respect to the flow direction were utilized. A non-fractured model was also used to compare the efficiency of MEOR in fractured and non-fractured porous media. Two types of bacteria were employed: Bacillus subtilis (a biosurfactant-producing bacterium) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (an exopolymer-producing bacterium). The results show that higher oil recovery efficiency can be achieved by using biosurfactant-producing bacterium in fractured porous media. Further investigation on the effect of the mentioned bacteria on oil viscosity, porous media permeability and wettability suggests that the plugging of matrix-fracture interfaces by an exopolymer is the main reason for the low performance of the exopolymer-producing bacterium. Oil viscosity reduction as well as the reduction of IFT was also found to be the reason for better microbial recovery efficiencies of biosurfactant-producing bacterium in the fractured models. (author)

Soudmand-asli, Alireza; Ayatollahi, S. Shahab; Zareie, Maryam [School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Mohabatkar, Hassan [Department of Biology, School of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Shariatpanahi, S. Farzad [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)

2007-08-15

79

Retargeting vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviral vectors with enhanced stability by in situ synthesized polymer shell.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to introduce transgenes with precise specificity to the desired target cells or tissues is key to a more facile application of genetic therapy. Here, we describe a novel method using nanotechnology to generate lentiviral vectors with altered recognition of host cell receptor specificity. Briefly, the infectivity of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) pseudotyped lentiviral vectors was shielded by a thin polymer shell synthesized in situ onto the viral envelope, and new binding ability was conferred to the shielded virus by introducing acrylamide-tailored cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptide to the polymer shell. We termed the resulting virus "targeting nanovirus." The targeting nanovirus had similar titer with VSV-G pseudotypes and specifically transduced Hela cells with high transduction efficiency. In addition, the encapsulation of the VSV-G pseudotyped lentivirus by the polymer shell did not change the pathway that VSV-G pseudotypes enter and fuse with cells, as well as later events such as reverse transcription and gene expression. Furthermore, the targeting nanovirus possessed enhanced stability in the presence of human serum, indicating protection of the virus by the polymer shell from human serum complement inactivation. This novel use of nanotechnology demonstrates proof of concept for an approach that could be more generally applied for redirecting viral vectors for laboratory and clinical purposes. PMID:23327104

Liang, Min; Yan, Ming; Lu, Yunfeng; Chen, Irvin S Y

2013-02-01

80

Fluorescence enhancement of imidazolium ionic liquid by its confinement on PVC for in situ selective quantification of hemoglobin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hydrophilic ionic liquid (methylimidazolium chloride, NmimCl)-polyvinyl chloride ionomer (NmimCl-PVC) was prepared by immobilizing and confining N-methylimidazole onto PVC chains. The NmimCl-PVC ionomer exhibits a 4-fold enhancement on the fluorescence intensity with respect to that of NmimCl, attributing to the confinement of ionic liquid by the PVC chain. The fluorescence is excitation-dependent with a maximum at ?em 430 nm when excited at 325 nm. In addition, the fluorescence intensity of NmimCl-PVC ionomer increases remarkably with the loading ratio of N-methylimidazole in the range of 4.3-15.1%. The fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime were derived to be 0.112/7.1 ns for the NmimCl-PVC ionomer and 0.063/8.8 ns for NmimCl. Furthermore, hemoglobin is selectively adsorbed by NmimCl-PVC and causes significant fluorescence quenching of the ionomer via dynamic quenching and energy transfer between NmimCl-PVC and hemoglobin. A solid surface fluorimetric procedure was developed for surface adsorption and preconcentration of hemoglobin followed by in situ detection. A linear dynamic range of 0.3-26.2 ?g mg(-1) is achieved with a detection limit of 0.1 ?g mg(-1). Regarding hemoglobin in aqueous solution, the linear range 5-300 ?g mL(-1) is achieved along with a detection limit of 2 ?g mL(-1). PMID:24164621

Shu, Yang; Han, Lu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xuwei; Wang, Jianhua

2013-11-27

 
 
 
 
81

Polarization sensitivity as a contrast enhancer in pelagic predators: lessons from in situ polarization imaging of transparent zooplankton.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because light in the pelagic environment is partially polarized, it has been suggested that the polarization sensitivity found in certain pelagic species may serve to enhance the contrast of their transparent zooplankton prey. We examined its potential during cruises in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean and at a field station on the Great Barrier Reef. First, we collected various species of transparent zooplankton and micronekton and photographed them between crossed polarizers. Many groups, particularly the cephalopods, pelagic snails, salps and ctenophores, were found to have ciliary, muscular or connective tissues with striking birefringence. In situ polarization imagery of the same species showed that, while the degree of underwater polarization was fairly high (approx. 30% in horizontal lines of sight), tissue birefringence played little to no role in increasing visibility. This is most likely due to the low radiance of the horizontal background light when compared with the downwelling irradiance. In fact, the dominant radiance and polarization contrasts are due to unpolarized downwelling light that has been scattered from the animal viewed against the darker and polarized horizontal background light. We show that relatively simple algorithms can use this negative polarization contrast to increase visibility substantially. PMID:21282169

Johnsen, Sönke; Marshall, N Justin; Widder, Edith A

2011-03-12

82

In situ measurement of the ion incidence angle dependence of the ion-enhanced etching yield in plasma reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors propose and demonstrate a technique to determine the ion incidence angle dependence of the ion-enhanced etching yield under realistic plasma conditions and in situ in an arbitrary plasma reactor. The technique is based on measuring the etch rate as a function of position along the walls of features that initially have nearly semicircular cross sections. These initial feature shapes can be easily obtained by wet or isotropic plasma etching of holes patterned through a mask. The etch rate as a function of distance along the feature profile provides the etching yield as a function of the ion incidence angle. The etch rates are measured by comparing digitized scanning electron micrograph cross sections of the features before and after plasma etching in gas mixtures of interest. The authors have applied this technique to measure the ion incidence angle dependence of the Si etching yield in HBr, Cl2, SF6, and NF3 plasmas and binary mixtures of SF6 and NF3 with O2. Advantages and limitations of this method are also discussed

2006-11-01

83

Using in-Situ Polymerization of Conductive Polymers to Enhance the Electrical Properties of Solution-Processed Carbon Nanotube Films and Fibers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composites typically have limited conductivity due to a low concentration of nanotubes and the insulating nature of the polymers used. Here we combined a method to align carbon nanotubes with in-situ polymerization of conductive polymer to form composite films and fibers. Use of the conducting polymer raised the conductivity of the films by 2 orders of magnitude. On the other hand, CNT fiber formation was made possible with in-situ polymerization to provide more mechanical support to the CNTs from the formed conducting polymer. The carbon nanotube/conductive polymer composite films and fibers had conductivities of 3300 and 170 S/cm, respectively. The relatively high conductivities were attributed to the polymerization process, which doped both the SWNTs and the polymer. In-situ polymerization can be a promising solution-processable method to enhance the conductivity of carbon nanotube films and fibers. PMID:24914703

Allen, Ranulfo; Pan, Lijia; Fuller, Gerald G; Bao, Zhenan

2014-07-01

84

Elicitation and in situ adsorption enhanced secondary metabolites production of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. adventitious root fragment liquid cultures in shake flask and a modified bubble column bioreactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The experiments of elicitation and in situ adsorption were conducted in shake flasks and then tested in a modified bubble column bioreactor for enhancing the productions of three active metabolites in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., triptolide, wilforgine and wilforine. Methyl jasmonate was screened out as the elicitor and the non-ionic polymeric ion-exchange resin of Amberlite(®) XAD-7 was used for in situ product removal and protecting the alkaloids from degradation in the medium. In shake flask experiments, 3.55-fold, 49.11-fold, and 10.40-fold of triptolide, wilforgine, and wilforine, respectively, could be recovered from the medium and XAD-7 resin by elicitation and in situ product removal, compared with the control. The modified 10 L bubble column bioreactor had similar productions of the three active metabolites but needed a further optimization of parameters for better growth of adventitious roots. PMID:23943048

Miao, G P; Zhu, C S; Yang, Y Q; Feng, M X; Ma, Z Q; Feng, J T; Zhang, X

2014-04-01

85

Enhancement of intestinal absorption of akebia saponin D by borneol and probenecid in situ and in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Akebia saponin D is a typical bioactive triterpenoid saponin isolated the rhizome of Dipsacus asper Wall. Our previous studies demonstrated that the oral bioavailability of akebia saponin D was very low, but the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. The present study aims to investigate the intestinal absorptive characteristics of akebia saponin D as well as the absorptive transport behavior influenced by co-administration of three absorption-enhancing agents and three efflux protein inhibitors using an in vitro everted gut sac method and an in situ intestinal perfusion model. The results showed that akebia saponin D had a quite limited intestinal permeability, and there was a non-linear increase in transepithelial transportation with increasing concentrations of akebia saponin D. The absorption of akebia saponin D was intestinal segment selective and the small intestine was the best absorptive site. Among three absorption promoters, borneol could significantly improve the permeability of akebia saponin D across ileum, while Tween-80 and DMSO had almost no absorption-enhancing effect. In addition, verapamil, probenecid and pantoprazole in the perfusates were used in this study as modulators of transporters such as P-glycoprotein, MRPs and BCRP in the intestinal mucosa, respectively. The results exhibited that the ileal permeability of akebia saponin D was markedly elevated by the co-administration of probenecid, indicating that akebia saponin D may be likely a substrate of MRPs. The above-mentioned results suggest that akebia saponin D has a poor intestinal absorption not only due to its poor transepithelial permeability but also owing to the contribution of efflux transporters such as MRPs in the intestine. PMID:21787607

Zhou, Yongqiang; Li, Weize; Chen, Lvyi; Ma, Shuwei; Ping, Li; Yang, Zhonglin

2010-05-01

86

Force enhancement in lengthening contractions of cat soleus muscle in situ: transient and steady-state aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Force enhancement (FE) associated with lengthening is a well-accepted phenomenon of active skeletal muscle, but the underlying mechanism(s) remain unknown. Similar to force depression (FD) following active shortening, the mechanism of FE may be attributed, at least in part, to cross-bridge kinetics. To examine this relationship, a post hoc analysis was performed on the transient force relaxation phase of previous in-situ FE experiments in soleus muscle-tendon units of anesthetized cats. For each muscle (n = 8), nine eccentric lengthenings (3 amplitudes, 3 velocities) were performed while tetanically stimulated (3T at 30 Hz, 3× ? motorneuron, 35 ± 1°C). To determine transient aspects of FE, the period immediately following stretching was fit with an exponential decay function (R (2) > 0.95). Statistical analyses revealed that total steady-state FE (FESS) increased with stretching amplitude and applied mechanical work. A positive relationship was observed between the active FESS and rate of force decay (k), indicating that a kinetic mechanism may explain active FE. However, for all muscles and stretch conditions, there was no correlation between the total amount of FESS and rate of decay. Therefore, FE cannot be explained solely by an active FE mechanism involving the interaction of actin and myosin. Rather, these findings suggest a combination of underlying mechanisms, including a kinetic mechanism for active FE, contributions of a passive elastic element, and possibly an activatable passive component operating outside of actin-myosin cross-bridging. Moreover, this transient analysis identifies that FE is not simply the opposite of FD, and its underlying mechanism(s) cannot simply be the opposite in nature. PMID:24303106

Koppes, Ryan A; Herzog, Walter; Corr, David T

2013-07-01

87

In situ integration of squaraine-nanowire-array-based Schottky-type photodetectors with enhanced switching performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic nanostructure-based photodetectors are important building blocks for future high-performance, low-cost, flexible nano-optoelectronic devices. However, device integration remains a large challenge, and the structure-dependent performance of the device has been seldom studied. Here, we report the in situ integration of 2,4-bis[4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenyl]squaraine (SQ)-nanowire (NW)-array-based photodetectors by growing the organic NW arrays on prefabricated electrodes through an evaporation-induced self-assembly process. In contrast with ohmic-contact devices, asymmetric electrode pairs of Au-Ti were utilized to achieve the construction of Schottky-type photodetectors on the basis of organic NW arrays. Significantly, the Schottky-type photodetectors exhibited a significantly enhanced performance as compared to the ohmic-type devices in terms of their higher photosensitivity and switching speed. The presence of a strong built-in electric field at the junction interface, which greatly facilitated the separation/transportation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, was suggested to be responsible for the superior performance of the Schottky-type photodetectors. More importantly, the organic NW-array-based devices also showed a higher sensitivity and reproducibility than that of the single NW-based devices, and they were capable of low-light detection. The investigation of the photodetector circuitry also disclosed a very low pixel-to-pixel variation owing to the average effect of the NW-array-based devices. It is expected that organic NW-array-based Schottky-type photodetectors will have important applications in future organic nano-optoelectronic devices. PMID:23889229

Zhang, Yuping; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Xiwei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Xing, Yuliang; Jie, Jiansheng

2013-12-11

88

HER2 Status by Standardized Immunohistochemistry and Silver-Enhanced In Situ Hybridization in Korean Breast Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene occurs in 18% to 20% of breast cancers, and it is recognized as a prognostic and predictive marker. We investigated the HER2 status in Korean breast cancer by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH), as the first step toward building a nationwide quality assurance program for HER2 testing. Methods A total of 1,198 breast carcinoma samples were collected from six institutions and IHC and SISH were performed using tissue microarrays in central laboratories. The results were compared to those of local laboratories. Results Available data were obtained from 959 samples. Central IHC results were negative, equivocal, and positive for 756 (78.8%; range among institutions, 76.8-81.8%), 37 (3.9%; 1.9-6.2%), and 166 (17.3%; 13.6-20%), respectively. SISH results were negative, equivocal, and positive for 756 (78.8%; 77.4-79.9%), 2 (0.2%; 0-0.7%), and 201 (21%; 20.1-22.2%), respectively. HER2 gene amplification was observed in 4.4%, 19%, and 73.9% of the negative, equivocal and positive groups stratified by local IHC results, respectively. When central SISH was considered to be the gold standard method for measuring HER2 status, the false-negative and false-positive rates of local IHC were 14.4% (29/201) and 7.1% (54/756). The concordance rate between central IHC and SISH was 98.4%. Conclusion Central IHC and SISH markedly decreased the interlaboratory variability of HER2 status and the results of the two were highly concordant. The quality control program for HER2 testing must be focused on decreasing both the false negativity and positivity of IHC in local laboratories.

Bae, Young Kyung; Kang, Jun; Lee, Ahwon; Cho, Eun Yoon; Lee, Ji Shin; Suh, Kwang-Sun; Lee, Dong Wha; Jung, Woo Hee

2012-01-01

89

In situ formation of nanocrystals from a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system to enhance oral bioavailability of fenofibrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available You-Meei Lin1, Jui-Yu Wu2, Ying-Chen Chen3, Yu-Der Su3, Wen-Tin Ke3, Hsiu-O Ho31Department of Pharmacy, Shuang Ho Hospital, 2Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, 3School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROCObjectives: In situ formation of nanocrystals and dissolution profiles of fenofibrate (FFB from a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS were characterized.Methods: SMEDDS formulated with Myritol® and surfactant mixture (Smix of D-?-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS and either Tween® 20 (A, C, E, G, M, S, N, T, O or Tween® 80 (B, D, F, H, P, U, Q, V, R at various oil/Smix ratios (Group I: A and B of 0.42, C and D of 0.25, E and F of 0.11; Group II: G and H of 1.38, M and P of 1.11, S and U of 0.9, N and Q of 0.73, T and V of 0.58, and O and R of 0.46 and water contents (1: 9.5%, 2: 5.0%, 3: 0.0%, G-V: 4.5%. Their dissolutions were conducted at different rotation speeds. Two optimal SMEDDSs containing Tween 80(B2 or a higher oil/Smix ratio(Q and B2(solution were selected for pharmacokinetic study.Results: FFB particles formed within the nanosize range from Group I gradually increased with time but decreased with increasing stirring rates. However, the mean size of FFB formed by B series was as low as 200 nm, which was smaller than that of A series at three stirring rates. The release rate from both groups obviously increased with increasing stirring rate. However, incomplete release was observed for S and N in Tween 20 series, whereas a faster release rate and complete release were observed for Tween 80 series with an insignificant difference among them. Results of pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the highest-ranked area under the curve and Cmax values were for Q(SMEDDS and B2(solution, respectively. The relative bioavailability of Q(SMEDDS with respect to Tricor® was enhanced by about 1.14-1.22-fold.Conclusion: SMEDDS, consisting of Myritol 318 and TPGS combined with Tween 80 at 4:1, was able to enhance the oral bioavailability of FFB.Keywords: SMEDDS, fenofibrate, microemulsion, dissolution, TPGS

Lin YM

2011-10-01

90

In situ growth of a ZnO nanowire network within a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle film for enhanced dye-densitized solar cell performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ZnO nanowire networks featuring excellent charge transport and light scattering properties are grown in situ within TiO{sub 2} films. The resultant TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composites, used as photoanodes, remarkably enhance the overall conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by 26.9%, compared to that of benchmark TiO{sub 2} films. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Bai, Yang; Yu, Hua; Li, Zhen; Lu, Gao Qing [Max; Wang, Lianzhou [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Amal, Rose [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

2012-11-14

91

Enhanced hydrogen embrittlement of Pd-coated niobium metal membrane detected by in situ small punch test under hydrogen permeation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrogen embrittlement of pure niobium metal membrane was investigated under a hydrogen atmosphere by using a newly developed in situ small punch apparatus. The boundary for the ductile-to-brittle transition of the palladium-coated pure niobium was determined from a series of the in situ small punch tests. The measured boundary was found to be shifted greatly to the lower hydrogen content region as compared to that of palladium non-coated niobium membrane. The present result will provide us a clue to the design of niobium-based permeable membrane against the hydrogen embrittlement

2007-10-31

92

Enhanced plasticity in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite with in-situ formed intermetallic phases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An in situ formed intermetallic phase/bulk metallic glass composite with high strength and good plasticity was fabricated by casting Zr{sub 55.0}Cu{sub 29.0}Ni{sub 8.0}Al{sub 8.0} melts. In situ formed tetragonal structured (Zr,Ni,Al){sub 2}(Cu,Ni,Al) intermetallic particles with a hardness of 9.6 {+-} 0.3 GPa improve the fracture strength of the composite. Micrographs of the fractured samples reveal that the shear band spacing is smaller than the intermetallic particles, indicating that they can effectively block shear band propagation before catastrophic fracture.

Chen, Guang [Nanjing University of Science and Technology; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL; Cao, Y [Nanjing University of Science and Technology; Gali, Aravind [ORNL; Liu, Chain T [ORNL; George, Easo P [ORNL

2009-01-01

93

In-situ treatment of hydrocarbons contamination through enhanced bio-remediation and two phase extraction system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It happens frequently to find industrial site affected by contamination of subsoil and groundwater with consequent presence of free phase product floating on the water table. The remediation technologies in this case shall be properly selected and coordinated in a way that the interactions between each activities will help to decontaminate the site. The case study deals with an industrial site located near Turin, in Italy, of about 50 hectares of extension where has been found an area of about 4000 square meters with contamination of subsoil and groundwater. The compounds with higher concentrations are petroleum hydrocarbons found both in soil and in groundwater. Another big problem is represented by the presence of a layer of free product floating on the water table with a maximum measured thickness of 70 cm; this situation can be considered in fact one of the major difficulty in management of selected remediation technologies because the complete recover of the free phase is a priority for any kind of remediation system to apply subsequently. The present work is based upon the selection and implementation of a multiple treatment for definitive remediation of subsoil and groundwater. Free product recovery has been faced with a two-phase extraction technology, then for the remediation of subsoil we implemented a bio-venting system to improve biodegradation processes and finally for groundwater treatment we apply an enhanced in situ bio-remediation injecting oxygen release compounds directly into the aquifer. To reach these choices we have to pass through a complex activity of investigation of the site made up of more than 40 sampling point, 8 monitoring wells, about 140 analysis on subsoil samples and 10 on groundwater samples and one well used for an aquifer test. The preliminary design of the remediation system was therefore based on an extensive site characterization that included geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with analytical data. After the study of all data acquired during investigations we could select the proper technologies for site remediation but to define correctly all project data we had to implement several laboratory tests to analyse bio-remediation processes, a series of pilot test for two phase extraction and bio-venting and a pilot test to select the best product for the release of oxygen into groundwater. The collection of the necessary parameters for the implementation of full-scale treatment was carried out throughout a period of several months, both with periodical measurements and sampling and with fixed monitoring probes, in order to record the aquifer changes related to contaminant concentrations, geochemical data, etc. At the end of all the tests we proceeded first with implementation of two phase extraction system through a double line of extraction wells that cover the extension of the area interested by the presence of free phase of LNAPL. The use of this technology instead of other more common system for free product recovery, is due to the fact that two phase extraction system results in an efficient recover of LNAPL and in a low extraction of groundwater that means lower treatment costs. Another important characteristic of this technology is that while extracting oil from the water table it extracts also soil gas from subsoil enhancing hydrocarbons bio-remediation through microbial activity. The second step after the complete recover of free product was to proceed with remediation of subsoil. Bio-remediation processes, enhanced by two phase extraction application, were increased with implementation of a bio-venting system made up of two horizontal wells installed along contaminated area. The injection of air through these wells supply oxygen to subsoil providing necessary aerobic conditions for degradation of hydrocarbon compounds. The results of laboratory tests showed that it would be suitable, to further stimulate microbial activity, to supply micro-nutrient compounds, principally nitrogen and phosphorous. For this reason after a first period

2005-10-03

94

Humic Acids Enhanced U(VI) Attenuation in Acidic Waste Plumes: An In-situ Remediation Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In the process of extracting plutonium for nuclear weapons production during the Cold War, large volumes of acidic waste solutions containing low-level radionuclides were discharged for decades into unlined seepage basins in several US Department of Energy (DOE) weapon facilities such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge (OR), and 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Although the basins have been capped and some sites have gone through many years of active remediation, groundwaters currently remain acidic with pH values as low as 3.0 near the basins, and uranium concentrations remain much higher than its maximum contaminant level (MCL). A sustainable U biogeochemical remediation method has not yet been developed, especially under acidic conditions (pH 3-5). Bioreduction-based U remediation requires permanent maintenance of reducing conditions through indefinite supply of electron donor, and when applied in acidic plumes a high-cost pretreatment procedure is required. Methods based on precipitation of phosphate minerals depend on maintenance of high P concentrations. Precipitating of uranyl vanadates can lower U to below its MCL, but this approach is only effective at near-neutral pH. There is an urgent need for developing a sustainable method to control U mobility in acidic conditions. In this paper, we propose a method of using humic acids (HAs) to attenuate contaminant U mobility in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory experiment results show that HAs are able to strongly and quickly adsorb onto aquifer sediments from the DOE’s SRS and OR. With a moderate addition of HA, U adsorption increased to near 100% at pH below 5.0. Because U partitioning onto the HA modified mineral surfaces is so strong, U concentration in groundwaters can be sustainably reduced to below its MCL. We conducted flow through experiments for U desorption by acidic groundwater leaching at pH 3.5 and 4.5 from HA-treated SRS contaminated sediments. The results show that desorption of both U and HA by groundwater leaching are non-detectable over a long period of time (200 days and > 100 PV without further addition of HA). As a natural reactive agent for in-situ remediation, HAs are cost-effective (enormous reservoir in nature), nontoxic, resistant to biodegradation, soluble, and easily introducible to the subsurface. This method has high potential to efficiently and sustainably enhance natural attenuation of U within acidic waste plumes.

Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T. K.

2010-12-01

95

Ion-irradiation-induced defects in isotopically-labeled two layered graphene: enhanced in-situ annealing of the damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contrary to theoretical estimates based on the conventional binary collision model, experimental results indicate that the number of defects in the lower layer of the bi-layer graphene sample is smaller than in the upper layer. This observation is explained by in situ self-annealing of the defects. PMID:23180424

Kalbac, Martin; Lehtinen, Ossi; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V; Keinonen, Juhani

2013-02-20

96

Design and implementation of two two-week Teacher Enhancement Institutes  

Science.gov (United States)

During this summer, I have been part of a four team effort that planned and executed two two-week Teacher Enhancement Institutes (TEI) for 40 K-8 teachers from this area. The TEI was designed to enhance teachers' background in aeronautics and technology so that they would be better equipped to encourage and to train students in the mathematics, science, and technology fields. The teachers were given a stipend and three graduate credits from Christopher Newport University for their participation in this program. The four ASEE fellows worked together to develop objectives and a schedule of activities for each two-week session based on the program outline given in the grants that were funding this effort. We divided the responsibilities in coordinating and implementing each part of the TEI based on the specific strengths and background of each ASEE fellow. My specific responsibilities were: (1) to develop the course syllabus and generally handle all matters involved with the graduate course; (2) coordinate the follow-up sessions; and (3) design and manage half of the technology sessions that we had scheduled (approximately 30% of the TEI was devoted to technology). Because the first two responsibilities were primarily administrative in nature, I will address only the last. The technology sessions were divided into computer-only and other technologies (e.g., television and digital technology including scanning, digital photography and CD-ROM). I had responsibility for the computer-only technology sessions. The emphasis of these sessions was on use of the Internet specifically to locate and use educational resources. To maximize learning, these sessions were hands-on with two teachers at each computer. Each teacher received instruction in, and actually used, the most popular tools available on the Internet: email (they were given temporary accounts at NASA LaRC), anonymous ftp and archie, gopher and veronica, mosaic, and telnet. Teachers participated in hands-on workshops to learn about these programs, but were also given time during the two-week session to explore on their own and to find resources on the Net that specifically met their needs. In order to ensure that Internet access continues after their return to the classroom, aIl teachers who did not have them also applied for Learning Link accounts (from WHRO, the local public television station) and Virginia Pen accounts (from the Department of Education of Virginia), both of which allow textbased access to Internet. In addition to getting exposure to and practice with Internet tools, teachers were aIso given a hands-on seminar (and also given practice time) on ClarisWorks, an integrated word processing, spreadsheet, database, and paint package. The technology sessions (and TEI as a whole) were enthusiastically received by both new and more experienced teachers as extremely helpful in improving their ability to use technology in developing lesson pIans.

Lambert, Lynn

1994-01-01

97

Comparative studies of atomic layer deposition and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition Ta2O5 and the effects on electrical properties of in situ nitridation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ta2O5 and TaOxNy thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from Ta(NMe2)5 (PDMAT) with water, oxygen plasma, and nitrogen added oxygen plasma. The film properties were comparatively investigated focusing on the electrical properties from metal oxide semiconductor capacitor structure with 10 nm Ta2O5 or TaOxNy. The results show that plasma-enhanced ALD (PE-ALD) Ta2O5 film has better electrical properties including lower interface state density and leakage current than thermal ALD. Moreover, PE-ALD TaOxNy shows the best properties, indicating the beneficial effects of in situ nitridation. Especially, time dependent dielectric breakdown was significantly improved up to 4000 times of thermal ALD Ta2O5. These results show that, intentional in situ nitrogen incorporation with good electrical properties was successfully achieved by PE-ALD using nitrogen-oxygen mixture. (author)

2007-05-01

98

Enhanced J c property in nano-SiC doped thin MgB2/Fe wires by a modified in situ PIT process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A modified in situ PIT process, which included a short time pre-annealing and intermediate drawing step in the conventional in situ PIT process, was employed to fabricate thin round MgB2/Fe wires from MgH2 and B powders. The pores and cracks resulted from the MgH2 decomposition during the pre-annealing were effectively eliminated by the intermediate drawing step, which subsequently increased the core density and J c property of final heat treated wires. A higher reduction rate after the pre-annealing led to a larger enhancement in J c within this study. The reproducibility of our new process on the J c improvement in MgB2 wires was confirmed in two series of wires doped with 5 mol% or 10 mol% nano-SiC particles separately

2005-06-01

99

Octane enhancement and total liquid product yield improvements in catalytic cracking using in-situ crystallized ZSM-5 clai aggregates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Octane and total yield improvement in catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions under cracking conditions can be obtained by adding to conventional cracking catalysts small amounts of an additive catalyst comprising a class of zeolites characterized by a silica to alumina mole ratio greater than 5 and a Constraint Index of 1 to 12 wherein the zeolite additive catalyst is prepared via in-situ crystallization of preformed aggregates.

Chu, P.; Pasquale, G. M.

1985-06-11

100

In situ enzymatic silver enhancement based on functionalized graphene oxide and layer-by-layer assembled gold nanoparticles for ultrasensitive detection of thrombin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly specific in situ amplification strategy was designed for ultrasensitive detection of thrombin by combining the layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled amplification with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gold nanoparticles (Au) mediated silver deposition. High-density carboxyl functionalized graphene oxide (FGO) was introduced as a nanocarrier for LBL assembling of alkaline phosphatase decorated gold nanoparticles (ALP-Au), which was further adopted to label thrombin aptamer II. After sandwich-type reaction, numerous ALP were captured onto the aptasensor surface and catalyzed the hydrolysis of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP), which in situ generated ascorbic acid (AA), reducing Ag(+) to Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) for electrochemical readout. Inspiringly, the in situ amplification strategy with ethanolamine as an effective blocking agent showed remarkable amplification efficiency, very little nonspecific adsorption, and low background signal, which was favorable to enhance the sensitivity of aptasensor. Our novel dramatic signal amplification strategy, with a detection limit of 2.7 fM, showed about 2-3 orders of magnitude improvement in the sensitivity for thrombin detection compared to other universal enzyme-based electrochemical assay. PMID:22664382

Wang, Yan; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Yali; Bai, Lijuan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Enhanced functional expression of aquaporin Z via fusion of in situ cleavable leader peptides in Escherichia coli cell-free system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaporin Z (AqpZ) is a water channel protein from Escherichia coli and has attracted many attentions to develop the biomimetic water filtration technology. Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) system, one of the most complex multi-enzymatic systems, has the ability of producing the integral membrane protein in vitro. To enhance the synthesis of AqpZ in E. coli cell-free system, several natural leader peptides were respectively fused at the N-terminus and were verified to enhance the expression level significantly. Moreover, the supplementation of detergents or liposome could activate leader peptidase from the cell-free extract and provide hydrophobic environment for proper folding of AqpZ. Thus, the release of mature AqpZ via the in situ removal of leader peptide was achieved, with a specific water transport activity of (2.1 ± 0.1) × 10?¹? cm³ s?¹ monomer?¹. Using this in situ removable leader peptide strategy, the transcription-translation, leader sequence cleavage and membrane protein folding were integrated into a simple process in the cell-free system, providing a convenient approach to enhance the expression of target proteins, especially those membrane proteins difficult to achieve. PMID:24411442

Zhang, Xu; Lian, Jiazhang; Kai, Lei; Huang, Lei; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

2014-02-01

102

Microwave-assisted in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-BiVO4 composite photocatalysts and their enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of ciprofloxacin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Microwave-assisted in situ growth of RGO-BiVO4 composite was proposed. ? A relatively small particle size with organic-additives free. ? Graphene was formed during the microwave-heating by oxygen capture. ? GB-2 sample exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (3 times over pure BiVO4). ? The enhancements of activities result from the effective charge separation. -- Abstract: To improve the photodegradation efficiency for ciprofloxacin (CIP), a new-type microwave-assisted in situ growth method is developed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) -BiVO4 composite photocatalysts. The as-produced RGO-BiVO4 composite photocatalysts show extremely high enhancement of CIP degradation ratio over the pure BiVO4 photocatalyst under visible light. Specially, the 2 wt% RGO-BiVO4 composite photocatalyst exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (68.2%) in 60 min, which is over 3 times than that (22.7%) of the pure BiVO4 particles. The enhancement of photocatalytic activities of RGO-BiVO4 photocatalysts can be attributed to the effective separation of electron–hole pairs rather than the improvement of light absorption

2013-04-15

103

Microwave-assisted in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts and their enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of ciprofloxacin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? Microwave-assisted in situ growth of RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite was proposed. ? A relatively small particle size with organic-additives free. ? Graphene was formed during the microwave-heating by oxygen capture. ? GB-2 sample exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (3 times over pure BiVO{sub 4}). ? The enhancements of activities result from the effective charge separation. -- Abstract: To improve the photodegradation efficiency for ciprofloxacin (CIP), a new-type microwave-assisted in situ growth method is developed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) -BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts. The as-produced RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts show extremely high enhancement of CIP degradation ratio over the pure BiVO{sub 4} photocatalyst under visible light. Specially, the 2 wt% RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalyst exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (68.2%) in 60 min, which is over 3 times than that (22.7%) of the pure BiVO{sub 4} particles. The enhancement of photocatalytic activities of RGO-BiVO{sub 4} photocatalysts can be attributed to the effective separation of electron–hole pairs rather than the improvement of light absorption.

Yan, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Sun, Shaofang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Yanta Road 126, Xi’an, 710054 (China); Song, Yang; Yan, Xu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Guan, Weisheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Yanta Road 126, Xi’an, 710054 (China); Liu, Xinlin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Shi, Weidong, E-mail: swd1978@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China)

2013-04-15

104

In situ formation of nanocrystals from a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system to enhance oral bioavailability of fenofibrate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

You-Meei Lin1, Jui-Yu Wu2, Ying-Chen Chen3, Yu-Der Su3, Wen-Tin Ke3, Hsiu-O Ho31Department of Pharmacy, Shuang Ho Hospital, 2Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, 3School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROCObjectives: In situ formation of nanocrystals and dissolution profiles of fenofibrate (FFB) from a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) were characterized.Methods: SMEDDS formulated with Myritol® and surfactant mixtur...

Ym, Lin; Ju, Wu; Yc, Chen; Yd, Su; Wt, Ke; Ho, Ho; Mt, Sheu

2011-01-01

105

Enhancement of the sweep efficiency of waterflooding operations by the in-situ microbial population of petroleum reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Live cores were obtained from five reservoirs using special precautions to prevent contamination by exogenous microorganisms and minimize exposure to oxygen. The depths from which the cores were obtained ranged from 2,705 ft to 6,568 ft. Core plugs were cut radially from live cores, encased in heat-shrink plastic tubes, placed in core holders, and fitted with inlets and outlets. Nutrient additions stimulated the in-situ microbial population to increase, dissolve stratal material, produce gases, and release oil. Reduction in flow through the core plugs was observed in some cases, while in other cases flow was increased, probably due to the dissolution of carbonates in the formation. A field demonstration of the ability of the in-situ microbial population to increase oil recovery by blocking the more permeable zones of the reservoir is currently underway. This demonstration is being conducted in the North Blowhorn Creek Unit situated in Lamar County, Alabama. Live cores were obtained from a newly drilled well in the field and tested as described above. The field project involves four test patterns each including one injector, four to five producers, and a comparable control injector with its four to five producers. Nutrient injection in the field began November 1994.

Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A.; Stephens, J.O.; Azadpour, A.

1995-12-31

106

The in situ and in vivo study on enhancing effect of borneol in nasal absorption of Geniposide in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to study the in situ and in vivo nasal absorption of Geniposide (Ge) co-administered with borneol. A rat in situ nasal perfusion technique with a novel volumeadjusted calculation was used to examine the absorption rate and extent of Ge. The influence of different experimental conditions such as purity of extract, drug concentration, co-administration with synthetic borneol or natural borneol were also investigated. Results indicated nasal absorption of Ge was primarily by passive diffusion that resembled first order kinetics. Following co-administration with borenol, the drug absorption was increased by 1.4 and 1.7 folds for natural borneol and synthetic borneol, respectively. However, the effect of other factors on drug absorption was not significant. In addition, it was also observed that there is a positive correlation between the absorption of water and Ge by the nasal route. In vivo studies carried out in rats where Ge was co-administered with NB and the pharmacokinetic profile obtained following intranasal administration were compared with those after intravenous administration. The bioavailability of Ge by intranasal was 101.5% and T(max) was 2.04 +/- 0.64 min. MRT was 218.7 +/- 74.1 min and 44.4 +/- 8.9 min for intranasal and intravenous, respectively. Combined with the borneol, Ge can be promptly and thoroughly absorbed intranasally in rats. PMID:20512466

Lu, Yang; Chen, Xiaolan; Du, Shouying; Wu, Qing; Yao, Zongling; Zhai, Yongsong

2010-05-01

107

A surface-enhanced Raman scattering optrode prepared by in situ photoinduced reactions and its application for highly sensitive on-chip detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active optical fiber sensor combining the optical fiber waveguide with various SERS substrates has been a powerful analytical tool for in situ and long-distance SERS detection with high sensitivity. The design and modification of a high-quality SERS-active sensing layer are important topics in the development of novel SERS-active optical fiber sensors. Here, we prepared a highly sensitive SERS-active optrode by in situ fabrication of a three-dimensional porous structure on the optical fiber end via a photoinduced polymerization reaction, followed by the growth of photochemical silver nanoparticles above the porous polymer material. The fabrication process is rapid (finished within 1 h) and can be on line under light control. The porous structure supports vast silver nanoparticles, which allows for strong electromagnetic enhancement of SERS. Interestingly, the preparation of this SERS optrode and its utilization for SERS detection can all be conducted in a microfluidic chip. The qualitative and quantitative on-chip SERS sensing of organic pollutants and pesticides has been achieved by this SERS optrode-integrated microfluidic chip, and its high detection sensitivity makes it a promising factor in the analysis of liquid systems. PMID:24978908

Wang, Shaoyan; Liu, Chunyu; Wang, Hailong; Chen, Gang; Cong, Ming; Song, Wei; Jia, Qiong; Xu, Shuping; Xu, Weiqing

2014-07-23

108

In situ warming and soil venting to enhance the biodegradation of JP-4 in cold climates: A critical study and analysis. Master`s thesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In cold climates, bioremediation is limited to the summer when soil temperatures are sufficient to support microbial growth. Laboratory studies directly correlate increased biodegradation rates with temperature. By raising soil temperatures, in situ jet fuel remediation can be accelerated which was shown by a bioventing project conducted in 1991 at Eielson AFB, Alaska, where three soil warming techniques were used. This study critically analyzes the project data to determine its effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation. This study also models the temperature-biodegradation relationship at the test plots using the van`t Hoff-Arrhenius equation. Using paired oxygen consumption rates and temperatures, application of the equation was valid only for the warm water and passive warming plots. This study demonstrates that bioremediation is feasible in cold climates and can be enhanced by soil warming. Soil warming can significantly decrease remediation time with acceptable cost increases.

Cox, R.D.

1995-12-01

109

Enhanced water window x-ray emission from in situ formed carbon clusters irradiated by intense ultra-short laser pulses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enhanced water window x-ray emission (23–44 Å) from carbon clusters, formed in situ using a pre-pulse, irradiated by intense (I > 1017 W/cm2) ultra-short laser pulse, is demonstrated. An order of magnitude x-ray enhancement over planar graphite target is observed in carbon clusters, formed by a sub-ns pre-pulse, interacting with intense main pulse after a delay. The effect of the delay and the duration of the main pulse is studied for optimizing the x-ray emission in the water window region. This x-ray source has added advantages of being an efficient, high repetition rate, and low debris x-ray source

2013-07-29

110

Enhanced water window x-ray emission from in situ formed carbon clusters irradiated by intense ultra-short laser pulses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Enhanced water window x-ray emission (23–44 Å) from carbon clusters, formed in situ using a pre-pulse, irradiated by intense (I > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) ultra-short laser pulse, is demonstrated. An order of magnitude x-ray enhancement over planar graphite target is observed in carbon clusters, formed by a sub-ns pre-pulse, interacting with intense main pulse after a delay. The effect of the delay and the duration of the main pulse is studied for optimizing the x-ray emission in the water window region. This x-ray source has added advantages of being an efficient, high repetition rate, and low debris x-ray source.

Chakravarty, U.; Rao, B. S.; Arora, V.; Upadhyay, A.; Singhal, H.; Naik, P. A.; Chakera, J. A.; Mukherjee, C.; Gupta, P. D. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452 013 Madhya Pradesh (India)

2013-07-29

111

In situ monitoring of protein adsorption on a nanoparticulated gold film by attenuated total reflection surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) with an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration has been used to monitor the adsorption kinetics of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) on a Au nanoparticle (NP) film. The IR absorbance for BHb molecules on a gold nanoparticle film deposited on a Si hemispherical optical window is about 58 times higher than that on a bare Si optical window and the detection sensitivity has been improved by 3 orders of magnitude. From the IR signal as a function of adsorption time, the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics can be explored in situ. It is found that both the electrostatic interaction and the coordination bonds between BHb residues and Au NP film surface affect the adsorption kinetics. The maximum adsorption can be obtained in solution pH 7.0 (close to the isoelectric point of the protein) due to the electrostatic interaction among proteins. In addition, the isotherm of BHb adsorption follows well the Freundlich adsorption model. PMID:22624668

Jin, Bo; Bao, Wen-Jing; Wu, Zeng-Qiang; Xia, Xing-Hua

2012-06-26

112

Usage of waste products from thermal recycling of plastics waste in enhanced oil recovery or in-situ coal conversion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this contribution a thermal method for crude oil mobilization and in-situ liquefaction of coal is discussed, which will finally yield more organic material, as which has been put in from plastics waste originally into the process. The conversion product from thermal treatment is pumped down into exhausted crude oil reservoirs, where the hydrogen can degrade the residual high viscous oil to cause it to become more prone to flow so that it can be recovered. Such a process will envision two goals: 1. more organic raw material (as crude oil) will be recovered than is initially put in as waste product. 2. atmospheric pollutants from the conversion plant will be trapped in the reservoir, which simplifies the construction of the plant. An analogous process may be performed with coal seams. Coal seams with their high porosity and large specific surface are believed to be in particular useful to filter atmospheric pollutants. Depending on the type of coal the mobilization of organic material by this process may be in the background. (orig./SR)

Fink, M.; Fink, J.K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

1998-09-01

113

Structure-based enhanced capacitance: in situ growth of highly ordered polyaniline nanorods on reduced graphene oxide patterns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel method is described for fabricating an all-solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor. The microelectrodes of the supercapacitor are prepared by in situ electrodeposition of polyaniline (PANI) nanorods on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) patterns that are fabricated by micromolding in capillaries. The morphologies of PANI nanorods could be controlled by the concentration of aniline and the growth time in the electrodeposition process. The micro-supercapacitor possesses electrochemical capacitance as high as 970 F g{sup -1} at a discharge current density of 2.5 A g{sup -1}, as well as good stability, retaining 90% of its initial capacitance after 1700 consecutive cycles for the synergistic effect of these new rGO/PANI nanostructures. The results show that the method could represent a route for translating the interesting fundamental properties of rGO and conducting polymers into technologically viable energy devices. Furthermore, this study might further guide the preparation of functional graphene-based materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Xue, Mianqi; Li, Fengwang; Zhu, Juan; Song, Hang; Zhang, Meining; Cao, Tingbing [Department of Chemistry, Renmin University of China, Beijing (China)

2012-03-21

114

Highly sensitive in situ monitoring of catalytic reactions by surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy on multifunctional Fe3O4/C/Au NPs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, multifunctional Fe3O4/C/Au nanoparticles (NPs), which catalytically integrated active small Au NPs with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active large Au NPs, were fabricated via a facile method and employed for the in situ SERS monitoring of a catalytic reaction of p-nitrothiophenol (p-NTP) to p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP). In addition, the effect of magnet power was tested and it was demonstrated that the SERS intensity of the reaction system was stronger, and the reaction proceeded more smoothly because more hot spots existed and remained the same in the magnetic field; hence, the catalytic rate could be determined. PMID:24903915

Cai, Wenya; Tang, Xianghu; Sun, Bai; Yang, Liangbao

2014-06-26

115

Characterisation of vertical BrO distribution during events of enhanced tropospheric BrO in Antarctica, from combined remote and in-situ measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropospheric BrO was measured by a ground-based remote-sensing spectrometer at Halley in Antarctica in spring 2007, and BrO was measured by satellite-borne remote-sensing spectrometers using similar spectral regions and similar Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analyses. Near-surface BrO was simultaneously measured in situ at Halley by Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (CIMS), and in an earlier year near-surface BrO was measured at Halley over a long path by a ground-based DOAS spectrometer. During enhancement episodes, total amounts of tropospheric BrO from the ground-based remote-sensor were similar to those from space, but if we assume that the BrO was confined to the mixed layer they were very much larger than values measured by either near-surface technique. This large apparent discrepancy can be resolved if substantial amounts of BrO were in the free troposphere during most enhancement episodes. Amounts observed by the ground-based remote sensor at different elevation angles, and their formal inversions to vertical profiles, demonstrate that much of the BrO was indeed often in the free troposphere. This is consistent with the ~5 day lifetime of Bry and with the enhanced BrO observed during some Antarctic blizzards.

Roscoe, H. K.; Brough, N.; Jones, A. E.; Wittrock, F.; Richter, A.; Van Roozendael, M.; Hendrick, F.

2014-05-01

116

Polarization sensitivity as a contrast enhancer in pelagic predators: lessons from in situ polarization imaging of transparent zooplankton  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because light in the pelagic environment is partially polarized, it has been suggested that the polarization sensitivity found in certain pelagic species may serve to enhance the contrast of their transparent zooplankton prey. We examined its potential during cruises in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean and at a field station on the Great Barrier Reef. First, we collected various species of transparent zooplankton and micronekton and photographed them between crossed polarizers. Many grou...

2011-01-01

117

In situ nanoscale refinement by highly controllable etching of the (111) silicon crystal plane and its influence on the enhanced electrical property of a silicon nanowire  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanoscale refinement on a (100) oriented silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer was introduced by using tetra-methyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH, 25 wt%) anisotropic silicon etchant, with temperature kept at 50 °C to achieve precise etching of the (111) crystal plane. Specifically for a silicon nanowire (SiNW) with oxide sidewall protection, the in situ TMAH process enabled effective size reduction in both lateral (2.3 nm/min) and vertical (1.7 nm/min) dimensions. A sub-50 nm SiNW with a length of microns with uniform triangular cross-section was achieved accordingly, yielding enhanced field effect transistor (FET) characteristics in comparison with its 100 nm-wide pre-refining counterpart, which demonstrated the feasibility of this highly controllable refinement process. Detailed examination revealed that the high surface quality of the (111) plane, as well as the bulk depletion property should be the causes of this electrical enhancement, which implies the great potential of the as-made cost-effective SiNW FET device in many fields.

Yibin, Gong; Pengfei, Dai; Anran, Gao; Tie, Li; Ping, Zhou; Yuelin, Wang

2011-12-01

118

In situ nanoscale refinement by highly controllable etching of the (111) silicon crystal plane and its influence on the enhanced electrical property of a silicon nanowire  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanoscale refinement on a (100) oriented silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer was introduced by using tetra-methyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH, 25 wt%) anisotropic silicon etchant, with temperature kept at 50 °C to achieve precise etching of the (111) crystal plane. Specifically for a silicon nanowire (SiNW) with oxide sidewall protection, the in situ TMAH process enabled effective size reduction in both lateral (2.3 nm/min) and vertical (1.7 nm/min) dimensions. A sub-50 nm SiNW with a length of microns with uniform triangular cross-section was achieved accordingly, yielding enhanced field effect transistor (FET) characteristics in comparison with its 100 nm-wide pre-refining counterpart, which demonstrated the feasibility of this highly controllable refinement process. Detailed examination revealed that the high surface quality of the (111) plane, as well as the bulk depletion property should be the causes of this electrical enhancement, which implies the great potential of the as-made cost-effective SiNW FET device in many fields. (semiconductor materials)

2011-12-01

119

Enhanced electron field emission from simultaneously purified and nitrogen incorporated CNTs via tip opening by Novel in-situ nitrogen ECR plasma  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a novel single step process by means of in-situ nitrogen ECR plasma treatment with very low power and treatment time for the simultaneous metal catalyst (iron) removal via tip opening and nitrogen functionalization/incorporation of the vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes synthesised using a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Microscopic (SEM) and spectroscopic (NEXAFS, XPS and Raman) studies reveal negligible remaining Fe content (0%) and limited/no damage structure and alignment of the nanotubes. The incorporation of nitrogen was elucidated by the N-k edge NEXAFS spectra, where the sharp ?* peak splits into three distinct peaks at energies 399, 399.5 and 401.1 eV. Increase in the at. % conc. of N 1s from 0.7 to 6.9 % and the disappearance of the peak at 780 eV by XPS and Raman corroborate the inclusion of nitrogen in the CNTs and the complete removal of iron metal catalyst. Metal catalyst removal and nitrogen addition by N-ECR plasma leads to enhanced field emission with very low turn on and threshold fields of 0.52 V/?m and 0.76 V/?m as compared to the recent studies of other nitrogen doped nanomaterials by plasma treatments.

Iyer, Swathi; Maguire, Paul

2011-03-01

120

In situ monitoring of thermal crystallization of ultrathin tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum films using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal crystallization of 3, 10, and 60 nm-thick tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) films is studied using surface-enhanced Raman scattering with a constant heating rate. An abrupt higher frequency shift of the quinoline-stretching mode is found to be an indication of a phase transition of Alq3 molecules from amorphous to crystalline. While the 60 nm-thick film shows the same crystallization temperature as a bulk sample, the thinner films were found to have a lower crystallization temperature and slower rate of crystallization. Non-isothermal kinetics analysis is performed to quantify kinetic properties such as the Avrami exponent constants and crystallization rates of ultrathin Alq3 films. PMID:24405952

Muraki, Naoki

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Radiation induced dehydrochlorination as an in-situ doping technique for enhancement of the conductivity of polyaniline blends  

Science.gov (United States)

In our earlier studies we have shown that acid doping in PANI/PVC blends can be achieved by radiation induced HCl release from PVC parts. In order to enhance radiation-induced acid doping process in PANI blends we have prepared solution cast films of PANI with the copolymers of vinylidene chloride with vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride. Homogeneous films obtained from these binary systems as well as from PANI/PVC blends were exposed to gamma rays under ambient conditions. The increase in the conductivity of initially non-conducting films was significant, reaching values of 10-2 S/cm from initial values of 10-7 S/cm upon irradiation to 500 kGy dose. Chemical changes leading to relatively high conductivities were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy by following the changes taking place in 1149 cm-1 and 814 cm-1 bands which are indicative of conductivity and chlorine binding in polyaniline.

Bodugöz, Hatice; Güven, Olgun

2005-07-01

122

Radiation induced dehydrochlorination as an in-situ doping technique for enhancement of the conductivity of polyaniline blends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In our earlier studies we have shown that acid doping in PANI/PVC blends can be achieved by radiation induced HCl release from PVC parts. In order to enhance radiation-induced acid doping process in PANI blends we have prepared solution cast films of PANI with the copolymers of vinylidene chloride with vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride. Homogeneous films obtained from these binary systems as well as from PANI/PVC blends were exposed to gamma rays under ambient conditions. The increase in the conductivity of initially non-conducting films was significant, reaching values of 10-2 S/cm from initial values of 10-7 S/cm upon irradiation to 500 kGy dose. Chemical changes leading to relatively high conductivities were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy by following the changes taking place in 1149 cm-1 and 814 cm-1 bands which are indicative of conductivity and chlorine binding in polyaniline

2005-07-01

123

In situ evaluation of orthodontic elastomeric chains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A hipótese testada foi que a exposição dos elásticos em cadeia ao meio bucal altera sua força de tensão. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o comportamento, in situ, de diferentes cadeias elastoméricas quando tensionadas durante 3 semanas. Três tipos de elásticos em cadeia Plastic Chain ( [...] PC), Memory Chain (MC) e Super Slick Chain (SSC) foram inseridos aleatoriamente em 3 dos quadrantes de 13 pacientes com distância fixa de 16 mm e força inicial de 180 g. Foi realizado ensaio de tração em uma máquina de ensaio universal EMIC nos seguintes intervalos: inicial, 1 h, 24 h, 1 semana, 2 semanas e 3 semanas. O teste ANOVA a dois critérios foi aplicado para verificar a influência do material e do tempo na degradação da força. Subsequentemente, foi utilizado o teste ANOVA a um critério e pós-teste de Tukey para identificar diferenças estatísticas (p Abstract in english The hypothesis tested in this study was that intraoral exposure of elastomeric chains alters their tensile strength. For such purpose, it was evaluated the in situ behavior of different elastomeric chains stretched for 3 weeks. Three kinds of elastomeric chains, Plastic chain (PC), Memory chain (MC) [...] and Super slick chain (SSC), were randomly placed in 3 quadrants of 13 patient in a fixed distance of 16 mm and mean initial force of 180 g. Tensile testing was performed in an universal testing machine at different intervals: initial, 1 h, 24 h, 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks. A two-way ANOVA test was performed to identify the influence of both material and time on the force decrease. A subsequent one-way ANOVAtest with the Tukey's post hoc test was used to identify statistically significant intragroup and intergroup remaining force (g and %) differences at 5% significance level. The effect of both the material and the time factors were significant. All groups showed significant force decrease after the 1-h period (23% for PC and 14% for MC and SSC). At the end of the 3-week period, the remaining force was 57% (96 g), 67% (129 g) and 71% (125 g) for PC, MC and SSC, respectively. In conclusion, intraoral exposure of elastomeric chains altered their tensile strength. In general, the greater force decrease occurred within the first hour. The remaining force of the enhanced chains measured at each time interval was greater than the conventional one (PC). After 3 weeks, only the enhanced chains maintained the force applied over 100 g.

Carolina, Baratieri; Cláudia Trindade, Mattos; Matheus, Alves Jr; Thiago Chon Leon, Lau; Lincoln Issamu, Nojima; Margareth Maria Gomes de, Souza; Monica Tirre, Araujo; Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves, Nojima.

124

Innovative technique for in situ treatment of contaminated surface waters and submerged sediments by enhanced aerobic bioremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The delicate balance of the Earth's fragile aquatic ecosystems is being disturbed at an alarming rate. Industrial, agricultural, and residential effluents enter waterways polluting these systems with a wide range of organic, metallic and inorganic compounds. Current methods of remediating aquatic sediments contaminated with organic pollutants, such as agricultural and residential sewage, fuel oil, PCB's and other industrial chemicals, involve dredging up the sediment, treating it elsewhere, then returning it to the removal site. Surface water treatments, such as the treatment of lakes for alga blooms, require the addition of poisonous chemical herbicides and pesticides. The authors are presently conducting bench-scale and pilot studies to determine the effectiveness of their unique patented method of tablets engineered to enhance the water quality at the water-sediment interface with oxygen and nutrients. This method promotes the growth of aerobic microorganisms that break down the contaminants to non-toxic byproducts. The authors plan to present the results of testing in two areas: alternative to herbicides in lake treatments of algae blooms and treatment of hog manure sludge pits to reduce odor and reduce the amount of waste. The method is designed to provide an environment in which the organisms and the waste are maintained in intimate contact in the presence of oxygen. Greater efficiency of treatment and use for a wide variety of agricultural wastes can be expected when the types of microorganisms responsible for treatment are known and their optimum environmental conditions have been established. With this new methodology, a reduction in the production of odorous and potentially atmospherically damaging gases can be achieved by the use of aerobic rather anaerobic treatments.

Di Turo, J.W.; Hurtak, J.J.

1998-07-01

125

High sensitivity in situ monitoring of NO3 in an atmospheric simulation chamber using incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the application of incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) for the in situ detection of atmospheric trace gases and radicals (NO3, NO2, O3, H2O) in an atmospheric simulation chamber under realistic atmospheric conditions. The length of the optical cavity across the reaction chamber is 4.5 m, which is significantly longer than in previous studies that use high finesse optical cavities to achieve high absorption sensitivity. Using a straightforward spectrometer configuration, we show that detection limits corresponding to typical atmospheric concentrations can be achieved with a measurement time of seconds to a few minutes. In particular, with only moderate reflectivity mirrors, we report a measured sensitivity of 4 pptv to NO3 in a 1 min acquisition time. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the IBBCEAS method and its pptv sensitivity to NO3 makes it useful in laboratory studies of atmospheric processes as well as having obvious potential for field measurements. PMID:17144307

Venables, Dean S; Gherman, Titus; Orphal, Johannes; Wenger, John C; Ruth, Albert A

2006-11-01

126

[In situ FTIR reflection spectroscopy of molecule probe studies of enhanced IR adsorbtion and response rate to potential on Pd nanoparticles confined].  

Science.gov (United States)

Palladium nanoparticles (nm-Pd) were synthesized in the supercages of Y-zeolite via "ship-in-a-bottle". Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and Nafion were used as bonds respectively to prepare zeolite-modified electrode loading nm-Pd by mixed coat and steped coat. IR optical properties of adsorbed CO (COad) were studied by in situ electrochemical FTIR spectrum on zeolite-modified electrode surface prepared by different bond and coating method. Results display the same enhanced IR absorption of COad and different response rate to potential as well as the ability of electron transfer on PVC and Nafion film. Time-dependent vCOB shift was studied for obtaining the information of response rate to potential and electron transfer ability of PVC and Nafion coating. A larger potential lag on PVC coating electrode and a very small potential lag on Nafion coating film were found, showing that different bond and prepared method affect response rate to potential of zeolite-modified electrode. These findings are significant in understanding special optical performance and the electron transfer mechanism of zeolite-modified electrode. PMID:15766147

Jiang, Yan-xia; Chen, Zuo-feng; Ding, Nan; Sun, Shi-gang

2004-04-01

127

Characterizing early contrast uptake of ductal carcinoma in situ with high temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast: a pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improvements in the reliable diagnosis of preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) are needed. In this study, we present a new characterization of early contrast kinetics of DCIS using high temporal resolution (HiT) DCE-MRI and compare it with other breast lesions and normal parenchyma. Forty patients with mammographic calcifications suspicious for DCIS were selected for HiT imaging using T1-weighted DCE-MRI with ?7 s temporal resolution for 90 s post-contrast injection. Pixel-based and whole-lesion kinetic curves were fit to an empirical mathematical model (EMM) and several secondary kinetic parameters derived. Using the EMM parameterized and fitted concentration time curve for subsequent analysis allowed for calculation of kinetic parameters that were less susceptible to fluctuations due to noise. The parameters' initial area under the curve (iAUC) and contrast concentration at 1 min (C1min) provided the highest diagnostic accuracy in the task of distinguishing pathologically proven DCIS from normal tissue. There was a trend for DCIS lesions with solid architectural pattern to exhibit a negative slope at 1 min (i.e. increased washout rate) compared to those with a cribriform pattern (p < 0.04). This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative analysis of early contrast kinetics at high temporal resolution and points to the potential for such an analysis to improve the characterization of DCIS. (note)

2010-10-07

128

In situ vitrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As management of hazardous materials gains increased attention in the United States, new and more effective technologies are being sought to immobilize and/or destroy the wastes, either in situ for previously disposed wastes or at the waste generation site. The new Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) 1984 and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) 1986, combined with proposed rule making by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is making landfill disposal very costly and is moving in a direction that will severely limit future land disposal. Further, the extended liability associated with future environmental impairment provides a significant corporate incentive to dispose and delist wastes within the plant or waste site boundary. The authors discuss a remedial action process for contaminated soils that is potentially significant in its application to these concerns. Although the process was initially developed to provide enhanced isolation to previously disposed radioactive wastes, recent tests have shown that many hazardous chemical wastes are also destroyed or immobilized as a result of the treatment. The process, in situ vitrification (ISV), was originally developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is more recently being adapted for selected commercial clients for hazardous wastes

1987-06-21

129

Two Weeks of Metformin Treatment Enhances Mitochondrial Respiration in Skeletal Muscle of AMPK Kinase Dead but Not Wild Type Mice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Metformin is used as an anti-diabetic drug. Metformin ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity in liver and skeletal muscle. Reduced mitochondrial content has been reported in type 2 diabetic muscles and it may contribute to decreased insulin sensitivity characteristic for diabetic muscles. The molecular mechanism behind the effect of metformin is not fully clarified but inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and also activation of the 5'AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported in muscle. Furthermore, both AMPK activation and metformin treatment have been associated with stimulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. However, a causal relationship in skeletal muscle has not been investigated. We hypothesized that potential effects of in vivo metformin treatment on mitochondrial function and protein expressions in skeletal muscle are dependent upon AMPK signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead alpha(2) (KD) AMPK mice and wild type (WT) littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice. We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems to be unrelated to AMPK, and does not involve changes in key mitochondrial proteins.

Kristensen, J. M.

2013-01-01

130

Long-term population dynamics and in situ physiology in activated sludge systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal operated with and without nitrogen removal  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the combination of FISH with microautoradiography (MAR) were used in order to study the long-term population dynamics (2.5 years) and the in situ physiology in two parallel activated sludge pilot systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The two systems received the same influent wastewater, but were differently operated (with and without nitrogen removal, respectively). Both systems showed a significant P removal that increased when different substrates (phosphorus (P), acetate and glucose, respectively) were added to the influent wastewater. Rhodocyclus-related bacteria were present in both systems in significant numbers (ranging from 4 to 28%) throughout the whole period. This supports the hypothesis that these bacteria occur in significant numbers in different types of well-operating EBPR activated sludge processes. However, we observed a lower correlation (0.9). The Actinobacteria were the only additional group of bacteria whichshowed a similar degree of correlation to the P content in activated sludge as the Rhodocyclus-related bacteria - but only for the system without nitrogen removal. Significant amounts (less than or equal to12%) of glycogen-accumulating bacteria (GAOs) were detected in the system with nitrogen removal (but not in the other system), but had no, in contrast to previous observations, apparent negative effect on the overall EBPR performance. FISH-MAR indicated that a significant part of the Betaproteobacteria (part of them identified as Rhodocyclus-related bacteria) as well as the Actinobacteria were able to take up P-33(i), [H-3]-acetate and [H-3]-glucose under anaerobic-aerobic conditions. The contribution of anoxic P-33(i) uptake under alternating anaerobic-anoxic conditions was significantly lower. Interestingly, not all Rhodocyclus-related bacteria showed uptake of these three radioactive substrates. This may be due to differences in metabolic state, physiological potential or genotype, not detectable by thepresent probe set for Rhodocyclus-related bacteria. Comparison of the P-33(i), [H-3]-acetate and [H-3]-glucose uptake by activated sludge after different fixation and incubation procedures showed that a part of the observed P-33(i), uptake may have been caused by a combination of a biological and chemical or biologically induced chemical P adsorption.

Lee, N.; Nielsen, P.H.

2003-01-01

131

Enhanced lithium storage in a VO{sub 2}(B)-multiwall carbon nanotube microsheet composite prepared via an in situ hydrothermal process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel VO{sub 2}(B)-multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite with a sheet-like morphology was synthesized by a simple in situ hydrothermal process. The morphology and structural properties of the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FE-SEM observations demonstrated that the nanosheets are frequently grown together in the form of bundles composed of numerous nanosheets, each with a smooth surface and a typical length of 300-500 nm, width of 50-150 nm, and thickness of 10-50 nm. Electrochemical measurements were carried out using different discharge cut-off voltages. Electrochemical tests show that the VO{sub 2}(B)-MWCNT composite cathode features long-term cycling stability and high discharge capacity (177 mAh g{sup -1}) in the voltage range of 2.0-3.25 V at 1 C with a capacity retention of 92% after 100 cycles. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) indicate that the VO{sub 2}(B)-MWCNT composite electrode has very low charge-transfer resistance compared with pure VO{sub 2}(B), indicating the enhanced ionic conductivity of the VO{sub 2}(B)-MWCNT composite. The enhanced cycling stability is attributed to the fact that the VO{sub 2}(B)-MWCNT composite can prevent the aggregation of active materials, accommodate the large volume variation, and maintain good electronic contact. We strongly believe that the VO{sub 2}(B)-MWCNT composite can be considered as a potential cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.

Rahman, M.M., E-mail: mmr543@uow.edu.a [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials and ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wang Jiazhao [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials and ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Idris, Nurul Hayati [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials and ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Department of Science Physics, University of Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 20522 (Malaysia); Chen Zhixin [School of Mechanical, Mechatronic and Materials Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Liu Huakun [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials and ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

2010-12-30

132

Enhanced lithium storage in a VO2(B)-multiwall carbon nanotube microsheet composite prepared via an in situ hydrothermal process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel VO2(B)-multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite with a sheet-like morphology was synthesized by a simple in situ hydrothermal process. The morphology and structural properties of the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FE-SEM observations demonstrated that the nanosheets are frequently grown together in the form of bundles composed of numerous nanosheets, each with a smooth surface and a typical length of 300-500 nm, width of 50-150 nm, and thickness of 10-50 nm. Electrochemical measurements were carried out using different discharge cut-off voltages. Electrochemical tests show that the VO2(B)-MWCNT composite cathode features long-term cycling stability and high discharge capacity (177 mAh g-1) in the voltage range of 2.0-3.25 V at 1 C with a capacity retention of 92% after 100 cycles. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) indicate that the VO2(B)-MWCNT composite electrode has very low charge-transfer resistance compared with pure VO2(B), indicating the enhanced ionic conductivity of the VO2(B)-MWCNT composite. The enhanced cycling stability is attributed to the fact that the VO2(B)-MWCNT composite can prevent the aggregation of active materials, accommodate the large volume variation, and maintain good electronic contact. We strongly believe that the VO2(B)-MWCNT composite can be considered as a potential cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.

2010-12-30

133

Enhanced aerobic in situ stabilisation of the long-standing landfill at Kuhstedt for reduction of cost and control requirements; Beschleunigte Aerobe in situ Stabilisierung der Altdeponie Kuhstedt zur Minderung des Kosten und Nachsorgeaufwandes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kuhstedt landfill in the Rotenburg/Wuemme district is being aerated in situ in the framework of a R + D project, with the intention of reducing the emission potential significantly within only a few years. Extensive investigations supplemented by laboratory studies of the Waste Management Department of TU Hamburg-Harburg University showed that selective and controlled aeration will stabilize the organic matter and reduce the pollutant potential of landfills. In contrast, the (slowing-down) anaerobic degradation processes prior to aeration were unable to stabilize the organic matter, even though the landfill was abandoned 14 years ago and has been in existence for a total of 35 years now. (orig.) [German] Die Altdeponie Kuhstedt im Landkreis Rotenburg (Wuemme) wird gegenwaertig im Rahmen eines Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprojektes in situ belueftet, um so innerhalb ueberschaubarer Zeitraeume (wenige Jahre) das vorhandene Emissionspotenzial nachhaltig zu reduzieren. Umfangreiche Untersuchungen in Verbindung mit einem breit angelegten Untersuchungsprogramm im Labor des Arbeitsbereiches Abfallwirtschaft der TU Hamburg-Harburg zeigen, dass durch eine gezielte und kontrollierte Belueftungsmassnahme eine deutliche Verbesserung des Emissionsverhaltens infolge der Stabilisierung der organischen Substanz und Reduzierung des Schadstoffpotenzials im Deponiekoerper erreicht werden kann. Demgegenueber konnten die (abnehmenden) anaeroben Abbauprozesse im Deponiekoerper vor Beginn der Belueftung, trotz einer mittlerweile vor 14 Jahren beendeten Ablagerung von Abfaellen und bereits 35 Jahren Ablagerungsdauer, keine hinreichende Stabilisierung der Organik bewirken. (orig.)

Ritzkowski, M.; Stegmann, R. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Arbeitsbereich Abfallwirtschaft, Hamburg-Harburg (Germany); Heyer, K.U. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Abfallwirtschaft, Hamburg (ifas) (Germany)

2003-07-01

134

Novel In Situ Pretreatment Method for Significantly Enhancing the Signal In MALDI-TOF MS of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-based mass spectrometry (MS) to the proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue presents significant technical challenges. In situ enzymatic digestion is frequently used to unlock formalin-fixed tissues for analysis, but the results are often unsatisfactory. Here, we report a new, simplified in situ pretreatment method for preparing tissue sections for MS that involves heating with vapor containing...

Kakimoto, Yu; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Yamamoto, Takushi; Furuta, Masaru; Kotani, Hirokazu; Ozeki, Munetaka; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Haga, Hironori; Tamaki, Keiji

2012-01-01

135

In situ growth, structure characterization, and enhanced photocatalysis of high-quality, single-crystalline ZnTe/ZnO branched nanoheterostructures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single-crystalline, high-quality branched ZnTe-core/ZnO-branch nanoheterostructures were synthesized by an in situ strategy in an environmental scanning electron microscope. Composition and structure characterization confirmed that ZnO nanowires were perfectly epitaxially grown on ZnTe nanowires as branches. Noticeably, growth temperature plays a crucial role in determining the density and diameter of the ZnO nanobranches on ZnTe nanowires: a higher growth temperature leads to ZnO nanowires with higher density and smaller diameter. It was demonstrated that ZnO nanobranches exhibited a selective nucleation behavior on distinct side facets of ZnTe nanowires. Highly ordered ZnO nanobranches were found epitaxially grown on {211} facet of ZnTe nanowires, while there was no ZnO nanowire growth on {110} facet of ZnTe nanowires. Using first-principles calculation, we found that surface energy of distinct side facets has a strong impact on ZnO nucleation, and confirm that {211} facet of ZnTe nanowires is energetically more favorable for ZnO nanowire growth than {110} facet, which is in good agreement with our experimental findings. Remarkably, such unique ZnTe/ZnO 3D branched nanowire heterostructures exhibited improved photocatalytic abilities, superior to ZnO nanowires and ZnTe nanowires, due to the much enhanced effective surface area of their unique architecture and effective electron-hole separation at the ZnTe/ZnO interfaces. PMID:21931901

Sun, Yanghui; Zhao, Qing; Gao, Jingyun; Ye, Yu; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Rui; Xu, Jun; Chen, Li; Yang, Jian; Dai, Lun; Liao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Dapeng

2011-10-01

136

Mechanism of Enhanced Electrochemical Oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid with in situ Microwave Activated Boron-doped Diamond and Platinum Anodes  

Science.gov (United States)

Remarkable enhancement in degradation effect is achieved at in situ activated boron-doped diamond (BDD) and Pt anodes with different extent through electrochemical oxidation (EC) of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with microwave (MW) radiation in a flow system. Results show that when EC is activated with MW radiation, the complete mineralization time of 2,4-D at the BDD is reduced quickly from 10 to 4 h while Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal at Pt is increased from 37.7 to 58.3% at 10 h; the initial current efficiency is both improved about 1.5 times while the pseudo-first-order rate constant is increased by 153 and 119% at the BDD and Pt, respectively. To gain insight into the higher efficiency in microwave activated EC, the mechanism has therefore been systematically evaluated from the essence of electrochemical reaction and the accumulated hydroxyl radical concentration. 2,4-Dichlorophenol, catechol, benquinone, and maleic and oxalic acids are the main intermediates on the Pt anode measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the intermediates on the BDD electrode include 2,4-dichlorophenol, hydroquinone, and maleic and oxalic acids. The reaction pathway with microwave radiation is the same as that in a conventional electrochemical oxidation on both electrodes. While less and lower aromatic intermediates produce at the BDD with MW, which suggests the higher ring-open ratio and the faster oxidation of carboxylic acids. With microwave radiation, the ring-open ratio at the BDD is increased to 98.8% from 85.6%; the value at Pt is increased to 67.3% from 35.9%. So microwave radiation can activate the electrochemical oxidation, which leads to the higher efficiency. This promotion is mainly due to the higher accumulated hydroxyl radical concentration and the effects by microwave radiation. All the results prove that the BDD electrode presents much better mineralization performance with MW. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time the systematic analysis of the mechanism of microwave activated EC has been reported.

Gao, Junxia; Zhao, Guohua; Liu, Meichuan; Li, Dongming

2009-09-01

137

A verification of the high density after contrast enhancement in the 2nd week in cerebroischemic lesion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the indication, it is necessary to make clear the relation among the Stage (time and course), the Strength, the Pathogenesis, and the Effects of the operation in these diseases (SSPE relation). In this report, we focused on the High Density of CT after the contrast enhancement in the cases of ischemic lesions (the High Density was named ''Ribbon H. D.''). Seventeen cases of Ribbon H. D. in fresh infarctions were verified concerning the time of the appearance of the H. D., the features of its location and nature, and the histological findings. The results were as follows: The Ribbon H. D. appeared in the early stage of infarctions, and had its peak density at the end of the 2nd week after the onset. The Ribbon H. D. was mostly located along the cortical line, showing a ribbon-like band. The Ribbon H. D. did not appear in the sharply demarcated coagulation necrosis in the early stage or in the defined Low Density (L. D.) in the late stage of infarctions. Although the Ribbon H. D. shows the extravasation of contrast media, it does not necessarily show the existence of the hemorrhagic infarction. Some part of the Ribbon H. D. changes to a well-defined L. D. and the rest of the part becomes relative isodensity in the late stage. This change corresponds to the change in the incomplete necrosis which is afterwards divided into a resolution with a cystic cavity and the glial replacement in the late stage. In conclusion, it is possible to understand that the Ribbon H. D. corresponds to the lesion of an incomplete necrosis, with neovascularization, in the early stage of infarctions. Therefore, in addition to the present indication of a by-pass operation (TIA, RIND), this incomplete necrosis (Ribbon H. D.), its surrounding area and just before the appearance of the Ribbon H. D. might be another indication of the operation. (author)

1978-01-01

138

Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Surfaces for in-situ trace analysis of PAHs in water by Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In-situ monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water body has been of worldwide interest for the last decades because they are known to be toxic to biota even at low concentration in the range of ng/l (ppt). For that purpose, fast response optical sensors based on Raman spectroscopy providing a molecular fingerprint of the analyte are suitable for a rapid identification and quantification of these substances. To achieve the high sensitivity necessary for trace detection ...

Kwon, Yong-hyok

2012-01-01

139

Enhancement of electrical characteristics and reliability in crystallized ZrO2 gate dielectrics treated with in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystallized ZrO2 high-K gate dielectrics treated with in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen using remote N2 and NH3 plasma were investigated, to suppress the capacitance equivalent thickness (CET), leakage current density (Jg), and interfacial state density (Dit). The stress-induced leakage current (SILC) was reduced significantly as well. The tetragonal/cubic phase of ZrO2 was formed by post metallization annealing at a low temperature of 450 °C to offer a high dielectric constant of the gate oxide. The in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen using the remote NH3 plasma contributes to the deactivation of the oxygen vacancies and the well passivation of Dit. Accordingly, a suppressed Jg of 4.79 × 10-5 A cm-2 and Dit of 3.96 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1 were realized in the crystallized ZrO2 gate oxide with a low CET of 1.35 nm. The gate dielectrics were also optically examined by the photoluminescence from the high-K/Si interface, indicating that the Dit is highly correlated with the hydrogen passivation originating from the remote NH3 plasma. The results indicate that in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen is an applicable and effective technique to improve the electrical properties of crystallized gate dielectrics in the advanced metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

Huang, Jhih-Jie; Huang, Li-Tien; Tsai, Meng-Chen; Lee, Min-Hung; Chen, Miin-Jang

2014-06-01

140

In situ growth, structure characterization, and enhanced photocatalysis of high-quality, single-crystalline ZnTe/ZnO branched nanoheterostructures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Single-crystalline, high-quality branched ZnTe-core/ZnO-branch nanoheterostructures were synthesized by an in situ strategy in an environmental scanning electron microscope. Composition and structure characterization confirmed that ZnO nanowires were perfectly epitaxially grown on ZnTe nanowires as branches. Noticeably, growth temperature plays a crucial role in determining the density and diameter of the ZnO nanobranches on ZnTe nanowires: a higher growth temperature leads to ZnO nanowires w...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation

1993-09-27

142

In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation.

Hazen, T.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Looney, B.B.; Enzien, M.; Franck, M.M.; Fliermans, C.B.; Eddy, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-12-31

143

In situ preparation of novel p–n junction photocatalyst BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Novel p–n junction photocatalysts BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 with different contents of BiOI were in situ synthesized by simple etching (BiO)2CO3 precursor with hydroiodic acid (HI). XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, FT-IR, EDS and DRS were employed to study the structures, morphologies and optical properties of the as-prepared samples. Under visible light (? > 420 nm), BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 hybrid displayed much higher photocatalytic activity than pure (BiO)2CO3 and BiOI for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The increased photocatalytic activity of BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 could be attributed to the formation of the p–n junction between p-BiOI and n-(BiO)2CO3, which effectively suppresses the recombination of photoinduced electron–hole pairs. Moreover, the tests of radical scavengers confirmed that ·O2?and h+ were the main reactive species for the degradation of MO. Highlights: ? BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 was synthesized using an in situ hydroiodic acid etching way. ? BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 displayed excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light. ? ·O2? and h+ played the major roles for MO degradation over BiOI/(BiO)2CO3. ? p-BiOI/n-(BiO)2CO3 junction significantly affected MO degradation. - Abstract: Novel p–n junction photocatalysts BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 with different contents of BiOI were in situ synthesized by etching (BiO)2CO3 precursor with hydroiodic acid (HI) solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) were employed to study the structures, morphologies and optical properties of the as-prepared samples. Under visible light (? > 420 nm), BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 hybrid displayed much higher photocatalytic activity than pure (BiO)2CO3 and BiOI for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The increased photocatalytic activity of BiOI/(BiO)2CO3 could be attributed to the formation of the p–n junction between p-BiOI and n-(BiO)2CO3, which effectively suppresses the recombination of photoinduced electron–hole pairs. Moreover, the tests of radical scavengers confirmed that ·O2? and h+ were the main reactive species for the degradation of MO.

2012-11-15

144

In situ groundwater bioremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

Hazen, Terry C.

2009-02-01

145

Uranium in situ leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the depressed situation that has affected the uranium industry during the past years, the second Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium In Situ Leaching, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and held in Vienna from 5 to 8 October 1992, has attracted a relatively large number of participants. A notable development since the first meeting was that the majority of the contributions came from the actual operators of in situ leaching uranium production. At the present meeting, presentations on operations in the USA were balanced by those of the eastern European and Asian countries. Contributions from Bulgaria, China, Czechoslovakia, Germany (from the operation in the former German Democratic Republic), the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan represent new information not commonly available. In situ leach mining is defined in one of the paper presented as a ''mining method where the ore mineral is preferentially leached from the host rock in place, or in situ, by the use of leach solutions, and the mineral value is recovered. Refs, figs and tabs

1992-10-05

146

In Situ Cometary Cosmochemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2014 the Rosetta space mission arrives at comet 67P. Herein we describe the ambitions of one of the instruments, Ptolemy, included on the lander. Our aim is to make in situ measurements of isotopic compositions of elements such as H, C, N and O.

Wright, I. P.; Andrews, D. J.; Barber, S. J.; Sheridan, S.; Morgan, G. H.; Morse, A. D.

2013-09-01

147

Nickel Weeklies  

Science.gov (United States)

A century or so, a nickel could buy a lot of entertainment. One such form of entertainment was the nickel weekly, which featured tales of detectives, Wild West characters, and evil villains. Bowling Green State University has created this thoroughly delightful digital collection of nickel weeklies for consumption by the general public. This collection includes 221 nickel weeklies, and visitors can browse these offerings by title, date, or author. Visitors can zoom in on the cover page of each weekly, or they may also download each title and view them at another more convenient moment. Users looking for a place to start might do well to look over "Adventures of Buffalo Bill from boyhood to manhood" by Colonel Prentiss Ingraham or "California Claude, the love bandit" by Captain Howard Holmes.

148

The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-component DNAPLS with surfactant solutions. Topical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Laboratory studies were conducted at the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY) while numerical simulation and field work were undertaken by INTERA Inc. in collaboration with Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc. at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Kentucky. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). Ten of these were capable of solubilizing TCE to concentrations greater than 15,000 mg/L, compared to its aqueous solubility of 1,100 mg/L. Four surfactants were identified as good solubilizers of all three chlorinated solvents. Of these, a secondary alcohol ethoxylate was the first choice for in situ testing because of its excellent solubilizing ability and its low propensity to sorb. However, this surfactant did not meet the Commonwealth of Kentucky`s acceptance criteria. Consequently, it was decided to use a surfactant approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration as a food-grade additive. As a 1% micellar-surfactant solution, this sorbitan monooleate has a solubilization capacity of 16,000 mg TCE/L, but has a higher propensity to sorb to clays than has the alcohol ethoxylate.

NONE

1995-01-01

149

In situ laccase treatment enhances the fermentability of steam-exploded wheat straw in SSCF processes at high dry matter consistencies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work evaluates the in situ detoxification of inhibitory lignocellulosic broths by laccases to facilitate their fermentation by the xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae F12. Treatment of wheat straw slurries with laccases prior to SSCF processes decreased the total phenolic content by 50-80%, reducing the lag phase and increasing the cell viability. After laccase treatment, a negative impact on enzymatic hydrolysis was observed. This effect, together with the low enzymatic hydrolysis yields when increasing consistency, resulted in a decrease in final ethanol yields. Furthermore, when using high substrate loading (20% DM (w/v)), high concentration of inhibitors prevailed in broths and the absence of an extra nitrogen source led to a total cell growth inhibition within the first 24h in non-treated samples. This inhibition of growth at 20% DM (w/v) was overcome by laccase treatment with no addition of nitrogen, allowing S. cerevisiae F12 to produce more than 22 g/L of ethanol. PMID:23811522

Moreno, Antonio D; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Ibarra, David; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Olsson, Lisbeth

2013-09-01

150

Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK-dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metformin-induced activation of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent on AMPK signaling. Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given to muscle-specific kinase dead (KD) AMPK?2 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 wk. Soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot analyses. Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (?45%, P < 0.01) but not of AMPK KD mice. Insulin signaling at the level of Akt protein expression or Thr(308) and Ser(473) phosphorylation was not changed by metformin treatment. Insulin signaling at the level of Akt and TBC1D4 protein expression as well as Akt Thr(308)/Ser(473) and TBC1D4 Thr(642)/Ser(711) phosphorylation were not changed by metformin treatment. Also, protein expressions of Rab4, GLUT4, and hexokinase II were unaltered after treatment. The acute metformin treatment did not affect glucose uptake in muscle of either of the genotypes. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence for a role of AMPK in potentiating the effect of insulin on glucose uptake in soleus muscle in response to chronic metformin treatment. PMID:24644243

Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Treebak, Jonas T; Schjerling, Peter; Goodyear, Laurie; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

2014-05-15

151

Characterization of Pure Ductal Carcinoma In Situ on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging: Do Nonhigh Grade and High Grade Show Different Imaging Features?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To characterize imaging features of pure DCIS on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI), 31 consecutive patients (37-81 years old, mean 56), including 2 Grade I, 16 Grade II, and 13 Grade III, were studied. MR images were reviewed retrospectively and the morphological appearances and kinetic features of breast lesions were categorized according to the ACR BI-RADS breast MRI lexicon. DCE-MRI was a sensitive imaging modality in detecting pure DCIS. MR imaging showed enhancing lesions in...

Chan, Siwa; Chen, Jeon-hor; Agrawal, Garima; Lin, Muqing; Mehta, Rita S.; Carpenter, Philip M.; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Su, Min-ying

2010-01-01

152

Evaluation of an in situ forming hydrogel wound dressing based on oxidized alginate and gelatin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wound dressings that can be formed in situ offer several advantages over the use of preformed dressings such as conformability without wrinkling or fluting in the wound bed, ease of application and improved patient compliance and comfort. Here we describe such an in situ forming hydrogel wound dressing from gelatin, oxidized alginate and borax. Periodate oxidized alginate rapidly cross-links proteins such as gelatin in the presence of borax to give in situ forming hydrogels that are both non-toxic and biodegradable. The composite matrix has the haemostatic effect of gelatin, the wound healing-promoting feature of alginate and the antiseptic property of borax to make it a potential wound dressing material. The hydrogel was found to have a fluid uptake of 90% of its weight which would prevent the wound bed from accumulation of exudates. The water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) of the hydrogel was found to be 2686+/-124 g/m2/day indicating that the hydrogel can maintain a moist environment over wound bed in moderate to heavily exuding wound which would enhance epithelial cell migration during the healing process. The wound healing efficacy of hydrogel was evaluated in experimental full thickness wounds using a rat model which demonstrated that within 2 weeks, the wound covered with gel was completely filled with new epithelium without any significant adverse reactions. These in situ forming hydrogels fulfil many critical elements desirable in a wound dressing material. PMID:15919113

Balakrishnan, Biji; Mohanty, M; Umashankar, P R; Jayakrishnan, A

2005-11-01

153

Coal week  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The newsletter 'Coal Week' includes, in the first issue of each month, a 'Monthly market monitor supplement' which tests selected USA utility market spot coal transactions of more than 5,000 tons. All prices are on a delivered basis. Supplier data includes the company name, mine location and mine type (surface or underground). Quantities of coal distributed, btu/lb and sulphur and ash content of the coal are listed.

1992-01-06

154

Carbon doping as an effective way to enhance the superconducting properties of mechanically alloyed in-situ MgB{sub 2}  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Up to now, carbon doping is the only reliable way to enhance the superconducting properties of Mg{sub 2} significantly. Due to the substitution of carbon on boron sites of the lattice, increased impurity scattering results in an enhanced upper critical field. Subsequently, an improved high field j{sub c}-performance of carbon-doped MgB{sub 2} is observed. Among the plethora of carbon-containing compounds studied so far, nanostructured carbon and carbon nanotubes (CNT) are potentially the most promising materials. Especially the elongated microstructural features of CNTs may additionally function as artificial pinning centers. In this work, the impact different carbon sources has on the structural and superconducting properties of nanocrystalline MgB{sub 2} bulk samples and tapes is discussed. Precursor powders of carbon-doped MgB{sub 2} were produced by mechanical alloying. In order to preserve the microstructural features of the CNTs, the standard processing procedure was modified.

Herrmann, Marko; Haessler, Wolfgang; Scheiter, Juliane; Rodig, Christian; Schubert, Margitta; Kario, Ania; Mickel, Christine; Kozlova, Nadezda; Nenkov, Konstantin; Ritschel, Manfred; Gruner, Wolfgang [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden (Germany); Schultz, Ludwig; Holzapfel, Bernhard [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden (Germany); Dresden University of Technology, Department of Physics, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

2009-07-01

155

Carbon doping as an effective way to enhance the superconducting properties of mechanically alloyed in-situ MgB2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Up to now, carbon doping is the only reliable way to enhance the superconducting properties of Mg2 significantly. Due to the substitution of carbon on boron sites of the lattice, increased impurity scattering results in an enhanced upper critical field. Subsequently, an improved high field jc-performance of carbon-doped MgB2 is observed. Among the plethora of carbon-containing compounds studied so far, nanostructured carbon and carbon nanotubes (CNT) are potentially the most promising materials. Especially the elongated microstructural features of CNTs may additionally function as artificial pinning centers. In this work, the impact different carbon sources has on the structural and superconducting properties of nanocrystalline MgB2 bulk samples and tapes is discussed. Precursor powders of carbon-doped MgB2 were produced by mechanical alloying. In order to preserve the microstructural features of the CNTs, the standard processing procedure was modified.

2009-03-22

156

In situ decoration of plasmonic Ag nanocrystals on the surface of (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres for enhanced visible light photocatalysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel plasmonic 0D Ag nanocrystal decorated 3D (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres were fabricated with a one-pot hydrothermal method. The as-prepared samples were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra, ns-level time-resolved fluorescence spectra, photocurrent generation and EIS measurement. The results indicated that the 0D Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of 3D (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres. The deposited Ag nanoparticles were reduced from Ag(+) by the citrate ions from bismuth citrate. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples was evaluated towards the degradation of NO at ppb-level under visible light irradiation. The intermediate NO2 was monitored on-line during the photocatalytic reaction. The pure (BiO)2CO3 microspheres exhibited decent visible light photocatalytic activity because of the surface scattering and reflecting (SSR effect) resulting from the special 3D hierarchical architecture. The Ag-decorated (BiO)2CO3 microspheres (Ag/BOC) exhibited greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity, photocurrent generation and promoted NO2 oxidation compared to the pure (BiO)2CO3 microspheres. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and photocurrent generation of Ag/BOC was ascribed to the cooperative contribution of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR effect), efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and prolonged lifetime of charge carriers induced by Ag nanoparticles. The photocatalytic performance of Ag/BOC was dependent on the content of Ag loading. When the amount of Ag is controlled at 5%, the highest photocatalytic performance can be achieved. Further increasing the Ag loading content promotes aggregation of the Ag particles and transforms the uniform microspheres into non-uniform microspheres, which is not beneficial to improving the activity. Importantly, the as-prepared Ag/BOC composites exhibited high photochemical stability after multiple reaction runs. The concepts of enhancing the activity through the SSR and SPR effects provide a new avenue for the development of efficient noble metal/bismuth-based plasmonic photocatalysts with attractive nano/micro architectures for efficient visible light photocatalytic activity. PMID:24824403

Dong, Fan; Li, Qiuyan; Zhou, Ying; Sun, Yanjun; Zhang, Haidong; Wu, Zhongbiao

2014-07-01

157

Fundamental study on in situ capture of CO{sub 2} with Ca-based sorbents during lime-enhanced steam gasification of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New hydrogen production process, HyPr-RING, has been proposed. This is a novel process where a high-pressure steam is decomposed thermochemically with coal under the presence of Ca-based CO{sub 2} sorbents in a single reactor, producing hydrogen in high yield with little release of CO{sub 2}. In an effort to develop this novel hydrogen production process, fundamental CO{sub 2} sorption characteristics of Ca-based sorbents during repetitive carbonation-calcination reactions under different pressures were investigated using a laboratory-scale horizontal-tube reactor. The results revealed that Ca-based sorbents were significantly deactivated by high temperature calcination treatment. An intermediate hydration treatment for the calcined sorbents (CaO) was found to enhance the reactivity and durability of the sorbents for multicycle CO{sub 2} sorption. Deactivation of Ca-based sorbents by coal-derived minerals during multicycle CO{sub 2} sorption reactions at elevated temperature and pressure was also investigated using a laboratory-scale horizontal-tube reactor. The sorbents tended to undergo a solid-solid reaction with coal-derived ash components such as silicon (Si) and aluminium (Al) during multicycle CO{sub 2} sorption with an intermediate hydration stage. This result suggests that steam enhanced the solid-solid reaction between the minerals and the sorbents at elevated temperature ({gt} 873 K) and pressure (6.0 MPa) and that the interaction should be avoided by selecting proper reaction conditions for efficient utilization of the Ca-based sorbents. 11 refs., 6 figs.

Koji Kuramoto; Sayaka Shibano; Atsuko Morita; Koichi Matsuoka; Yoshizo Suzuki; Hiroyuki Hatano; Lin Shi-Ying; Michiaki Harada; Takayuki Takarada [National Institute of AIST, Ibaraki (Japan)

2005-07-01

158

Iron ore processing - in-situ monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to provide detailed quantitative insight into the reaction products present at different stages of the processing/reduction of iron ores. Typical phases include: ?-Fe2O3; Fe3O4; Fe1-xO; Fe3C and Fe, which are in agreeement with the results obtained using standard wet chemistry methods. As an extension of this post reaction examination of products, we have used Moessbauer spectroscopy for in-situ measurements during the week long operation of an iron ore processing pilot plant. Such in-situ measurements allow optimal control of the plant to be obtained with, depending on the strength of the source, a time constant of ? 1 h

1998-12-01

159

In situ, field scale evaluation of surfactant enhanced DNAPL recovery using a single-well, push-pull test. 1998 annual progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'The overall goal of this project is to develop the single-well, push-pull test method as a new site characterization and feasibility assessment tool for studying the fundamental fate and transport behavior of injected surfactants and their ability to solubilize and mobilize dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface. The specific objectives are: (1) to develop a modified push-pull test for use in identifying and quantifying the effects of sorption, precipitation, and biodegradation on the fate and transport of injected surfactants, (2) to use the developed test method to quantify the effects of these processes on the ability of injected surfactants to solubilize and mobilize residual phase trichloroethylene, and (3) to demonstrate the utility of the developed test method for performing site characterization and feasibility studies for surfactant enhanced DNAPL recovery systems. This report summarizes work as of June 1, 1998 (after 20 months of a 36-month project); laboratory and field work as been successfully completed for all three objectives.'

Istok, J.D.

1998-06-01

160

Electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition system with monitoring in situ for epitaxial growth of group-III nitrides  

Science.gov (United States)

An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PEMOCVD) system equipped with reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) has been developed and utilized for epitaxial growth of GaN and AlN on sapphire substrates by PEMOCVD. Since the multicusp cavity-coupling ECR plasma source was adopted to provide active precursors, the growth temperatures were decreased to 600-700 °C and the working pressures were decreased down to the region temperatures kTe~2-3 eV, the ion temperatures kTilow temperature. The chemistry and mechanism of hydrogen (H)-plasma cleaning and nitrogen (N)-plasma nitriding, and the 30° rotation of a (0001) nitride plane produced by the nitriding with respect to the (0001) Al2O3 to reduce the lattice constant mismatch are discussed. The epilayers of GaN and AlN with better quality and relatively smooth surface were obtained. The full width of half maximum (FWHM) of a GaN (0002) diffraction peak of x-ray diffraction from a 0.3 ?m thick GaN film was 15 arc min and the FWHM of AlN (0002) diffraction peak from a 0.3 ?m thick AlN film was 12 arc min. Film surface morphology was observed by atomic force microscopy. .

Xu, Yin; Gu, Biao; Qin, Fu-Wen

2004-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition system with monitoring in situ for epitaxial growth of group-III nitrides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PEMOCVD) system equipped with reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) has been developed and utilized for epitaxial growth of GaN and AlN on sapphire substrates by PEMOCVD. Since the multicusp cavity-coupling ECR plasma source was adopted to provide active precursors, the growth temperatures were decreased to 600-700 deg. C and the working pressures were decreased down to the region e?1.0-3.0x1010 cm-3 with a uniformity e?2-3 eV, the ion temperatures kTi?1 eV, and the plasma potentials Vso?3x10-1-8x10-1 Pa and the microwave power Pw?400-750 W. The experiment results demonstrated important roles of the plasma for sapphire substrate pretreatment, initial nucleation, and epitaxy growth of a large lattice mismatch heterojunction, GaN/(0001) Al2O3 at low temperature. The chemistry and mechanism of hydrogen (H)-plasma cleaning and nitrogen (N)-plasma nitriding, and the 30 deg. rotation of a (0001) nitride plane produced by the nitriding with respect to the (0001) Al2O3 to reduce the lattice constant mismatch are discussed. The epilayers of GaN and AlN with better quality and relatively smooth surface were obtained. The full width of half maximum (FWHM) of a GaN (0002) diffraction peak of x-ray diffraction from a 0.3 ?m thick GaN film was 15 arc min and the FWHM of AlN (0002) diffraction peak from a 0.3 ?m thick AlN film was 12 arc min. Film surface morphology was observed by atomic force microscopy

2004-03-01

162

In situ micro Raman investigation of the laser crystallization in Si thin films plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition-grown from He-diluted SiH4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cw Ar+ laser crystallization has been performed locally (on a 2 ?m sized spot), using a Raman microscope, on plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition-grown Si films. The deposition has been carried out from differently He-diluted SiH4 so that no high temperature dehydrogenation has been required before the laser treatment. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra of the deposited films reveal their amorphous nature whereas infrared spectra would indicate a larger degree of local order in the high dilution (HD) material (SiH4/He=0.02) if compared to the low dilution (LD) one (SiH4/He?3). Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images show large, well defined outgrowths, few hundreds of nanometers-sized, on the surface of the HD film whereas these are few tens of nanometers-sized in the case of the LD film. The threshold laser power densities (LPDs) required to attain the crystallization of the HD and the LD materials (in the range of times of irradiation investigated) are 1.2x105 and 2.0x105 W cm-2, respectively. The relative ease to crystallize the HD material possibly originates from the fact that the heavy dilution of the reacting gas implies a lower rate of growth and so a larger degree of order. Large crystalline fractions (?0.8) have been observed for the laser-treated HD material. Using a phenomenological model, the diameters of the nanocrystallites from the Raman shift of the crystalline peaks have been estimated. The size of the small crystals increases with the time of irradiation (up to a certain time). The smallest nanocrystals would have been fabricated irradiating the LD material at the threshold LPD for the shortest time of irradiation considered in this work. This low temperature process is of great technological interest (e.g., optoelectronics, microelectronics) because it allows the patterning down to a micrometric scale of (amorphous) a-Si:H films deposited onto glass and/or plastic substrates

2004-05-15

163

In situ surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy for theaAnalysis of the adsorption and desorption process of Au nanoparticles on the SiO{sub 2}/Si surface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The adsorption and desorption of Au nanoparticles (AuNP) in colloidal D{sub 2}O suspension on the SiO{sub 2}/Si surface was investigated by in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy. With increasing surface density of AuNP the absorption of the vibrational modes of D{sub 2}O and of the citrate molecules covering the AuNP increases due to surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA). We show that the adsorption kinetics can be investigated by monitoring the molecular vibrational modes of D{sub 2}O and the citrate molecules, and furthermore we clarify that the adsorption process can be described very well by a Langmuir-kinetics model. When exposing a saturated AuNP submonolayer to 2-aminoethanethiol/D{sub 2}O solution, the AuNP are removed from the surface and the IR absorption of the D2O vibrational modes become weaker again. Taking into account the time dependencies of the CH and the OD peaks, we propose a microscopic model explaining the mechanism of the desorption process.

Enders, Dominik; Nagao, Tadaaki; Nakayama, Tomonobu [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Nanoscale Quantum Conductor Array Project, ICORP, JST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan (Japan)

2007-07-01

164

In situ bioremediation in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Site remediation activity in Europe is increasing, even if not at the forced pace of the US. Although there is a better understanding of the benefits of bioremediation than of other approaches, especially about in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, relatively few projects have been carried out full-scale in Europe or in the US. Some engineering companies and large industrial companies in Europe are investigating bioremediation and biotreatment technologies, in some cases to solve their internal waste problems. Technologies related to the application of microorganisms to the soil, release of nutrients into the soil, and enhancement of microbial decontamination are being tested through various additives such as surfactants, ion exchange resins, limestone, or dolomite. New equipment has been developed for crushing and mixing or injecting and sparging the microorganisms, as have new reactor technologies (e.g., rotating aerator reactors, biometal sludge reactors, and special mobile containers for simultaneous storage, transportation, and biodegradation of contaminated soil). Some work has also been done with immobilized enzymes to support and restore enzymatic activities related to partial or total xenobiotic decontamination. Finally, some major programs funded by public and private institutions confirm that increasing numbers of firms have a working interest in bioremediation.

Porta, A. [Battelle Europe, Geneva (CH); Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1993-06-01

165

In-situ uranium leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention provides a method for improving the recovery of mineral values from ore bodies subjected to in-situ leaching by controlling the flow behaviour of the leaching solution. In particular, the invention relates to an in-situ leaching operation employing a foam for mobility control of the leaching solution. A foam bank is either introduced into the ore bed or developed in-situ in the ore bed. The foam then becomes a diverting agent forcing the leaching fluid through the previously non-contacted regions of the deposit

1983-01-18

166

In situ leaching of uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process is described for the in-situ leaching of uranium-containing ores employing an acidic leach liquor containing peroxymonosulphuric acid. Preferably, additionally, sulphuric acid is present in the leach liquor. (author)

1980-01-01

167

Cystic tricholemmal carcinoma in situ.  

Science.gov (United States)

An 89-year-old man presented with a clinically cystic 4-mm papule on the left temple. The clinical impression was a benign cyst. Pathologic examination revealed a small, symmetric-appearing, well-circumscribed, dermal-based cystic lesion with markedly atypical-appearing clear to squamoid cells lining the cyst wall, consistent with carcinoma in situ involving the cyst. The cells showed abundant glycogen-containing cytoplasm (confirmed by Periodic acid Schiff stains with and without diastase), consistent with tricholemmal differentiation, and areas of tricholemmal/pilar-type keratinization (without a granular layer), consistent with tricholemmal carcinoma in situ, most likely arising in a tricholemmal/pilar cyst. Ki-67 and p53 immunohistochemical stains were strongly positive (with more than 20% of nuclei staining on Ki-67 and more than 80% on p53) in the cyst-lining cells, further supporting the interpretation of carcinoma in situ. Multiple deeper level sections were examined but did not show any evidence of an associated invasive carcinoma. Tricholemmal (pilar) cysts are common benign adnexal lesions and atypia/dysplasia or carcinoma in situ arising within them is exceedingly rare. Previously, only one case of a tricholemmal cyst with carcinoma in situ has been reported. That case was associated with an atypical fibroxanthoma. We report only the second case of tricholemmal carcinoma in situ, most likely involving a tricholemmal cyst, which was not associated with another tumor or evidence of invasive carcinoma. PMID:23759876

Lin, Shinko K; Cassarino, David S

2013-08-01

168

In situ uranium stabilization by microbial metabolites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial melanin production by autochthonous bacteria was explored in this study as a means to increase U immobilization in U contaminated soil. This article demonstrates the application of bacterial physiology and soil ecology for enhanced U immobilization in order to develop an in situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >10{sup 6} cells per g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U complexing and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in a field test demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments.

Turick, Charles E. [Environmental Science and Biotechnology, Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 999W, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)], E-mail: Charles.Turick@srnl.doe.gov; Knox, Anna S. [Environmental Science and Biotechnology, Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 999W, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Leverette, Chad L.; Kritzas, Yianne G. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of South Carolina Aiken, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States)

2008-06-15

169

In situ biofilm coupon device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus for characterization of in-situ microbial biofilm populations in subsurface groundwater. The device permits biofilm-forming microorganisms to adhere to packing material while emplaced in a groundwater strata, so that the packing material can be later analyzed for quantity and type of microorganisms, growth rate, and nutrient requirements.

Peyton, Brent M. (Kennewick, WA); Truex, Michael J. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01

170

In situ fixation of contaminants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to study the in situ fixation of soil contaminants, a scale model of deep soil mixing apparatus has been constructed to simulate, under laboratory conditions, the processes under well-controlled conditions. Effects such as homogenization of soil with additives for immobilization, reduction of permeability, hardening effects, chemical absorptive binding, etc. have been studied using the scale model

Luber, M.; Brauns, J. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany); Berg, J. [Keller Grundbau, Offenbach (Germany)

1997-12-31

171

In situ gamma analysis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EG and G/EM has successfully fielded an in situ gamma analysis system employing high purity germanium gamma detectors. The system has proven useful in radiological assessment and cleanup operations. The system, its calibration, operation, and past applications are discussed

1985-01-01

172

Glycal assembly by the in situ generation of glycosyl dithiocarbamates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycal assembly offers an expedient entry into ?-linked oligosaccharides, but epoxyglycal donors can be capricious in their reactivities. Treatment with Et(2)NH and CS(2) enables their in situ conversion into glycosyl dithiocarbamates, which can be activated by copper triflate for coupling with complex or sterically congested acceptors. The coupling efficiency can be further enhanced by in situ benzoylation, as illustrated in an 11-step synthesis of a branched hexasaccharide from glucals in 28% isolated yield and just four chromatographic purifications. PMID:22686424

Padungros, Panuwat; Alberch, Laura; Wei, Alexander

2012-07-01

173

Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

2011-10-16

174

Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine, E-mail: griselda.barrera@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Basso, Nara R.S. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Quijada, Raul [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

2011-07-01

175

Oldest biliary endoprosthesis in situ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advantages of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography over open surgery have made it the predominant method of treating patients with choledocholithiasis. After sphincterotomy, however, 10%-15% of common bile duct stones cannot be removed with a basket or balloon. The methods for managing “irretrievable stones” include surgery, mechanical lithotripsy, intraductal or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and biliary stenting. The case presented was a referred 82-year-old Caucasian woman with a 7-year-old plastic biliary endoprosthesis in situ. To the best of our knowledge the examined endoprosthesis is the oldest endoprosthesis in situ reported in the literature. Endoscopic biliary endoprosthesis placement remains a simple and safe procedure for patients with stones that are difficult to manage by conventional endoscopic methods and for patients who are unfit for surgery or who are high surgical risks. To date no consensus has been reached regarding how long a biliary prosthesis should remain in situ. Long-term biliary stenting may have a role in selected elderly patients if stones extraction has failed because the procedure may prevent stones impaction and cholangitis.

Pierluigi Consolo

2013-01-01

176

IN SITU URANIUM STABILIZATION BY MICROBIAL METABOLITES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil contaminated with U was the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >106 cells/g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U chelating and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in field tests demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments.

Turick, C; Anna Knox, A; Chad L Leverette,C; Yianne Kritzas, Y

2006-11-29

177

In Situ Magnetic Separation for Extracellular Protein Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new approach for in situ product removal from bioreactors is presented in which high-gradient magnetic separation is used. This separation process was used for the adsorptive removal of proteases secreted by Bacillus licheniformis. Small, non-porous bacitracin linked magnetic adsorbents were employed directly in the broth during the fermentation, followed by in situ magnetic separation, Proof of the concept was first demonstrated in shake flask culture, then scaled up and applied during a fed batch cultivation ill a 3.7 L bioreactor. It could be demonstrated that growth of B. licheniformis was not influenced by the in situ product removal step. Protease production also remained the same after the separation step. Furthermore, degradation of the protease, which followed first order kinetics, was reduced by using the method. Using a theoretical modeling approach, we Could show that protease yield in total was enhanced by using in situ magnetic separation. The process described here is a promising technique toimprove overall yield in No production processes which are often limited due to weak downstream operations, Potential limitations encountered during a bioprocess can be overcome such as product inhibition or degradation. We also discuss the key points where research is needed to implement in situ magnetic separation in industrial production.

Kappler, T.; Cerff, Martin

2009-01-01

178

Fungal biodegradation of phthalate plasticizer in situ.  

Science.gov (United States)

This unique study describes how Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium brocae and Purpureocillium lilacinum, three novel isolates of our laboratory from heavily plastics-contaminated soil completely utilized the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) bound to PVC blood storage bags (BB) in simple basal salt medium (BSM) by static submerged growth (28 °C). Initial quantification as well as percentage utilization of DEHP blended to BB were estimated periodically by extracting it into n-hexane. A two-stage cultivation strategy was employed for the complete mycoremediation of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, about two-third parts of total (33.5% w/w) DEHP bound to BB were utilized in two weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.32 g per g BB) and sharp declining (to ~3) of initial pH (7.2). At this stagnant growth state (low pH), spent medium was replaced by fresh BSM (pH, 7.2), and thus in the second stage the remaining DEHP (one-third) in BB was utilized completely. The ditches and furrows seen from the topology of the BB as seen by the 3D AFM image further confirmed the bioremediation of DEHP physically bound to BB in situ. Of the three mycelial fungi employed, P. lilacinum independently showed highest efficiency for the complete utilization of DEHP bound to BB, whose activity was comparable to that of the consortium comprising all the three fungi described herein. To sum up, the two-stage cultivation strategy demonstrated in this study shows that a batch process would efficiently remediate the phthalic acid esters blended in plastics on a large scale, and thus it offers potentials for the management of plastics wastes. PMID:22903609

Pradeep, S; Faseela, P; Josh, M K Sarath; Balachandran, S; Devi, R Sudha; Benjamin, Sailas

2013-04-01

179

Image guided 3D OCT for early diagnosis of carcinoma in situ of the bladder  

Science.gov (United States)

Bladder carcinoma in situ (CIS) remains a clinical challenge. We compare the efficacies and potential limitations of surface imaging modalities, e.g., white light (WL), fluorescence (FC), blue-light imaging (BL) and 3D optical coherence tomography (3D OCT) for early diagnosis of bladder CIS. SV40T transgenic mice, which develop carcinoma in situ in about 8 to 20 weeks then high grade papillary tumor in the bladder, were employed as the rodent carcinogenesis model to closely mimic human bladder CIS. A total of 30 mice (i.e., SV40T mice blinded with its back strain Balb/c mice) were enrolled in the study, including 20 with CIS and 10 with normal or benign lesions of the bladder mucosa. Our results show that the low diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of WL, FC and BL for early CIS were significantly enhanced by quantitative 3D OCT to 95.0% and 90.0%, suggesting the value of image-guided 3D OCT for future clinical diagnosis of CIS in vivo.

Ren, Hugang; Park, Ki Cheon; Pan, Rubin; Shroyer, Kenneth; Waltzer, Wayne; Pan, Yingtian

2012-02-01

180

Innovative Raman spectroscopic concepts for in situ monitoring of chemicals in seawater  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical sensors based on Raman spectroscopy are suitable for a rapid identification and quantification of pollutants such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has gained increasing attention as a powerful technique for in-situ monitoring of these substances in seawater to achieve limits of detection (LODs) in the sub-nmol/l range. A low-cost method based on electroless plating solution of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was developed in our group to construct a gold island film as SERS substrate to achieve a well reproducible, high sensitive and seawater resistant SERS sensor. The substrates show good resistance against seawater determined by long-term stability tests carried out over 12 weeks of storage of the substrates in artificial seawater. The investigations show that the substrates still have about 50 % of their initial activity after 4 weeks of storage and about 15 % after two months. This type of substrate is reproducible with variability in the SERS intensities of about 8 %. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) was applied by using a microsystem diode laser emitting at 784.3 nm and 784.8 nm to remove the fluorescence interference and to improve the Raman signals. This combination of SERS and SERDS yields a limit of detection of 1 nmol/l for pyrene which was selected as representative PAH. These quantitative results show that the designed SERS substrates are suitable for the in-situ monitoring of PAHs in the marine environment.

Sowoidnich, Kay; Fernández López, María.; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

DOE In Situ Remediation Integrated Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRP) supports and manages a balanced portfolio of applied research and development activities in support of DOE environmental restoration and waste management needs. ISRP technologies are being developed in four areas: containment, chemical and physical treatment, in situ bioremediation, and in situ manipulation (including electrokinetics). the focus of containment is to provide mechanisms to stop contaminant migration through the subsurface. In situ bioremediation and chemical and physical treatment both aim to destroy or eliminate contaminants in groundwater and soils. In situ manipulation (ISM) provides mechanisms to access contaminants or introduce treatment agents into the soil, and includes other technologies necessary to support the implementation of ISR methods. Descriptions of each major program area are provided to set the technical context of the ISM subprogram. Typical ISM needs for major areas of in situ remediation research and development are identified

1993-01-01

182

In situ trace element microanalysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of particle-track-radiography and X-ray- fluorescence techniques in the in situ measurement of trace (less than 1000 ppm) elements in single mineral phases of polished sections is surveyed, and examples of their application to ordinary, carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites are provided. Radiographic methods surveyed include fission-track radiography (for U, Th, and Pu-244), alpha radiography using nuclear reactions (for Li and B), alpha autoradiography (for Bi and Pb), and beta autoradiography (for several elements in synthetic or biological samples). Two X-ray-fluorescence methods are compared: (1) photon-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and (2) the potential use of synchrotron radiation. The latter is shown to allow much greater sensitivity than current PIXE technology and a much broader range of elements than particle-track radiography: the ppm analysis of 10-micron grains for all elements heavier than Na. These advantages are seen as balancing the high cost of accelerator use.

Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

1983-01-01

183

In-situ measurement system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop "hairpin" configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. The electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements are obtained, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

Lord, David E. (Livermore, CA)

1983-01-01

184

Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ  

Science.gov (United States)

Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ to increase the amount of DNA associated with a chromosome or chromosome region is described. The amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ provides for the synthesis of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) painting probes from single dissected chromosome fragments, the production of cDNA libraries from low copy mRNAs and improved in Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) procedures.

Christian, Allen T. (Tracy, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Livermore, CA); Tucker, James D. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

185

In situ measurements of neutron multiplying systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historical and recent examples of the application of in situ measurements to provide knowledge for specific operations and general criticality safety guidance are reviewed. The importance of the American National Standard, Safety in Conducting Subcritical Neutron-Multiplication Measurements In Situ, ANSI/ANS-8.6, 1988 is discussed. Examples of possible future applications of in-situ measurements are provided. 4 refs., 4 figs

1989-12-01

186

In situ measurements of neutron multiplying systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Historical and recent examples of the application of in situ measurements to provide knowledge for specific operations and general criticality safety guidance are reviewed. The importance of the American National Standard, Safety in Conducting Subcritical Neutron-Multiplication Measurements In Situ, ANSI/ANS-8.6, 1988 is discussed. Examples of possible future applications of in-situ measurements are provided. 4 refs., 4 figs.

McLaughlin, T.P.

1989-01-01

187

Status of Intraductal Therapy for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The intraductal approach is particularly appealing in the setting of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a preinvasive breast neoplasm that is thought to be entirely intraductal in its extent. Based on an emerging understanding of the anatomy of the ductal system as well as novel techniques to leverage the access accorded by the intraductal approach, researchers are actively exploring how ductal lavage, ductoscopy, and intraductal infusion of therapeutic agents may enhance breast cancer treatmen...

Flanagan, Meghan; Love, Susan; Hwang, E. Shelley

2010-01-01

188

INDOT Guidance Document for In-Situ Soil Flushing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many of the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) sites are contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents; these contaminants often occur in the form of light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) or dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Considerable effort has recently been focused on developing in-situ technologies for removing or destroying NAPL source zones, and several potentially viable methods have emerged including cosolvent-enhanced source zone removal. Mos...

2007-01-01

189

Banned Books Week  

Science.gov (United States)

Next week is Banned Books Week, and the American Library Association (ALA) offers this site giving background on Banned Books Week and censorship as well as resources to help teachers, librarians, and booksellers observe the week. Once again, the Harry Potter series tops this year's list of most challenged books. At the ALA site, users will find the complete list as well as the most challenged books of the past decade. In addition, the site hosts a press kit, resources for sale to celebrate the week, links to other banned books sites, and a page on book burning.

2000-01-01

190

Enhanced dechlorination of chlorobenzene and in situ dry sorption of resultant Cl-compounds by CaO and Na2CO3 sorbent beds incorporated with Fe2O3.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dechlorination of C(6)H(5)Cl and the in situ dry sorption of Cl-compounds produced by C(6)H(5)Cl decomposition in an alkaline sorbent of CaO or Na(2)CO(3) incorporated with Fe(2)O(3) were studied. A sample gas containing C(6)H(5)Cl at an initial concentration of 500 ppm balanced by either N(2), O(2) (5%)-N(2) or H(2)O (10%)-N(2) carrier gas was introduced into a lab-scale quartz tube reactor where CaO or Na(2)CO(3) sorbent was packed with Fe(2)O(3). Subsequently, the effect of Fe(2)O(3) addition to CaO or Na(2)CO(3) on the removal of C(6)H(5)Cl, achieved by the decomposition of C(6)H(5)Cl as well as the dry sorption of Cl-compounds produced by C(6)H(5)Cl decomposition, was investigated. It was found that the decomposition of C(6)H(5)Cl in CaO or Na(2)CO(3) sorbent bed incorporated with Fe(2)O(3) occurred in the lower temperatures, compared to the case when only CaO or Na(2)CO(3) sorbent bed was used. Thus, Fe(2)O(3) was found to play a catalytic role in the oxidative decomposition of C(6)H(5)Cl. Further, the decomposition of C(6)H(5)Cl in a bed containing only Fe(2)O(3) was promoted by the presence of O(2) and H(2)O in the reaction atmosphere. Moreover, a higher amount of Cl was absorbed in the combined CaO/Fe(2)O(3) and Na(2)CO(3)/Fe(2)O(3) beds, compared to the absorption of Cl-compounds in only CaO or Na(2)CO(3) sorbent bed. Finally, the comparison of CaO and Na(2)CO(3) sorbents showed that the decomposition of C(6)H(5)Cl and the in situ dry sorption of the resultant Cl-compounds in the combined Na(2)CO(3) and Fe(2)O(3) beds were higher than those in the combined CaO and Fe(2)O(3) beds. PMID:19101013

Matsuda, H; Ito, T; Kuchar, D; Tanahashi, N; Watanabe, C

2009-03-01

191

In situ synthesis of silicon-substituted biphasic calcium phosphate and their performance in vitro  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ preparation of silicon (Si) substituted biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) of hydroxyapatite (HAp)/ ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) were carried out through aqueous co-precipitation method. The concentrations of added silicon were varied with the phosphor in order to obtain constant Ca/(P+Si) ratios of 1.602. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure of synthesized silicon substituted BCP powders. The characterization revealed that the formation of biphasic mixtures of different HAp/ ?-TCP ratios was dependent on the content of silicon. After immersing in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1 week, 3 wt% silicon substituted BCP powders were degraded and precipitation started to be formed with small granules consisting of number of flake-like crystal onto the surface of synthesized powders. In the case of 1 wt% silicon substituted BCP powders, the degradation behavior was detected after immersion in HBSS for 3 weeks. On the other hand, silicon unsubtituted BCP powders were not degraded even after that duration. On the basis of these results, silicon substituted BCP is able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface in contact with physiological fluids faster than BCP does. This enhanced reactivity resulted in reduction for the stability of the ?-TCP structure due to SiO4 tetrahedral distortion and disorder at the hydroxyl site when silicon incorporates into BCP.

Song, Chang-Weon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jin, Hyeong-Ho; Hwang, Kyu-Hong; Lee, Jong Kook; Park, Hong-Chae; Yoon, Seog-Young

2012-01-01

192

Nattrassia mangiferae keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 32-year-old man had photophobia and blurred vision 2 weeks after uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis to correct myopia. He was treated with steroids for suspected diffuse lamellar keratitis, antiherpetics, and antibiotic eyedrops, but the condition worsened and the patient developed further blurred vision, an inflamed eye, and pain. When referred to us, the patient had an extensive corneal ulcer with hypopyon and mycelia were reported in scrapings of the ulcer bed. Nattrassia mangiferae (Hendersonula toruloidea) was cultured from the specimen. The patient was treated with antifungal agents and 2 penetrating keratoplasties. At the last examination, the uncorrected visual acuity was 20/200. PMID:14967303

Jabbarvand, Mahmood; Hashemian, Mohammad Rasool; Abedinifar, Zohreh; Amini, Ali

2004-01-01

193

In situ atomic force microscope imaging of supported lipid bilayers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In situ AFM images of phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) hydrolysis of mica-supported one- and two-component lipid bilayers are presented. For one-component DPPC bilayers an enhanced enzymatic activity is observed towards preexisting defects in the bilayer. Phase separation is observed in two-component DMPC-DSPC bilayers and a remarkable enhanced hydrolytic activity of the PLA/sub 2/-enzyme for the DMPC-rich phase is seen. Furthermore, in a supported double bilayer system a characteristic ripple structure, most likely related to the formation of the P/sub beta /-ripple phase is observed.

Kaasgaard, Thomas; Leidy, Chad

2001-01-01

194

Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) involves the preparation of two main components: the DNA probe and the target DNA to which the probe will be hybridized. The DNA probe typically comes from cloned sources such as plasmids, cosmids, PACs, YACs, or BACs; where the insert may contain a specific gene or originate from a specific chromosomal locus. Whole-chromosome paints may also be used but are usually applicable to metaphase preparations. The purified DNA can then be labeled and detected indirectly using haptens, or labeled directly using fluorochrome or dye-conjugated nucleotides. Labeling strategies are also variable, employing standard nick translation or PCR labeling methods. The target DNA can take the form of chromosomes spreads or interphase nuclei. The sources of interphase targets may come from cytogenetic preparations or from paraffin-embedded tissues. Both the labeled DNA probe and DNA target are denatured to a single-stranded state and permitted to hybridize to each other. Post-hybridization washes and fluorescently-labeled antibody incubations follow the 24-hour hybridization, and the specimen is ready for visualization by fluorescent microscopy. Successful interpretation of FISH experiments is dependent on the quality of the starting materials, hybridization efficiencies, and stringency of post-hybridization washes and antibody detections. PMID:18228455

Bayani, Jane; Squire, Jeremy A

2004-09-01

195

Steam-enhanced soil vapour extraction technology for in-situ mobilization of pollutants in phase. A small-scale pilot project for remediation of sites contaminated by BTEX compounds; Thermisch unterstuetzte Bodenluftabsaugung (TUBA) zur In-situ-Mobilisierung von Schadstoffen in Phase. Pilothafte Sanierung eines BTEX-Schadens an einem ehemaligen Gaswerksstandort mit der thermisch unterstuetzten Bodenluftabsaugung (TUBA) durch Dampfinjektion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The subsurface below the benzene filling station of the former gasworks Plauen is largely contaminated by BTEX compounds. Due to the highly heterogeneous geology it is not possible to remediate this site by means of conventional technologies alone. In order to remediate the unsaturated zone, the steam enhanced soil vapour extraction technology was applied at a pilot-scale test field. The injection of steam in conjunction with soil vapour and groundwater extraction resulted in fast heating of the subsurface and significantly increased contaminant removal compared to a conventional soil vapour extraction test conducted besides the testfield at the same time. The mass of recovered BTEX was almost twice as high as the estimated initial mass based on soil sample analysis. Soil sample analysis after the completion of the pilot test indicated largely reduced soil concentrations. Concentrations in groundwater show that contaminant migration from the unsaturated zone to the groundwater zone was also reduced. A cost analysis was performed and revealed specific treatment costs below the costs that would have been necessary for remediation by means of a conventional soil vapour extraction. By using steam injection the clean-up time was drastically reduced by several years in comparison to a potential treatment by conventional soil vapour extraction. The efficiency of the technology at the site may be further increased by modifying the design of the injection and extraction wells and by changes in the mode of operation of the steam enhanced soil vapour extraction system. (orig.) [German] Auf dem Gelaende des Heiz- und ehemaligen Gaswerkes Plauen ist im Bereich der ehemaligen Benzoluebergabe der Untergrund grossflaechig bis zum Grundwasserstauer mit BTEX-Aromaten verunreinigt. Aufgrund des komplexen, heterogen aufgebauten Untergrundes ist es nicht moeglich, eine Sanierung dieser Altlast allein mit konventionellen Sanierungstechniken durchzufuehren. Zur Reinigung der ungesaettigten Bodenzone wurde deshalb in einem Teilareal versuchsweise das Verfahren der thermisch unterstuetzten Bodenluftabsaugung (TUBA) durch Dampfinjektion angewendet. Die Injektion von Wasserdampf in Kombination mit einer Bodenluftabsaugung und Grundwassersanierung fuehrte zu einer raschen Erwaermung des Untergrundes und einem gegenueber einer zeitgleich durchgefuehrten konventionellen Bodenluftabsaugung signifikant erhoehten Schadstoffaustrag. Die ausgetragene BTEX-Masse war fast doppelt so hoch, wie aufgrund von Bodenanalysen vor Versuchsbeginn im Versuchsfeld als vorhandene Masse abgeschaetzt wurde. Bodenanalysen nach Beendigung der Massnahme ergaben groesstenteils stark reduzierte Konzentrationen, ebenso wurde der Schadstoffeintrag aus der ungesaettigten Bodenzone in das Grundwasser durch die pilothafte Sanierung verringert. Eine Kostenanalyse ergab Behandlungskosten, die unter denen liegen, die beim Einsatz einer konventionellen Bodenluftabsaugung entstehen wuerden. Die Verkuerzung der Sanierungsdauer durch den Einsatz des Verfahrens betraegt gegenueber einer 'kalten' Bodenluftabsaugung schaetzungsweise mehrere Jahre. Die Effizienz des Verfahrens koennte am Standort durch die konstruktive Modifikation der Injektionspegel und Extraktionsbrunnen und Aenderungen in der Betriebsweise weiter erhoeht werden, so dass der gesamte Standort mit diesem Verfahren saniert werden und fuer Folgenutzungen rasch wieder zur Verfuegung stehen koennte. (orig.)

Kobus, H.; Kaleris, V.; Koschitzky, H.P.; Schmidt, R.

1999-07-01

196

In situ Gas Conditioning in Fuel Reforming for Hydrogen Generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications requires cost and energy efficient technologies. The Absorption Enhanced Reforming (AER), developed at ZSW with industrial partners, is aimed to simplify the process by using a high temperature in situ CO2 absorption. The in situ CO2 removal results in shifting the steam reforming reaction equilibrium towards increased hydrogen concentration (up to 95 vol%). The key part of the process is the high temperature CO2 absorbent. In this contribution results of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) investigations on natural minerals, dolomites, silicates and synthetic absorbent materials in regard of their CO2 absorption capacity and absorption/desorption cyclic stability are presented and discussed. It has been found that the inert parts of the absorbent materials have a structure stabilizing effect, leading to an improved cyclic stability of the materials.

Bandi, A.; Specht, M.; Sichler, P.; Nicoloso, N.

2002-09-20

197

Solar Week Friday: Blog  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a reading associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a blog entry about the process by which rocket payloads are assembled prior to launch. It was written by one of the female team members associated with a NASA sounding rocket launch program. The blog entry reading is scheduled to occur during Friday of Solar Week.

198

In situ dehydration of yugawaralite  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The structural response of the natural zeolite yugawaralite (CaAl2Si6O16. 4H(2)O) upon thermally induced dehydration has been studied by Rietveld analysis of temperature-resolved powder diffraction data collected in situ in the temperature range 315-791 K using synchrotron radiation. The room-temperature monoclinic structure [Pc, a = 6.73200(9), b = 14.0157(2), c = 10.0607(1) Angstrom, beta = 111.189(1) degrees, Z = 2, at 315 K] has the Ca cations in the channels coordinated to four framework O atoms and to four water molecules, with two of the water sites (OW1 and OW4) showing positional disorder progressively disappearing as the dehydration proceeds. The yugawaralite structure reacts to the release of water molecules with small changes in the Ca-O bond distances and minor distortions of the tetrahedral framework up to about 695 K. Above this temperature the Ca coordination falls below 7 (four framework O atoms and three water molecules) and a major rearrangement in the cation coordination takes place, causing a first order phase transition involving both a large decrease in the cell volume and the change in the space group symmetry. A satisfactory structure model for the high-temperature phase stable in the range 695-791 K could not be obtained because of the complexity of the structure. A model approximately describing the average structure [Pn, a = 12.703(1), b = 13.067(1), c = 9.839(1) Angstrom, beta = 110.894(9), Z = 4, at 749 K] has been used to follow the temperature evolution of the cell parameters in the measured temperature range. This model involves a sixfold coordination of the Ca cations (five framework O atoms and one water molecule). There is no indication of significant structure changes before collapse, likely occurring when the last water molecule is expelled from the structure and the cation coordination drops below 6, as observed in other Ca-rich zeolites (i.e., laumontite, scolecite, mesolite).

Artioli, G.; Ståhl, Kenny

2001-01-01

199

200 Area weekly report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the weekly progress report for the 200 Area Solvent Extraction Plants for the week of February 16, 1955. Discussed are the operational status of the 200-F area, pre start-up calibration work in the 200-H area, engineering for an additional service elevator, building changes to support increased capacity, work on the continuous solvent recovery process, solvent evaporators, cold laboratory design, the continuous solvent feed to the mixer-settlers, and design work for installation of solvent filters.

1955-02-16

200

Guided Weekly Reflection Papers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The experience gained by our team of educational innovation with the implementation of the “Weekly Reflection Papers” has led us to diversify and make more flexible the employed methodology. The modified tool, applied during the academic year 2010-2011, was called “Guided Weekly Reflection Papers”. The aim of this modification has been the development of certain abilities and skills of the students, with particular emphasis on their ability to integrate, review and apply knowledge in ...

Quintanilla, Mari?a-gloria; Copa-patin?o, Jose?-luis; Guerrero, Antonio; Gonza?lez-santander, Marta; Herna?ndez, Nieves; Arias, Mari?a-selma; Pen?a, Mari?a-angeles; Pe?rez-albarsanz, Miguel-a?ngel

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination of TCE in a Basalt Aquifer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A field evaluation of enhanced reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater has been in progress since November 1998 to determine whether in situ biodegradation can be significantly enhanced through the addition of an electron donor (lactate). An in situ treatment cell was established in the residual source area of a large TCE plume in a fractured basalt aquifer utilizing continuous ground water extraction approximately 150 meters downgradient of the injection location. After a 1-month tracer test and baseline sampling period, the pulsed injection of lactate was begun. Ground water samples were collected from 11 sampling points on a biweekly basis and in situ water quality parameters were recorded every 4 hours at two locations. Within 2 weeks after the initial lactate injection, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were observed to decrease substantially at all sampling locations within 40 m of the injection well. Decreases in nitrate and sulfate concentrations were also observed. Both quantitative in situ rate estimation methods and qualitative measures such as changes in redox conditions, decreases in chlorine number, and changes in biomass indicator parameters are being used throughout the test to evaluate the extent to which biodegradation of TCE is enhanced.

K. S. Sorenson; L. N. Peterson (INEEL); R. Ely (U of Idaho)

1999-04-01

202

Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination of TCE in a Basalt Aquifer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A field evaluation of enhanced reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in ground water has been in progress since November 1998 to determine whether in situ biodegradation can be significantly enhanced through the addition of an electron donor (lactate). An in situ treatment cell was established in the residual source area of a large TCE plume in a fractured basalt aquifer utilizing continuous ground water extraction approximately 150 meters downgradient of the injection location. After a 1-month tracer test and baseline sampling period, the pulsed injection of lactate was begun. Ground water samples were collected from 11 sampling points on a biweekly basis and in situ water quality parameters were recorded every 4 hours at two locations. Within 2 weeks after the initial lactate injection, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were observed to decrease substantially at all sampling locations within 40 m of the injection well. Decreases in nitrate and sulfate concentrations were also observed. Both quantitative in situ rate estimation methods and qualitative measures such as changes in redox conditions, decreases in chlorine number, and changes in biomass indicator parameters are being used throughout the test to evaluate the extent to which biodegradation of TCE is enhanced.

Sorenson, Kent Soren; Peterson, Lance Nutting; Ely, R. L.

1999-04-01

203

Introduction to in situ leaching of uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As an introduction to the several discussions on in-situ leaching, the main concepts of this technology are reviewed in order to clarify some important ideas such as: geological constraints, hydrology, aquifer restoration, environmental impacts and future trends. (author)

1989-01-01

204

Molecular cytogenetics using fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific probes enables several new areas of cytogenetic investigation by allowing visual determination of the presence and normality of specific genetic sequences in single metaphase or interphase...

J. W. Gray W. L. Kuo J. Lucas D. Pinkel H. U. Weier

1990-01-01

205

In situ leach: technology and potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In-situ leach and solution mining are described with respect to uranium mining. In the technique, leaching fluids dissolve the mineral without having to remove the ore physically from its occurence. In-situ leach can produce uranium at lower costs than other methods. The factors which are important to achieve this are discussed. In-situ leach is only suitable for one type of uranium deposit, a roll-front deposit (deposited from moving groundwater) in a permeable sandstone that must be an aquifer (sandstone filled with water). It is difficult to predict the performance of an in-situ leach project; good engineering techniques are more important than in conventional mining. The processing and subsequent recovery of the uranium are described. Some of the technological improvements in the technique are discussed. The future development of the technique is considered. (U.K.)

1986-09-02

206

Scientific rationale of Saturn's in situ exploration  

CERN Multimedia

Remote sensing observations meet some limitations when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. A remarkable example of the superiority of in situ probe measurements is illustrated by the exploration of Jupiter, where key measurements such as the determination of the noble gases abundances and the precise measurement of the helium mixing ratio have only been made available through in situ measurements by the Galileo probe. This paper describes the main scientific goals to be addressed by the future in situ exploration of Saturn placing the Galileo probe exploration of Jupiter in a broader context and before the future probe exploration of the more remote ice giants. In situ exploration of Saturn's atmosphere addresses two broad themes that are discussed throughout this paper: first, the formation history of our solar system and second, the processes at play in planetary atmospheres. In this context, we detail the reasons why measurements of Saturn's bulk element...

Mousis, O; Lebreton, J -P; Wurz, P; Cavalié, T; Coustenis, A; Courtin, R; Gautier, D; Helled, R; Irwin, P G J; Morse, A D; Nettelmann, N; Marty, B; Rousselot, P; Venot, O; Atkinson, D H; Waite, J H; Reh, K R; Simon-Miller, A; Atreya, S; André, N; Blanc, M; Daglis, I A; Fischer, G; Geppert, W D; Guillot, T; Hedman, M M; Hueso, R; Lellouch, E; Lunine, J I; Murray, C D; O'Donoghue, J; Rengel, M; Sanchez-Lavega, A; Schmider, F -X; Spiga, A; Spilker, T; Petit, J -M; Tiscareno, M S; Ali-Dib, M; Altwegg, K; Bouquet, A; Briois, C; Fouchet, T; Guerlet, S; Kostiuk, T; Lebleu, D; Moreno, R; Orton, G S; Poncy, J

2014-01-01

207

IN - SITU OPTICAL CHARACTERISATION OF CVD PROCESSES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chemical vapour deposition is determined by gas phase as well as surface processes. Thus, in-situ diagnostics of CVD processes have to deal with the analysis of reactions occurring in the gas phase as well as on the substrate surface where deposition takes place. In both situations probing involves penetration of the gas phase and, therefore, optical probes are the main diagnostic tool for in situ CVD analysis. Ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) optical techniques are com...

Richter, W.; Kurpas, P.

1991-01-01

208

Molecular profiling of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Breast cancer develops through multiple stages from hyperplasia to invasive and finally metastatic disease. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is an abnormal proliferation of epithelial cells within the milk ducts in the breast without invasion beyond the basement membrane. The incidence of DCIS accounts for about 20-25% of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases. Some in situ lesions are believed to rapidly transit to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), while others remain unchanged or disappear. Nowa...

Mørk, Hanne Ha?berg

2012-01-01

209

In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chlorinated solvents and their natural transformation products are the most frequently observed groundwater contaminants in the United States. In situ bioremediation using anaerobic or aerobic co-metabolic processes is a promising means of cleaning up contaminated aquifers. Studies show that under natural conditions trichloroethylene can be anaerobically degraded to dichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and ethylene. Pilot scale field studies of in situ aerobic co-metabolic transformations have s...

1995-01-01

210

In-situ tests in the JMTR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JMTR project has been developing various kind of irradiation rigs and instrumentation techniques for irradiation tests according to needs of users of JMTR. Currently, the needs for in-situ irradiation tests in research reactors are increasing in such fields as mechanical tests of reactor construction materials, measurement of physical/chemical/thermal property changes during irradiation, and examination of performance of fuels and materials. This paper describes some in-situ tests in the JMTR. (author)

1992-12-01

211

In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne aske og reducere logistikomkostningerne ville gøre denne alternative energikilde betydelig mere attraktiv. Disse mål kan nås med in situ flash pyrolyse, hvor halm bliver omdanne...

Bech, Niels

2008-01-01

212

Molecular Classification of Breast Carcinoma In Situ  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pleomorphic variant of invasive lobular carcinoma (PILC) is an aggressive variant of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Its in situ counterpart, pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ (PLCIS) is a recently described entity. Morphologically it has the typical architectural pattern of LCIS, but the neoplastic cells resemble intermediate grade DCIS. Molecular signatures that distinguish PLCIS from DCIS and LCIS would provide additional tools to aid in the histopathologic classification of PLCIS as...

Raju, Usha; Mei, Lu; Seema, Sethi; Hina, Qureshi; Wolman, Sandra R.; Worsham, Maria J.

2006-01-01

213

In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts  

CERN Document Server

Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

2013-01-01

214

Development, characterization and application of in situ gel systems for intranasal delivery of tacrine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to develop an in situ gel formulation for intranasal delivery of tacrine (THA), an anti-Alzheimer's drug. Thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F-127 was used to prepare THA in situ gels. Sol-gel transition temperature (Tsol-gel), rheological properties, in vitro release, and in vivo nasal mucociliary transport time were optimized. The pharmacokinetics and brain dispositions of in situ gel were compared with that from THA oral solution in rats. The in situ gel demonstrated a liquid state with Newtonian fluid behavior under 20 °C, while it exhibited as non-flowing gel with pseudoplastic fluid behavior beyond its Tsol-gel of 28.5 °C. Based on nasal mucociliary transport time, the in situ gel significantly prolonged its retention in nasal cavity compared to solution form. Moreover, the in situ gel achieved 2-3 fold higher peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) of THA in plasma and brain tissue, but lowered Cmax and AUC of the THA metabolites compared to that of oral solution. The enhanced nasal residence time, improved bioavailability, increased brain uptake of parent drug and decreased exposure of metabolites suggested that the in situ gel could be an effective intranasal formulation for THA. PMID:24709220

Qian, Shuai; Wong, Yin Cheong; Zuo, Zhong

2014-07-01

215

[In situ gene amplification on tissue sections (in situ PCR). A new technique for pathologists].  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ polymerase chain reaction is a recent technique which combines the sensitivity of PCR reaction to intracellular localization of genomic sequences with the same specificity as in situ hybridization. This reaction is based on the in situ annealing and polymerisation of oligonucleotides complementary to nucleotides located at each side of the target DNA sequence to amplify. We describe the Hot Start PCR (DNA) and the Hot Start PCR after reverse transcription step (RNA). It allows to amplify some nucleic sequences to a high level, becoming easier to detect. The vizualisation can be realized by direct in situ PCR, the product obtained being directly identifiable by incorporation of labeled nucleotides or primers, or preferentially by indirect in situ PCR. In this case, the amplification is followed by in situ hybridization with labeled probes. This last procedure is more specific. Numerous controls are essential at each step of the technique for validating results. PMID:8720848

Walker, F; Bedel, C; Boucher, O; Dauge, M C; Vissuzaine, C; Potet, F

1995-01-01

216

Aquifer restoration at uranium in situ leach sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ mining of uranium involves injection of a leaching solution (lixiviant) into an ore-bearing aquifer. Frequently, the ground water in the mined aquifer is a domestic or livestock water supply. As the lixiviant migrates through the ore body, uranium and various associated elements such as arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, vanadium and radium-226 are mobilized in the ground water. Aquifer restoration after in situ mining is not fully understood. Several methods have been developed to restore mined aquifers to pre-mining (baseline) quality. Commonly used methods include ground water sweeping, clean water injection, and treatment by ion exchange and reverse osmosis technologies. Ammonium carbonate lixiviant was used at one RandD in situ mine. Attempts were made to restore the aquifer using a variety of methods. Efforts were successful in reducing concentrations of the majority of contaminants to baseline levels. Concentrations of certain parameters, however, remained at levels above baseline six months after restoration ceased. Relatively large quantities of ground water were processed in the restoration attempt considering the small size of the project (1.25 acre). More thorough characterization of the hydrogeology of the site may have enhanced the effectiveness of restoration and reduced potential environmental impacts associated with the project. This paper presents some of the findings of a research project conducted by the Mineral Resources Waste Management Team at the University of Idaho in Moscow, Idaho. Views contained herein do not reflect U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy

1985-01-01

217

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

218

IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF TRITIUM PERMEATION THROUGH STAINLESS STEEL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a 4He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T2) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292° and 330°C. In-situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He-Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. An irradiation enhancement factor (IEF) was determined by comparing in-situ permeation data with a correlation for ex-reactor hydrogen permeation through austenitic stainless steel developed from literature data and reported by Le Claire. Nominal values for the IEF ranged between 3 and 5 for 316 SS. In-situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of 3He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a 4He carrier gas mixed with 3He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330°C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from 3He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen R.

2013-06-01

219

In Situ Measurement of Tritium Permeation Through Stainless Steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a 4He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T2) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292° and 330°C. In-situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He-Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. An irradiation enhancement factor (IEF) was determined by comparing in-situ permeation data with a correlation for ex-reactor hydrogen permeation through austenitic stainless steel developed from literature data and reported by Le Claire. Nominal values for the IEF ranged between 3 and 5 for 316 SS. In-situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of 3He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a 4He carrier gas mixed with 3He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330°C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from 3He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen

2013-06-01

220

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Aquifer restoration at uranium in situ leach sites  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ mining of uranium involves injection of a leaching solution (lixiviant) into an ore-bearing aquifer. Frequently, the ground water in the mined aquifer is a domestic or livestock water supply. As the lixiviant migrates through the ore body, uranium and various associated elements such as arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, vanadium and radium-226 are mobilized in the ground water. Aquifer restoration after in situ mining is not fully understood. Several methods have been developed to restore mined aquifers to pre-mining (baseline) quality. Commonly used methods include ground water sweeping, clean water injection, and treatment by ion exchange and reverse osmosis technologies. Ammonium carbonate lixiviant was used at one R&D in situ mine. Attempts were made to restore the aquifer using a variety of methods. Efforts were successful in reducing concentrations of the majority of contaminants to baseline levels. Concentrations of certain parameters, however, remained at levels above baseline six months after restoration ceased. Relatively large quantitites of ground water were processed in the restoration attempt considering the small size of the project (1.25 acre). More thorough characterization of the hydrogeology of the site may have enhanced the effectiveness of restoration and reduced potential environmental impacts associated with the project. This paper presents some of the findings of a research project conducted by the Mineral Resources Waste Management Team at the University of Idaho in Moscow, Idaho. Views contained herein do not reflect U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy.

Anastasi, Frank S.; Williams, Roy E.

1984-12-01

222

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contibuting to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more benefical technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

LisaGieg

2013-06-01

223

Effect of reservoir depletion and pore pressure drawdown on in situ stress and deformation in the Ekofisk field, North Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of in situ stress and how stress changes with reservoir depletion and pore pressure drawdown is important in a multi-disciplinary approach to reservoir characterization, reservoir management, and enhanced oil recovery projects. Over 20 years of ...

L. W. Teufel D. W. Rhett H. E. Farrell

1991-01-01

224

Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the '70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid '80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern

1994-01-01

225

In situ gelling dorzolamide loaded chitosan nanoparticles for the treatment of glaucoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most important risk associated with glaucoma is the onset and progression of intraocular pressure. The objective of this study was to formulate in situ gel of chitosan nanoparticles to enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of dorzolamide in the glaucoma treatment. Optimized nanoparticles were spherical in shape (particle size: 164 nm) with a loading efficiency of 98.1%. The ex vivo release of the optimized in situ gel nanoparticle formulation showed a sustained drug release as compared to marketed formulation. The gamma scintigraphic study of prepared in situ nanoparticle gel showed good corneal retention compared to marketed formulation. HET-CAM assay of the prepared formulation scored 0.33 in 5 min which indicates the non-irritant property of the formulation. Thus in situ gel of dorzolamide hydrochloride loaded nanoparticles offers a more intensive treatment of glaucoma and a better patient compliance as it requires fewer applications per day compared to conventional eye drops. PMID:24507263

Katiyar, Shefali; Pandit, Jayamanti; Mondal, Rabi S; Mishra, Anil K; Chuttani, Krishna; Aqil, Mohd; Ali, Asgar; Sultana, Yasmin

2014-02-15

226

In situ ALD experiments with synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this contribution, we describe some features of atomic layer deposition (ALD) investigated by means of synchrotron radiation photoelemission spectroscopy (SR-PES). In particular, we show how the surface sensitivity of SR-PES combined with the in situ nature of our investigations can point out interactions between the substrate and ALD precursors. We observed changes on all substrates investigated, included Si, GaAs, Ru and their surface oxides. These interactions are extremely important during the first ALD cycles and induce modifications in the substrate, which might lead to its functionality enhancement. (paper)

2012-07-11

227

A Week for Space  

Science.gov (United States)

Space Week focuses on concepts that enable students to make concrete observations in the early grades (K-2) and move to concepts that help students develop their internet research and writing skills in middle and upper grades (Grades 3-5), and culminates with the development of science investigation design skills (Grade 6). To help launch your…

Comstock, Diane

2008-01-01

228

International Week '13  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project deals with planning the event International Week 2013 - to raise awareness about the international standing of RUC and what it has to offer both international and Danish students. The project features a discussion of potential collaborative partners that could be involved, the marketing strategies that could be used, and the mechanics of achieving the end goal.

Kirchhu?bel, Nicola; Fattoul, Soufian

2012-01-01

229

Phun Week: Understanding Physiology  

Science.gov (United States)

Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

2009-01-01

230

A Week in Creativity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author recounts a week in October, describing her teaching, writing, thinking, mail, and other activities that relate to her professional and personal work on creativity. This personal creative nonfiction piece also contains poetry and references to her books and lectures. The author chose this form in order to emphasize the autobiographical nature of work in the area of creativity.

Jane Piirto

2012-12-01

231

A Week of Observations  

Science.gov (United States)

Even the most effective teachers have room to grow, but it's not always easy for principals to give adequate guidance through short observations. High school principal Jenne Colasacco decided to bring more depth to her observations by observing each of her teachers during one class for an entire week. The new observation structure, which included…

Colasacco, Jenne

2011-01-01

232

In situ forming polymeric drug delivery systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DL-lactic acid, poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide and poly-caprolactone. The choice of solvents like water, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methyl pyrrolidone, triacetin and 2-pyrrolidone for these formulations depends on the solubility of polymer used. Mainly in situ gels are administered by oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable and intraperitoneal routes. The in situ gel forming polymeric formulations offer several advantages like sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems. The article presents a detailed review of these types of polymeric systems, their evaluation, advancements and their commercial formulations. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost.

Madan M

2009-01-01

233

ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

234

In situ Micrometeorological Measurements during RxCADRE  

Science.gov (United States)

The Prescribed Fire Combustion and Atmospheric Dynamics Research Experiment (RxCADRE) was a collaborative research project designed to fully instrument prescribed fires in the Southeastern United States. Data were collected on pre-burn fuel loads, post burn consumption, ambient weather, in situ atmospheric dynamics, plume dynamics, radiant heat release (both from in-situ and remote sensors), in-situ fire behavior, and select fire effects. The sampling was conducted at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, and the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center in Newton, Georgia, from February 29 to March 6, 2008. Data were collected on 5 prescribed burns, totaling 4458 acres. The largest aerial ignition totaled 2,290 acres and the smallest ground ignition totaled 104 acres. Quantifying fire-atmospheric interactions is critical for understanding wildland fire dynamics and enhancing modeling of smoke plumes. During Rx-CADRE, atmospheric soundings using radiosondes were made at each burn prior to ignition. In situ micrometeorological measurements were made within each burn unit using five portable, 10-m towers equipped with sonic and prop anemometers, fine-wire thermocouples, and a carbon dioxide probes. The towers were arranged within the burn units to capture the wind and temperature fields as the fire front and plume passed the towers. Due to the interaction of fire lines following ignition, several of the fire fronts that passed the towers were backing fires and thus less intense. Preliminary results indicate that the average vertical velocities associated with the fire front passage were on the order of 3-5 m s-1 and average plume temperatures were on the order of 30-50 °C above ambient. During two of the experimental burns, radiosondes were released into the fire plumes to determine the vertical structure of the plume temperature, humidity, and winds. A radiosonde released into the plume during the burn conducted on 3 March 2008 indicated a definite plume boundary in the potential temperature and dew point temperature structure. The plume height immediately downwind of the fire front was approximately 150 m AGL and heating within this layer was on the order of 3 K. One interesting feature of the plume was the enhanced wind velocity at the top of the plume. Winds increased by 2 m s-1 in a shallow layer at the very top of the plume boundary indicating enhanced acceleration due to the increase in buoyancy. This experience highlights the dynamism of interacting fire lines within prescribed burns as well as the difficulty of measuring fire-atmospheric interactions on large prescribed fire ignitions.

Clements, C. B.; Hiers, J. K.; Strenfel, S. J.

2009-12-01

235

Aquifer restoration at in-situ leach uranium mines: evidence for natural restoration processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments with aquifer sediments and leaching solution (lixiviant) from an in-situ leach uranium mine. The data from these laboratory experiments and information on the normal distribution of elements associated with roll-front uranium deposits provide evidence that natural processes can enhance restoration of aquifers affected by leach mining. Our experiments show that the concentration of uranium (U) in solution can decrease at least an order of magnitude (from 50 to less than 5 ppM U) due to reactions between the lixiviant and sediment, and that a uranium solid, possibly amorphous uranium dioxide, (UO"2), can limit the concentration of uranium in a solution in contact with reduced sediment. The concentrations of As, Se, and Mo in an oxidizing lixiviant should also decrease as a result of redox and precipitation reactions between the solution and sediment. The lixiviant concentrations of major anions (chloride and sulfate) other than carbonate were not affected by short-term (less than one week) contact with the aquifer sediments. This is also true of the total dissolved solids level of the solution. Consequently, we recommend that these solution parameters be used as indicators of an excursion of leaching solution from the leach field. Our experiments have shown that natural aquifer processes can affect the solution concentration of certain constituents. This effect should be considered when guidelines for aquifer restoration are established

1983-01-01

236

In situ vitrification of mixed wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As management of hazardous materials gains increased attention in the United States, new and more effective technologies are being sought to immobilize and/or destroy the wastes, either in situ for previously disposed wastes or at the waste generation site. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a remedial action process for contaminated solid that is potentially significant in its application to these concerns. The process was initially developed to demonstrate a potential technology for disposal of transuranic-waste-contaminated soil sites; however, recent tests have shown that many hazardous chemical wastes are also destroyed or immobilized as a result of the treatment. The process, in situ vitrification (ISV), was originally developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is more recently being adapted for selected commercial clients for hazardous wastes. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that converts contaminated soil into a chemically inert, stable glass and crystalline product

1988-06-12

237

In situ vitrification of mixed wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As management of hazardous materials gains increased attention in the United States, new and more effective technologies are being sought to immobilize and/or destroy the wastes, either in situ for previously disposed wastes or at the waste generation site. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a remedial action process for contaminated solid that is potentially significant in its application to these concerns. The process was initially developed to demonstrate a potential technology for disposal of transuranic-waste-contaminated soil sites; however, recent tests have shown that many hazardous chemical wastes are also destroyed or immobilized as a result of the treatment. The process, in situ vitrification (ISV), was originally developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is more recently being adapted for selected commercial clients for hazardous wastes. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that converts contaminated soil into a chemically inert, stable glass and crystalline product.

Timmerman, C.L.

1988-01-01

238

Colonic in situ mantle cell lymphoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the first case, to our knowledge, of in situ mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) in the gastrointestinal tract identified retrospectively by immunostains and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis after progression to disseminated disease with pleomorphic morphology several years later. A 45-year-old man with blood per rectum underwent colonoscopy and had random biopsies interpreted as benign colonic mucosa. Two years later, he presented with ileocolic intussusception related to enlarged lymph nodes. Biopsies on the second presentation demonstrated widespread MCL. Reevaluation of the original colonic biopsies showed cyclin D1-positive cells within small lymphoid aggregates, confirmed by FISH for t(11;14). Postchemotherapy, lymphoid aggregates in colonic biopsies showed scattered cyclin D1- and FISH t(11;14)-positive cells, similar to the original in situ lymphoma. We discuss this case in the context of the current understanding of the evolution of MCL and the difficulties associated with detecting primary GI lymphoma. PMID:21840231

Neto, Antonio G; Oroszi, Gabor; Protiva, Petr; Rose, Michal; Shafi, Nelofar; Torres, Richard

2012-12-01

239

In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Buried Waste Program was established in October, 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a recommended long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Feasibility Study format to identify methods for the long-term management of the mixed waste buried. This In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan gives a brief description of the site, work breakdown structure, and project organization: the in situ vitrification technology; the purpose of the tests and demonstrations; and the equipment and materials required for the tests and demonstration. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

1989-01-01

240

In-situ optical photoreflectance during MOCVD  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the development of in situ optical photoreflectance as a tool for measuring impurity concentrations in compound semiconductors. The authors have successfully explored the use of photoreflectance as an in situ tool for measuring n-type doping levels in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown GaAs materials. The technique measures phase and frequency shifts in Franz-Keldysh oscillations measured on uniformly doped thin films. Doping concentrations from 5 {times} 10{sup 16} to 1 {times} 10{sup 18} can be measured at temperatures below 130 C. A method has been developed to include photoreflectance as the last step in the pre-growth in situ calibration procedure for MOCVD thin film structures. This combined capability now enables one to rapidly and accurately determine growth rates, chemical composition, and doping levels necessary to generate a recipe to fabricate complex optoelectronic compound semiconductor devices.

Breiland, W.G.; Hammons, B.E.; Hou, H.Q.; Mei, X.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical Processing Sciences Dept.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Week Calendar 7  

Science.gov (United States)

The Week Calendar is a great app that allows visitors to create a dynamic and collaborative calendar, allowing the user to elaborate on meetings, planning sessions, or busy activity schedules. One remarkable features is Travel Time which smartly acquires the time it will take to travel between calendar events with locations. The site contains a great FAQ area along with several tutorials. This version is compatible with iPhones running iOS 7.

2013-12-12

242

Pilot project Muehlacker - Simulated on-site sanitation by steam injection on TUBA-procedure (thermally enhanced soil vapour extraction). Final report; Modellvorhaben Muehlacker - Modellhafte In-Situ-Sanierung durch Dampfinjektion nach dem TUBA-Verfahren. Abschlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the University of Stuttgart, the remediation technology TUBA (thermally enhanced soil vapour extraction, Thermisch unterstuetzte Bodenluftabsaugung) has been developed. The subsurface is heated by the injection of saturated steam or a mixture of steam and air. Residual contamination of the subsurface can mostly be completely evaporated and removed in the gaseous phase. After one successful remediation of a BTEX-contamination in a pilot study at the site of the former gaswork Plauen, plans were made to test the remediation technology at the site of a former hazardous waste disposal site in Muehlacker/Enzkreis, a 'model site' of the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany. At the site, an extensive contamination of chlorinated hydrocarbons, perched in deep layers of low permeability, had happened. Low permeability of the contaminated subsurface at the site resulted in a challenge for steam injection, since high injection pressure is mandatory for an acceptable rate of steam flow. Additionally, water was held in the subsurface by capillary forces, resulting in a further reduction of permeability for the steam. The planning and implementation of the pilot-scale remediation of a selected section of the subsurface at the Muehlacker site, the experience during operation, especially as under the difficult circumstances, and the successful remediation of the target zone are presented in detail. A cost analysis, comparing to the conventional technique 'cold' soil vapour extraction (SVE), shows the TUBA remediation scheme to be economic and efficient. (orig.) [German] An der Universitaet Stuttgart wurde das Verfahren TUBA (Thermisch unterstuetzte Bodenluftabsaugung) entwickelt. Dabei wird durch die Injektion von Sattdampf oder eines Wasserdampf-Luft-Gemisches der Boden erwaermt. Im Boden vorhandener Schadstoff kann in der Regel vollstaendig verdampft und in der Gasphase abtransportiert werden. Nach einem erfolgreichen Piloteinsatz des Verfahrens am ehemaligen Gas- und Heizwerk Plauen zur Sanierung einer BTEX-Kontamination wurde es im Rahmen eines Modellvorhabens des Landes Baden-Wuerttemberg am Standort der ehemaligen Sondermuelldeponie Muehlacker/Enzkreis eingesetzt. Am Standort lag eine grossraeumige Kontamination mit chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen vor, die in gering durchlaessige Bodenhorizonte in grosse Tiefe eingedrungen waren. Die geringe Durchlaessigkeit des kontaminierten Untergrundes am Standort stellte eine Herausforderung fuer den Einsatz des TUBA-Verfahrens dar, weil u.a. hohe Druecke fuer die Injektion der erforderlichen Dampfmasse notwendig waren. Da zusaetzlich kondensiertes Wasser kapillar im Boden gehalten wurde, kam es zu einer weiteren Durchlaessigkeitsverminderung. Um eine gleichmaessige Aufheizung des Untergrundes zu erzielen, musste daher die Betriebsweise angepasst und optimiert werden. Die Planung und Durchfuehrung der pilothaften Sanierung in einem ausgewaehlten Bereich des Untergrunds am Standort Muehlacker, die Betriebserfahrungen, insbesondere unter den schwierigen Bedingungen, und die erfolgreiche Sanierung des zu sanierenden Bereichs werden im Detail dargestellt. Eine Kostenanalyse im Vergleich zu dem konventionellen Sanierungsverfahren 'kalte' Bodenluftabsaugung zeigt die Wirtschaftlichkeit und Effizienz des TUBA-Verfahrens auf. (orig.)

Theurer, T.; Koschitzky, H.P.; Faerber, A.

2001-11-09

243

In situ lithotripsy of ureteral calculi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 7,000 kidneys and ureters have been treated with lithotripsy at the authors institution. Included among this group were 541 ureters containing single calculi that were treated in situ after retrograde manipulations had failed. One hundred thirty-five (25%) of these calculi were located in the distal ureter, below the superior border of the SI joint. The remainder were located in the middle or upper ureter. All but one of these calculi were successfully treated with lithotripsy and combined radiologic and urologic interventions. The number and type of interventions have been examined. In situ lithotripsy of ureteral calculi after unsuccessful retrograde manipulation has been shown to be feasible

1988-12-02

244

In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive 137Cs and 60Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of 137Cs and 60Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented

1994-11-07

245

Current management of lobular in situ neoplasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the term of lobular neoplasia was first proposed in 1978 and the term Lobular In situ Neoplasia (LIN) has been incorporated in the current World Health Organisation (WHO) classification to cover both atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), the clinical significance and the natural history of lobular neoplasia is far from being fully understood. Furthermore problems and confusion still remain surrounding (1) the most appropriate terminology and classification for these lesions, (2) the best course of long-term management after diagnosis.This article summarizes the opinions on LCIS management of a group of Belgian experts. PMID:18817092

Liebens, F; Cardinael, A S; Schillings, A P; Mendez, V; Demoulin, C; Cusumano, P; Carly, B; Faverly, D; Rozenberg, S

2008-01-01

246

In situ subterranean gamma-ray spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The adaptation of Ge(Li) and intrinsic germanium diodes and small NaI(Tl) and plastic phosphor crystals to the in situ determination of subterranean gamma-ray emitting radionuclides is discussed. Techniques are described for the quantitative measurement of radionuclides in sediments through concentration variations over eight orders of magnitude. Methods are outlined for determining the source of entry of radionuclides into sediments, their direction of travel, their migration rate, and their distance from the point of measurement. Application of the technology to the in situ measurement of radionuclides leaked from underground nuclear fuel waste storage tanks is discussed. (Auth.)

1977-06-01

247

In situ lyophilisation of nifedipine directly in hard gelatine capsules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrophobic drugs present a challenge due to: (i) adhesion and agglomeration; hence the choice of the suitable processing technique to have the drugs into orally administered dosage forms is critical. (ii) Poor dissolution and poor aqueous solubility; hence poor bioavailability. A novel method which is in situ lyophilisation directly in hard gelatin capsule shells was used in this research to enhance the dissolution of nifedipine (a model hydrophobic drug) in the presence of co-povidone, Pluronic(®)F-127 and inulin as enhancement excipients (to the best of our knowledge those excipients have not been previously used with nifedipine in lyophilised forms). Solutions of nifedipine and excipients in a range of concentrations (0.5, 1, 5 and 10%w/v) were prepared using a co-solvent system of tert- butyl alcohol/water mixture. These solutions were filled directly into bodies of size 000 hard gelatin capsule shells and freeze dried. Pure drug and all formulations were characterised by solubility, wetting studies and in vitro dissolution. Also, conformational integrity and thermal characteristics of nifedipine formulations were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The in situ lyophilisation of nifedipine with excipients, looks a promising method not only to improve the hydrophobic drug dissolution but also to be cost effective. PMID:22992055

Crum, Matthew; Elkordy, Amal Ali; Zarara, Moataz; Elkordy, Eman Ali

2013-01-01

248

In situ simulation: Taking reported critical incidents and adverse events back to the clinic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction In situ simulation offers a novel approach to training in the healthcare setting. It models clinical processes in a real clinical environment and provides the opportunity to correct errors and adjust team interactions without endangering patients. Training in the simulation laboratory does not tap into situational resources, e.g. individual, team, and organisational characteristics such as routines, personal relations, distributed skill-levels etc. Therefore, it fails to fully mimic real clinical team processes. Alternatively, in situ simulation offers a unique opportunity to explore and improve team processes in the clinical environment. Though research on in situ simulation in healthcare is in its infancy, literature is abundant on patient safety, medical simulation, team training and human factors1. Patient safety reporting systems that identify risks to patients can improve patient safety if coupled with training and organisational support2. Insight into the nature of reported critical incidents and adverse events can be used in writing in situ simulation scenarios and thus lead to interventions that enhance patient safety. The patient safety literature emphasises well-developed non-technical skills in preventing medical errors3. Furthermore, critical incidents and adverse events reporting systems comprise a knowledgebase to gain in-depth insights into patient safety issues. This study explores the use of critical incidents and adverse events reports to inform in situ simulation to improve patient safety. Design and purpose The study uses a case study design of in situ simulation training tailored to two emergency departments in the Central Denmark Region. We aim to: - Develop a model that integrates critical incidents and adverse events, a contextual needs analysis and short-term observations in the design of in situ simulation. - Deliver and evaluate the usability of in situ simulation training to interprofessional emergency teams. Methods The project has a triple strategy: 1) Patient safety data analysis and literature review, 2) Video observational study on interprofessional emergency teams, and 3) In situ simulation intervention study with evaluation of training. Reported critical incidents and adverse events will be collected from the Danish Patient Safety Database in the Central Denmark Region and analysed using the qualitative software programme NVivo 10 for content analysis4 and thematic analysis5. Medical experts and simulation faculty will design scenarios for in situ simulation training based on the analysis. Short-term observations using time logs will be performed along with interviews with key informants at the departments. Video data will be collected and used for debriefing6 focusing on team communication and team adaptation7 after in situ simulation training. Perspective and relevance First, this study might help taking reported critical incidents and adverse events back to the clinic. Second, reported critical incidents and adverse events coupled with a contextual needs analysis and short-term observations might aid in scenario design for in situ simulation. This will shed light on how to develop specific learning goals for in situ simulation based on clinical challenges in acute healthcare settings. Third, in situ simulation offers a unique way to study team interactions associated with effective interprofessional teamwork. In particular, team non-technical skills and team adaptation, and their interplay will be scrutinised. In summary, this study offers in situ simulation faculty with a model for integrating reported critical incidents and adverse events with contextual needs analysis and short-term observations. This study generates system knowledge that might lead to changes on the individual, team, and organisational level, and thus enhancing patient safety. References (1) Rosen MA, Hunt EA, Pronovost PJ, Federowicz MA, Weaver SJ. In situ simulation in continuing medical education for the health care professions: A systematic review. J Contin Educ Health Prof 2012; 32(4):243-254.

Juul, Jonas; Paltved, Charlotte

249

Osteogenic efficiency of in situ gelling poloxamine systems with and without bone morphogenetic protein-2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In situ gelling solutions for minimally invasive local application of bone growth factors are attracting increasing attention as efficient and patient-friendly alternative to bone grafts and solid scaffolds for repairing bone defects. Poloxamines, i.e., X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide-poly(propylene oxide block copolymers with an ethylenediamine core (Tetronic®, were evaluated both as an active osteogenic component and as a vehicle for rhBMP-2 injectable implants. After cytotoxicity screening of various poloxamine varieties, Tetronic 908, 1107, 1301 and 1307 solutions were chosen as the most cytocompatible and their sol-to-gel transitions were rheologically characterized. Viscoelastic gels, formed at 37 ºC, sustained protein release under physiological-like conditions. Formulations of rhBMP-2 led to differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts, quantified as alkaline phosphatase activity with a maximum at day 7, and to mineralized nodules. Interestingly, poloxamine solely gels led to an initial proliferation of the mesenchymal stem cells (first week, followed by differentiation to osteoblasts (second to third week. Histochemical analysis revealed that Tetronic 908 is only osteoinductive; Tetronic 1107 is mostly osteoinductive, although its use leads to a minor differentiation to adipocytes; Tetronic 1307, solely or loaded with rhBMP-2, causes differentiation of both osteoblasts and adipocytes. Enhanced expression levels of CBFA-1 and collagen type I were observed for Tetronic 908, 1107 and 1307, both solely and combined with rhBMP-2. The intrinsic osteogenic activity of poloxamines (not observed for Pluronic F127 offers novel perspectives for bone regeneration using minimally invasive procedures (i.e., injectable scaffolds and overcoming the safety and the cost/effectiveness concerns associated with large scale clinical use of recombinant growth factors.

A Rey-Rico

2011-04-01

250

CERN safety week  

CERN Multimedia

Following an increase in the number of accidents in 2008, the Safety Commission is organising a CERN safety week from 8 to 12 June for riders of bicycles, scooters and motorbikes. We invite you to take part in the programme, which will be held in the Main Building (Bldg. 500) and will consist of an exhibition, organised events and hands-on activities, including demonstrations of emergency braking, a driving simulator, simulation of what it feels like to drive under the influence of alcohol, demonstrations by the Fire Brigade, video projections, etc. There will also be a number of prizes to be won. Please sign up via your DSO.

DG Unit

2009-01-01

251

World Bank energy week  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The World Bank held its annual Energy Week event at the beginning of March, a three day conference for World Bank staff and various external participants. Presentations covered energy priorities such as overcoming energy poverty, energy security, problems of corruption, and use of renewable energy in developing countries, particularly Africa. Several speakers focused on developments in China's energy sector. There were presentations on clean technologies. The World Coal Institute (WCI) hosted the side-event 'Coal and sustainable development'. All presentations are available at www.worldbank.org/energyweek. The presentation by Preston Chiaro, Vice Chairman of WCI is also available on wwww.worldcoal.org.

NONE

2006-04-15

252

In-situ infrared spectroscopic studies of electrochemical energy conversion and storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

With their ability to convert chemical energy of fuels directly into electrical power or reversibly store electrical energy, systems such as fuel cells and lithium ion batteries are of great importance in managing energy use. In these electrochemical energy conversion and storage (EECS) systems, controlled electrochemical redox reactions generate or store the electrical energy, ideally under conditions that avoid or kinetically suppress side reactions. A comprehensive understanding of electrode reactions is critical for the exploration and optimization of electrode materials and is therefore the key issue for developing advanced EECS systems. Based on its fingerprint and surface selection rules, electrochemical in-situ FTIR spectroscopy (in-situ FTIRS) can provide real-time information about the chemical nature of adsorbates and solution species as well as intermediate/product species involved in the electrochemical reactions. These unique features make this technique well-suited for insitu studies of EECS. In this Account, we review the characterization of electrode materials and the investigation of interfacial reaction processes involved in EECS systems by using state-of-the-art in-situ FTIR reflection technologies, primarily with an external configuration. We introduce the application of in-situ FTIRS to EECS systems and describe relevant technologies including in-situ microscope FTIRS, in-situ time-resolved FTIRS, and the combinatorial FTIRS approach. We focus first on the in-situ steady-state and time-resolved FTIRS studies on the electrooxidation of small organic molecules. Next, we review the characterization of electrocatalysts through the IR properties of nanomaterials, such as abnormal IR effects (AIREs) and surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA). Finally, we introduce the application of in-situ FTIRS to demonstrate the decomposition of electrolyte and (de)lithiation processes involved in lithium ion batteries. The body of work summarized here has substantially advanced the knowledge of electrode processes and represents the forefront in studies of EECS at the molecular level. PMID:22264174

Li, Jun-Tao; Zhou, Zhi-You; Broadwell, Ian; Sun, Shi-Gang

2012-04-17

253

In situ Bioremediation. When Does It Work.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study narrows the focus to two critical facets of bioremediation. First, it addresses the use of microorganisms to remove contamination from ground water and soils that remain in place (i.e., in situ) during the cleanup. This focus distinguishes in si...

1993-01-01

254

[Dysplasia and laryngeal carcinoma in situ].  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the glottis is amenable to chemotherapy, currently most lesions from stage I laryngeal dysplasia up to carcinoma in situ are excised. This literature review presents selected molecular biological aspects especially in relation to dysplasia of the larynx and its therapy, as well as currently preferred biomarkers for chemotherapeutic prevention of laryngeal dysplasia. PMID:22282009

Schroeder, U; Gebhard, M P E; Wollenberg, B

2012-01-01

255

Fabrication Capabilities Utilizing In Situ Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a Space Exploration Policy that lays out a plan that far exceeds the earlier Apollo goals where landing on the moon and taking those first historic steps fulfilled the mission. The policy states that we will set roots on the moon by establishing an outpost. This outpost will be used as a test bed for residing in more distant locales, such as Mars. In order to become self-sufficient, the occupants must have the capability to fabricate component parts in situ. Additionally, in situ materials must be used to minimize valuable mission upmass and to be as efficient as possible. In situ materials can be found from various sources such as raw lunar regolith whereby specific constituents can be extracted from the regolith (such as aluminum, titanium, or iron), and existing hardware already residing on the moon from past Apollo missions. The Electron Beam Melting (EBM) process lends itself well to fabricating parts, tools, and other necessary items using in situ materials and will be discussed further in this paper.

McLemore, Carole A.; Fikes, John C.; Darby, Charles A.; Good, James E.; Gilley, Scott D.

2008-01-01

256

Accelerated in situ bioremediation of groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ bioremediation, as applied in this project, is based on the principal of biostimulation: supplying nutrients to indigenous microbes to stimulate their metabolic activity and subsequent degradation of contaminants. Typically, a network of injection and extraction wells are used to recirculate groundwater into which amendments are added and distributed within the aquifer. The objective of the in situ process is to create in the aquifer a microbially active zone that maximizes contaminant destruction while controlling the distribution of microbial growth. It is important to control microbial growth to avoid plugging the aquifer near the injection well and to establish and sustain maximum treatment zones for each injection well. Figure I illustrates this concept for in situ bioremediation. The technology described herein is innovative in its use of the computer-based Accelerated Bioremediation Design Tool (ABDT) to aid in selecting appropriate system designs and to determine optimal operating strategies. In addition, numerical simulations within the design tool proved to be valuable during remediation operations to determine appropriate changes in the` operating strategy as the bioremediation process progressed. This is particularly important because in situ bioremediation is not a steady- state process, and corrective actions to operating parameters are typically needed to maintain both rapid destruction rates and hydraulic containment.

Truex, M.J.; Hooker, B.S.; Anderson, D.B.

1996-07-01

257

Parametric melting studies for in situ vitrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a series of simulation studies which examine heat conduction and electric heating during in situ vitrification (ISV). The simulation studies determine the effects of soil parameter changes on the ISV process. Changes in heat capacity, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity are considered. The results of these studies provide a basis for experimental measurement accuracy requirements

1991-01-01

258

ATLAS overview week highlights  

CERN Multimedia

A warm and early October afternoon saw the beginning of the 2005 ATLAS overview week, which took place Rue de La Montagne Sainte-Geneviève in the heart of the Quartier Latin in Paris. All visitors had been warned many times by the ATLAS management and the organisers that the premises would be the subject of strict security clearance because of the "plan Vigipirate", which remains at some level of alert in all public buildings across France. The public building in question is now part of the Ministère de La Recherche, but used to host one of the so-called French "Grandes Ecoles", called l'Ecole Polytechnique (in France there is only one Ecole Polytechnique, whereas there are two in Switzerland) until the end of the seventies, a little while after it opened its doors also to women. In fact, the setting chosen for this ATLAS overview week by our hosts from LPNHE Paris has turned out to be ideal and the security was never an ordeal. For those seeing Paris for the first time, there we...

D. Froidevaux

2005-01-01

259

In Vivo Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Embryoid Bodies in an Injectable in Situ-Forming Hydrogel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we examined the in vivo osteogenic differentiation of human embryoid bodies (hEBs by using an injectable in situ-forming hydrogel. A solution containing MPEG-b-(polycaprolactone-ran-polylactide (MCL and hEBs was easily prepared at room temperature. The MCL solution with hEBs and osteogenic factors was injected into nude mice and developed into in situ-forming hydrogels at the injection sites; these hydrogels maintained their shape even after 12 weeks in vivo, thereby indicating that the in situ-forming MCL hydrogel was a suitable scaffold for hEBs. The in vivo osteogenic differentiation was observed only in the in situ gel-forming MCL hydrogel in the presence of hEBs and osteogenic factors. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests that hEBs and osteogenic factors embedded in an in situ-forming MCL hydrogel may provide numerous benefits as a noninvasive alternative for allogeneic tissue engineering applications.

Moon Suk Kim

2013-07-01

260

Characterizing In Situ Uranium and Groundwater Flux  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this project is to develop a new sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of uranium and groundwater fluxes. The sensor uses two sorbents and resident tracers to measure uranium flux and specific discharge directly; but, sensor principles and design should also apply to fluxes of other radionuclides. Flux measurements will assist with obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) and further advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. Project efforts will expand our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in uranium fluxes and those for salient electron donor/acceptors, and groundwater are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The new sensor uses an anion exchange resin to measure uranium fluxes and activated carbon with resident tracers to measure water fluxes. Several anion-exchange resins including Dowex 21K and 21K XLT, Purolite A500, and Lewatit S6328 were tested as sorbents for capturing uranium on the sensor and Lewatit S6328 was determined to be the most effective over the widest pH range. Four branched alcohols proved useful as resident tracers for measuring groundwater flows using activated carbon for both laboratory and field conditions. The flux sensor was redesigned to prevent the discharge of tracers to the environment, and the new design was tested in laboratory box aquifers and the field. Geochemical modeling of equilibrium speciation using Visual Minteq and an up-to-date thermodynamic data base suggested Ca-tricarbonato-uranyl complexes predominate under field conditions, while calculated uranyl ion activities were sensitive to changes in pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkaline earth metals. Initial field tests at the Rifle IFRC site were conducted to assess ambient groundwater and uranium fluxes, monitor microbial growth on the sensor during field deployment, and further resolve any unforeseen problems evolving from field deployment. Ten flux sensors were deployed in five wells for three weeks from mid-November to early December 2009. Observed water fluxes varied from 1.2 - 5.3 cm/d while uranium fluxes ranged from 0.01 - 2.2 ug/cm2d. Uranium and water flux variations corresponded closely with changes in lithology. Uranium fluxes were typically observed to increase with depth. Stochastic simulations were conducted to estimate the magnitude of uranium discharge over a 10.5 m2 transect. The mean discharge was approximately 52 mg/d with a narrow 90% confidence interval of ± 11%.

Cho, J.; Newman, M. A.; Stucker, V.; Peacock, A.; Ranville, J.; Cabaniss, S.; Hatfield, K.; Annable, M. D.; Klammler, H.; Perminova, I. V.

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

In situ ammonia generation as a strategy for catalytic NOx reduction under oxygen rich conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Under highly oxygen rich conditions palladium/alumina catalysts exhibit strongly enhanced NOx reduction activity in the presence of CO:H2 mixtures due to in situ generation of ammonia via the formation and subsequent hydrolysis of isocyanate (NCO) species. PMID:12809240

Macleod, Norman; Lambert, Richard M

2003-06-01

262

The determination of the in situ structure by nuclear spin contrast variation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polarized neutron scattering from polarized nuclear spins in hydrogenous substances opens a new way of contrast variation. The enhanced contrast due to proton spin polarization was used for the in situ structure determination of tRNA of the functional complex of the E.coli ribosome.

Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS Forschungszentrum, Geesthacht (Germany); Nierhaus, K.H. [Max-Planch-Institut fuer Molekulare Genetik, Berlin (Germany)

1994-12-31

263

Electrophilic bromination: efficient incorporation of radioactive bromine using an in situ oxidation of bromide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potassium bromate was found to be a suitable oxidizing agent for the in situ oxidation of 82Br-bromide to 82Br-bromine in the electrophilic bromination of Phenol Red to form 82Br-Bromphenol Blue. The reoxidation of reaction-produced bromide ions enhances isotopic incorporation leading to a theoretical radiochemical yield of 100%. (author)

1980-01-01

264

The use of hydraulic fracturing to enhance in situ bioremediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioremediation was determined to be a viable method of degrading the hydrocarbon contaminants at a fuel distribution and storage facility in Dayton, Ohio. Laboratory tests done by the on-site contractor indicated that percolating water containing oxygen and nutrients through the soil would result in biodegradation of the contaminants. The site is underlain by silty clay till of relatively low hydraulic conductivity, so conventional methods of delivery were expected to result in either slow rates of percolation, and thus slow rates of remediation, or excessive drilling costs. Therefore, the site was selected as a candidate for hydraulic fracturing, a technique of creating high permeability channel ways in tight soils. 1 fig

1992-01-01

265

Enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons in-situ via bioventing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This case study discusses the remediation of soils beneath a former service station impacted with volatile and semi-volatile petroleum compounds. Subsurface investigation revealed hydrocarbon contamination representative of weathered gasoline and diesel fuel in a stratified soil profile consisting of sand and silts. Only unsaturated soils were contaminated with no impact to ground water. A bioventing corrective action approach was selected which included excavation of 6,100 cubic yards of impacted soils with soil mixing to add inorganic nutrients and eliminate soil heterogeneities. Soils were then returned to the excavation after forced-air ventilation lateral lines were installed at the floor of the excavation. Soil vapor concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX) rapidly declined within the first three months of system operation to nondetectable levels

1993-11-10

266

Porosity and mechanically optimized PLGA based in situ hardening systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Goal of the present study was to develop and to characterize in situ-hardening, porous PLGA-based systems for their future application as bone grafting materials. Therefore, we investigated the precipitation behavior of formulations containing PLGA and a water-miscible solvent, DMSO, PEG 400, and NMP. To increase porosity, a pore forming agent (NaCMC) was added and to enhance mechanical properties of the system, an inorganic filler (?-TCP) was incorporated. The behavior upon contact with water and the influence of the prior addition of aqueous media on the morphology of the corresponding hardened implants were investigated. We proved cell-compatibility by live/dead assays for the hardened porous polymer/ceramic-composite scaffolds. The IsHS formulations can therefore be used to manufacture hardened scaffolds ex vivo by using molds with the desired shape and size. Cells were further successfully incorporated into the IsHS by precultivating the cells on the ?-TCP-powder prior to their admixing to the formulation. However, cell viability could not be maintained due to toxicity of the tested solvents. But, the results demonstrate that in vivo cells should well penetrate, adhere, and proliferate in the hardened scaffolds. Consequently, we consider the in situ hardening system being an excellent candidate as a filling material for non-weight-bearing orthopedic indications, as the resulting properties of the hardened implant fulfill indication-specific needs like mechanical stability, elasticity, and porosity. PMID:22947486

Schloegl, W; Marschall, V; Witting, M Y; Volkmer, E; Drosse, I; Leicht, U; Schieker, M; Wiggenhorn, M; Schaubhut, F; Zahler, S; Friess, W

2012-11-01

267

In situ diesel fuel bioremediation: A case history  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of a ruptured fuel line, the study site had diesel fuel soil contamination and free product more than 2 ft (0.75 m) thick on the groundwater surface. Diesel fuel, which is composed of a high percentage of nonvolatile compounds, has proven difficult to remediate using conventional extraction remediation techniques. A number of remedial alternatives were reviewed, and the patented in situ biodegradation BioSpargeSM technology was selected for the site and performed under license by a specialty contractor. BioSpargeSM is a field-proven closed-loop (no vapor emissions) system that supplies a continuous, steady supply of oxygen, moisture, and additional heat to enhance microorganism activity. The system injects an enriched airstream beneath the groundwater surface elevation and/or within the contaminant plume and removes residual vapors from vadose zone soil within and above the contaminant plume. The technology has no air discharge, which is critical in areas where strict air discharge regulations apply. The focus of this paper is the viability of in situ biodegradation as an effective remediation alternative for reducing nonvolatile petroleum products

1995-04-24

268

In situ vitrification; An innovative thermal treatment technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As management of hazardous materials gains increased attention in the United States, new and more effective technologies are being sought to immobilize and/or destroy the wastes, either in situ for previously disposed wastes or at the waste generation site. The new Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) 1984 and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) 1986, combined with proposed rule making by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is making landfill disposal very costly and is moving in a direction that will severely limit future land disposal. Further, the extended liability associated with future environmental impairment provides a significant corporate incentive to dispose and delist wastes within the plant or waste site boundary. The authors discuss a remedial action process for contaminated soils that is potentially significant in its application to these concerns. Although the process was initially developed to provide enhanced isolation to previously disposed radioactive wastes, recent tests have shown that many hazardous chemical wastes are also destroyed or immobilized as a result of the treatment. The process, in situ vitrification (ISV), was originally developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is more recently being adapted for selected commercial clients for hazardous wastes.

Fitzpatrick, V.F.; Timmerman, C.L.; Buelt, J.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1987-01-01

269

Synthesis and Characterization of Encapsulated Nanosilica Particles with an Acrylic Copolymer by in Situ Emulsion Polymerization Using Thermoresponsive Nonionic Surfactant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nanocomposites of encapsulated silica nanoparticles were prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization of acrylate monomers. The synthesized material showed good uniformity and dispersion of the inorganic components in the base polymer, which enhances the properties of the nanocomposite material. A nonionic surfactant with lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was used to encapsulate the silica nanoparticles in the acrylic copolymer matrix. This in situ method combined the surface modifica...

Mostafa Yazdimamaghani; Tannaz Pourvala; Elaheh Motamedi; Babak Fathi; Daryoosh Vashaee; Lobat Tayebi

2013-01-01

270

In-situ retorting via RF heating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Field test work in Utah during 1980 proved that application of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic heating will raise Green River Formation oil shale to retorting temperatures. Laboratory results indicate that substantial permeabilities are induced at in-situ retorting conditions and high oil recoveries are anticipated. Subsequently, a preliminary conceptual design for a commercial scale integrated RF retorting plant was developed. Significant advantages for in-situ oil production through RF retorting are suggested by this work. Strong economic incentives and the prospect of achieving greater resource recovery warrant additional field test work. The key issue to be demonstrated is the creation of adequate permeability to accommodate induced fluid flow and achieve high oil recoveries under autogenous pressure drives at commercial operating conditions. A plan for a $20 million field test program was created and is described below.

Gould, G.D.; Bridges, J.E.; McKinsey, R.R.; Sresty, G.

1984-04-01

271

Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

2014-04-29

272

Genomic in situ hybridization in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), which is a modification of fluorescent in situ hybridization, has been widely used in the study of plants. It has become one of the most important techniques for molecular cytogenetics. GISH is a technique that allows distinguishing the genomes in a cell. With this technique, it is possible to differentiate the genomes in a hybrid; consequently, this tool has been applied to the study of hybrid lineages, genetic improvement programs, and studies of the evolution of polyploids. Moreover, GISH can be applied to the analysis of the meiotic behavior in hybrids and polyploids, providing information concerning the relationship between species. This review presents the wide application of this technique in plants. PMID:24065651

Silva, G S; Souza, M M

2013-01-01

273

Quantitative in situ nanoindentation of aluminum films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the development of a method for quantitative, in situ nanoindentation in an electron microscope and its application to study the onset of deformation during the nanoindentation of aluminum films. The load-displacement curve developed during in situ nanoindentation shows the characteristic ''staircase'' instability at the onset of plastic deformation. The instability corresponds to the first appearance of dislocations in previously defect-free grains, and occurs at a force near that measured in conventional nanoindentation experiments on similarly oriented Al grains. Plastic deformation proceeds through the formation and propagation of prismatic loops punched into the material, and half-loops that emanate from the sample surface. This new experimental technique permits the direct observation of the microstructural mechanisms that operate at the onset of deformation.

Minor, Andrew M.; Stach, Eric A.; Morris Jr., J.W.

2001-04-04

274

Avery Island: dome salt in situ test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective of this in situ test is to provide quantitative data that can be used to determine whether or not bedded and domal salt will behave similarly in response to heating. The Avery Island (AI) heater test will provide a test case wherein a quantitative a priori prediction using laboratory measured properties and numerical analysis methods can be tested for adequacy of simulating effects in the field. The AI in situ test facility is made up of three separate, but neighboring, electrically heated facilities, which are labeled Site A, Site B, and Site C. The design and mine layout of these facilities are summarized. The principal objectives of the planned experiments at each site and the special design features related to the objectives are also summarized

1978-01-01

275

In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl{sub 4}, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations.

Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1992-04-01

276

In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl{sub 4}, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations.

Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1992-04-01

277

In-situ immobilization of radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immobilization technologies are being developed by the Defense Transuranic Waste Program. These technologies can provide remediation alternatives for buried TRU waste management. Up-to-date developments of the immobilization technologies at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are discussed. There are two types of immobilization technology being developed. The immobilization methods being developed at INEL and ORNL will employ grouts. The method undergoing development at PNL is in-situ vitrification. Work in progress on technology development for in-situ immobilization technologies will determine suitability of application. These technologies have the potential to reduce leaching of contamination from burial sites. Data on costs, safety, and radiological risks will be established for evaluation

1986-01-01

278

In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl_4), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl_4, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations

1992-04-15

279

WIPP/SRL in-situ tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT) is the only in-situ program involving the burial of simulated high-level waste forms operating in the United States. Fifteen glass and waste form compositions and their proposed package materials, supplied by 7 countries, are interred in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories and Savannah River Laboratory, MIIT is the largest international cooperative in-situ venture yet undertaken. The objective of the current study is to document the waste form compositions used in the MIIT program and then to examine compositional correlations based on structural considerations, bonding energies, and surface layer formation. These correlations show important similarities between the many different waste glass compositions studied world wide and suggest that these glasses would be expected to perform well and in a similar manner

1990-04-24

280

AVARIS. AREVA valve repair in-situ  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AREVA has designed, built and applied a set of modular machines to refurbish the seal seats of installed valves in NPPs. This innovative new service is called AREVA Valve Repair In-Situ. AVARIS machinery has the unique ability to conduct several processes, in-situ, i.e. in the pipe system in very tight space. The main processes of AVARIS are: - turning of damaged seal areas, - built-up welding of a new hardfacing and - finishing of the welded areas. A gate valve that has been refurbished with the AVARIS method is as good as a new valve regarding the sealing function and life expectancy. By applying AVARIS, the valve is brought back into its original state, so the system remains unchanged. Thus, all original documents keep their validity. (orig.)

2011-05-17

 
 
 
 
281

Effects of a glass-ionomer cement on the remineralization of occlusal caries: an in situ study Efeito de um cimento de ionômero de vidro sobre a remineralização de cárie na superfície oclusal: estudo in situ  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work evaluated the remineralization of demineralized enamel of pits and fissures of human third molars sealed with a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX, GC Corporation - Japan) or with a Bis-GMA sealant (Delton - Dentsply). Ten volunteers participated in this in situ study that consisted of two thirty-day periods using intra-oral devices, with a week’s interval in between. Four experimental treatment procedures and one control were randomly assigned to the volunteers’ specimens: Group I, ...

Mônica Tostes Amaral; Antônio Carlos Guedes-Pinto; Orlando Chevitarese

2006-01-01

282

In situ Moessbauer studies of electrochemical processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent electrochemical studies involving in situ Moessbauer spectroscopy are reviewed. The principal application has been the development of new electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, where Moessbauer spectroscopy plays an important complementary role to XRD in characterizing, and usually identifying, nanocrystalline and intermediate phases of iron and tin. Other applications include the crystallography of Prussian Blue, taken using a recently developed spectrometer for acquiring multiple spectra during continuous cyclic voltammetry, valence interconversion in clay minerals and electrochemical oxygen reduction.

2005-09-01

283

Ductal carcinoma in situ: a challenging disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) represents a heterogenous group of lesions with variable malignant potential. Although it is clearly pre-invasive, not all lesions progress to an invasive malignant disease. The significant increase in the frequency of diagnosis is the result of both widespread use of screening mammography and better recognition among pathologists. Treatment is controversial, but for several decades total mastectomy has been considered as the appropriate treatment. The tendency...

Sevilay Altintas; Huizing, Manon T.; Eric Van Marck; Vermorken, Jan B.; Tjalma, Wiebren A.

2011-01-01

284

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugiyama, Asami

1997-12-31

285

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

1997-01-01

286

Scintillation modeling using in situ data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Satellite in situ measurements of plasma (electron) density fluctuations provide a direct information about the structure and morphology of irregularities that are responsible for scintillation of radio waves on transionospheric links. When supplemented with the ionosphere model and irregularity anisotropy model they can be applied to model morphology of scintillation provided a suitable propagation model is used. In this paper we present a scintillation climatological model for the Northern ...

2007-01-01

287

In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at similar to room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, ...

Axford, D.; Owen, Rl; Aishima, J.; Foadi, J.; Morgan, Aw; Robinson, Ji; Nettleship, Je; Owens, Rj; Moraes, I.; Fry, Ee; Grimes, JM; Harlos, K.; Kotecha, A.; Ren, J.; Sutton, G.

2012-01-01

288

In situ Mössbauer studies of electrochemical processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent electrochemical studies involving in situ Mössbauer spectroscopy are reviewed. The principal application has been the development of new electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, where Mössbauer spectroscopy plays an important complementary role to XRD in characterizing, and usually identifying, nanocrystalline and intermediate phases of iron and tin. Other applications include the crystallography of Prussian Blue, taken using a recently developed spectrometer for acquiring multiple spectra during continuous cyclic voltammetry, valence interconversion in clay minerals and electrochemical oxygen reduction.

Cashion, J. D.; Greaves, T. L.

2005-09-01

289

Numerical simulation of in situ bioremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Models that couple subsurface flow and transport with microbial processes are an important tool for assessing the effectiveness of bioremediation in field applications. A numerical algorithm is described that differs from previous in situ bioremediation models in that it includes: both vadose and groundwater zones, unsteady air and water flow, limited nutrients and airborne nutrients, toxicity, cometabolic kinetics, kinetic sorption, subgridscale averaging, pore clogging and protozoan grazing.

Travis, B.J.

1998-12-31

290

Femtosecond laser in laser in situ keratomileusis  

Science.gov (United States)

Flap creation is a critical step in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Efforts to improve the safety and predictability of the lamellar incision have fostered the development of femtosecond lasers. Several advantages of the femtosecond laser over mechanical microkeratomes have been reported in LASIK surgery. In this article, we review common considerations in management and complications of this step in femtosecond laser–LASIK and concentrate primarily on the IntraLase laser because most published studies relate to this instrument.

Salomao, Marcella Q.; Wilson, Steven E.

2014-01-01

291

In situ monitoring of C60 hydrogenation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kinetics and pathways of C60 reaction with hydrogen gas were studied in a broad temperature interval and over extended periods of time. Specifically, hydrogenation was monitored in situ at high temperature and high hydrogen pressure conditions using gravimetric method. The shape of gravimetric curve was found to depend on hydrogena tion temperature: at 350-400ºC saturation of the sample weight was achieved, whereas at

Luzan, S. M.; Tsybin, Y. O.; Talzyin, A. V.

2011-01-01

292

A memorable week  

CERN Multimedia

This has been a memorable week for CERN, starting with the award of a Special Fundamental Physics Prize and ending with the handover of the CERN Council Presidency from Michel Spiro to Agnieszka Zalewska. In between, the LHC team demonstrated its expertise with a successful pilot run with 25 nanosecond bunch spacing, a new application for Associate Membership was received, and we had good news on the budget.   The award of the Fundamental Physics Prize, and the manner in which it was divided between ATLAS, CMS and the LHC, is fitting recognition of the efforts of the thousands of people who have contributed over many years to the success of our flagship scientific endeavour. In making the award, the Milner Foundation aims to raise the profile of fundamental physics and its value to society. The Fundamental Physics Prize comes hot on the heels of the European Physical Society’s first Edison Volta Prize, which Sergio Bertolucci, Steve Myers and I were honoured to accept on behalf of t...

2012-01-01

293

Practical application of in situ aerosol measurement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of in situ, real-time measurement techniques permits the characterization of airborne droplets and particles under conditions where traditional sampling methods can fail. For example, sampling method rely on the ability to sample and transport particles without biasing the properties of interest, and often are not applicable in harsh environment. Although in situ methods offer unique opportunities in these cases, these techniques introduce new concerns and must be used carefully if accurate measurement are to be made. Several in situ measurement techniques are reviewed here. As the field is rapidly evolving, the discussion is limited to those techniques which: (1) are commercially available, (2) provide real-time output, (3) measure the aerosol size distribution. Discussion is divided between single particle counters (which provide a flux-based or temporal measurement) and ensemble techniques (which provide a concentration-based or spatial measurement). Specific techniques discussed include phase Doppler, Mie scattering, and Fraunhofer diffraction, and commercial instruments based on these techniques.

O`Hern, T.J.; Rader, D.J.

1993-09-01

294

IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes REV 02. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in REV 02 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what conditions, the tests were conducted. The descriptions and analyses provide data useful for refining and confirming the understanding of flow, drift seepage, and transport processes in the UZ. The UZ testing activities included measurement of permeability distribution, quantification of the seepage of water into the drifts, evaluation of fracture-matrix interaction, study of flow along faults, testing of flow and transport between drifts, characterization of hydrologic heterogeneity along drifts, estimation of drying effects on the rock surrounding the drifts due to ventilation, monitoring of moisture conditions in open and sealed drifts, and determination of the degree of minimum construction water migration below drift. These field tests were conducted in two underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) drift, and the cross-drift for Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB), as described in Section 1.2. Samples collected in boreholes and underground drifts have been used for additional hydrochemical and isotopic analyses for additional understanding of the UZ setting. The UZ transport tests conducted at the nearby Busted Butte site (see Figure 1-4) are also described in this scientific analysis report.

J.S.Y. YANG

2004-11-08

295

Development of Spectroelectrochemical Cells for in situ Neutron Reflectometry  

Science.gov (United States)

A new spectroelectrochemical cell for in situ neutron reflectometry was developed. Electrochemical reactions were determined using this in situ cell with a LiMn2O4/SrRuO3 multi layer thin film. Changes in interfacial structures on the surface of the thin film are also observed by in situ neutron reflectivity measurements. The performances of this in situ cell were expected the determination of changes on the interface between the electrodes and electrolytes.

Yonemura, M.; Hirayama, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kanno, R.; Torikai, N.; Yamada, N. L.

2014-04-01

296

Design and Development of pH-monitered in situ Gel of Lomefloxacin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present Study was focused on Design and Development of in situ gel of Lomefloxacin HCL.Lomefloxacin HCL is an antibacterial agent which exhibits rapid precorneal elimination and poor ocular bioavailability, when given in the form of conventional ophthalmic solutions. To overcome this, an attempt has been made to formulate pH-triggered in situ gelling system of Lomefloxacin HCL to provide sustained release of drug based on polymeric carriers that undergo sol-to-gel transition upon change in pH. The Lomefloxacin HCL in situ gelling system formulated by using poly acrylic acid (Carbopol 940 and in combination with hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC which acted as viscosity enhancing agent. The developed formulation was stable, non-irritant and provided sustained release over 8-hour period and it is a viable alternative to conventional eye drops.

Jayant Deshpande

2013-02-01

297

Development on device for lifting submersible pump in production well of in-situ leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aimed at the feature of pumping lixivium with submersible pump in in-situ leaching mine, the electro vehicle carried device for lifting submersible pump is developed. The device is simple in structure, easy to operation, stable in performance and reliable in safety. It is applied with perfect results in the field test of in-situ leaching of uranium in Xinjiang. In the practical application, compared with the ways of lifting submersible pump of manhandling and hoister, the device can greatly enhance operating efficiency, facilitates field multi-well operation (because it can come along car removing). The problem difficult of lifting submersible pump in the production well of in-situ leaching mine is solved

2003-08-01

298

Strain effects in irradiated 'in situ' Nb_3Sn superconductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The critical currents have been measured as a function of tensile strain for neutron irradiated Nb_3Sn conductors. The samples are ''in situ'' and powder metallurgically formed conductors. Neutron irradiations have been carried out up to a fluence of 4 x 10"1"9 n/cm"2 (E>0.1 MeV) at the reactor ambient temperature of about 60"0C. The neutron fluence dependence of the critical currents are affected by the fabrication procedure. Strain sensitivity of the critical current is slightly enhanced by neutron irradiation, that is, a synergism between the effects of the irradiation and strain on the critical current has been found. (orig.)

1985-08-01

299

In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laser delivery probes using multimode fiber optic delivery and bulk focusing optics have been constructed and used for performing materials processing experiments within scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam instruments. Controlling the current driving a 915-nm semiconductor diode laser module enables continuous or pulsed operation down to sub-microsecond durations, and with spot sizes on the order of 50 {micro}m diameter, achieving irradiances at a sample surface exceeding 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. Localized laser heating has been used to demonstrate laser chemical vapor deposition of Pt, surface melting of silicon, enhanced purity, and resistivity via laser annealing of Au deposits formed by electron beam induced deposition, and in situ secondary electron imaging of laser induced dewetting of Au metal films on SiO{sub x}.

Roberts, Nicholas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Rack, Prof. Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Moore, Tom [OmniProbe, Inc.; Magel, Greg [OmniProbe, Inc.; Hartfield, Cheryl [OmniProbe, Inc.

2012-01-01

300

In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laser delivery probes using multimode fiber optic delivery and bulk focusing optics have been constructed and used for performing materials processing experiments within scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam instruments. Controlling the current driving a 915-nm semiconductor diode laser module enables continuous or pulsed operation down to sub-microsecond durations, and with spot sizes on the order of 50 {mu}m diameter, achieving irradiances at a sample surface exceeding 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. Localized laser heating has been used to demonstrate laser chemical vapor deposition of Pt, surface melting of silicon, enhanced purity, and resistivity via laser annealing of Au deposits formed by electron beam induced deposition, and in situ secondary electron imaging of laser induced dewetting of Au metal films on SiO{sub x}.

Roberts, Nicholas A.; Magel, Gregory A.; Hartfield, Cheryl D.; Moore, Thomas M.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Rack, Philip D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) and Omniprobe, Inc., an Oxford Instruments Company, 10410 Miller Rd., Dallas, Texas 75238 (United States); Omniprobe, Inc., an Oxford Instruments Company, 10410 Miller Rd., Dallas, Texas 75238 (United States); Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2012-07-15

 
 
 
 
301

In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laser delivery probes using multimode fiber optic delivery and bulk focusing optics have been constructed and used for performing materials processing experiments within scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam instruments. Controlling the current driving a 915-nm semiconductor diode laser module enables continuous or pulsed operation down to sub-microsecond durations, and with spot sizes on the order of 50 ?m diameter, achieving irradiances at a sample surface exceeding 1 MW/cm2. Localized laser heating has been used to demonstrate laser chemical vapor deposition of Pt, surface melting of silicon, enhanced purity, and resistivity via laser annealing of Au deposits formed by electron beam induced deposition, and in situ secondary electron imaging of laser induced dewetting of Au metal films on SiOx.

2012-07-01

302

In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell

2005-12-27

303

Air-coupled acoustic thermography for in-situ evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Acoustic thermography uses a housing configured for thermal, acoustic and infrared radiation shielding. For in-situ applications, the housing has an open side adapted to be sealingly coupled to a surface region of a structure such that an enclosed chamber filled with air is defined. One or more acoustic sources are positioned to direct acoustic waves through the air in the enclosed chamber and towards the surface region. To activate and control each acoustic source, a pulsed signal is applied thereto. An infrared imager focused on the surface region detects a thermal image of the surface region. A data capture device records the thermal image in synchronicity with each pulse of the pulsed signal such that a time series of thermal images is generated. For enhanced sensitivity and/or repeatability, sound and/or vibrations at the surface region can be used in feedback control of the pulsed signal applied to the acoustic sources.

Zalameda, Joseph N. (Inventor); Winfree, William P. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

304

High resolution measurements of carbon monoxide along a late Holocene Greenland ice core: evidence for in-situ production  

Science.gov (United States)

We present high-resolution measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations from continuous analysis of a shallow ice core from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling project (NEEM-2011-S1). An Optical Feedback - Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer (OF-CEAS) was coupled to a continuous melter system during a 4-week laboratory-based measurement campaign. This analytical setup generates highly stable measurements of CO concentrations with an external precision of 7.8 ppbv (1 sigma) based on a comparison of replicate cores. The NEEM-2011-S1 CO record spans 1800 yr and exhibits highly variable concentrations at the scale of annual layers, ranging from 75 to 1327 ppbv. The most recent section of this record (i.e. since 1700 AD) agrees with existing discrete CO measurements from the Eurocore ice core and the deep NEEM firn. However, it is difficult to interpret in terms of atmospheric CO variation due to high frequency, high amplitude spikes in the data. 68% of the elevated CO spikes are observed in ice layers enriched with pyrogenic aerosols. Such aerosols, originating from boreal biomass burning emissions, contain organic compounds, which can be oxidized or photodissociated to produce CO in-situ. We suggest that elevated CO concentration features could present a new integrative proxy for past biomass burning history. Furthermore, the NEEM-2011-S1 record reveals an increase in baseline CO level prior to 1700 AD (129 m depth), with the concentration remaining high even for ice layers depleted in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Overall, the processes driving in-situ production of CO within the NEEM ice are complex and may involve multiple chemical pathways.

Faïn, X.; Chappellaz, J.; Rhodes, R. H.; Stowasser, C.; Blunier, T.; McConnell, J. R.; Brook, E. J.; Preunkert, S.; Legrand, M.; Desbois, T.; Romanini, D.

2013-05-01

305

The treatment of in situ breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carcinoma in situ is the earliest histologically recognisable form of malignancy and as such provides an opportunity to treat the disease in a curative way. The two major variants, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) will be considered separately as the two conditions have divergent natural histories. DCIS is increasing in incidence since microcalcification may be detected radiologically in the screening of asymptomatic women. The extent of microcalcification may not indicate the extent of disease. It has yet to be determined whether there is a difference in behaviour of the tumour forming and the asymptomatic types of DCIS. After a biopsy has shown DCIS there will be residual DCIS at the biopsy site in one-third of patients, and multifocal DCIS in another third. A coexistent infiltrating carcinoma may be present in up to 16%. Due to sampling problems areas of invasion may be missed. Axillary nodal metastases are found in only 1% of patients with histological DCIS. Radical surgery by total or modified mastectomy is almost curative, but 3% of patients will die of metastases. Taking results of uncontrolled trials, local relapse rates are as follows: excision alone 50%, wide excision 30%, wide excision plus radiotherapy 20%. Two prospective trials are underway run by the EORTC and NSABP in which patients with DCIS are treated by wide excision with or without external radiotherapy. LCIS is usually an incidental finding with a bilateral predisposition to subsequent infiltrating carcinomas. Curative procedures such as bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction may represent overtreatment. A systemic rather than local approach would seem appropriate and a trial is now underway run by the EORTC in which patients with histologically confirmed LCIS are randomised to observation alone or to receive tamoxifen 20 mg daily for 5 years. (orig./MG)

1989-01-01

306

In situ surface biodegradation of restorative materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY This study aimed to evaluate the surface characteristics of restorative materials (roughness, hardness, chemical changes by energy-dispersive spectroscopy [EDX], and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]) submitted to in situ biodegradation. Fifteen discs of each material (IPS e.max [EM], Filtek Supreme [FS], Vitremer [VI], Ketac Molar Easymix [KM], and Amalgam GS-80 [AM]) were fabricated in a metallic mold (4.0 mm × 1.5 mm). Roughness, hardness, SEM, and EDX were then evaluated. Fifteen healthy volunteers used a palatal device containing one disc of each restorative material for seven days. After the biodegradation, the roughness, hardness, SEM, and EDX were once again evaluated. Data obtained from the roughness and hardness evaluations were submitted to Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Tukey-Kramer tests (pAM>FS>KM>VI. After biodegradation, the hardness was significantly altered among the materials studied: EM>AM>FS=KM>VI, along with a significant increase in the hardness for AM, KM, and VI. SEM images indicated degradation on the surface of all materials, showing porosities, cracks, and roughness. Furthermore, after biodegradation, FS showed the presence of Cl, K, and Ca on the surface, while F was not present on the VI and KM surfaces. EM and AM did not have alterations in their chemical composition after biodegradation. It was concluded that the dental biofilm accumulation in situ on different restorative materials is a material-dependent parameter. Overall, all materials changed after biodegradation: esthetic restorative materials showed increased roughness, confirmed by SEM, and the ionomer materials and silver amalgam showed a significantly higher hardness. Finally, the initial chemical composition of the composite resin and ionomer materials evaluated was significantly altered by the action of the biofilm in situ. PMID:24555699

Padovani, Gc; Fúcio, Sbp; Ambrosano, Gmb; Sinhoreti, Mac; Puppin-Rontani, Rm

2014-01-01

307

In-situ thermal testing program strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past year the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has implemented a new Program Approach to the licensing process. The Program Approach suggests a step-wise approach to licensing in which the early phases will require less site information than previously planned and necessitate a lesser degree of confidence in the longer-term performance of the repository. Under the Program Approach, the thermal test program is divided into two principal phases: (1) short-term in situ tests (in the 1996 to 2000 time period) and laboratory thermal tests to obtain preclosure information, parameters, and data along with bounding information for postclosure performance; and (2) longer-term in situ tests to obtain additional data regarding postclosure performance. This effort necessitates a rethinking of the testing program because the amount of information needed for the initial licensing phase is less than previously planned. This document proposes a revised and consolidated in situ thermal test program (including supporting laboratory tests) that is structured to meet the needs of the Program Approach. A customer-supplier model is used to define the Project data needs. These data needs, along with other requirements, were then used to define a set of conceptual experiments that will provide the required data within the constraints of the Program Approach schedule. The conceptual thermal tests presented in this document represent a consolidation and update of previously defined tests that should result in a more efficient use of Project resources. This document focuses on defining the requirements and tests needed to satisfy the goal of a successful license application in 2001, should the site be found suitable

1995-01-01

308

Improving a joint inversion of GRACE, GPS and modelled ocean bottom pressure by using in-situ data.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the changes in ocean bottom pressure (OBP) and ocean mass Rietbroek et al. (2009) performed a joint least square inversion of weekly GRACE solutions, patterns of large-scale deformation measured by a network of GPS stations and modelled OBP from the Finite Element Sea ice Ocean Model (FESOM). The correlation of this inversion with in-situ OBP ranges between 0.7 and 0.8 in some regions but for example in the tropical Atlantic the correlation is below 0.4. To improve the agreement of the inversion with in-situ data, a part of the in-situ data is included directly into the inversion. The in-situ OBP data was taken from the global OBP data base of Macrander et al. (2010) and averaged to weekly means. Depending on the weight put on the in-situ data, the correlation and regression increases significantly to a value larger than 0.9. The variance of the system is locally reduced by almost 50% at the locations included into the inversion while the difference of the global ocean mean is on average below 10%. Furthermore the global ocean mean is used to compute a bias term for correcting the global ocean mean obtained by the FESOM model.

Gebler, M.; Rietbroek, R.; Schröter, J.; Wolff, J.-O.

2012-04-01

309

In-Situ Roughening of Polymeric Microstructures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A method to perform in-situ roughening of arrays of microstructures weakly adherent to an underlying substrate was presented. SU8, 1002F, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructures were roughened by polishing with a particle slurry. The roughness and the percentage of dislodged or damaged microstructures was evaluated as a function of the roughening time for both SU8 and 1002F structures. A maximal RMS roughness of 7-18 nm for the surfaces was obtained within 15 to 30 s of polishing with...

2010-01-01

310

Development of in-situ monitoring system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of in-situ monitoring system using an optical fiber to measure the real time temperature variation of subsurface water for the evaluation of flow characteristics. We describe the feasibility of developing a fiber-optic temperature sensor using a thermochromic material. A sensor-tip is fabricated by mixing of a thermochromic material powder. The relationships between the temperatures and the output voltages of detectors are determined to measure the temperature of water. It is expected that the fiber-optic temperature monitoring sensor using thermochromic material can be used to measure the real time temperature variation of subsurface water

2010-01-01

311

In situ peroxidation of TCE contaminated soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory bench- and pilot-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation for in situ treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated soils and sediments. Bench scale studies using gas tight 1 liter vessels demonstrated that the addition of weak H2O2 solutions (2O2 was added to the soil columns at a volume equal to 10% of the total volume of the soil to be treated. The effect of H2O2 addition on soil properties was also evaluated in the pilot studies

1993-07-12

312

In-situ electrochemical soil remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the development of electrochemical procedures for soil remediation. The authors apply two different processes to in situ remediation of soil and groundwater, offering significant advantages over previously known procedures in cost, performance, and time requirements. The paper deals primarily with their patented Geooxidation process for mineralizing organic pollutants. Remediation is by installing steel electrodes in the earth and applying precisely defined, relatively low levels of DC current. The technology is commercial in Europe and is now being offered in the United States. In Europe, about 2 million metric tons of soil have been treated using these methods.

Doering, F.R.; Papadopolous, T. [P + P Geotechnik Ltd., Stuttgart (Germany)

1996-12-31

313

In situ viscometry by optical trapping interferometry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency of the flow, which is simply proportional to the viscosity, when measured in units of the thermal power spectral density at the same frequency. Measurements are validated on different water-glycerol mixtures, as well as in a glycerol gradient, where no a priori knowledge of the solution is used to determine the glycerol concentration.

Flyvbjerg, Henrik

2008-01-01

314

WIPP/SRL in-situ tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first in-situ tests involving burial of simulated, non-radioactive waste glasses and package components in the United States was begun in 1986. The effort involves almost 2000 specimens from seven nations buried in the salt site at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Among these samples are non-radioactive Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) waste glasses which have been buried for 6-mo., 1-yr. and 2-yrs., as part of a 5-yr. study. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion x-rays (EDX), and wide angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD) were used to assess the behavior of these glasses and are presented

1990-04-24

315

WIPP/SRL in-situ tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simulated Savannah River waste glass was leached in brine and deionized water, with and without metals present, at 90 degrees C, in support of the WIPP/SRL in-situ testing program. This paper discusses how the behavior of Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) 165/TDS waste glass was assessed by combining solution analysis with bulk and surface studies, and correlating laboratory results with field data. The glass, whose performance was affected by salt phases formed, performed well. The metals 304L stainless steel, Ticode 12, and lead had no significant effect on glass leaching, while A216 adversely affected the leaching of the waste glass system

1990-04-24

316

Apparatus for in situ monitoring of copper in coastal waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apparatus is designed and tested to determine metals in situ in seawater. Voltammetry with a vibrating gold microwire electrode (VGME) is combined with a battery powered potentiostat and a processor board and is tested for in situ monitoring of copper (Cu) in coastal waters. The VGME was combined with solid state reference and counter electrodes to make a single vibrating probe which was rated up to a depth of 40 m. The measuring mode for Cu was square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry whilst dissolved oxygen (DO) was monitored by a linear sweep scan in a negative potential direction. The working electrode was reactivated between measurements using a suitable potential sequence. The novelties of this work are the field-testing of apparatus incorporating a VGME for copper monitoring, which eliminates the need for pumping and reagents, but has sufficient sensitivity for low ambient levels of copper, and the use of a novel potential sequence to stabilise the response over a long time period. The apparatus has a measuring time of about 6 weeks and a measuring frequency of 12 h(-1). Measurement is reagent-free and power use is low as no pump is required. Experiments are carried out to test the stability of response of the system at various temperatures and its robustness with respect to long-term copper monitoring. Preliminary data were obtained during autonomous deployment over several weeks on a buoy in the Irish Sea. Vertical movement of the buoy caused individual measurements to have a variability of about 15%. It was found that longer term variability of the electrode could be minimised by normalisation of the Cu response over that of DO as the response was related to diffusion through the electrode surface which was similarly affected. The detected fraction of Cu (labile Cu) amounted to 1.5-4 nM during different deployments at a total Cu concentration of ?10 nM. The same ratio was found by voltammetry in samples taken to the laboratory. The new apparatus has demonstrated that metals in coastal waters can be monitored at trace level, much facilitating the monitoring of outfalls and local water contamination. Because of its sensitivity the apparatus would be of use in estuarine as well as coastal waters, with the aim of monitoring intermittent variability in the copper concentration. PMID:22983404

Chapman, Conrad S; Cooke, Richard D; Salaün, Pascal; van den Berg, Constant M G

2012-10-26

317

In situ stabilization of entrapped elemental mercury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elemental mercury is a dense immiscible fluid which gets entrapped as residual mercury in the pore spaces of the subsurface during improper disposals and accidental spills. This paper investigates in situ stabilization of entrapped elemental mercury to mercury sulphide using aqueous sodium polysulphide solution. Batch experiments showed 100% conversion efficiency of elemental mercury to mercury sulphide in a period of 96 h with sodium polysulphide/elemental mercury molar ratio of 1. XRD analysis identified the precipitate formed as mercury sulphide. Micromodel experiments, with glass beads as porous media, further demonstrated in situ stabilization of entrapped mercury under different residual mercury saturations. It was found that in a period of 10 days, 10% of entrapped mercury was stabilized as mercury sulphide, 0.088% was removed as dissolved mercury and the remaining elemental mercury was retained in porous media encapsulated by the newly formed mercury sulphide precipitate. However, there was no leaching of mercury from the micromodel effluent once stabilization was achieved. PMID:24080327

Devasena, M; Nambi, Indumathi M

2013-11-30

318

Molecular cytogenetics using fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific probes enables several new areas of cytogenetic investigation by allowing visual determination of the presence and normality of specific genetic sequences in single metaphase or interphase cells. in this approach, termed molecular cytogenetics, the genetic loci to be analyzed are made microscopically visible in single cells using in situ hybridization with nucleic acid probes specific to these loci. To accomplish this, the DNA in the target cells is made single stranded by thermal denaturation and incubated with single-stranded, chemically modified probe under conditions where the probe will anneal only with DNA sequences to which it has high DNA sequence homology. The bound probe is then made visible by treatment with a fluorescent reagent such as fluorescein that binds to the chemical modification carried by the probe. The DNA to which the probe does not bind is made visible by staining with a dye such as propidium iodide that fluoresces at a wavelength different from that of the reagent used for probe visualization. We show in this report that probes are now available that make this technique useful for biological dosimetry, prenatal diagnosis and cancer biology. 31 refs., 3 figs.

Gray, J.W.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lucas, J.; Pinkel, D.; Weier, H-U.; Yu, Loh-Chung.

1990-12-07

319

Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

2009-01-01

320

In situ combustion field experiences in Venezuela  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A literature review of four in situ combustion projects: in Miga, Tia Juana, Melones and Morichal fields in Venezuela was made, and a summary of these projects is presented. Reservoir description and project performance data were analyzed. The behavior of the four in situ combustion field tests can be summarized as follows: The problems most often encountered were corrosion and high temperature producing wells. The direction in which the burning front moved was guided essentially by reservoir characteristics. The produced oil was upgraded by about 4{degrees} API, and viscosity was substantially reduced. For Mirochal and Miga fields, the analyses of available information from the combustion projects indicated that the process has been successful in the affected region. Conclusions from this review indicate that the two most frequent problems encountered were operational problems in producing wells and the direction of the burning front. The heterogeneous nature of the sands probably resulted in the burning front moving in a preferential direction, hence reducing areal sweep efficiency.

Villalba, M.; Estrada, M.; Bolivar, J. [INTEVEP, Caracas (Venezuela)

1995-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

2009-05-01

322

In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert's interest

1995-11-07

323

In situ assessment of cell viability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryobiological studies of tissues often require the simultaneous assessment of tissue structure and in situ cellular function. Localization of damage during cryopreservation occurs as a consequence of tissue structure and morphology and as a result of biophysical constraints imposed by diffusion and heat transfer. This study used five experimental model tissue systems: cells in suspension, cells attached to a substrate, a monolayer of cells attached to a substrate, porcine corneas, and intact porcine articular cartilage to examine the efficacy of assessing cell recovery using a novel fluorescent stain (SYTO-13). A graded freezing protocol was used to induce varying degrees of tissue damage. Recovery was assessed in the different tissue model systems using SYTO with ethidium bromide, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) with ethidium bromide, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT). In each of the tissue model systems, the SYTO/EB assessment technique was shown to be equally effective as the existing techniques for the determination of cell recovery. In addition, the properties of fluorescence intensity and rate of release for SYTO were significantly better than those obtained using FDA. Assessment of in situ cell viability was clearly demonstrated using porcine corneas and articular cartilage. The SYTO/EB assay is superior to the existing techniques used for the localization of cell damage in tissues after cryopreservation. PMID:9786064

Yang, H; Acker, J; Chen, A; McGann, L

1998-01-01

324

Oculocardiac reflex in laser in situ keratomileusis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate variations in heart rate and to determine the occurrence of oculocardiac reflex (OCR during laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK. METHODS: This descriptive, prospective study was designed to observe the effect of suction ring and ablation stages during LASIK procedure on the heart rate. The ECG was taken before and during LASIK operation on the first eye in 61 patients. These patients were selected randomly among cases that presented to Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran for LASIK surgery in summer 2001. All patients were healthy without history of cardiovascular disease and no systemic medication. The ECG prior to the procedure was considered as baseline. Decrease in the heart rate of 10% or more of baseline was considered as oculocardiac reflex. RESULTS: In 12 patients (20% the heart rate decreased more than 10% during the suction ring stage. In 19 patients (31% the heart rate increased more than 20% of baseline. In 15 patients (25% the heart rate increased 10%-20% more than baseline during the preparation and ablation stages. In the remaining 15 patients (25% the heart rate did not change during the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study confirm that oculocardiac reflex may occur during the LASIK procedure especially in the suction ring stage. Because the oculocardiac reflex may cause heart rate changes during LASIK, the patients should be closely monitored during the procedure. KEY WORDS: Laser in situ keratomileusis, oculocardiac reflex, suction ring.

Alireza Ashtari

2006-12-01

325

In situ gelling properties of anionic thiomers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate in situ crosslinking systems of anionic thiolated polymers. In order to accelerate the increase in dynamic viscosity of thiolated polymers (thiomers), they were combined with hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide and ammonium persulfate. Thiomers (pectin-cysteine (Pec-Cys), sodium carboxymethylcellulose-cysteine (NaCMC-Cys) and poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-Cys)) were synthesized via amide bond formation between the carboxylic acid group of polymers and the primary amino group of l-cysteine. The rheological properties of 1% (m/v) thiomer solutions with oxidizing agents were compared by oscillatory measurements over time (120?min). Pec-Cys and NaCMC-Cys with hydrogen and carbamide peroxide showed a sol-gel phase transition within a few minutes and scored up to 13,000-fold increase in dynamic viscosity. Furthermore, only thiomers exhibiting a polysaccharide backbone (Pec-Cys and NaCMC-Cys) showed a significant increase in viscosity (p?thiomer/oxidizing agent systems might be useful for various pharmaceutical applications such as for in situ gelling liquid/semisolid formulations or in tissue engineering. PMID:22324362

Hintzen, Fabian; Laffleur, Flavia; Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Leithner, Katharina; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

2012-12-01

326

WIPP/SRL in situ testing program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first series of in situ, high-level waste form leaching tests to be conducted in the United States was started on July 22, 1986. This effort, the WIPP Materials Interface Interactions Tests (MIIT), involves the underground test emplacement of almost 1900 (nonradioactive) waste form, metal container, and geologic samples in the bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Samples were supplied from seven countries and are being analyzed by laboratories and universities in the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Belgium, Japan, the United Kingdom, and Sweden. Post test analyses of samples removed after 0.5 and 1 year of testing are in progress. The MIIT data complement other laboratory and international in situ efforts involving underground field testing of Savannah River Laboratory simulated nuclear waste glasses. The MIIT international program is a joint effort conducted and managed by Sandia National Laboratories and Savannah River Laboratory at the WIPP, and is sponsored by the US Department of Energy

327

Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

2010-04-01

328

Vinorelbine plus 3-weekly trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer: a single-centre phase 2 trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background After two studies reporting response rates higher than 70% in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer with weekly trastuzumab and vinorelbine, we planned a phase 2 study to test activity of the same combination, with trastuzumab given every 3 weeks. Methods Patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (3+ at immunohistochemistry or positive at fluorescence in situ hybridization), PS ?2, normal left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF...

De Maio Ermelinda; Pacilio Carmen; Gravina Adriano; Morabito Alessandro; Di Rella Francesca; Labonia Vincenzo; Landi Gabriella; Nuzzo Francesco; Rossi Emanuela; Silvestro Pasqualina; Botti Gerardo; Di Bonito Maurizio; Curcio Maria; Formichelli Franca; La Vecchia Franca

2007-01-01

329

Solar Week Tuesday: Scavenger Hunt  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an online game associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a scavenger hunt game to allow learners to review science concepts covered in previous activities. This game is scheduled to occur during Tuesday of Solar Week.

330

Solar Week Wednesday: Scavenger Hunt  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an online game associated with activities during Solar Week, a twice-yearly event in March and October during which classrooms are able to interact with scientists studying the Sun. Outside of Solar Week, information, activities, and resources are archived and available online at any time. This is a scavenger hunt game to allow learners to review science concepts covered in previous activities. This game is scheduled to occur during Wednesday of Solar Week.

331

Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Revision 1, Demonstration system design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last nine years IIT Research Institute (IITRI) has been developing and testing the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. The vaporized contaminants, water vapor and air are recovered from the heated zone by means of a vacuum manifold system which collects gases from below surface as well as from the soil surface. A vapor barrier is used to prevent fugitive emissions of the contaminants and to control air infiltration to minimize dilution of the contaminant gases and vapors. The recovered gases and vapors are conveyed to an on site vapor treatment system for the clean up of the vent gases. Electrical energy is applied to the soil by forming an array of electrodes in the soil which are electrically interconnected and supplied with power. The electrodes are placed in drilled bore holes which are made through the contaminated zone. There are two versions of the in situ heating and soil treatment process: the f irst version is called the In Situ Radio Frequency (RF) Soil Decontamination Process and the second version is called the In Situ Electromagnetic (EM) Soil Decontamination Process. The first version, the RF Process is capable of heating the soil in a temperature range of 100 degrees to 400 degrees C. The soil temperature in the second version, the EM Process, is limited to the boiling point of water under native conditions. Thus the soil will be heated to a temperature of about 85 degrees to 95 degrees C. In this project IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site due to the fact that most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 degrees to 95 degrees C

1994-01-01

332

Studies on the intercalation of naproxen into layered double hydroxide and its thermal decomposition by in situ FT-IR and in situ HT-XRD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Layered double hydroxides, novel anionic clay, meet the first requirement as inorganic matrices for encapsulating functional drugs or biomolecules with negative charge in aqueous media. In this study, naproxen has been intercalated into Mg-Al layered double hydroxide by the methods of ion exchange. The structure and composition of the intercalated material have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. A schematic model has been proposed. Furthermore, in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, in situ high-temperature XRD, and thermogravimetry (TG) have been used to characterize the thermal decomposition of the hybrid material. It has been found that the thermal stability of the intercalated naproxen is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation, which suggests that this drug-inorganic layered material may have prospective application as the basis of a novel drug delivery system

2004-07-01

333

Advances in the application of in situ electrical resistance heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) is an aggressive in situ thermal remediation technology that was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy from the original oil production technology to enhance vapor extraction remediation technologies in low permeability soils. Soil and groundwater are heated by the passage of electrical current through saturated and unsaturated soil between electrodes, not by the electrodes themselves. It is the resistance to the flow of electrical current that results in increased subsurface temperatures, and this is typically applied to the boiling point of water. It is estimated that more than 75 ERH applications have been performed. Capacity to perform these projects has increased over the years, and as many as 15 to 20 of these applications now being performed at any given time, mainly in North America, with some European applications. While the main focus has been to vaporize volatile organic compounds, as one would expect other semi-volatile and non-volatile organic compounds have also been encountered, resulting in observations of chemical and physical reactions that have not been normally incorporated into environmental restoration projects. One such reaction is hydrolysis, which is slow under normal groundwater temperatures, becomes very rapid under temperatures that can easily be achieved using ERH. As a result, these chemical and physical reactions are increasing the applicability of ERH in environmental restoration projects, treating a wider variety of compounds and utilizing biotic and abiotic mechanisms to reduce energy costs. For the treatment of oil and coal tar residues from manufactured gas plants, a process TRS has called steam bubble floatation is used to physically remove the coal and oil tar from the soils for collection using conventional multi-phase collection methods. Heat-enhanced hydrolysis has been used to remediate dichloromethane from soils and groundwater at a site in Illinois, while heat-enhanced biotic and abiotic dehalogenation has been observed at the vast majority of the sites where ERH has been applied. With disposal options becoming more limited around the world, alternate in situ treatment methods for soil and groundwater restoration are becoming more important. Over the 10 years of commercialization of the ERH technology, soil and groundwater remediation mechanisms and processes that were not envisioned by the technology's developers expand the range of chemicals that have successfully been treated. This paper will discuss these processes and how these processes have been used to effect remediation of soil and groundwater where ERH has been employed. (authors)

2007-09-02

334

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae osteomyelitis in pigs demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Necrotizing osteomyelitis and fibrinopurulent arthritis with isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 is reported in two pigs from a herd with lameness and mild coughing problems among 8 to 12-week-old pigs. Application of fluorescent in situ hybridization targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of A. pleuropneumoniae in formalin-fixed tissue was performed to verify the association of A. pleuropneumoniae with the bone and joint lesions. By in situ hybridization A. pleuropneumoniae was demonstrated as multiple microcolonies or single cells dispersed in focal fibrinonecrotizing pleuropneumonia, in joints with arthritis, and in bone necroses including lysis of growth plate and suppurative inflammation in the adjacent trabecular metaphysis, thus demonstrating that well-known infections manifest new, unusual lesions. PMID:10332836

Jensen, T K; Boye, M; Hagedorn-Olsen, T; Riising, H J; Angen, O

1999-05-01

335

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae osteomyelitis in pigs demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Necrotizing osteomyelitis and fibrinopurulent arthritis with isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 is reported in two pigs from a herd with lameness and mild coughing problems among 8 to 12-week-old pigs. Application of fluorescent in situ hybridization targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of A. pleuropneumoniae in formalin-fixed tissue was performed to verify the association of A. pleuropneumoniae with the bone and joint lesions. By in situ hybridization A. pleuropneumoniae was demonstrated as multiple microcolonies or single cells dispersed in focal fibrinonecrotizing pleuropneumonia, in joints with arthritis, and in bone necroses including lysis of growth plate and suppurative inflammation in the adjacent trabecular metaphysis, thus demonstrating that well-known infections manifest new, unusual lesions.

Jensen, Tim KÃ¥re; Boye, Mette

1999-01-01

336

The LISA1 experiment: in-situ tritium release investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LISA1 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium release. Conducted in the SILOE reactor at CEN Grenoble, the experiment uses the same facilities as the LILA1. The experiment has six capsules, four with Li_2SiO_3, one with Li_4SiO_4 and one with LiA10_2. Each capsule is separately purged. The tritium activity is determined by ionization chambers and scintillation counting. An important difference as compared to LILA1 is the use of zinc beds to reduce tritiated water and thereby prevent sorption of T_2O on the lines. Irradiation began on October 25, 1985 and was continued for three 3-week-cycles. The testing included systematic variation of four parameters: temperature (450 to 730"0C), neutron flux (0.8 to 2.7 x 10"1"3 1/cm"2.s), sweep gas flow rate (1.8 to 7.0 L/h), and sweep gas composition (He,He+0.1% H_2, He+0.2% O_2). Preliminary results are given

1986-04-13

337

In-situ bioaugmentation of vadose zone restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leakage from an underground gasoline storage tank caused evacuation from a restaurant and an insurance company. An engineering consultant was engaged to correct the problem. Upon remedy of the habitability situation, a groundwater recovery system was designed to recover whatever open-quotes free productclose quotes gasoline could be collected. Since traditional open-quotes Pump and treatclose quotes remedial technologies are successful only to the extent that the contaminant is mobile, an alternative is necessary to effectively remediate that contamination which is recalcitrant. At this point, Waste Stream Technology was enlisted to propose an in-situ remedial action plan. Approximately five injection wells were installed around the perimeter and in the zone of influence of each of eight recovery wells. The injection wells were designed to distribute the bacteria at various depths in the vadose zone. Bacteria were cultured on site in Waste Stream's proprietary bioreactor. Bacterial and nutrient applications were injected on a weekly basis. Bacterial population dynamics and BETX levels were monitored throughout the course of the remediation. Although the remediation is currently in progress, disappearance of open-quotes free productclose quotes on the water table and elimination of benzene in the groundwater over a reasonable time period marked the success of this project

1991-05-13

338

In-situ Characterization of Cast Stainless Steel Microstructures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) was commonly used in selected designs of nuclear power reactor systems for corrosion resistance and enhanced durability in service. CASS materials are generally coarse-grained and elastically anisotropic in nature, and are consequently difficult to inspect ultrasonically, largely due to detrimental effects of ultrasonic wave interactions with the coarse-grain microstructures. To address the inspection needs for these materials, new approaches that are robust to these phenomena are being developed. However, to enhance the probability of detecting flaws, knowledge of the microstructure and the corresponding acoustic properties of the material may be required. This paper discusses the application of ultrasonic backscatter measurement methods for classifying the microstructure of CASS components, when making measurements from the outside surface of the pipe or component. Results to date from laboratory experiments demonstrate the potential of these measurements to classify the material type of CASS for two homogeneous microstructures—equiaxed-grain material or columnar-grain material. Measurements on mixed or banded microstructures also show correlation with the estimated volume-fraction of columnar grains in the material. However, several operational issues will need to be addressed prior to applying this method for in-situ characterization of CASS microstructure.

Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Moran, Traci L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Watson, Bruce E.; Mathews, Royce; Harris, Robert V.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.

2012-09-01

339

Sustained localized presentation of RNA interfering molecules from in situ forming hydrogels to guide stem cell osteogenic differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, RNA interfering molecules have been used to differentiate stem cells on two-dimensional (2D) substrates that do not mimic three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments in the body. Here, in situ forming poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels were engineered for controlled, localized and sustained delivery of RNA interfering molecules to differentiate stem cells encapsulated within the 3D polymer network. RNA interfering molecules were released from the hydrogels in a sustained and controlled manner over the course of 3-6 weeks, and exhibited high bioactivity. Importantly, it was demonstrated that the delivery of siRNA and/or miRNA from the hydrogel constructs enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of encapsulated stem cells. Prolonged delivery of siRNA and/or miRNA from this polymeric scaffold permitted extended regulation of cell behavior, unlike traditional siRNA experiments performed in vitro. This approach presents a powerful new methodology for controlling cell fate, and is promising for multiple applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:24831973

Nguyen, Minh K; Jeon, Oju; Krebs, Melissa D; Schapira, Daniel; Alsberg, Eben

2014-08-01

340

In situ studies of fracture in solids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron microscope studies were made of the propagation of microcracks during in situ tensile deformation of stainless steel, molybdenum and magnesium oxide representing ductile, semi-brittle and brittle solids. As the stress is applied, the cracks are initiated at the edge of holes in the thinned foils. The extent of plastic activity around the cracks is measured in terms of the density and the distribution of dislocations and is sensitive to the ductile/brittle nature of the solid. The slip systems of the dislocations are determined by contrast analysis and stereoscopic observation. In stainless steel and magnesium oxide, the dislocations are relatively straight and they lie nearly perpendicular to the direction of the crack propagation, whereas in molybdenum the dislocations are in the form of irregular tangles which are stretched along the direction of the crack propagation. These observations are discussed in terms of the model of Dugdale concerning the formation of plastic zones under uniaxial loading in plane stress conditions

1978-08-09

 
 
 
 
341

PREPARATION OF NANOCOMPOSITES BY IN SITU POLIMERIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Polyethylene nanocomposites were obtained by in situ polymerization using both montmorillonite (natural clay) and montmorillonite organically modified with octadecylamine (O-Clo). In this proposed methodology the clays were added directly in the reactor together with the catalytic system (metallocen [...] e catalyst and methylaluminoxane) and ethylene. The nanocomposites were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and by tensile stress-strain tests. It was found that the catalytic activity increased around 20% when natural clay was used compared with the standard polymer. But when modified clay was used the catalytic activity did not show important changes. On the other hand, XRD and TEM showed that the clays are in a disordered state and well dispersed in the polyethylene matrix. Finally, the nanocomposites showed an increase of about 30% in Young's modulus compared with the standard polymer

ZAPATA, PAULA; QUIJADA, RAÚL; RETUER, JAIME; MONCADA, EDWIN.

342

High resolution in situ ultrasonic corrosion monitor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ultrasonic corrosion monitor is provided which produces an in situ measurement of the amount of corrosion of a monitoring zone or zones of an elongate probe placed in the corrosive environment. A monitoring zone is preferably formed between the end of the probe and the junction of the zone with a lead-in portion of the probe. Ultrasonic pulses are applied to the probe and a determination made of the time interval between pulses reflected from the end of the probe and the junction referred to, both when the probe is uncorroded and while it is corroding. Corresponding electrical signals are produced and a value for the normalized transit time delay derived from these time interval measurements is used to calculate the amount of corrosion.

Grossman, Robert J. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-01-01

343

In situ preparation of Calcium hydroxide films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The in situ preparation of Calcium hydroxide films in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) is constrained by the decomposition of species at the surface and the absence of OH bulk diffusion. Therefore, it is not possible to prepare such films simply by water exposure to a Calcium layer. We present four different approaches for the preparation of Ca(OH){sub 2} films in an UHV. Two of these methods are found to be ineffective for the preparation, the other two are shown to produce Calcium hydroxide films. Both of the two effective procedures make use of H{sub 2} gas exposure. Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy are employed to verify quality and purity of the films.

Dahle, S.; Voigts, F. [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Maus-Friedrichs, W., E-mail: w.maus-friedrichs@pe.tu-clausthal.de [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Clausthaler Zentrum fuer Materialtechnik, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

2011-10-31

344

Underground openings for in situ experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ tests include a wide variety of heater experiments with single and multiple arrays at full and reduced scale, block tests, heated room and pillar tests, brine and water migration experiments, permeability tests, fracture hydrology and groundwater chemistry studies, instrumentation development and testing, and other investigations. This article describes the identification of underground openings to accommodate such tests and the concept of a coupled hydrologic-thermomechanical experiment. The hydro/thermomechanical experimental program has five stages: 1) design and fabrication; 2) baseline studies; 3) chamber excavation; 4) test chamber experiment; and 5) data analysis and modeling. From the calculations presented, it was concluded that a large volume of rock (approximately 50 times that in the Stripa full-scale heater test) can be influenced within a reasonable time in the hydro/thermomechanical experiment, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory and repository-sized experiments. (JMT)

Wollenberg, H.A.; Korbin, G.

1982-04-01

345

Underground openings for in situ experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ tests include a wide variety of heater experiments with single and multiple arrays at full and reduced scale, block tests, heated room and pillar tests, brine and water migration experiments, permeability tests, fracture hydrology and groundwater chemistry studies, instrumentation development and testing, and other investigations. This article describes the identification of underground openings to accommodate such tests and the concept of a coupled hydrologic-thermomechanical experiment. The hydro/thermomechanical experimental program has five stages: 1) design and fabrication; 2) baseline studies; 3) chamber excavation; 4) test chamber experiment; and 5) data analysis and modeling. From the calculations presented, it was concluded that a large volume of rock (approximately 50 times that in the Stripa full-scale heater test) can be influenced within a reasonable time in the hydro/thermomechanical experiment, thereby bridging the gap between laboratory and repository-sized experiments

1982-01-01

346

In-situ joined CMC components  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) process allows the joining of CMC parts during manufacturing, i.e. C/C-SiC joints can be produced in-situ. Porous C/C components are prepared and fixed together and molten silicon is caused to flow between the surfaces and react with the carbon material to convert it to silicon carbide and bond the surfaces together. Basic investigations have been carried out in terms of surface preparation, gap geometry, addition of paste, and its composition, and infiltration parameters. Lap joint specimens have been manufactured and tested with standardised geometry under compression. The mechanical and microscopical tests allowed the selection of an appropriate joining method which was transferred to real components. This paper deals with first results of this novel liquid phase bonding of CMC components. (orig.)

Krenkel, W. [DLR, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Structures and Design; Henke, T. [DLR, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Structures and Design; Mason, N. [DLR, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Structures and Design

1997-06-01

347

Performance of in situ superconductors in solenoids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of small solenoids have been wound from in situ prepared Nb_3-Sn-Cu superconducting wire in order to determine the suitability of these materials for magnets which require bending strains greater than 2% at the surface of the wire. In the range from 4 to 14 T, J/sub c/ of the solenoid is equivalent to or exceeds performance for unstrained material. For best performance in ac fields, it is essential to twist the wire and to support the windings with a potting material. Calorimetric measurements of the ac losses in the 8--12 T range give 1 mW/cm"3 for magnetic fields ramped at 1 T/s

1980-10-01

348

PREPARATION OF NANOCOMPOSITES BY IN SITU POLIMERIZATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polyethylene nanocomposites were obtained by in situ polymerization using both montmorillonite (natural clay and montmorillonite organically modified with octadecylamine (O-Clo. In this proposed methodology the clays were added directly in the reactor together with the catalytic system (metallocene catalyst and methylaluminoxane and ethylene. The nanocomposites were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and by tensile stress-strain tests. It was found that the catalytic activity increased around 20% when natural clay was used compared with the standard polymer. But when modified clay was used the catalytic activity did not show important changes. On the other hand, XRD and TEM showed that the clays are in a disordered state and well dispersed in the polyethylene matrix. Finally, the nanocomposites showed an increase of about 30% in Young's modulus compared with the standard polymer

PAULA ZAPATA

2008-03-01

349

In situ investigations at Avery Island  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Descriptions and representative data are given for the in situ investigations being performed in the Avery Island Mine. Sufficient detail is presented such that investigators can judge whether any of the studies being performed would be valuable for their numerical modeling exercises. The basic investigations being performed include heater tests, brine migration experiments, and flatjack tests. The heater tests consist of the emplacement of single simulated waste canisters with different power levels. The bulk thermal and mechanical response is measured of the salt surrounding the emplacement. The brine migration studies involve the measurement of moisture inflow into heated boreholes. The flatjack studies are an investigation of the deformation of the borehole when subjected to controlled boundary conditions of stress and temperature

1980-11-01

350

Guiding neuronal development with in situ microfabrication  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the ability to modify microscopic 3D topographies within dissociated cultures, providing a means to alter the development of neurons as they extend neurites and establish interconnections. In this approach, multiphoton excitation is used to focally excite noncytotoxic photosensitizers that promote protein crosslinking, such as BSA, into matrices having feature sizes 250 nm. Barriers, growth lanes, and pinning structures comprised of crosslinked proteins are fabricated under conditions that do not compromise the viability of neurons both on short time scales and over periods of days. In addition, the ability to fabricate functional microstructures from crosslinked avidin enables submicrometer localization of controllable quantities of biotinylated ligands, such as indicators and biological effectors. Feasibility is demonstrated for using in situ microfabrication to guide the contact position of cortical neurons with micrometer accuracy, opening the possibility for engineering well defined sets of synaptic interactions. biofabrication | multiphoton cell patterning | growth cone

Kaehr, Bryan; Allen, Richard; Javier, David J.; Currie, John; Shear, Jason B.

2004-11-01

351

In situ buffer material test, (1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Buffer materials would be placed between a package and wall rock in a disposal pit in a deep geological formation in the concept for geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes. A bentonite powder produced in our country was compacted in a test hole in-situ into 1.27 kg/cm3 at 380 m below surface and heated with a electric heater about 882 hours. The value of obtained thermal conductivity of the buffer material was slightly larger than those of the laboratory data. The results of the measurements of the moisture of the buffer material using a Neutron Moisture Meter revealed that the buffer material was dried during the heating and groundwater penetrated from fractures of the wall rock into the buffer material after heating was stopped. (author)

1987-01-01

352

In situ erosion of cohesive sediment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been increasing interest in tidal power schemes and the effect of a tidal energy barrage on the environment. A large man-made environmental change, such as a barrage, would be expected to have significant effects on the sediment distribution and stability of an estuary and these effects need to be assessed when considering a tidal barrage project. This report describes the development of apparatus for in-situ measurements of cohesive sediment erosion on inter-tidal mudflats. Development of the prototype field erosion bell and field testing was commissioned on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry by the Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU). This later work commenced in August 1991 and was completed in September 1992. (Author)

1993-01-01

353

Reverse osmosis membrane allows in situ regeneration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of mineral membranes on metallic supports has provided a novel solution to the problem of filtration by the reverse osmosis process. A new reverse osmosis membrane is described which is capable of resisting high operational temperatures (1200C), fluctuations in pH(3 to 12) and high pressure (100 bar), as well as significant chlorine concentrations. In addition, the membrane can be regenerated in-situ on the same porous metal support. Numerous membranes can thus be used over the multi-year life of the porous support. Moreover, accidental damage to the membrane is of no great consequence as the membrane itself can be easily replaced. The life of the installation can thus be extended and the overall cost of filtration reduced. The membrane's various applications include water and effluent treatment in the nuclear power industry. (author)

1989-01-01

354

PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring.

N.T. Raczka

2000-05-23

355

In Situ Field Testing of Processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR

2001-01-01

356

In Situ Field Testing of Processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

J. Wang

2001-12-14

357

In-situ heat transfer experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Systems are being developed to measure the in-situ thermal conductivity of deep ocean sediment. The initial experiment plan was to implant a 400 watt isotope heat source into the sediment at MPG-I and monitor the thermal field around it at distances of up to 2 m for one year. The temperature data were to be recorded on a seabed platform along with photographs and vane shear values. Upon command, digital data in storage would be sent to the surface acoustically. At the end of the year, corers would be driven in by the platform to take samples of heat affected sediment. These were to be recovered along with the platform for laboratory analysis. Work was progressing well on the design of the various systems until mid-1980 when higher sediment shear strengths were estimated for in-situ MPG-I and more experiments for the platform were added. This report covers the major work performed by APL during 1980 for the ISHTE. The expanded scope of ISHTE has not affected the work performed on the designs discussed. Design of the platform and the control system will be affected the most; they have been delayed until next year, when more details on the add-on experiments will be available. The locational accuracy of the thermal probes and the predicted higher sediment shear strength have affected the development of the probes and their implantment mechanisms. This has prolonged the completion of their manufacture. The two major systems developed this year for ISHTE have been the acoustic tracking and data telemetry system and the hydrostatic sediment corer. Both systems are highly successful and are described in detail in this report. Another addition to the ISHTE program this year is an ISHTE simulation (ISIMU) to be performed in the Ocean Environment Chamber at NSRDC in Annapolis, Maryland, during October and November 1981. The purpose of this test is to look for unexpected phenomena in the heat affected sediment

1981-07-01

358

PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring

2000-01-01

359

Medical image of the week: lepidic growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lepidic growth is most often seen in adenocarcinoma in situ (Figure A, 40x magnification. Adenocarcinoma in situ is formerly known as bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma (BAC. A similar growth pattern in a morphologically very different tumor (mucinous adenocarcinoma is shown for comparison (Figure B, 400x. Mucinous adenocarcinoma growing on alveolar septae nearly always is invasive, so the entity of mucinous adencioarcinoma in situ practically doesn't exist, further differentiating this entity from BAC.

Knox KS

2013-08-01

360

In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Preparation and thermal properties of mesoporous silica/phenolic resin nanocomposites via in situ polymerization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to enhance the adhesion between inorganic particles and polymer matrix, in this paper, the mesoporous silica SBA-15 material was synthesized by the sol-gel method. The surface of SBA-15 was modified using ?-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOTMS) as a coupling agent, and then mesoporous silica/phenolic resin (SBA-15/PF) nanocomposites were prepared via in situ polymerization. The structural parameters and physical properties of SBA-15, SBA-15-GOTMS (SBA-15 surface treated usin...

Wei, C.; Yu, C. B.; Lv, J.; Liu, H. X.; Meng, L. T.

2012-01-01

362

Detection of chiral sum frequency generation vibrational spectra of proteins and peptides at interfaces in situ  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility to collect off-electronic resonance chiral sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectra from interfacial proteins and peptides at the solid/liquid interface in situ. It is difficult to directly detect a chiral SFG vibrational spectrum from interfacial fibrinogen molecules. By adopting an interference enhancement method, such a chiral SFG vibrational spectrum can be deduced from interference spectra between the normal achiral spectrum and the ...

Wang, Jie; Chen, Xiaoyun; Clarke, Matthew L.; Chen, Zhan

2005-01-01

363

Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA d...

Hovhannisyan Galina G

2010-01-01

364

Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA damage and repairing directly...

Hovhannisyan, Galina G.

2010-01-01

365

Towards in situ detection of PAH trace in sea-water using SERS-active sensors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports the development of a sensor based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for analyses in sea-water. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are targeted by these sensors and their detection in situ summons up chemical synthesis and optical development. Firstly, a relevant synthesis of SERS active substrates based on gold nanostructures is presented. Different kinds of substrates have been synthesized under variable experimental conditions to modify some parameters such...

Peron, Olivier; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Lehaitre, Michel; Colas, Florent; Compere, Chantal

2009-01-01

366

Impact of in Situ Isolated Bacterial Strains on Nitrogen Fixation in Alfalfa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Symbiosis relationships among legumes and nitrogen fixing bacteria play a crucial role in agriculture since they provide the opportunity of converting atmospheric molecular nitrogen into an ammonia form of nitrogen that the plants can use in protein formation. To enhance this process we have selected nitrogen fixing bacterial strains commercialised under different forms depending on the cultivation technologies in legume species. In our research, we have pointed out the efficacy of in situ...

Carmen Dragomir; Rodica Schipor; Neculai Dragomir; Nicoleta Moraru; Claudiu Ghiocel; Darius V?cariu

2013-01-01

367

In situ Moessbauer spectroscopy of bimetallic FeRh/SiO2 catalysts at 295 K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reduction behavior of bimetallic FeRh/SiO2 catalysts, prepared by means of the incipient wetness technique, has been studied with in situ Moessbauer spectroscopy at 295 K. The spectra demonstrate that coclustering of iron and rhodium occurs and that rhodum enhances the reducibility of iron. The appreciable changes in the spectra of the oxidized FeRh/SiO2 catalyst which occur upon chemisorption of H2 or CO indicate that the dispersion of the iron is high

1983-04-14

368

Preparation and evaluation of a Carbopol/HPMC-based in situ gelling ophthalmic system for puerarin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to develop a pH-triggered in situ gelling vehicle for ophthalmic delivery of puerarin. The effect of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) on the aqueous solubility and in vitro corneal permeation of puerarin was also investigated. The puerarin solubility increased linearly and proportionally to the HP-beta-CD concentrations and 5% (w/v) HP-beta-CD enhanced its ocular permeability significantly. Carbopol 980NF was used as the gelling agent in combination with HPMC (Methocel E4M) which acted as a viscosity-enhancing agent. The optimum concentrations of Carbopol 980NF and HPMC E4M for the in situ gel-forming delivery systems were 0.1% (w/v) and 0.4% (w/v), respectively. When these two vehicles were combined, an in situ gel that had the appropriate gel strength and gelling capacity under physiological condition could be obtained. This combined solution could flow freely under non- physiological condition and showed the character of pseudoplastic fluid under both conditions. Both in vitro release studies and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies indicated that the combined polymer systems performed better in retaining puerarin than puerarin eye drops did. These results demonstrate that the Carbopol 980NF/HPMC E4M can be a viable alternative to conventional puerarin eye drops to enhance ocular bioavailability and patient compliance. PMID:17202799

Wu, Chunjie; Qi, Hongyi; Chen, Wenwen; Huang, Chunyan; Su, Cheng; Li, Wenmin; Hou, Shixiang

2007-01-01

369

Melanoma "in situ" tratado con Imiquimod / Melanoma in situ treated with Imiquimod  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Comunicamos un caso con dos melanomas "in situ", en un varón de 86 años, localizados en ambos lados de la cara con alto riesgo quirúrgico, quien fuera tratado con imiquimod al 5% una vez al día durante dos meses; los resultados hasta el momento, clínicos e histológicos han sido satisfactorios. [...] Abstract in english A 86 years-old man with two melanomas "in situ" at both sides of his face, treated with imiquimod 5% are presented. The patient has a cardiovascular high risk due to isquemic heart disease, for that reason we start the treatment with imiquimod once a day for two months. The clinical and histological [...] response was good and a follow up will be as long as we can.

Achenbach, RE; Dutto, M; Dupuy, S; Maggi, CA; Grecco, C; Acevedo, A; Sánchez, GF.

370

Melanoma "in situ" tratado con Imiquimod Melanoma in situ treated with Imiquimod  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comunicamos un caso con dos melanomas "in situ", en un varón de 86 años, localizados en ambos lados de la cara con alto riesgo quirúrgico, quien fuera tratado con imiquimod al 5% una vez al día durante dos meses; los resultados hasta el momento, clínicos e histológicos han sido satisfactorios.A 86 years-old man with two melanomas "in situ" at both sides of his face, treated with imiquimod 5% are presented. The patient has a cardiovascular high risk due to isquemic heart disease, for that reason we start the treatment with imiquimod once a day for two months. The clinical and histological response was good and a follow up will be as long as we can.

RE Achenbach

371

Outcomes of pregnancies in women with hysteroscopically placed micro-inserts in situ.  

Science.gov (United States)

This was a retrospective review of all pregnancies reported after Essure in situ in the Netherlands. Pregnancies included those that were unintentional (resulting from lack of protocol adherence and/or misread confirmation tests) and those that were intentional (resulting from off-label use of Essure micro-inserts for hydrosalpinx closure before in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection with embryo transfer or in vitro fertilization with embryo transfer after regret of sterilization). The outcomes of 50 pregnancies in women with 1 or 2 micro-inserts in situ were evaluated. Eight unintended pregnancies and 18 intended pregnancies resulted in birth of a full-term healthy baby. Seven infants were delivered via cesarean-section. Two women delivered prematurely by C-section, (singleton after 34 weeks 1 day, twins after 35 weeks 3 days). All babies are healthy and without any congenital anomalies. There were 2 stillbirths after 20 weeks; however, it is unlikely that this was related to the presence of the micro-inserts. In conclusion, it is unlikely that the presence of intratubal micro-inserts interferes with implantation and the developing amniotic sac and fetus. PMID:24184075

Veersema, Sebastiaan; Mijatovic, Velja; Dreyer, Kim; Schouten, Helga; Schoot, Dick; Emanuel, Mark Hans; Hompes, Peter; Brölmann, Hans

2014-01-01

372

IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype design for construction and test. Significant improvements must be made in fluor-doped fiber performance in order to use the method for in situ monitoring to verify compliance with current EPA drinking water standards. Additional Phase 1 fiber development work should be performed to increase the fluor dopant concentration above 2% until the self-absorption limit is observed. Continued fiber optimization work is expected to improve the sensitivity limits, and will enable application of the detector to verify compliance with the US EPA drinking water standard of 20,000 pico Curies per liter. However, if the need for monitoring higher levels of tritium in water at concentrations greater than 200,000 pico Curies per liter is justified, then prototype development and testing could proceed either as a Phase 2 stand-alone effort or in parallel with continued Phase 1 development work.

J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

1998-04-15

373

IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype design for construction and test. Significant improvements must be made in fluor-doped fiber performance in order to use the method for in situ monitoring to verify compliance with current EPA drinking water standards. Additional Phase 1 fiber development work should be performed to increase the fluor dopant concentration above 2% until the self-absorption limit is observed. Continued fiber optimization work is expected to improve the sensitivity limits, and will enable application of the detector to verify compliance with the US EPA drinking water standard of 20,000 pico Curies per liter. However, if the need for monitoring higher levels of tritium in water at concentrations greater than 200,000 pico Curies per liter is justified, then prototype development and testing could proceed either as a Phase 2 stand-alone effort or in parallel with continued Phase 1 development work

1998-01-01

374

Cool Robot of the Week  

Science.gov (United States)

File this one under "super neat." Anyone with even the slightest interest in robots and robotics should enjoy this page, produced by the NASA Space Telerobotics Program. Each week, Cool Robot adds a new link with a short description of the featured site or a news story concerning a breakthrough in robotic technology or an innovative solution to robotics problems. Archives dating back to May 1996 are included at the site. Bookmark this one, and pay a weekly visit; I know I will.

Lavery, Dave.

375

An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified

1992-08-23

376

Development of the integrated in situ Lasagna process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contamination in deep, low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in uniform delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ methods such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, and pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites.

Ho, S.; Athmer, C.; Sheridan, P. [and others

1995-12-31

377

The mining of uranium by in situ leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Guidelines prepared to assist in the implementation of the Code are published in loose-leaf format. They are revised when appropriate. The guideline titled 'mining of uranium by in-situ leaching' covers general requirements of the Code, application for an in-situ leaching operation, operation, groundwater monitoring, excursions, solid wastes, liquid wastes, restoration and records

1982-01-01

378

ABIOTIC IN SITU TECHNOLOGIES FOR GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION CONFERENCE: PROCEEDINGS  

Science.gov (United States)

The USEPA conference on Abiotic In Situ Technologies for Groundwater Remediation was held in Dallas, TX, 8/31-9/2/99. The goal of the meeting was to disseminate current information on abiotic in situ groundwater treatment echnologies. Although much information is being provided a...

379

An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified.

Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

1992-01-01

380

An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified.

Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

1992-08-01

 
 
 
 
381

In situ High-Field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization-Direct and Indirect Polarization of [superscript 13]C nuclei  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In situ High-Field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization: Direct and indirect polarization of [superscript 13]C nuclei by DNP is investigated (see graphic). The field-dependent enhancement profile for both processes are investigated and the bulk polarization build-up time constants ?[C over B] and ?[H over B] for direct and indirect [superscript 13]C polarization are compared.

Maly, Thorsten; Miller, Anne-frances; Griffin, Robert Guy

2009-01-01

382

Maxey Flats in situ waste grouting demonstration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Maxey Flats Disposal Site located in Fleming County, Kentucky was added to the US EPA National Priority List in 1986 and is currently being evaluated for remediation and closure under the CERCLA/Superfund program. The Commonwealth of Kentucky has cosponsored a program with the US DOE Low Level Waste Management Program to demonstrate various remedial technologies which may be applied to source containment at the Maxey Flats site. This paper describes the field demonstration of in-situ waste grouting using a particulate (cement) grout. This demonstration is a follow-on to a similar demonstration using a solution grout. Both programs were designed to develop injection techniques, to assess the ability of the grout to fill the accessible voids within the waste/backfill matrix, to measure the reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of the waste/backfill matrix, and to determine the operational difficulties in implementing a site-wide grouting program. The paper concludes with lessons-learned during the project and estimated costs for full scale implementation

1987-10-13

383

Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS of the breast is a noninvasive form of breast cancer that has increased in incidence over the past several decades secondary to screening mammography. DCIS now represents 20–30% of all newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer. Patients with DCIS typically present with an abnormal mammogram, and diagnosis is most commonly obtained with an imageguided biopsy. Historically, mastectomy was considered the primary curative option for patients with DCIS. However, treatment of DCIS continues to evolve, and now treatment strategies also include breast-conserving therapy, which consists of local excision followed by radiation therapy or local excision alone. Multiple randomized trials have confirmed a decrease in ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence in patients treated with local excision followed by radiation therapy compared with local excision alone. Ongoing clinical trials attempt to identify a subgroup of DCIS patients at low risk for recurrence who may not benefit from radiation therapy. In addition, because the majority of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences occur near the original primary tumor site, partial breast irradiation is currently under investigation as a treatment option for DCIS patients. Randomized trials have shown tamoxifen can reduce the risk of ipsilateral and contralateral breast tumor recurrences while the role of aromatase inhibitors is the subject of current clinical trials. DCIS represents a complex pathologic entity, and treatment optimization requires a multidisciplinary approach.

Jennifer L. Peterson

2011-12-01

384

Commercialization of the in situ vitrification technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology for the environmental remediation of soil sites contaminated with hazardous (organic and inorganic) compounds and/or radioactive materials, along with buried waste and debris. The process involves application of electrical energy to the soil which is progressively converted to a molten mass. Inorganic contaminants are incorporated into the pool while organics are destroyed by the advancing thermal front. Once the molten mass cools, it solidifies into a highly durable glassy to crystalline monolith which is estimated to retain its integrity for geologic periods. Geosafe Corporation is the sole commercial provider of ISV technical and remediation services through exclusive license rights to the patented technology. Geosafe initiated commercialization of ISV in 1988 following the invention and development of ISV by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy in the early to mid-1980's. Significant challenges, barriers, and setbacks to commercialization have been encountered and overcome in bringing the new technology to the marketplace. A review of the ISV technology development and commercialization processes is presented

1995-05-01

385

In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This task is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34,000 liters of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. The grout was also completely contained within the two trenches as no grout constituents were observed in the 12 perimeter ground water monitoring wells. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over polyacrylate grout because of its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty of controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization process in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 115 years in the test soil. However, this calculated value is likely to be conservatively low because microbial d