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1

Chemically enhanced in situ recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Sale, T. [CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States); Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K. [Surtek, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

2

Enhancing in situ bioremediation with pneumatic fracturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A major technical obstacle affecting the application of in situ bioremediation is the effective distribution of nutrients to the subsurface media. Pneumatic fracturing can increase the permeability of subsurface formations through the injection of high pressure air to create horizontal fracture planes, thus enhancing macro-scale mass-transfer processes. Pneumatic fracturing technology was demonstrated at two field sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Tests were performed to increase the permeability for more effective bioventing, and evaluated the potential to increase permeability and recovery of free product in low permeability soils consisting of fine grain silts, clays, and sedimentary rock. Pneumatic fracturing significantly improved formation permeability by enhancing secondary permeability and by promoting removal of excess soil moisture from the unsaturated zone. Postfracture airflows were 500% to 1,700% higher than prefracture airflows for specific fractured intervals in the formation. This corresponds to an average prefracturing permeability of 0.017 Darcy, increasing to an average of 0.32 Darcy after fracturing. Pneumatic fracturing also increased free-product recovery rates of number 2 fuel from an average of 587 L (155 gal) per month before fracturing to 1,647 L (435 gal) per month after fracturing.

Anderson, D.B.; Peyton, B.M.; Liskowitz, J.L.; Fitzgerald, C.; Schuring, J.R.

1994-04-01

3

Enhancing in situ bioremediation with pneumatic fracturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A major technical obstacle affecting the application of in situ bioremediation is the effective distribution of nutrients to the subsurface media. Pneumatic fracturing can increase the permeability of subsurface formations through the injection of high pressure air to create horizontal fracture planes, thus enhancing macroscale mass-transfer processes. Pneumatic fracturing technology was demonstrated at two field sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Tests were performed to increase the permeability for more effective bioventing, and evaluated the potential to increase permeability and recovery of free product in low-permeability soils consisting of fine-grain silts, clays, and sedimentary rock. Pneumatic fracturing significantly improved formation permeability by enhancing secondary permeability and by promoting removal of excess soil moisture form the unsaturated zone. Postfracture airflows were 500% to 1,700% higher than prefracture airflows for specific fractured intervals in the formation. This corresponds to an average prefracturing permeability of 0.017 darcy, increasing to an average of 0.32 darcy after fracturing. Pneumatic fracturing also increased free-product recovery rates of number 2 fuel from an average of 587 L (155 gal) per month before fracturing to 1,647 L (435 gal) per month after fracturing.

Anderson, D.B.; Peyton, B.M. [Battelle Pacific Northwest, Richland, WA (United States); Liskowitz, J.J.; Fitzgerald, C.D. [Accutech Remedial Systems, Keyport, NJ (United States); Schuring, J.R. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, and Environmental Science

1995-12-31

4

SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS  

Science.gov (United States)

This Technology Capsule report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration was conducted...

5

In Situ Enhanced Soil Mixing. Innovative Technology Summary Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Situ Enhanced Soil Mixing (ISESM) is a treatment technology that has been demonstrated and deployed to remediate soils contaminated with volatile organic volatile organic (VOCs). The technology has been developed by industry and has been demonstrated with the assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and Technology and the Office of Environmental Restoration.

None

1996-02-01

6

Site technology capsule: In situ steam enhanced recovery process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Technology Capsule report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. The technology demonstrated was conducted concurrent with a full-scale remedial action using the technology on an underground diesal leak. From this demonstration, it was concluded that the SERP process did not achieve the remedial goals desired at this site and there were significant operational problems. It is believed that these operational problems can be solved and substantially better performance can be attained. The cost of treatment was quite low, as expected with an in-situ process.

Cook, K.

1995-08-01

7

Alternative systems for in situ bioremediation: Enhanced control and contact  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Much of the past emphasis on biological degradation remediation has been placed on culturing or enhancing microbes to consume contaminants within a soil or water matrix, and site contaminant characterization. This emphasis has demonstrated that microbes are effective degraders for a variety of contaminants, and at most sites, contaminant-degrading microbes are present within the subsurface. For sites where microbes are present, they typically are inefficient for in situ remediation without the appropriate environmental conditions. In situ bioremediation tends to be governed by the ability to cost effectively and rapidly distribute oxygen, microbes, nutrients, and/or surfactants throughout the subsurface soils while simultaneously maintaining a controlled subsurface environment. Adapted equipment has been used to efficiently permeate or saturate the contaminated soils with a combination of oxygen source material, nutrients, surfactants and/or microbial cultures. These technologies, combined with oxygen delivery and control systems, enhance bioremediation as a viable alternative for in situ remediation. These same systems can deliver oxidation chemistry to pretreat the soils. The development and utilization of a number of in situ bioremediation technologies with a demonstrated ability to enhance contact and control within the contaminated subsoils are discussed, focusing on Bioventing, BioSparge{sup SM}, and Deep Soil Fracture BioInjection{trademark}.

Burke, G.K.; Rhodes, D.K. [Hayward Baker Environmental, Inc., Odenton, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

8

HELIOS photometer measurement of in-situ density enhancements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The HELIOS spacecraft zodiacal light photometers have been used to image coronal mass ejections and coronal streamers in the interplanetary medium. The HELIOS photometers have the ability to image such features beyond 90 angular distance from the Sun. This provides a unique opportunity to measure brightness enhancements which are also observed as density increases in situ by the HELIOS spacecraft plasma probes. Here, the authors compares the brightness enhancements and in situ density increases following shocks defined by the plasma and magnetic-field data. Five well-observed shocks from 1976 and 1979 illustrate these comparisons. Each event can be followed in photometer data as it sweeps past the HELIOS spacecraft. To first order, the enhancements of brightness following shocks indicate structure that extends over many tenths of an astronomical unit and colors consistent with Thomson scattering of sunlight by electrons.

Jackson, B.V.

1986-01-01

9

Contrast enhanced MRI findings of ductal carcinoma in situ  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to describe characteristic contrast enhanced MR mammographic findings of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and also DCIS with microinvasion. From January 2000 to July 2005, 32 women with 33 lesions affected by DCIS or DCIS with microinvasion underwent contrast enhanced MRI, and they were then retrospectively evaluated. All the patients had previously undergone mammography and ultrasonography. All the findings of mammography, ultrasonography (US), and MRI were analyzed by using an ACR BI-RADS lexicon. All 33 cases were enhanced on the enhanced MR images. A smooth margined homogeneous enhanced mass was seen in the two (2/33) cases, and nonmass enhancement was seen in 31 (31/33) cases. Among the non-mass enhancement, focal enhancement (7/31), ductal enhancement (5/31), segmental enhancement (9/31), and regional enhancement (10/31) were observed. On the kinetic study, a wash-out pattern (10/33), a plateau pattern (20/33), and a persistent pattern (3/33) were demonstrated. No significant differences were noted between the pure and microinvasive DCIS. There is no significant difference between pure and microinvasive DCIS. However, contrast enhanced MR images can demonstrate occult foci, multifocal lesion and the tumor extent of DCIS on mammogram or ultrasonogram.

2000-01-00

10

Contrast enhanced MRI findings of ductal carcinoma in situ  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to describe characteristic contrast enhanced MR mammographic findings of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and also DCIS with microinvasion. From January 2000 to July 2005, 32 women with 33 lesions affected by DCIS or DCIS with microinvasion underwent contrast enhanced MRI, and they were then retrospectively evaluated. All the patients had previously undergone mammography and ultrasonography. All the findings of mammography, ultrasonography (US), and MRI were analyzed by using an ACR BI-RADS lexicon. All 33 cases were enhanced on the enhanced MR images. A smooth margined homogeneous enhanced mass was seen in the two (2/33) cases, and nonmass enhancement was seen in 31 (31/33) cases. Among the non-mass enhancement, focal enhancement (7/31), ductal enhancement (5/31), segmental enhancement (9/31), and regional enhancement (10/31) were observed. On the kinetic study, a wash-out pattern (10/33), a plateau pattern (20/33), and a persistent pattern (3/33) were demonstrated. No significant differences were noted between the pure and microinvasive DCIS. There is no significant difference between pure and microinvasive DCIS. However, contrast enhanced MR images can demonstrate occult foci, multifocal lesion and the tumor extent of DCIS on mammogram or ultrasonogram.

Kang, Bong Joo; Cha, Eun Suk; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Suh, Young Jin; Choi, Hyun Joo [College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2006-08-15

11

Potential of pneumatic fracturing to enhance in situ remediation technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pneumatic fracturing is an in-situ process which enhances the removal and treatment of hazardous organic contaminants from the vadose zone. Its purpose is to reduce treatment time of contaminated formations, and extend available technologies to more difficult geologic conditions. The pneumatic fracturing process consists of injecting air or other gases into contaminated geologic formations at controlled flow rates and pressures. The process enhances apertures in the formation in a predominantly horizontal direction from the point of injection. This minimizes the potential for vertical transport within the formation. The potential benefits of pneumatic fracturing depend on the type of soil or rock being treated. In fine-grained soils, such as silts and clays, pneumatic fracturing increases the permeability of the formation. In coarse-grained soils, the process provides a means for rapidly aerating the formation. In sedimentary rock formations, pneumatic fracturing can widen the aperture of existing discontinuities and clear away soil in the aperture. Pneumatic fracturing can be integrated with a number of in-situ technologies including vapor extraction, bioremediation, soil flushing, and thermal treatment. Field testing has confirmed the feasibility of pneumatic fracturing to enhance remediation of the vadose zone. Measurement of residual ground surface heave and increased flow rates after injection confirm the existence of new conductive channels. Field studies also show that pneumatic fractures remain viable for extended periods. It is anticipated that the pneumatic fracturing process is capable of injecting both low and high permeability formations with microorganisms, nutrients, and large volumes of selected gases to encourage microbial growth.

Goodroad, L.L.; Schuring, J.R.

1994-12-31

12

Depth enhancement techniques for the in situ vitrification process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In-situ vitrification (ISV) is a process by which electrical energy is supplied to a soil/waste matrix. The resulting Joule heat raises the temperature of the soil/waste matrix, producing a pool of molten soil. Since its inception, there have been many successful applications of the technology to both staged and actual waste sites. However, there has been some difficulty in extending the attainable treatment melt depth to levels greater than 5 m. Results obtained from application of two novel approaches for extending the ultimate treatment depth attainable with in-situ vitrification (ISV) are presented. In the first, the electrode design is modified to concentrate the Joule heat energy delivered to the soil/waste matrix in the lower region of the target melt zone. This electrode design has been dubbed the hot-tip electrode. Results obtained from both computational and experimental investigations of this design concept indicate that some benefit toward ISV depth enhancement was realized with these hot-tip electrodes. A second, alternative approach to extending process depth with ISV involves initiating the melt at depth and propagating it in either vertical direction (e.g., downward, upward, or both) to treat the target waste zone. A series of engineering-scale experiments have been conducted to assess the benefits of this approach. The results from these tests indicate that ISV may be effectively initiated and sustained using this subsurface start-up technique. A survey of these experiments and the associated results are presented herein, together with brief discussion of some considerations regarding setup and implementation of this subsurface start-up technique.

Lowery, P.S.; Luey, J.; Seiler, D.K.; Tixier, J.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Timmerman, C.L. [Geosafe Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-11-01

13

Depth enhancement techniques for the in situ vitrification process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In-situ vitrification (ISV) is a process by which electrical energy is supplied to a soil/waste matrix. The resulting Joule heat raises the temperature of the soil/waste matrix, producing a pool of molten soil. Since its inception, there have been many successful applications of the technology to both staged and actual waste sites. However, there has been some difficulty in extending the attainable treatment melt depth to levels greater than 5 m. Results obtained from application of two novel approaches for extending the ultimate treatment depth attainable with in-situ vitrification (ISV) are presented. In the first, the electrode design is modified to concentrate the Joule heat energy delivered to the soil/waste matrix in the lower region of the target melt zone. This electrode design has been dubbed the hot-tip electrode. Results obtained from both computational and experimental investigations of this design concept indicate that some benefit toward ISV depth enhancement was realized with these hot-tip electrodes. A second, alternative approach to extending process depth with ISV involves initiating the melt at depth and propagating it in either vertical direction (e.g., downward, upward, or both) to treat the target waste zone. A series of engineering-scale experiments have been conducted to assess the benefits of this approach. The results from these tests indicate that ISV may be effectively initiated and sustained using this subsurface start-up technique. A survey of these experiments and the associated results are presented herein, together with brief discussion of some considerations regarding setup and implementation of this subsurface start-up technique.

1994-01-01

14

In situ enhanced soil mixing. Innovative technology summary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Situ Enhanced Soil Mixing (ISESM) is a treatment technology that has been demonstrated and deployed to remediate soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The technology has been developed by industry and has been demonstrated with the assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Science and Technology and the Office of Environmental Restoration. The technology is particularly suited to shallow applications, above the water table, but can be used at greater depths. ISESM technologies demonstrated for this project include: (1) Soil mixing with vapor extraction combined with ambient air injection. [Contaminated soil is mixed with ambient air to vaporize volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The mixing auger is moved up and down to assist in removal of contaminated vapors. The vapors are collected in a shroud covering the treatment area and run through a treatment unit containing a carbon filter or a catalytic oxidation unit with a wet scrubber system and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter.] (2) soil mixing with vapor extraction combined with hot air injection [This process is the same as the ambient air injection except that hot air or steam is injected.] (3) soil mixing with hydrogen peroxide injection [Contaminated soil is mixed with ambient air that contains a mist of diluted hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) solution. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution chemically oxidizes the VOCs to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water.] (4) soil mixing with grout injection for solidification/stabilization [Contaminated soil is mixed as a cement grout is injected under pressure to solidify and immobilize the contaminated soil in a concrete-like form.] The soils are mixed with a single-blade auger or with a combination of augers ranging in diameter from 3 to 12 feet.

NONE

1996-02-01

15

Depth enhancement techniques for the in situ vitrification process.  

Science.gov (United States)

In-situ vitrification (ISV) is a process by which electrical energy is supplied to a soil/waste matrix. The resulting Joule heat raises the temperature of the soil/waste matrix, producing a pool of molten soil. Since its inception, there have been many su...

P. S. Lowery J. Luey D. K. Seiler J. S. Tixier C. L. Timmerman

1994-01-01

16

IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC., - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration...

17

IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration...

18

Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate ampersand Treat (E ampersand T), and Pump ampersand Treat (P ampersand T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios

1996-01-01

19

The ductal carcinoma in situ in contrast enhanced dynamic MR mammography: Morphology and signal enhancement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The detectability with magnetic resonance mammography (MR-M) of non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), its morphology, and patterns of contrast enhancement were studied. Material and methods: A total of 849 MR-M examinations were performed in 741 patients using a dynamic, contrast-enhanced FLASH 3D sequence at 1.0 T. Surgical breast biopsies were obtained in 332 cases. Histological work-up confirmed 164 carcinomas, including 20 DCIS. Results: Of 20 DCIS, 14 were correctly diagnosed by MR-M on the basis of focal increase of signal intensity. In two cases (10%), no increase of signal intensity was observed. In another three cases (15%), multifocal enhancement lead to a false-negative diagnosis. In one case (5%), DCIS was a random finding in a patient diagnosed and treated for adjacent phylloides tumour. The sensitivity of MR-M was 70%. 4 (20%) of the DCIS did not show microcalcifications at conventional mammography and were only detected at MR-M. The sensitivity of conventional mammography also amounted to 70%. However, the combination of both imaging methods increased sensitivity to 90%. (orig./AJ).

1997-01-01

20

Engineering natural materials as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates for in situ molecular sensing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful analytical tool. However, its applications for in situ detection of target molecules presented on diverse material surfaces have been hindered by difficulties in rapid fabricating SERS-active substrates on the surfaces of these materials through a simple, low-cost, and portable approach. Here, we demonstrate our attempt to address this issue by developing a facile and versatile method capable of in situ generating silver nanoparticle film (SNF) on the surfaces of both artificial and natural materials in a simple, cheap, practical, and disposable manner. Taking advantage of the high SERS enhancement ability of the prepared SNF, the proposed strategy can be used for in situ inspecting herbicide and pesticide residues on vegetables, as well as the abuse of antiseptic in aquaculture industry. Therefore, it opens new avenues for advancing the application prospects of SERS technique in the fields of food safety, drug security, as well as environment monitoring.

Liu X; Zong C; Ai K; He W; Lu L

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
21

Enhancement of in situ microbial remediation of aquifers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods are provided for remediating subsurface areas contaminated by toxic organic compounds. An innocuous oil, such as vegetable oil, mineral oil, or other immiscible organic liquid, is introduced into the contaminated area and permitted to move therethrough. The oil concentrates or strips the organic contaminants, such that the concentration of the contaminants is reduced and such contaminants are available to be either pumped out of the subsurface area or metabolized by microorganisms. Microorganisms may be introduced into the contaminated area to effect bioremediation of the contamination. The methods may be adapted to deliver microorganisms, enzymes, nutrients and electron donors to subsurface zones contaminated by nitrate in order to stimulate or enhance denitrification.

Fredrickson, James K. (Kennewick, WA); Brockman, Fred J. (Kennewick, WA); Streile, Gary P. (both or Richland, WA); Cary, John W. (both or Richland, WA); McBride, John F. (Carrboro, NC)

1993-01-01

22

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) is designed to remove volatile compounds such as halogenated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons, and semi-volatile compounds from contaminated soils in situ. The vapor pressures of most contaminants will increase by the addition of ste...

23

Engineering an in situ crosslinkable hydrogel for enhanced remyelination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Remyelination has to occur to fully regenerate injured spinal cords or brain tissues. A growing body of evidence has suggested that exogenous cell transplantation is one promising strategy to promote remyelination. However, direct injection of neural stem cells or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the lesion site may not be an optimal therapeutic strategy due to poor viability and functionality of transplanted cells resulted from the local hostile tissue environment. The overall objective of this study was to engineer an injectable biocompatible hydrogel system as a supportive niche to provide a regeneration permissive microenvironment for transplanted OPCs to survive, functionally differentiate, and remyelinate central nervous system (CNS) lesions. A highly biocompatible hydrogel, based on thiol-functionalized hyaluronic acid and thiol-functionalized gelatin, which can be crosslinked by poly-(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), was used. These hydrogels were optimized first regarding cell adhesive properties and mechanical properties to best support the growth properties of OPCs in culture. Transplanted OPCs with the hydrogels optimized in vitro exhibited enhanced survival and oligodendrogenic differentiation and were able to remyelinate demyelinated axons inside ethidium bromide (EB) demyelination lesion in adult spinal cord. This study provides a new possible therapeutic approach to treat CNS injuries in which cell therapies may be essential.

Li X; Liu X; Cui L; Brunson C; Zhao W; Bhat NR; Zhang N; Wen X

2013-03-01

24

An integrated numerical and physical modeling system for an enhanced in situ bioremediation process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater contamination due to releases of petroleum products is a major environmental concern in many urban districts and industrial zones. Over the past years, a few studies were undertaken to address in situ bioremediation processes coupled with contaminant transport in two- or three-dimensional domains. However, they were concentrated on natural attenuation processes for petroleum contaminants or enhanced in situ bioremediation processes in laboratory columns. In this study, an integrated numerical and physical modeling system is developed for simulating an enhanced in situ biodegradation (EISB) process coupled with three-dimensional multiphase multicomponent flow and transport simulation in a multi-dimensional pilot-scale physical model. The designed pilot-scale physical model is effective in tackling natural attenuation and EISB processes for site remediation. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed system is effective in modeling the EISB process, and can thus be used for investigating the effects of various uncertainties. - An integrated modeling system was developed to enhance in situ bioremediation processes.

2006-01-01

25

An integrated numerical and physical modeling system for an enhanced in situ bioremediation process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Groundwater contamination due to releases of petroleum products is a major environmental concern in many urban districts and industrial zones. Over the past years, a few studies were undertaken to address in situ bioremediation processes coupled with contaminant transport in two- or three-dimensional domains. However, they were concentrated on natural attenuation processes for petroleum contaminants or enhanced in situ bioremediation processes in laboratory columns. In this study, an integrated numerical and physical modeling system is developed for simulating an enhanced in situ biodegradation (EISB) process coupled with three-dimensional multiphase multicomponent flow and transport simulation in a multi-dimensional pilot-scale physical model. The designed pilot-scale physical model is effective in tackling natural attenuation and EISB processes for site remediation. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed system is effective in modeling the EISB process, and can thus be used for investigating the effects of various uncertainties. - An integrated modeling system was developed to enhance in situ bioremediation processes.

Huang, Y.F. [Institute of River and Coastal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, G.H. [Sino-Canada Center of Energy and Environmental Research, North China Electric Power University, Bejing 102206 (China) and Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)]. E-mail: huang@iseis.org; Wang, G.Q. [Institute of River and Coastal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lin, Q.G. [Sino-Canada Center of Energy and Environmental Research, North China Electric Power University, Bejing 102206 (China); Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Chakma, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2006-12-15

26

In-situ DLC/TiC composite coating by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In-situ diamond like carbon (DLC)/TiC composite film was coated on silicon wafer, steel and glass substrates with titanium chloride, methane, hydrogen and argon gas mixtures by R.F. plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Raman spectra showed the coexistance of DLC and TiC in the films. The growth rate and DLC/TiC ratio of these films were investigated as a function of the inert gas flow rate.

Wang, Hsiao Lei; Hon, Min Hsiung [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China)

1995-12-31

27

Transparent Raman-enhancing substrates for microbiological monitoring and in situ pollutant detection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Opaque Raman-enhancing substrates made of Ag nanoparticles on incompletely oxidized aluminum templates have been rendered transparent by an ion-drift process to complete the oxidation. The result shows that the transparent substrates exhibit high/uniform surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) capability and good optical transmissivity, allowing for concurrent SERS characterization and high contrast transmission-mode optical imaging of S. aureus bacteria. We also demonstrate that the transparent substrates can used in conjunction with optical fibers as SERS sensors for in situ detection of malachite green down to 10{sup -9} M.

Wang, Huai-Hsien; Wang, Yuh-Lin [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tian-You [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Sharma, Pradeep; Chiang, Fang-Yi; Chiu, Shirley Wen-Yu; Wang, Juen-Kai, E-mail: jkwang@ccms.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: ylwang@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2011-09-23

28

Transparent Raman-enhancing substrates for microbiological monitoring and in situ pollutant detection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Opaque Raman-enhancing substrates made of Ag nanoparticles on incompletely oxidized aluminum templates have been rendered transparent by an ion-drift process to complete the oxidation. The result shows that the transparent substrates exhibit high/uniform surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) capability and good optical transmissivity, allowing for concurrent SERS characterization and high contrast transmission-mode optical imaging of S. aureus bacteria. We also demonstrate that the transparent substrates can used in conjunction with optical fibers as SERS sensors for in situ detection of malachite green down to 10-9 M.

1061-01-00

29

Enhancing the design of in situ chemical barriers with multicomponent reactive transport modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses the need for systematic control of field-scale performance in the emplacement and operation of in situ chemical treatment barriers; in particular, it addresses the issue of how the local coupling of reaction kinetics and material heterogeneities at the laboratory or bench scale can be accurately upscaled to the field. The authors have recently developed modeling analysis tools that can explicitly account for all relevant chemical reactions that accompany the transport of reagents and contaminants through a chemically and physically heterogeneous subsurface rock or soil matrix. These tools are incorporated into an enhanced design methodology for in situ chemical treatment technologies, and the new methodology is demonstrated in the ongoing design of a field experiment for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) project at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The ISRM design approach, which systematically integrates bench-scale and site characterization information, provides an ideal test for the new reactive transport techniques. The need for the enhanced chemistry capability is demonstrated by an example that shows how intra-aqueous redox kinetics can affect the transport of reactive solutes. Simulations are carried out on massively parallel computer architectures to resolve the influence of multiscale heterogeneities on multicomponent, multidimensional reactive transport. The technology will soon be available to design larger-scale remediation schemes.

Sevougian, S.D.; Steefel, C.I.; Yabusaki, S.B.

1994-11-01

30

In situ steam enhanced recovery process, Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. innovative technology evaluation report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. The technology demonstration was conducted concurrent with a full-scale remedial action using the technology on an underground diesel leak. From this demonstration, it was concluded that the SERP process did not achieve the remedial goals desired at this site and there were significant operational problems. It is believed that these operational problems can be solved and substantially better performance can be attained. The cost of treatment was quite low, as expected with an in-situ process.

Cook, K.

1995-01-01

31

IPCS: An integrated process control system for enhanced in-situ bioremediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To date, there has been little or no research related to process control of subsurface remediation systems. In this study, a framework to develop an integrated process control system for improving remediation efficiencies and reducing operating costs was proposed based on physical and numerical models, stepwise cluster analysis, non-linear optimization and artificial neural networks. Process control for enhanced in-situ bioremediation was accomplished through incorporating the developed forecasters and optimizers with methods of genetic algorithm and neural networks modeling. Application of the proposed approach to a bioremediation process in a pilot-scale system indicated that it was effective in dynamic optimization and real-time process control of the sophisticated bioremediation systems. - A framework of process control system was developed to improve in-situ bioremediation efficiencies and reducing operating costs.

1000-01-00

32

First steps of in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering during shipboard experiments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is shown that the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique can be applied to detect organic molecules during in situ experiments. To this purpose, we used trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (BPE) as a target molecule. Adsorbed on the SERS chemosensor surface and excited under laser, the vibration modes of the molecules can be identified. SERS chemosensors are based on quartz substrates functionalized by silanization and partially coated with gold nanoparticles. SERS measurements during shipboard experiments were made with a home-made in situ Raman spectrometer connected to a marinized micro-fluidic system. The device was designed to host chemosensors in order to ensure measurements with a flow cell. A theoretical limit of detection was estimated in the range of picomolar (pM) concentrations based on Freundlich isotherm calculations.

Péron O; Rinnert E; Colas F; Lehaitre M; Compère C

2010-10-01

33

Oxygen-enhanced in situ biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater using a passive interception system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An approach to in situ treatment of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was described, based on an application of solid-oxygen releasing compounds (ORCs) in a passive permeable barrier at a former gasoline station in southwestern Ontario. The property is underlain by a fine to medium sand aquifer of glaciolacustrine origin. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of the subsurface was encountered in site investigations associated with closure of the facility. A plume of dissolved hydrocarbons continued to move with groundwater flow even after extensive excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil. Five monitoring points to depths immediately below the water table were installed, continuous soil cores were collected at two locations, in addition to establishing a profile of ground water samples at incremental depths from 10 cm to 150 cm below the water table. The design of the trial was developed to provide a hydraulic interception and in situ treatment of a portion of the plume of dissolved hydrocarbons in the groundwater. Results to date indicate that the passive introduction of oxygen to the groundwater from ORC in a series of large-diameter source-wells significantly enhanced in situ aerobic biodegradation of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the groundwater. An evaluation of oxygen release characteristics of ORC is in progress. Preliminary indications are that other ORC-source configurations may improve oxygen-release characteristics under similar high contaminant-load conditions. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Smyth, D. J. A.; Byerley, B. T.; Chapman, S. W.; Wilson, R. D.; Mackay, D. M. [Waterloo Center for Groundwater Research, ON (Canada)

1995-12-31

34

Computed tomography diffraction enhanced imaging for in situ visualization of tissue scaffolds implanted in cartilage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Long-term in vivo studies on animal models and advances from animal to human studies must rely on non-invasive monitoring methods. Synchrotron radiation (SR)-diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) has shown great promise as a non-invasive method for visualizing native and/or engineered tissues and bio-microstructures with appreciable details in situ. The objective of this study was to investigate SR-DEI for in situ visualization and characterization of tissue engineered scaffolds implanted in cartilage. A piglet stifle joint implanted with an engineered scaffold made from polycaprolactone was imaged using SR computed tomography (CT)-DEI at an X-ray energy of 40 keV. For comparison, in situ visualization was also conducted with commonly-used SR CT-phase contrast imaging (PCI) and clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. The reconstructed CT-DE images show the implanted scaffold with the structural properties much clearer than those in the CT-PC and MR images. Furthermore, CT-DEI was able to visualize microstructures within the cartilage as well as different soft tissues surrounding the joint. These microstructural details were not recognizable using other imaging techniques. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that CT-DEI can be used for non-invasive visualization and characterization of scaffolds in cartilage, representing an advance in tissue engineering to track the success of tissue scaffolds for cartilage repair.

Izadifar Z; Chapman D; Chen D

2013-05-01

35

Enhanced Bioavailability of Poorly Absorbed Hydrophilic Compounds Through Drug Complex/In-Situ Gelling Formulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BCS class III hydrophilic compounds are often associated with low oral bioavailability due to their poor epithelial permeability in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we reported an approach of incorporating a drug complex into an in-situ gelling muco-adhesive carrier to achieve an improved bioavailability of a poorly absorbed hydrophilic compound. A new molecular entity (RWJ-445167) from Johnson and Johnson was used as a model compound. The compound was first complexed with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The complex was then incorporated into an in-situ gelling muco-adhesive carrier, Cremophor, for formulation characterization and rat pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. The study results showed that RWJ-445167 bound to SLS at a stoichiometric ratio. By complexing with SLS, the compound became lipophilic. The aqueous solubility of RWJ-445167 dropped to 0.58mg/mL for the complex from 61mg/mL for the free compound, while the partitioning coefficient of the complex increased to 7.59, compared with 0.05 of the free compound. In the rat PK study, with duodenal administration, the complex in the in situ-gelling formulation achieved 28.24% of bioavailability, compared to 4.26% of the free compound solution. The enhanced bioavailability was also significantly higher than those in the RWJ-445167/SLS physical mixture in Cremophor (14.91%), the complex in non-gelling carrier PEG 400 (9.95%) and the RWJ-445167/SLS physical mixture in PEG 400 carrier (8.60%). The study demonstrates that incorporation of a drug complex into an in-situ gelling formulation provides a new approach to improving bioavailability of BCS class III drugs.

Dai WG; Dong LC; Song Y

2013-09-01

36

Enhanced bioavailability of poorly absorbed hydrophilic compounds through drug complex/in situ gelling formulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BCS class III hydrophilic compounds are often associated with low oral bioavailability due to their poor epithelial permeability in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we reported an approach of incorporating a drug complex into an in situ gelling muco-adhesive carrier to achieve an improved bioavailability of a poorly absorbed hydrophilic compound. A new molecular entity (RWJ-445167) from Johnson and Johnson was used as a model compound. The compound was first complexed with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). The complex was then incorporated into an in situ gelling muco-adhesive carrier, Cremophor, for formulation characterization and rat pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. The study results showed that RWJ-445167 bound to SLS at a stoichiometric ratio. By complexing with SLS, the compound became lipophilic. The aqueous solubility of RWJ-445167 dropped to 0.58mg/mL for the complex from 61mg/mL for the free compound, while the partitioning coefficient of the complex increased to 7.59, compared with 0.05 of the free compound. In the rat PK study, with duodenal administration, the complex in the in situ-gelling formulation achieved 28.24% of bioavailability, compared to 4.26% of the free compound solution. The enhanced bioavailability was also significantly higher than those in the RWJ-445167/SLS physical mixture in Cremophor (14.91%), the complex in non-gelling carrier PEG 400 (9.95%) and the RWJ-445167/SLS physical mixture in PEG 400 carrier (8.60%). The study demonstrates that incorporation of a drug complex into an in situ gelling formulation provides a new approach to improving bioavailability of BCS class III drugs.

Dai WG; Dong LC; Song Y

2013-09-01

37

Controlled in situ nanoscale enhancement of gold nanowire arrays with plasmonics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The controlled in situ growth of ordered gold nanoparticles and nanowire arrays has been studied by optically tracking changes in the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectrum. A spectrometer and custom-programmed analysis software track changes in the LSPR spectrum. The peak position, peak height (i.e. extinction intensity) and peak width (e.g. radius of curvature) were tracked over time to quantify the dynamic growth of gold as soon as the system was exposed to a commercial gold enhancement solution. This enables the controlled dynamic growth of nano-objects without the necessity of characterizing the growth and aggregation kinetics of the gold enhancement solution. The result was the successful enhancement of their electrically conductive and plasmonic properties, as well as the controlled growth and transformation of line-patterned nanoparticles into conductive particle-based nanowires.

MacKenzie, Robert; Fraschina, Corrado; Sannomiya, Takumi; Voeroes, Janos, E-mail: janos.voros@biomed.ee.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, ETH Zurich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

2011-02-04

38

The ductal carcinoma in situ in contrast enhanced dynamic MR mammography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To define the value of contrast-enhanced MR mammography in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). In a group of 35 patients with DCIS, the results of MR imaging were compared to histopathology and immunohistochemistry in a retrospective study. In 35 patients with DCIS, a signal enhancement was found in 25 cases (72%). In 15 of these cases, the signal time curve was typical for malignancy. The other 10 patients had non-specific signal curves. Six of 35 patients (11%) had no enhancement within the tumour region. Four of 35 patients (11%) had bilateral diffuse signal increase, and regions of DCIS could not be identified clearly. Three DCIS were visualised exclusively by MR mammography. The configuration of signal enhancement was sharp (32%), unsharp (48%) or dendritic (20%). DCIS of the comedo type showed a significantly higher enhancement than the non-comedo type. A significant correlation between the grade of vascularisation in immunohistochemistry and signal enhancement in MR mammography could not be demonstrated. Dynamic MR mammography does not reliably visualise DCIS. (orig.)[de] In einer retrospektiven Studie wurde der Stellenwert der dynamischen MR-Mammographie beim duktalen In-situ-Karzinom (DCIS) untersucht. Bei 35 Patienten mit DCIS erfolgte eine MR-Mammographie an einem 1,5-T-Geraet in 2-D-Technik. Die Ergebnisse wurden mit den histopathologischen sowie immunhistochemischen Befunden korreliert. Im MR-Mammogramm konnte bei 25 Patienten mit DCIS (72%) eine eindeutige Kontrastmittel(KM)-Anflutung in der Tumorregion nachgewiesen werden. Hierbei war die Charakteristik der entsprechenden Signal-Zeit-Kurve in 15 Faellen malignomtypisch, in 10 Faellen unspezifisch. Bei 6 Patienten (17%) zeigte die Tumorregion keinerlei Anreicherung. Bei 4 Patienten (11%) lag beidseits eine starke KM-Aufnahme des Parenchyms vor, so dass eine eindeutige Zuordnung zur Tumorregion nicht moeglich war. Drei DCIS fielen ausschliesslich in der MR-Mammographie auf. Die KM-Anreicherung zeigte in 32% der Faelle eine glatt begrenzte Form, in 48% der Faelle eine unscharfe Begrenzung und in 20% eine dendritische Konfiguration. DCIS-Tumoren vom Komedo-Typ zeigten eine hoehere Signalanreicherung als Non-Komedo-Formen. Eine Korrelation zwischen immunhistochemisch nachweisbarem Gefaessstatus und KM-Aufnahme in der MR-Mammographie konnte nicht nachgewiesen werden. Das duktale In-situ-Karzinom ist MR-tomographisch nicht zuverlaessig nachweisbar. (orig.)

1996-01-01

39

In situ hybridization protocol for enhanced detection of gene expression in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has emerged as a powerful model for studies of regenerative, stem cell, and germ cell biology. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and whole-mount fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) are critical methods for determining gene expression patterns in planarians. While expression patterns for a number of genes have been elucidated using established protocols, determining the expression patterns for particularly low-abundance transcripts remains a challenge. RESULTS: We show here that a short bleaching step in formamide dramatically enhances signal intensity of WISH and FISH. To further improve signal sensitivity we optimized blocking conditions for multiple anti-hapten antibodies, developed a copper sulfate quenching step that virtually eliminates autofluorescence, and enhanced signal intensity through iterative rounds of tyramide signal amplification. For FISH on regenerating planarians, we employed a heat-induced antigen retrieval step that provides a better balance between permeabilization of mature tissues and preservation of regenerating tissues. We also show that azide most effectively quenches peroxidase activity between rounds of development for multicolor FISH experiments. Finally, we apply these modifications to elucidate the expression patterns of a few low-abundance transcripts. CONCLUSION: The modifications we present here provide significant improvements in signal intensity and signal sensitivity for WISH and FISH in planarians. Additionally, these modifications might be of widespread utility for whole-mount FISH in other model organisms.

King RS; Newmark PA

2013-01-01

40

In situ source zone sediment mixing coupled to groundwater biostimulation to enhance phenol natural attenuation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenol is an industrially key compound that has a wide range of applications and also one of the most commonly found toxic pollutants in wastewaters and groundwater. This paper demonstrates the applicability of in situ remediation at a deactivated industrial site using source zone excavation and sediment mixing associated with nutrients delivery into groundwater. Sediment excavation and mixing displaced the entrapped source zone enhancing mass transfer into groundwater and contaminant bioavailability. A nutrient solution prepared with nitrate, phosphate, sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide was continuously delivered into groundwater to stimulate biodegradation and restrict plume migration. The observed correlation between phenol-dependent Enterobacteriaceae concentrations throughout the remediation time frame supported circumstantial evidence of biodegradation. Phenol concentration in groundwater (up to 1,300 mg/L) was reduced >99% after 5 months following remediation and remained under the established site specific target level (4 mg/L). Nitrate and phosphate concentrations returned to background concentrations levels at the end of the remediation. Overall, the proposed in situ remediation scheme was effective to remediate this particular aquifer contaminated with phenol for over 20 years. PMID:22678209

da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Wendt, Marcos Felipe; de Oliveira, José Carlos Silveira; Schneider, Marcio Roberto

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Sensitive whole-mount fluorescent in situ hybridization in zebrafish using enhanced tyramide signal amplification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Whole-mount in situ hybridization is the preferred method for detecting transcript distributions in whole embryos, tissues, and organs. We present here a sensitive fluorescent in situ hybridization method for colocalization analysis of different transcripts in whole embryonic zebrafish brains. The method is based on simultaneous hybridization of differently hapten-labeled RNA probes followed by sequential rounds of horseradish peroxidase (POD)-based transcript detection. Sequential detection involves enhancement of fluorescent signals by tyramide signal amplification (TSA) and effective inactivation of the antibody-POD conjugate prior to the following detection round. We provide a detailed description of embryo preparation, hybridization, antibody detection, POD-TSA reaction, and mounting of embryos for imaging. To achieve high signal intensities, we optimized key steps of the method. This includes improvement of embryo permeability by hydrogen peroxide treatment and efficacy of hybridization and TSA-POD reaction by addition of the viscosity-increasing polymer dextran sulfate. The TSA-POD reaction conditions are further optimized by application of substituted phenol compounds as POD accelerators and use of highly efficient bench-made tyramide substrates. The obtained high signal intensities and cellular resolution of our method allows for co-expression analysis and generation of three-dimensional models. Our protocol is tailored to optimally work in zebrafish embryos, but can surely be modified for application in other species as well.

Lauter G; Söll I; Hauptmann G

2014-01-01

42

Sensitive whole-mount fluorescent in situ hybridization in zebrafish using enhanced tyramide signal amplification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whole-mount in situ hybridization is the preferred method for detecting transcript distributions in whole embryos, tissues, and organs. We present here a sensitive fluorescent in situ hybridization method for colocalization analysis of different transcripts in whole embryonic zebrafish brains. The method is based on simultaneous hybridization of differently hapten-labeled RNA probes followed by sequential rounds of horseradish peroxidase (POD)-based transcript detection. Sequential detection involves enhancement of fluorescent signals by tyramide signal amplification (TSA) and effective inactivation of the antibody-POD conjugate prior to the following detection round. We provide a detailed description of embryo preparation, hybridization, antibody detection, POD-TSA reaction, and mounting of embryos for imaging. To achieve high signal intensities, we optimized key steps of the method. This includes improvement of embryo permeability by hydrogen peroxide treatment and efficacy of hybridization and TSA-POD reaction by addition of the viscosity-increasing polymer dextran sulfate. The TSA-POD reaction conditions are further optimized by application of substituted phenol compounds as POD accelerators and use of highly efficient bench-made tyramide substrates. The obtained high signal intensities and cellular resolution of our method allows for co-expression analysis and generation of three-dimensional models. Our protocol is tailored to optimally work in zebrafish embryos, but can surely be modified for application in other species as well. PMID:24048934

Lauter, Gilbert; Söll, Iris; Hauptmann, Giselbert

2014-01-01

43

Method for enhanced longevity of in situ microbial filter used for bioremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved method is disclosed for in situ microbial filter bioremediation having increasingly operational longevity of an in situ microbial filter emplaced into an aquifer. A method is presented for generating a microbial filter of sufficient catalytic density and thickness, which has increased replenishment interval, improved bacteria attachment and detachment characteristics and the endogenous stability under in situ conditions. A system is also disclosed for in situ field water remediation. 31 figs.

Carman, M.L.; Taylor, R.T.

1999-03-30

44

Laboratory observations of permeability enhancement by fluid pressure oscillation of in situ fractured rock  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on laboratory experiments designed to investigate the influence of pore pressure oscillations on the effective permeability of fractured rock. Berea sandstone samples were fractured in situ under triaxial stresses of tens of megapascals, and deionized water was forced through the incipient fracture under conditions of steady and oscillating pore pressure. We find that short-term pore pressure oscillations induce long-term transient increases in effective permeability of the fractured samples. The magnitude of the effective permeability enhancements scales with the amplitude of pore pressure oscillations, and changes persist well after the stress perturbation. The maximum value of effective permeability enhancement is 5 × 10-16 m2 with a background permeability of 1 × 10-15 m2; that is, the maximum enhanced permeability is 1.5 × 10-15 m2. We evaluate poroelastic effects and show that hydraulic storage release does not explain our observations. Effective permeability recovery following dynamic oscillations occurs as the inverse square root of time. The recovery indicates that a reversible mechanism, such as clogging/unclogging of fractures, as opposed to an irreversible one, like microfracturing, is responsible for the transient effective permeability increase. Our work suggests the feasibility of dynamically controlling the effective permeability of fractured systems. The result has consequences for models of earthquake triggering and permeability enhancement in fault zones due to dynamic shaking from near and distant earthquakes.

Elkhoury, Jean E.; Niemeijer, André; Brodsky, Emily E.; Marone, Chris

2011-02-01

45

In situ intracellular spectroscopy with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-enabled nanopipettes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on a new analytical approach to intracellular chemical sensing that utilizes a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-enabled nanopipette. The probe is comprised of a glass capillary with a 100-500 nm tip coated with gold nanoparticles. The fixed geometry of the gold nanoparticles allows us to overcome the limitations of the traditional approach for intracellular SERS using metal colloids. We demonstrate that the SERS-enabled nanopipettes can be used for in situ analysis of living cell function in real time. In addition, SERS functionality of these probes allows tracking of their localization in a cell. The developed probes can also be applied for highly sensitive chemical analysis of nanoliter volumes of chemicals in a variety of environmental and analytical applications. PMID:19891490

Vitol, Elina A; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Bouchard, Michael J; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

2009-11-24

46

Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: In-situ combustion predictive model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The In-Situ Combustion Predictive Model (ICPM) was developed by Scientific Software-Intercomp for the National Petroleum Council (NPC) for its 1984 survey of US enhanced oil recovery potential (NPC, 1984). The architecture of the ICPM is similar to that of the other predictive models in the series (Paul et al., 1982; Aydelotte and Pope, 1983; Paul et al., 1984): an oil rate versus time function for a single pattern is computed, the results of which are passed to the economic calculations. Data for process costs, resevoir development costs, and operating costs, and a pattern schedule if multiple patterns are desired, allow the computation of discounted cash flow and other measures of profitability. A brief summary of the oil recovery and economic calculations for the ICPM is given in Sections 1.2 and 1.3. 12 refs., 15 figs., 24 tabs.

Ray, R.M.; Munoz, J.D.

1986-12-01

47

In situ synthesis of Pt/carbon nanofiber nanocomposites with enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pt/carbon nanofiber (Pt/CNF) nanocomposites were facilely synthesized by the reduction of hexachloroplatinic acid (H(2)PtCl(6)) using formic acid (HCOOH) in aqueous solution containing electrospun carbon nanofibers at room temperature. The obtained Pt/CNF nanocomposites were characterized by TEM and EDX. The Pt nanoparticles could in situ grow on the surface of CNFs with small particle size, high loading density, and uniform dispersion by adjusting the concentration of H(2)PtCl(6) precursor. The electrocatalytic activities of the Pt/CNF nanocomposites were also studied. These Pt/CNF nanocomposites exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation reaction compared with commercial E-TEK Pt/C catalyst. The results presented may offer a new approach to facilely synthesize direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) catalyst with enhanced electrocatalytic activity and low cost. PMID:22082800

Wang, Dawei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Jianshe; You, Tianyan

2011-10-23

48

In situ synthesis of Pt/carbon nanofiber nanocomposites with enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pt/carbon nanofiber (Pt/CNF) nanocomposites were facilely synthesized by the reduction of hexachloroplatinic acid (H(2)PtCl(6)) using formic acid (HCOOH) in aqueous solution containing electrospun carbon nanofibers at room temperature. The obtained Pt/CNF nanocomposites were characterized by TEM and EDX. The Pt nanoparticles could in situ grow on the surface of CNFs with small particle size, high loading density, and uniform dispersion by adjusting the concentration of H(2)PtCl(6) precursor. The electrocatalytic activities of the Pt/CNF nanocomposites were also studied. These Pt/CNF nanocomposites exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation reaction compared with commercial E-TEK Pt/C catalyst. The results presented may offer a new approach to facilely synthesize direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) catalyst with enhanced electrocatalytic activity and low cost.

Wang D; Liu Y; Huang J; You T

2012-02-01

49

In situ thermally enhanced biodegradation of petroleum fuel hydrocarbons and halogenated organic solvents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An in situ thermally enhanced microbial remediation strategy and a method for the biodegradation of toxic petroleum fuel hydrocarbon and halogenated organic solvent contaminants. The method utilizes nonpathogenic, thermophilic bacteria for the thermal biodegradation of toxic and carcinogenic contaminants, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, from fuel leaks and the chlorinated ethenes, such as trichloroethylene, chlorinated ethanes, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and chlorinated methanes, such as chloroform, from past solvent cleaning practices. The method relies on and takes advantage of the pre-existing heated conditions and the array of delivery/recovery wells that are created and in place following primary subsurface contaminant volatilization efforts via thermal approaches, such as dynamic underground steam-electrical heating.

Taylor, Robert T. (Livermore, CA); Jackson, Kenneth J. (San Leandro, CA); Duba, Alfred G. (Livermore, CA); Chen, Ching-I (Danville, CA)

1998-01-01

50

The ductal carcinoma in situ in contrast enhanced dynamic MR mammography; Das duktale in-situ-Karzinom in der dynamischen MR-Mammographie bei 1,5 T  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To define the value of contrast-enhanced MR mammography in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). In a group of 35 patients with DCIS, the results of MR imaging were compared to histopathology and immunohistochemistry in a retrospective study. In 35 patients with DCIS, a signal enhancement was found in 25 cases (72%). In 15 of these cases, the signal time curve was typical for malignancy. The other 10 patients had non-specific signal curves. Six of 35 patients (11%) had no enhancement within the tumour region. Four of 35 patients (11%) had bilateral diffuse signal increase, and regions of DCIS could not be identified clearly. Three DCIS were visualised exclusively by MR mammography. The configuration of signal enhancement was sharp (32%), unsharp (48%) or dendritic (20%). DCIS of the comedo type showed a significantly higher enhancement than the non-comedo type. A significant correlation between the grade of vascularisation in immunohistochemistry and signal enhancement in MR mammography could not be demonstrated. Dynamic MR mammography does not reliably visualise DCIS. (orig.) [Deutsch] In einer retrospektiven Studie wurde der Stellenwert der dynamischen MR-Mammographie beim duktalen In-situ-Karzinom (DCIS) untersucht. Bei 35 Patienten mit DCIS erfolgte eine MR-Mammographie an einem 1,5-T-Geraet in 2-D-Technik. Die Ergebnisse wurden mit den histopathologischen sowie immunhistochemischen Befunden korreliert. Im MR-Mammogramm konnte bei 25 Patienten mit DCIS (72%) eine eindeutige Kontrastmittel(KM)-Anflutung in der Tumorregion nachgewiesen werden. Hierbei war die Charakteristik der entsprechenden Signal-Zeit-Kurve in 15 Faellen malignomtypisch, in 10 Faellen unspezifisch. Bei 6 Patienten (17%) zeigte die Tumorregion keinerlei Anreicherung. Bei 4 Patienten (11%) lag beidseits eine starke KM-Aufnahme des Parenchyms vor, so dass eine eindeutige Zuordnung zur Tumorregion nicht moeglich war. Drei DCIS fielen ausschliesslich in der MR-Mammographie auf. Die KM-Anreicherung zeigte in 32% der Faelle eine glatt begrenzte Form, in 48% der Faelle eine unscharfe Begrenzung und in 20% eine dendritische Konfiguration. DCIS-Tumoren vom Komedo-Typ zeigten eine hoehere Signalanreicherung als Non-Komedo-Formen. Eine Korrelation zwischen immunhistochemisch nachweisbarem Gefaessstatus und KM-Aufnahme in der MR-Mammographie konnte nicht nachgewiesen werden. Das duktale In-situ-Karzinom ist MR-tomographisch nicht zuverlaessig nachweisbar. (orig.)

Fischer, U. [Abt. Roentgendiagnostik im Klinikum der Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany); Westerhof, J.P. [Abt. Roentgendiagnostik im Klinikum der Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany); Brinck, U. [Abt. Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie 2 im Klinikum der Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany); Korabiowska, M. [Abt. Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie 2 im Klinikum der Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany); Schauer, A. [Abt. Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie 2 im Klinikum der Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany); Grabbe, E. [Abt. Roentgendiagnostik im Klinikum der Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany)

1996-04-01

51

Engineered injection and extraction to enhance reaction for improved in situ remediation  

Science.gov (United States)

During in situ remediation, a treatment solution is often injected into a contaminated aquifer to degrade the groundwater contaminant. Since contaminant degradation reactions occur only at locations where the treatment solution and groundwater contaminant overlap, mixing of the treatment solution and the contaminated groundwater is necessary for reaction to occur. Mixing results from molecular diffusion and pore-scale dispersion, which operate over small length scales; thus, mixing during in situ remediation can only occur where the separation distance between the treatment solution and contaminated groundwater is small. To promote mixing, advection can be used to spread the treatment solution into the contaminated groundwater to increase the extent of the region where the two solutions coexist. A certain degree of passive spreading is the natural consequence of aquifer heterogeneity, which is manifested as macrodispersion. An alternative mechanism is active spreading, in which unsteady flows lead to stretching and folding of plumes. Active spreading can be accomplished by engineered injection and extraction (EIE), in which clean water is injected and extracted at wells surrounding a contaminant plume to create unsteady flow fields that stretch and fold the treatment solution and contaminant plumes. For a model system in which nested plumes of two reactants undergo scalar transport and instantaneous reaction, the simulation results reported here indicate that EIE enhances degradation of groundwater contamination in homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifers compared to baseline models without EIE. Furthermore, this study shows that the amount of reaction provided by the spreading due to EIE is greater than the amount of reaction due to spreading from heterogeneity alone.

Piscopo, Amy N.; Neupauer, Roseanna M.; Mays, David C.

2013-06-01

52

A highly effective gene delivery vector--hyperbranched poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) from in situ deactivation enhanced ATRP.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A hyperbranched 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) based polymer has been synthesised by a one-pot in situ deactivation enhanced atom transfer radical polymerisation (DE-ATRP); it exhibits much higher transfection ability than linear poly(DMAEMA) and is comparable to the well known branched poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and the SuperFect dendrimer but with lower cytotoxicity.

Newland B; Tai H; Zheng Y; Velasco D; Di Luca A; Howdle SM; Alexander C; Wang W; Pandit A

2010-07-01

53

ENHANCEMENT OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE PULP BY IN-SITU FILLER PRECIPITATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate in bagasse fibers resulted in a very significant increase in specific scattering coefficient and consequently large improvements in opacity and brightness of the handsheets made from such pulp. At the same level of filler loading, the scattering coefficient of in-situ precipitated pulp was much greater than for directly loaded pulp. In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate caused a drop in strength properties of bagasse pulp, but such loss could be recovered to a large extent by blending with other pulps. The effect of in-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate on pulp fibers was quite different for bagasse pulp from hardwood pulp. In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate on hardwood fibers showed neither much improvement in optical properties nor much reduction in strength properties.

Pradeep Kumar; Sanjeev K. Gautam; Vivek Kumar; Surendra P. Singh

54

Identification of bacteria used for microbial enhanced oil recovery process by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was developed for rapid detection of microorganisms for use in the microbial enhancement of oil recovery (MEOR) process. Two microorganisms, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322 and Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, were selected from a collection of Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. which were screened in previous studies as candidate microorganisms for injection, and were used for this experiment. Oligonucleotide probes, design based on specific sequences in the 16S rRNA gene were labeled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), or 6-car-boxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), and were allowed to hybridize with fixed cells of the two microorganisms noted above. The fluorescence signal emitted from each microorganism cells could clearly be detected by an epifluorescence microscope. Moreover, E. cloacae TRC-322 and B, licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, suspended in actual reservoir brine, including inorganic salts, oil and aboriginal cells of the reservoir brine, could be detected directly by this hybridization method, without the need for cultivation and isolation. (author)

Fujiwara, K.; Tanaka, S.; Otsuka, M. [Kansai Research Institute, Kyoto (Japan). Lifescience Lab.; Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

2000-01-01

55

The potential of Bacillus licheniformis strains for in situ enhanced oil recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ability of microorganisms isolated from oil reservoirs to increase oil recovery by in situ growth and metabolism following the injection of laboratory grown microbial cells and nutrients were studied. Four strains isolated from Northern German oil reservoirs at depths of 866 to 1520 m, and identified as Bacillus licheniformis, were characterized taxonomically and physiologically. All strains grew on a variety of substrates at temperatures of up to 55C and at salinities of up to 12% NaCl. Extracellular polymer production occurred both aerobically and anaerobically over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and salinities, though it was optimal at temperatures around 50C and at salinities between 5 and 10% NaCl. Strain BNP29 was able to produce significant amounts of biomass, polymer, fermentation alcohols and acids in batch culture experiments under simulated reservoir conditions. Oil recovery (core flooding) experiments with strain BNP29 and a sucrose-based nutrient were performed with lime-free and lime-containing, oil-bearing sandstone cores. Oil recovery efficiencies varied from 9.3 to 22.1% of the water flood residual oil saturation. Biogenic acid production that accompanied oil production, along with selective plugging, are important mechanisms leading to increased oil recovery, presumably through resulting changes in rock porosity and alteration of wettability. These data show that strain BNP29 exhibits potential for the development of enhanced oil recovery processes

Yakimov, Michail M.; Timmis, Kenneth N. [Microbial Ecology Group, Division of Microbiology, GBF-National Research Centre for Biotechnology, Braunschweig (Germany); Amro, Mohammed M.; Kessel, Dagobert G. [German Petroleum Institute, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Bock, Michael; Boseker, Klaus [BGR, Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Fredrickson, Herbert L. [Environmental Laboratory, Waterways Experimental Station, USAGE, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1997-07-15

56

In situ fluorine-modified organosilicate glass prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ fluorine-modified organosilicate glass (FOSG) thin films and OSG thin films were deposited at various temperatures (250-400 °C) by the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. The fluorine content in the FOSG films was adjusted by varying the SiF4/trimethylsilane gas flow ratio from 0.5 to 2. Film characteristics were investigated by examining the bonding configuration, index of refraction, surface composition, hardness, leakage current density, and breakdown field strength. The absorbance spectrum of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows that the frequency of the Si-O stretching vibration mode in the FOSG films is shifted to a higher wave number (blueshift) with the increase of fluorine incorporation, while that at higher temperatures is shifted to a lower wave number (redshift). Meanwhile, the refractive index increases and decreases slightly with increasing fluorine content and deposition temperature, respectively. The dielectric constant of the FOSG is slightly lower than that of the OSG films. The FOSG films with higher fluorine content also exhibit higher mechanical hardness and higher dielectric breakdown voltage. The higher mechanical strength of the FOSG films relative to that of the OSG films is achieved as a consequence of the structural change accompanied by the incorporation of fluorine.

Jangjean, Shiuh-Ko; Wang, Ying-Lang; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Hwang, Weng-Sing; Tseng, Wei-Tsu; Liu, Chi-Wen

2003-07-01

57

In situ fluorine-modified organosilicate glass prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ fluorine-modified organosilicate glass (FOSG) thin films and OSG thin films were deposited at various temperatures (250-400 deg. C) by the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. The fluorine content in the FOSG films was adjusted by varying the SiF4/trimethylsilane gas flow ratio from 0.5 to 2. Film characteristics were investigated by examining the bonding configuration, index of refraction, surface composition, hardness, leakage current density, and breakdown field strength. The absorbance spectrum of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows that the frequency of the Si-O stretching vibration mode in the FOSG films is shifted to a higher wave number (blueshift) with the increase of fluorine incorporation, while that at higher temperatures is shifted to a lower wave number (redshift). Meanwhile, the refractive index increases and decreases slightly with increasing fluorine content and deposition temperature, respectively. The dielectric constant of the FOSG is slightly lower than that of the OSG films. The FOSG films with higher fluorine content also exhibit higher mechanical hardness and higher dielectric breakdown voltage. The higher mechanical strength of the FOSG films relative to that of the OSG films is achieved as a consequence of the structural change accompanied by the incorporation of fluorine.

2003-07-01

58

In Situ Surface Chemical Modification of Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membranes for Enhanced Organic Fouling Resistance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane-based water separation process with potential applications in a host of environmental and industrial processes. Nevertheless, membrane fouling remains a technical obstacle affecting this technology, increasing operating costs and decreasing the membrane life. This work presents the first fabrication of an antifouling thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane by an in situ technique without post-fabrication treatment. The membrane was fabricated and modified in situ, grafting Jeffamine, an amine-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) derivative, to dangling acyl chloride surface groups on the nascent polyamide active layer. Surface characterization by contact angle, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and fluorescence microscopy, confirms the presence of Jeffamine on the membrane surface. We demonstrate the improved fouling resistance of the in situ modified membranes through accelerated dynamic fouling FO experiments using a synthetic wastewater feed solution at high concentration (250 mg/L) of alginate, a model macromolecule for the hydrophilic fraction of wastewater effluent organic matter. Our results show a significantly lower flux decline for the in situ modified membranes compared to pristine polyamide (14.3 ± 2.7% vs. 2.8 ± 1.4%, respectively). AFM adhesion force measurements between the membrane and a carboxylate-modified latex particle, a surrogate for the organic (alginate) foulant, show weaker foulant-membrane interactions, further confirming the enhanced fouling resistance of the in situ modified membranes.

Lu X; Romero-Vargas Castrillón S; Shaffer DL; Ma J; Elimelech M

2013-09-01

59

Enhanced arsenic removal by in situ formed Fe-Mn binary oxide in the aeration-direct filtration process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Field studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of an in situ formed Fe-Mn binary oxide (in situ FMBO) for improving arsenic (As) removal in the aeration-direct filtration process. The transformation and transportation of As, Fe, and Mn in the filter bed were also investigated. The in situ FMBO increased the As removal efficiency by 20-50% to keep the residual As below 10 ?g/L. The optimum FMBO dosage was determined to be 0.55 mg/L with the Fe/Mn ratio as 10:1. The removal of Fe, Mn, turbidity, and particles was also improved to a large extent. The in situ FMBO favored the transformation of soluble As, Fe, and Mn into the solid phases, benefiting the removal of these pollutants by the subsequent filtration. Moreover, the deposited precipitates onto the filter media were characterized, as indicated by the analyses of SEM/EDS and particle size distribution. The long-term experiments exhibited decreased head loss growth and prolonged run length, suggesting an enhanced pollutant catching capacity of the filter media. The full-scale field study with a flow of 10,000 m3/d confirmed positive effects of in situ FMBO on As removal, with the average effluent As concentration reduced from 20 ?g/L to 6 ?g/L (reagent cost=0.006 ¥/m3).

Wu K; Liu RP; Liu HJ; Lan HC; Qu JH

2012-11-01

60

Comparison of 1 week versus 4 weeks of albendazole therapy in single small enhancing computed tomography lesion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : The appropriate duration of albendazole therapy in neurocysticercosis is uncertain. The observation in small uncontrolled randomized trials in children that short-course therapy (1 week) is as effective as the conventional regimen (4weeks) must be tested. Objective : To compare the efficacy of 1 and 4 weeks of albendazole therapy in children with single small enhancing computed tomographic lesion (SSECTL). Study Design: An open-labeled, randomized, clinical trial. Materials and Methods : One hundred twenty children with SSECTLs presenting with seizure. Intervention: The subjects were assigned to two groups using random tables: group A (n=58) received albendazole for 1 week and group B (n=62) for 4 weeks. All the subjects were followed up for 6 months. Results : The proportions of subjects with complete resolution of lesion in the two groups were similar (group A 63.8% versus group B 51.6%). The proportion of subjects in the two groups in whom the lesion calcified on follow up (group A 19% versus group B 24.2%) also did not differ significantly. The incidence of seizure recurrence during the 6-month follow-up period was also similar in both the groups (group A 9.6% versus group B 3.4%, P > 0.05). Conclusion : One week of albendazole therapy is as effective as 4 weeks of therapy in children with SSECTLs.

Kaur Prabhjeet; Dhiman Praveena; Dhawan Neeraj; Nijhawan Raman; Pandit Sadbhavna

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Nanoparticles laden in situ gel of levofloxacin for enhanced ocular retention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Availability of proper concentration of medicament on to the corneal surface is a challenging task. Many novel formulations, i.e. hydrogels, nanoparticles, ocuserts, etc. had been tested to improve ocular bioavailability, out of which our group found, in situ gel and polymeric nanoparticle are the most interesting approach to achieve ocular retention. We found that in situ gel stay only for 12?h and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles are non mucoadhesive in nature so we try to combine both these formulations and termed it as "Nanoparticle laden in situ gel". Here we prepare nanoparticle laden in situ gel containing levofloxacin encapsulated PLGA nanoparticle, incorporated in chitosan in situ gel and evaluated its ocular retention by gamma scintigraphy in rabbits. The observations of acquired gamma camera images showed good retention over the entire precorneal area. From static and dynamic gamma scintigraphy evaluation, we can be interpret that developed nanoparticle laden in situ gel formulation cleared at a very slow rate and remained at corneal surface for longer duration than marketed formulation, in situ gel and nanosuspension alone.

Gupta H; Aqil M; Khar RK; Ali A; Bhatnagar A; Mittal G

2013-09-01

62

Enhanced reversible electrochromism via in situ phase transformation in tungstate monohydrate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study demonstrates that realizing the correlation between in situ crystallographic structure modifications of an electrochromic material and its functionality leads to improved performances, which can then contribute to a variety of energy-efficient applications.

Kattouf B; Frey GL; Siegmann A; Ein-Eli Y

2009-12-01

63

In situ observation of corrosion-enhanced dislocation emission and motion resulting in initiation of stress corrosion cracking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A special constant deflection device for TEM was used to study the change in dislocation configuration ahead of a crack tip during stress corrosion cracking (XC) of brass in water and of Ti-24Al-11Nb alloy in methanol as well as the initiation of SCC. In situ tensile test in TEM for brass was carried out to compare. The results show that corrosion process itself during SCC can enhance dislocation emission, multiplication and motion as well as a dislocation free zone (DFZ) is formed. When the corrosion--enhanced dislocation emission and motion reaches certain a condition a nanocrack of SCC initiates in the DFZ or from the crack tip. Because of the action of the corrosion solution the nanocrack of SCC propagates into a cleavage or intergranular microcrack rather than blunts into a void like in situ tension in TEM.

Chu, W.Y.; Gu, B.; Gao, K.W.; Zhang, T.C.; Hsiao, C.M. [Univ. of Science Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Materials Physics

1998-12-31

64

A highly effective gene delivery vector--hyperbranched poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) from in situ deactivation enhanced ATRP.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hyperbranched 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) based polymer has been synthesised by a one-pot in situ deactivation enhanced atom transfer radical polymerisation (DE-ATRP); it exhibits much higher transfection ability than linear poly(DMAEMA) and is comparable to the well known branched poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and the SuperFect dendrimer but with lower cytotoxicity. PMID:20514386

Newland, Ben; Tai, Hongyun; Zheng, Yu; Velasco, Diego; Di Luca, Andrea; Howdle, Steven M; Alexander, Cameron; Wang, Wenxin; Pandit, Abhay

2010-06-01

65

Determination of the Her-2/neu gene amplification status in cytologic breast cancer specimens using automated silver-enhanced in-situ hybridization (SISH)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Silver-enhanced in-situ hybridization (SISH) is an emerging tool for the determination of the Her-2/neu amplification status in breast cancer. SISH is technically comparable to fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) but does not require a fluorescence microscope for its interpretation. Although r...

Fritzsche, F R; Bode, P K; Moch, H; Kristiansen, G; Varga, Z; Bode, B

66

In situ transmission electron microscope studies of ion irradiation-induced and irradiation-enhanced phase changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Motivated at least initially by materials needs for nuclear reactor development, extensive irradiation effects studies employing transmission electron microscopes (TEM) have been performed for several decades, involving irradiation-induced and irradiation-enhanced microstructural changes, including phase transformations such as precipitation, dissolution, crystallization, amorphization, and order-disorder phenomena. From the introduction of commercial high voltage electron microscopes (HVEM) in the mid-1960s, studies of electron irradiation effects have constituted a major aspect of HVEM application in materials science. For irradiation effects studies two additional developments have had particularly significant impact; the development of TEM specimen holder sin which specimen temperature can be controlled in the range 10-2200 K and the interfacing of ion accelerators which allows in situ TEM studies of irradiation effects and the ion beam modification of materials within this broad temperature range. This paper treats several aspects of in situ studies of electron and ion beam-induced and enhanced phase changes and presents two case studies involving in situ experiments performed in an HVEM to illustrate the strategies of such an approach of the materials research of irradiation effects.

1992-01-01

67

A new principle for rapid immunoassay of proteins based on in situ precipitate-enhanced ellipsometry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new technique is presented that allows measurement of protein concentrations in the picomolar range with an assay time of only 10-20 min. The method is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but uses in-situ ellipsometric measurement of a precipitating enzyme product instead of the usual co...

Robers, M; Rensink, I J; Hack, C E; Aarden, L A; Reutelingsperger, C P; Glatz, J F; Hermens, W T

68

Enhancement of bacterial iron and sulfate respiration for in situ bioremediation of acid mine drainage sites: a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The prevention of acid mine drainage (AMD) in situ is more attractive than down-gradient treatment alternatives that do not involve source control. AMD source control can be achieved by shifting the microbial activity in the sulfidic rock from pyrite oxidation to anaerobic heterotrophic activity. This is achieved by adding biodegradable organic carbon amendments to the sulfidic rock. This technique was applied to an abandoned coal mine pool in Pennsylvania. The pool had a pH of 3.0 to 3.5. Following treatment, near-neutral pH and decreased effluent heavy metal concentrations were achieved. In situ bioremediation by the enhancement of bacterial iron and sulfate reduction is a promising technology for AMD prevention.

Bilgin, A.A.; Harrington, J.M.; Silverstein, J. [ARCADIS G& amp; M, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States)

2007-08-15

69

Enhanced removal of sodium salts supported by in-situ catalyst synthesis in a supercritical water oxidation process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For practical applications of supercritical water oxidation to wastewater treatment, the deposition of inorganic salts in supercritical phase must be controlled to prevent a reactor from clogging. This study investigated enhanced removal of sodium salts with titanium particles, serving as a salt trapper and a catalyst precursor, and sodium recovery by sub-critical water. When Na(2)CO(3) was tested as a model salt, sodium removal efficiency was higher than theoretically maximum efficiency defined by Na(2)CO(3) solubility. The enhanced sodium removal resulted from in-situ synthesis of sodium titanate, which could catalyse acetic acid oxidation. The kinetics of sodium removal was described well by a diffusion mass-transfer model combined with a power law-type rate model of sodium titanate synthesis. Titanium particles showed positive effect on sodium removal in the case of NaOH, Na(2)SO(4) and Na(3)PO(4). However, they had negligible effect for NaCl and negative effect for Na(2)CrO(4), respectively. More than 99% of trapped sodium was recovered by sub-critical water except for Na(2)CrO(4). In contrast, sodium recovery efficiency remained less than 50% in the case of Na(2)CrO(4). Reused titanium particles showed the same performance for enhanced sodium removal. Enhanced salt removal supported by in-situ catalyst synthesis has great potential to enable both salt removal control and catalytic oxidation.

Takahashi F; Sun ZR; Fukushi K; Oshima Y; Yamamoto K

2012-01-01

70

In situ stress measurements in inclined holes in the North Sea: Application to water flooding and enhanced oil recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water flooding is typical for many North Sea reservoirs and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects are being considered for some reservoirs. A knowledge of the in situ stress state is important to reservoir engineers in designing water floods or EOR programs. Eighteen in situ stress measurements were made in two 3.6 km deep wells in an oil reservoir located in the northern Viking Graben region of the North Sea. The wellbores were inclined 60/sup 0/ and 65/sup 0/ from the vertical. The principal in situ stress directions and magnitudes were determined by the anelastic strain recovery method using oriented core immediately after it was retrieved from the wellbore. The maximum principal stress is the overburden, and the average ratios of the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses to the overburden are 0.94 + ..05 and 0.72 + ..07, respectively. The azimuth of the maximum horizontal stress and the direction of potential vertical hydraulic fractures created during a water flood or EOR program is N110/sup 0/E+.22/sup 0/. This hydraulic fracture orientation is nearly perpendicular to the predominant trend of normal faults in the region. In order to achieve maximum efficiency of the areal sweep during a water flood or EOR, production wells should be located perpendicular to the azimuth of hydraulic fractures propagating from the injection wells.

Teufel, L.W.

1985-01-01

71

Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: in situ FTIR investigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalysts on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO(2) is determined as the final product during the reaction process.

Shen Y; Zhao Q; Li X; Yuan D; Hou Y; Liu S

2012-11-01

72

Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: in situ FTIR investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalysts on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO(2) is determined as the final product during the reaction process. PMID:23107291

Shen, Yu; Zhao, Qidong; Li, Xinyong; Yuan, Deling; Hou, Yang; Liu, Shaomin

2012-10-11

73

Narrower grid structure of artificial reef enhances initial survival of in situ settled coral.  

Science.gov (United States)

The initial factors that cause a decline in the survival of in situ settled corals remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated through field experiments that the design of artificial grid plates may influence the initial survival of Acropora corals, with narrower grids being the most effective. In fact, grid plates with a 2.5-cm mesh presented the highest recorded survival rate (14%) at 6 months after settlement (representing approximately 50 corals per 0.25 m(2) of plate). This is the first study where such high survival rates, matching those of cultures under aquarium conditions, were obtained in the field without using additional protective measures, such as guard nets against fish grazing after seeding. Therefore, our results provide a foundation for establishing new and effective coral restoration techniques for larval seeding, in parallel to clarifying the details of the early life stages of reef-building corals. PMID:21967865

Suzuki, Go; Kai, Sayaka; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kiyoshi; Iehisa, Yukihiro; Hayashibara, Takeshi

2011-10-02

74

Narrower grid structure of artificial reef enhances initial survival of in situ settled coral.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The initial factors that cause a decline in the survival of in situ settled corals remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated through field experiments that the design of artificial grid plates may influence the initial survival of Acropora corals, with narrower grids being the most effective. In fact, grid plates with a 2.5-cm mesh presented the highest recorded survival rate (14%) at 6 months after settlement (representing approximately 50 corals per 0.25 m(2) of plate). This is the first study where such high survival rates, matching those of cultures under aquarium conditions, were obtained in the field without using additional protective measures, such as guard nets against fish grazing after seeding. Therefore, our results provide a foundation for establishing new and effective coral restoration techniques for larval seeding, in parallel to clarifying the details of the early life stages of reef-building corals.

Suzuki G; Kai S; Yamashita H; Suzuki K; Iehisa Y; Hayashibara T

2011-12-01

75

In situ stress measurements in inclined holes in the North Sea: application to enhanced oil recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eighteen in situ stress measurements were made in two 3.5 km deep wells in a reservoir located in the Viking Graben region of the North Sea. The wellbores were inclined 60/sup 0/ and 70/sup 0/ from the vertical. The principal in situ stress directions and magnitudes were determined by the anelastic strain recovery method. The principal stress directions were determined directly from measurements of the principal strain recovery directions of oriented core immediately after it was retrieved from the wellbore. The principal stress magnitudes were calculated from the principal strain recovery magnitudes, overburden stress, and elastic properties of the rock using a creep recovery model. The reliability and accuracy of the strain recovery method has been documented in several vertical holes by direct comparison with open hole hydraulic fracture stress measurements. In the two inclined holes in the North Sea, the maximum principal stress was the overburden, and the average ratios of the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses to the overburden were 0.93 and 0.78, respectively. The azimuth of the maximum horizontal stress (and hydraulic fracture) was N72/sup 0/W +- 21/sup 0/. The measured stress orientations are consistent with a geologic and tectonic model of the region. The calculated stress magnitudes indicate that potential hydraulic fractures created during the EOR program will be vertical and have a well defined azimuth because the overburden is the maximum stress and there is sufficient difference between the two principal horizontal stresses. The high ratio of the minimum stress to overburden indicates that high injection pressures will be required during stimulation, and this should be included in the stimulation design to optimize fracture length. Fracture length will depend upon the permeability of the formation, water quality, the total injected volume, and injection pressures.

Teufel, L.W.

1985-01-01

76

In situ temperature jump high-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization experiments: enhanced sensitivity in liquid-state NMR spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe an experiment, in situ temperature jump dynamic nuclear polarization (TJ-DNP), that is demonstrated to enhance sensitivity in liquid-state NMR experiments of low-gamma spins--13C, 15N, etc. The approach consists of polarizing a sample at low temperature using high-frequency (140 GHz) microwaves and a biradical polarizing agent and then melting it rapidly with a pulse of 10.6 microm infrared radiation, followed by observation of the NMR signal in the presence of decoupling. In the absence of polarization losses due to relaxation, the enhancement should be epsilon+ = epsilon(T(obs)/T(mu)(wave)), where epsilon+ is the observed enhancement, epsilon is the enhancement obtained at the temperature where the polarization process occurs, and T(mu)(wave) and T(obs) are the polarization and observation temperatures, respectively. In a single experimental cycle, we observe room-temperature enhancements, epsilon(dagger), of 13C signals in the range 120-400 when using a 140 GHz gyrotron microwave source, T(mu)(wave) = 90 K, and T(obs) = 300 K. In addition, we demonstrate that the experiment can be recycled to perform signal averaging that is customary in contemporary NMR spectroscopy. Presently, the experiment is applicable to samples that can be repeatedly frozen and thawed. TJ-DNP could also serve as the initial polarization step in experiments designed for rapid acquisition of multidimensional spectra.

Joo CG; Hu KN; Bryant JA; Griffin RG

2006-07-01

77

Stable carbon isotope monitoring of in situ bioaugmentation for enhanced reductive dechlorination of halogenated hydrocarbons  

Science.gov (United States)

Injection of electron donor to stimulate reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy for remediation of contaminated groundwater. At a number of sites, however, complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene is not attained because the appropriate microbial community is not present. Addition of Dehalococcoides spp. to groundwater to achieve complete reductive dechlorination of TCE is being tested at Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach, CA. To help assess the effectiveness of this process, the stable carbon isotope compositions of TCE and its byproducts, cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene are being measured during the experiment. Two different methods of bioremediation are being tested. In the “active” cell groundwater is continuously pumped from downgradient wells and re-injected into two upgradient wells. Electron donor (1-3% Na-lactate) has been added to the injection line either weekly or monthly. In the “passive” cell, no circulation of groundwater is done, but electron donor is added to three injection wells monthly. When reducing conditions were reached in the groundwater (late 2008), the bioaugmentation culture was added to both experimental cells with the electron donor. In the active cell, addition of electron donor prior to introduction of the bioaugmentation culture stimulated significant increases in the concentrations of cDCE, but only trace VC and ethene. In the passive cell, production of cDCE was observed, but at lower levels. The ?13C values of TCE ranged from -20‰ to 28‰ (averaging -24‰). The ?13C values of cDCE were generally 1-2‰ per mil lower than those of the TCE, representing fractionation during the biological conversion from TCE to cDCE. Following bioaugmentation, significant production of VC has been observed in the active cell, with corresponding increases in ?13C values of TCE and cDCE. In several wells, the ?13C values of the cDCE have become higher than that of the TCE, indicating efficient conversion of cDCE to VC. To date, only low levels of ethene have been observed in the active cell and this is reflected by the ?13C values of the VC, which are approaching the initial ?13C values of TCE. In the passive cell, dechlorination to VC is observed but less widespread than in the active cell. Where VC is observed, however, there is also significant production of ethene. The ?13C values of both cDCE and VC in these wells have been shifted to very high values (to as high as 1‰ for cDCE and -4‰ for VC) indicating significant levels of complete reductive dechlorination are occurring in this cell. The variations in the carbon isotope compositions of TCE and byproducts clearly indicate that bioaugmentation has led to significantly enhanced levels of reductive dechlorination at this site.

Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.; Sorenson, K.; Wymore, R.; Lamar, M.; Chamberlain, S.; Trotsky, J.

2009-12-01

78

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI reveals the extent and the microvascular pattern of breast ductal carcinoma in situ.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To report the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in assessing the extent of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). To assess whether the microvascularity pattern in DCIS correlates with magnetic resonance enhancement. Eighty-five histologically proven DCIS (77 pure DCIS, eight microinvasive DCIS) were prospectively studied with MRI. The morphology of magnetic resonance enhancement and the kinetic curve was recorded. Histopathologically, intraductal lesions were classified according to Van Nuys score. Tumor microvascularity was immunohistochemically assessed in a subset of 24 DCIS evaluating the number of microvessels, microvascularity area, and microvascularity pattern (diffuse or periductal). On the mammogram, 74% of DCIS appeared as microcalcifications. On MRI, 70% of DCIS showed enhancement. Non-mass-like uptake was observed in 78% of cases. The mean size of nonenhancing carcinomas was significantly lower than that of enhancing carcinomas (p = 0.033). The diffuse pattern was more frequent than the periductal pattern. A significant relationship between the morphology of MR enhancement and the microvascularity pattern was observed (p = 0.036); thus, 90% of DCIS showing segmental enhancement on MRI displayed a diffuse pattern while all DCIS with ductal enhancement showed a periductal pattern. There was a significant relationship between the maximum area of microvascularity and the vascular pattern (p = 0.015); periductal patterns showed larger areas than diffuse patterns. The lesion size was significantly larger as the Van Nuys score increased (p < 0.001) and was also related to the number of microvessels (p = 0.012). The mean area of microvascularity of DCIS was significantly larger as the Van Nuys score increased (p = 0.02). Breast MRI helps depict the extent of DCIS and reveals its microvascular pattern.

Santamaría G; Velasco M; Farrús B; Caparrós FX; Fernández PL

2013-07-01

79

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI reveals the extent and the microvascular pattern of breast ductal carcinoma in situ.  

Science.gov (United States)

To report the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in assessing the extent of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). To assess whether the microvascularity pattern in DCIS correlates with magnetic resonance enhancement. Eighty-five histologically proven DCIS (77 pure DCIS, eight microinvasive DCIS) were prospectively studied with MRI. The morphology of magnetic resonance enhancement and the kinetic curve was recorded. Histopathologically, intraductal lesions were classified according to Van Nuys score. Tumor microvascularity was immunohistochemically assessed in a subset of 24 DCIS evaluating the number of microvessels, microvascularity area, and microvascularity pattern (diffuse or periductal). On the mammogram, 74% of DCIS appeared as microcalcifications. On MRI, 70% of DCIS showed enhancement. Non-mass-like uptake was observed in 78% of cases. The mean size of nonenhancing carcinomas was significantly lower than that of enhancing carcinomas (p = 0.033). The diffuse pattern was more frequent than the periductal pattern. A significant relationship between the morphology of MR enhancement and the microvascularity pattern was observed (p = 0.036); thus, 90% of DCIS showing segmental enhancement on MRI displayed a diffuse pattern while all DCIS with ductal enhancement showed a periductal pattern. There was a significant relationship between the maximum area of microvascularity and the vascular pattern (p = 0.015); periductal patterns showed larger areas than diffuse patterns. The lesion size was significantly larger as the Van Nuys score increased (p DCIS was significantly larger as the Van Nuys score increased (p = 0.02). Breast MRI helps depict the extent of DCIS and reveals its microvascular pattern. PMID:23758454

Santamaría, Gorane; Velasco, Martín; Farrús, Blanca; Caparrós, Francesc Xavier; Fernández, Pedro Luis

2013-06-12

80

In situ cyclic voltammetry-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: studies on the doping-undoping of polypyrrole film  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The redox behavior of polypyrrole (PPy) film in 0.2 M aqueous KNO{sub 3} solution was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The results show that the Raman intensity of C=C backbone stretching decreases and increases regularly with the anodic and cathodic scans, respectively, owing to the change of surface roughness and the possibility of state transition. The peak position of C--H in-plane deformation remains unchanged both in anodic and cathodic scans. Furthermore, the peak positions of N--H in-plane deformation and ring deformation shift to lower and higher wavenumbers with anodic and cathodic scans, respectively. Also the Raman peak of the NO{sub 3}{sup -} dopant ions appears significant when PPy is in a more oxidized state. (orig.)

Liu, Y.-C.; Hwang, B.-J.; Jian, W.-J.; Santhanam, R. [Nat. Taiwan Univ. of Sci. and Technol., Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. of Chem. Eng.

2000-10-03

 
 
 
 
81

In situ identification of paper chromatogram spots by surface enhanced Raman scattering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of silver hydrosols to enhance the Raman scattering of paper chromatogram spots has been used successfully. This enhancement technique, which is dependent on the interaction between the substrate, silver particles, and paper fibers, has been applied to detection and identification of ng amounts of crystal violet, malachite green, and basic fuchsin with an argon laser of only 4 mW. This technique enhances the resonance of the Raman scattering so that the Raman cross sections of the spots are approximately 9 to 10 orders of magnitude higher than those observed for non-enhanced systems. The limit of detection of the techniques is defined as the amount of dye spot that yields a signal to noise ratio of 2 when excited with the 4MeV.

Tran, C.D.

1984-01-01

82

In-situ demonstration of radio-frequency enhanced chlorinated hydrocarbon remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the results of a successful demonstration of radio frequency (RF) heating for enhanced chlorinated hydrocarbon remediation at the M-Area Seepage Basin of the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site. RF heating was integrated with soil vapor extraction (SVE) to enhance the release of residual volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons which are concentrated in low permeable clay lenses in the unsaturated zone. Participants in this effort consisted of the Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center; the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (Pittsburgh, PA); and KAI Technologies, Inc. which provided the RF technology. Additionally, a better understanding of RF heating technology is gained through a description of the RF heating system.

Kasevich, R.S.; Price, S.L.; Faust, D.L. [KAI Technologies, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States); Jarosch, T.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1994-06-01

83

The ductal carcinoma in situ in contrast enhanced dynamic MR mammography: Morphology and signal enhancement; Morphologie und Anreicherungsverhalten des duktalen In-situ-Karzinoms in der dynamischen MR-Mammographie bei 1,0 T  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: The detectability with magnetic resonance mammography (MR-M) of non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), its morphology, and patterns of contrast enhancement were studied. Material and methods: A total of 849 MR-M examinations were performed in 741 patients using a dynamic, contrast-enhanced FLASH 3D sequence at 1.0 T. Surgical breast biopsies were obtained in 332 cases. Histological work-up confirmed 164 carcinomas, including 20 DCIS. Results: Of 20 DCIS, 14 were correctly diagnosed by MR-M on the basis of focal increase of signal intensity. In two cases (10%), no increase of signal intensity was observed. In another three cases (15%), multifocal enhancement lead to a false-negative diagnosis. In one case (5%), DCIS was a random finding in a patient diagnosed and treated for adjacent phylloides tumour. The sensitivity of MR-M was 70%. 4 (20%) of the DCIS did not show microcalcifications at conventional mammography and were only detected at MR-M. The sensitivity of conventional mammography also amounted to 70%. However, the combination of both imaging methods increased sensitivity to 90%. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Ziel: Ziel unserer Studie war es einerseits zu pruefen, ob mit der MR-Mammographie der Nachweis von nicht-invasiven Karzinomen (DCIS) moeglich ist, und andererseits die Morphologie und das Anreicherungsverhalten der DCIS in der dynamischen MR-Mammographie zu bestimmen. Material und Methode: Bei 741 Patientinnen wurden insgesamt 849 MR-Mammographien durchgefuehrt. In 332 Faellen wurde eine Probeexzision indiziert, und die histologische Untersuchung ergab in 164 Faellen einen malignen Tumor. Darunter befanden sich 20 duktale In-situ-Karzinome (DCIS). Die MR-Mammographien wurden an einem 1,0 T Magneten (Impact, Siemens) mit einer dynamischen FLASH-3D-Sequenz durchgefuehrt. Ergebnisse: 14 der 20 DCIS wurden in der MR-Mammographie aufgrund einer fokalen Signalintensitaetszunahme richtig erkannt. In zwei Faellen (10%) konnte in der MR-Mammographie kein Anstieg der Signalintensitaet beobachtet werden. In weiteren drei Faellen (15%) fuehrte eine multifokale Zunahme der Signalintensitaet zu einer falsch-negativen Diagnose. In einem Fall (5%) handelte es sich um eine Zufallsdiagnose, da das DCIS einem Phylloides-Tumor benachbart war. Die Sensitivitaet der MR-Mammographie betrug 70%. 4 (20%) der DCIS, die keine Mikroverkalkungen in der Mammographie aufwiesen, wurden ausschliesslich durch die MR-Mammographie erkannt. Die Sensitivitaet der Roentgen-Mammographie betrug ebenfalls 70%. Die Kombination beider Verfahren steigerte die Sensitivitaet auf 90%. (orig./AJ)

Sittek, H.; Kessler, M.; Heuck, A.F.; Bredl, T.; Perlet, C.; Kuenzer, I.; Reiser, M. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum Grosshadern, Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Lebeau, A. [Pathologisches Inst., Klinikum Grosshadern, Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Untch, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen Univ. (Germany)

1997-09-01

84

Evaluation of Immunohistochemistry and Silver-Enhanced In Situ Hybridization Results for HER2/neu Manually and with Image Analysis System in Human Breast Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: HER2/neu (ErbB2) gene status is one of the important information while planing terapy in breast carcinoma. For HER2/ neu testing there is not standart assay that has been agreed on. Silver enhanced in situ hybridization is a cantitative and highly reproducible assay. Immunohistochemistry is a cheap and easy assay that has disadvantage of being less reproducible. Recently developed pathologist assisted computerized image analysis systems decrease the ratio of subjectivity due to manual evaluation, enable tele-consultation and make it easy to evaluate tumor morphology and markers. Our aim is to investigate the consistency of manual and computerized interpretation of the results of immunohistochemistry and silver enhanced in situ hybridization.Material and Method: Immunohistochemisty and silver enhanced in situ hybridization of 73 invasive breast carcinoma results were evaluated manually to determine HER2/neu status. Later, silver enhanced in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry results were reevaluated with Ventana Image Analysis System. Afterwards correlation of both methods with image analysis system and manuel interpretation were calculated.Result: All cases were score 2 with immunohistochemistry. With image analysis system, 5 cases were score 1, 56 cases were score 2 and 12 cases were score 3. When in situ hybridization results were reevaluated with image analysis system, 6 cases were discordant compared with manual interpretation.Conclusion: The correlation rate of immunohistochemistry interpretation results between manuel method and image analysis system was %76; but silver enhanced in situ hybridization interpretation results between manuel method and image analysis system were %91 concordant and it was statistically significant (k= 0.832 and p<0.001).

Do?u? ÖZDEM?R; I??n PAK

2010-01-01

85

Comparison of 1 week versus 4 weeks of albendazole therapy in single small enhancing computed tomography lesion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background : The appropriate duration of albendazole therapy in neurocysticercosis is uncertain. The observation in small uncontrolled randomized trials in children that short-course therapy (1 week) is as effective as the conventional regimen (4weeks) must be tested. Objective : To co...

Kaur Prabhjeet; Dhiman Praveena; Dhawan Neeraj; Nijhawan Raman; Pandit Sadbhavna

86

In situ Fenton-enhanced cathodic reaction for sustainable increased electricity generation in microbial fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study reports that Fenton's reaction is capable of facilitating cathodic reaction and thus increasing the current output in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The hydroxyl radicals (.OH) produced via Fenton's reaction are demonstrated to be vital to the enhancement of electricity generation in MFCs. In a two-chamber MFC employing expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) laminated cloth as a separator, the power output is enhanced approximately four times with Fenton's reaction. However, the enhancement lasts only a short time period due to the rapid consumption of Fenton's reagents. To overcome this problem, a Fe {sup rate} {sup at} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/carbon felt (CF) composite cathode is made, which results in a greater and, more importantly, sustainable power output. In the composite cathode, Fe {sup rate} {sup at} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} functions as a controllably releasing Fenton iron reagent and CF functions as an air-fed cathode to electro-generate H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. This newly developed MFC with a Fenton system can ensure a continuous high power output, and also provides a potential solution to the simultaneous electricity generation and degradation of recalcitrant contaminants. (author)

Zhuang, Li; Zhou, Shungui; Liu, Tinglin; Huang, Deyin [Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li, Yongtao [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

2010-03-01

87

Modeling Enhanced In Situ CO2 Mineralization in the Samail Ophiolite Aquifer  

Science.gov (United States)

The Samail Ophiolite aquifer in the Sultanate of Oman is a site of exceptionally well-developed naturally occurring in situ CO2 mineralization, and serves as a natural analog for an engineered CO2 sequestration process. Natural processes within the aquifer can be described by the following reactions [e.g.1,2]: near the surface, infiltrating rainwater dissolves peridotite, increasing dissolved Mg, Ca, and Si; interaction with soil CO2 and carbonate rocks and dust further increases Ca and dissolved C. At deeper levels, groundwater is cut off from the atmosphere-and hence its CO2 source- but continues to dissolve peridotite, and precipitates serpentine, magnesite, and dolomite. The resulting water has a high Ca-OH concentration, essentially no Mg or dissolved C, and ultrabasic pH. When this alkaline water reaches the shallow subsurface or surface, it mixes with CO2-saturated shallow groundwater or absorbs CO2 directly from the atmosphere. Dissolved C reacts with Ca to precipitate calcite on the surface, lowering the pH to basic. This process forms abundant carbonate minerals, both in the subsurface and in surficial travertine terraces. Water chemistry data can be used to determine the amount of CO2 sequestered. The quantity of CO2 mineralized at the surface as CaCO3 can be calculated from the removal of Ca from alkaline water once it discharges at springs, assuming CaCO3 precipitation is the only surficial Ca sink. Water samples from 22 alkaline spring outlets and 16 surface water bodies were used to calculate the average decrease in Ca and increase in TIC as alkaline spring water discharges and flows along the surface, losing its high pH and converting to basic surface water; the values are 1.26 mmol/L Ca and 3.13 mmol/L TIC, respectively. The increase in TIC can be attributed to absorption of atmospheric CO2. In regions with known flow rates, it is possible to determine the total amount of CO2 mineralized annually. For example, near Masibt where the flow rate of a single spring is 3x107 L/yr, the annual loss of Ca is 3.8x104 moles/yr and the amount of CO2 mineralized as CaCO3 by that spring is 0.85 kg/yr. Over 70 alkaline springs have been mapped throughout the Samail Ophiolite3, and doubtless many more exist. At the surface, Ca availability limits carbonate mineral formation; however, in the subsurface, dissolved CO2 must be the limiting species. TIC decreases from 3.24 mmol/L in shallow groundwater to 0.27 mmol/L in alkaline springs. The loss of 2.96 mmol/L TIC likely occurs by magnesite precipitation, meaning that this amount of CO2 is mineralized in the subsurface. If the availability of dissolved CO2 is the limiting factor in mineralization by the Samail Ophiolite aquifer, it may be possible to engineer the system to increase the rate of sequestration by injecting CO2 into the aquifer. To simulate the outcome of such an engineered system, data from the natural system have been incorporated into a reactive transport model. Results of this simulation will be presented. 1Barnes and O’Neil, 1969; 2Bruni et al., 2002; 3Stanger, 1986

Paukert, A. N.; Matter, J. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Shock, E.; Streit, E.

2010-12-01

88

Adhesion enhancement of biomimetic dry adhesives by nanoparticle in situ synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel method to increase the adhesion strength of a gecko-inspired dry adhesive is presented. Gold nanoparticles are synthesized on the tips of the microfibrils of a polymeric dry adhesive to increase its Hamaker constant. Formation of the gold nanoparticles is qualitatively studied through a colour change in the originally transparent substance and quantitatively analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. A pull-off force test is employed to quantify the adhesion enhancement. Specifically, adhesion forces of samples with and without embedded gold nanoparticles are measured and compared. The experimental results indicate that an adhesion improvement of 135% can be achieved.

Díaz Téllez, J. P.; Harirchian-Saei, S.; Li, Y.; Menon, C.

2013-10-01

89

Enhanced production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) in a novel airlift reactor with in situ cell retention using Azohydromonas australica.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Economic production of biodegradable plastics is a challenge particularly because of high substrate and energy cost inputs for its production. Research efforts are being directed towards innovations to minimize both of the above costs to economize polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production. A novel airlift reactor (ALR) with outer aeration and internal settling was utilized in this investigation. Although it featured no power consumption for agitation, it facilitated increased oxygen transfer rate and better cell retention than stirred tank reactor (STR), thereby resulting in enhanced PHB productivity. ALR with in situ cell retention demonstrated a significant improvement in biomass concentration and biopolymer accumulation. The total PHB production rate, specific biomass, and product yield in the ALR were observed to be 0.84 g/h, 0.43 g/g, and 0.32 g/g, respectively. The studies revealed that the volumetric oxygen mass transfer rate and mixing time for ALR were 0.016 s?¹ and 3.73 s, respectively, at 2.0 vvm as compared with corresponding values of 0.005 s?¹ and 4.95 s, respectively, in STR. This demonstrated that ALR has better oxygen mass transfer and mixing efficiency than STR. Hence, ALR with cell retention would serve as a better bioreactor design for economic biopolymer production than STR, particularly due to its lower cost of operation and simplicity along with its enhanced oxygen and heat transfer rates.

Gahlawat G; Sengupta B; Srivastava AK

2012-09-01

90

Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of WO3/Ti photoanode due to in situ formation of a thin interfacial composite layer  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanostructured WO3 thin films were prepared on titanium sheet substrates using a doctor blade technique. X-ray diffraction, Raman and field emission scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that the synthesized WO3 films are having monoclinic crystal structure, porous, polycrystalline with average grain size of ˜50 nm. The photoelectrochemical responses of WO3 films prepared on treated Ti sheets were recorded in 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte under simulated 100 mW/cm2 illumination. WO3 film prepared on polished Ti sheet showed considerable enhancement in photocurrent as compared to WO3 films made on unpolished and pre-oxidized Ti sheets. These results suggest that in situ formation of a thin WOx-TiOy interfacial composite layer and improved adhesion of WO3 nanoparticles owing to increased reactive sites on polished Ti substrate play a significant role in enhancing the photoresponse. Such photoanodes are potential candidates in photoelectrochemical water splitting system for hydrogen generation.

Lee, Won Jae; Shinde, Pravin S.; Go, Geun Ho; Doh, Chil Hoon

2013-04-01

91

Application of steam injection and electrical heating for enhanced in situ soil and ground water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The acceleration of recovery rates of second phase liquid contaminants from the subsurface during gas or water pumping operations is realized by an increase in soil temperature. Of the various methods of delivery of thermal energy to soils and ground water, steam injection appears to be the most economical and versatile technique for soils with sufficient permeability. The use of steam injection to recovery volatile semivolatile, and nonvolatile contaminants from the sub-surface also allows the exploitation of various thermodynamic and hydrodynamic mechanisms. These mechanisms include vaporization of liquids with boiling points below that of water, enhanced evaporation rates of semivolatile components, physical displacement of low viscosity liquids, dilution and displacement of aqueous contaminants, and removal of residual contaminants from low permeability zones by depressurization and vacuum drying. Electrical heating provides a means of preferentially heating the low permeability zones. A recently completed field-scale demonstration of the patented combined steam injection and electrical heating enhanced extraction technology (Dynamic Underground Stripping) to remove gasoline at a site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory confirms the effectiveness of this technique and its applicability to contaminants found above and below the water table.

1994-01-01

92

Improved CO sub 2 enhanced oil recovery -- Mobility control by in-situ chemical precipitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of this study has been to evaluate the feasibility of chemical precipitation to improve CO{sub 2} sweep efficiency and mobility control. The laboratory experiments have indicated that carbonate precipitation can alter the permeability of the core samples under reservoir conditions. Furthermore, the relative permeability measurements have revealed that precipitation reduces the gas permeability in favor of liquid permeability. This indicates that precipitation is occurring preferentially in the larger pores. Additional experimental work with a series of connected cores have indicated that the permeability profile can be successfully modified. However, Ph control plays a critical role in propagation of the chemical precipitation reaction. A numerical reservoir model has been utilized to evaluate the effects of permeability heterogeneity and permeability modification on the CO{sub 2} sweep efficiency. The computer simulation results indicate that the permeability profile modification can significantly enhance CO{sub 2} vertical and horizontal sweep efficiencies. The scoping studies with the model have further revealed that only a fraction of high permeability zones need to be altered to achieve sweep efficiency enhancement. 64 refs., 30 figs., 16 tabs.

Ameri, S.; Aminian, K.; Wasson, J.A.; Durham, D.L.

1991-06-01

93

Innovative Protocols for in SITU MTBE Degradation by Using Molecular Probes-An Enhanced Chemical-Bio Oxidation Technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a common technology to cleanup petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater. Sodium percarbonate (SPC) is an oxidant which is activated by iron (Fe) to produce Fenton-like reactions. Western Research Institute, in conjunction with Regenesis and the U.S. Department of Energy, conducted a study that investigated the performance of a 'safe' oxidant, SPC, to cleanup groundwater and soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and associated contaminants (e.g., MTBE). Results from a field pilot test in Frenchglen, Oregon showed VOC concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially within 2 weeks after injecting activated SPC (RegenOx). A protocol was established for determining RegenOx TOD in soils and groundwater. Total oxidant demand tests were necessary to determine the correct dosage of RegenOx to apply in the field and sufficiently degrade the contaminants of concern. Bench studies with RegenOx showed this technology was effective in degrading diesel fuel and 1,4-dioxane. The Fe-silica activator (RegenOx Part B) was tested with another oxidant, sodium persulfate. Bench tests results showed the combination of sodium persulfate and RegenOx Part B was effective in reducing PCE, MTBE, benzene, and n-heptane concentrations in water. Overall, the results of this project indicated that most petroleum contaminants in soil and groundwater can be sufficiently degraded using the RegenOx technology.

Paul Fallgren

2009-02-20

94

In situ fabricated polymer-silver nanocomposite thin film as an inexpensive and efficient substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.  

Science.gov (United States)

The utility of polymer-metal nanocomposite thin films with in situ generated silver nanoparticles as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is demonstrated. Thin films of poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) containing Ag nanoparticles generated in situ through thermal annealing and photoirradiation, respectively (Ag-PVA and Ag-PVVV), are investigated as potential SERS substrates using 4-aminothiophenol and rhodamine 6G as probe molecules. The fabrication protocols are extremely simple and the materials inexpensive. The Ag-PVA substrate is found to produce Raman spectral enhancement factors of ?10(6), whereas Ag-PVVV, a novel nanocomposite thin film developed in the present study, provides enhancement factors of ?10(7). A unique advantage of these nanocomposite films is demonstrated by fabricating them by the in situ process as a thin coating inside glass capillaries and using these disposable SERS substrates for the sensitive detection of the probe molecules. The thin film substrates prepared on glass plates and capillaries facilitate convenient sample preparation for recording the Raman spectra and provide strongly enhanced spectra with high reproducibility, allowing picomols of the analytes to be detected. These aspects combined with the ease of fabrication and low cost of these in situ fabricated nanocomposite thin films make them highly attractive SERS substrates. PMID:24106915

Hariprasad, E; Radhakrishnan, T P

2013-10-09

95

Laser in situ keratomileusis enhancements with the Ziemer FEMTO LDV femtosecond laser following previous LASIK treatments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to present the accuracy, predictability, and safety outcomes of LASIK enhancements performed with the FEMTO LDV femtosecond laser (Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems, Port, Switzerland) and the Allegretto Wave Concerto 500 Hz excimer laser (Wavelight AG, Erlangen, Germany), following previous LASIK treatments. METHODS: FEMTO LDV was used for flap creation in 85 previously LASIK-treated eyes of 62 patients. The intended flap thickness was 90 ?m in 81 eyes and 140 ?m in 4 eyes. The size of the suction ring was 9.0 mm in 72 eyes and 9.5 mm in 13 eyes. Flap dimensions were measured and correlated to preoperative characteristics. RESULTS: With the intended flap thickness of 90 ?m in previously LASIK-treated eyes, the actual flap thickness was 90.2 ± 6.6 ?m (range 80-122), and the flap diameter was 9.2 ± 0.2 mm (range 8.7-9.9). The mean hinge length was 4.0 ± 0.2 mm (range 3.0-4.8). Flap thickness correlated positively with patient age and hinge length. Complications were reported in 12 eyes (14.1 %). Most of the complications were very mild, and none of them prevented further refractive laser treatment. One eye lost two Snellen lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS: Femtosecond LASIK enhancement is warranted only in rare cases. Surgical experience is needed and special caution must be practiced. For cases of a primary free cap, femtosecond LASIK is not recommended.

Pietilä J; Huhtala A; Mäkinen P; Uusitalo H

2013-02-01

96

In-Situ Sonication for Enhanced Recovery of Aquifer Microbial Communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sampling methods for characterization of microbial communities in aquifers should target both suspended and attached microorganisms (biofilms). We investigated the effectiveness and reproducibility of low-frequency (200?Hz) sonication pulses on improving extraction efficiency and quality of microorganisms from a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in Studen (Switzerland). Sonication pulses at different power levels (0.65, 0.9, and 1.1?kW) were applied to three different groundwater monitoring wells. Groundwater samples extracted after each pulse were compared with background groundwater samples for cell and adenosine tri-phosphate concentration. Turbidity values were obtained to assess the release of sediment fines and associated microorganisms. The bacterial community in extracted groundwater samples was analyzed by terminal-restriction-fragment-length polymorphism and compared with communities obtained from background groundwater samples and from sediment cores. Sonication enhanced the extraction efficiency up to 13-fold, with most of the biomass being associated with the sediment fines extracted with groundwater. Consecutive pulses at constant power were decreasingly effective, while pulses with higher power yielded the best results both in terms of extraction efficiency and quality. Our results indicate that low-frequency sonication may be a viable and cost-effective tool to improve the extraction of microorganisms from aquifers, taking advantage of existing groundwater monitoring wells.

Ugolini F; Henneberger R; Bürgmann H; Zeyer J; Schroth MH

2013-08-01

97

Enhanced control of Listeria monocytogenes by in situ-produced pediocin during dry fermented sausage production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine whether pediocin is produced and has effective antilisterial activity during food fermentation, six sausage fermentation trials were conducted with antibiotic-resistant, pediocin-producing (Bac+) Pediococcus acidilactici PAC 1.0 (Strr Rifr) and an isogenic pediocin-negative (Bac-) derivative used as a control. Meat was inoculated (ca. 10(5) CFU/g) with a composite of five Listeria monocytogenes strains, each electrotransformed with pGK12 (Cmr Emr). P. acidilactici and L. monocytogenes populations were selectively enumerated by plating on media with antibiotics. This study indicated that the dry sausage fermentation process can reduce L. monocytogenes populations. Effective inactivation of L. monocytogenes was observed when the pH at the end of the fermentation portion of the process was less than 4.9. Pediocin was responsible for part of the antilisterial activity during the fermentation in each of the six trials. Furthermore, inhibition of L. monocytogenes during drying was enhanced in the presence of pediocin in the three trials in which L. monocytogenes could be detected throughout the drying process. Thus, pediocin production contributed to an increase in safety during both the fermentation and drying portions of sausage manufacturing.

Foegeding PM; Thomas AB; Pilkington DH; Klaenhammer TR

1992-03-01

98

The in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery in fractured porous media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These experiments aim to investigate the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technique in fractured porous media using etched-glass micromodels. Three identically patterned micromodels with different fracture angle orientation of inclined, vertical and horizontal with respect to the flow direction were utilized. A non-fractured model was also used to compare the efficiency of MEOR in fractured and non-fractured porous media. Two types of bacteria were employed: Bacillus subtilis (a biosurfactant-producing bacterium) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (an exopolymer-producing bacterium). The results show that higher oil recovery efficiency can be achieved by using biosurfactant-producing bacterium in fractured porous media. Further investigation on the effect of the mentioned bacteria on oil viscosity, porous media permeability and wettability suggests that the plugging of matrix-fracture interfaces by an exopolymer is the main reason for the low performance of the exopolymer-producing bacterium. Oil viscosity reduction as well as the reduction of IFT was also found to be the reason for better microbial recovery efficiencies of biosurfactant-producing bacterium in the fractured models. (author)

Soudmand-asli, Alireza; Ayatollahi, S. Shahab; Zareie, Maryam [School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Mohabatkar, Hassan [Department of Biology, School of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Shariatpanahi, S. Farzad [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)

2007-08-15

99

Enhanced in-situ biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons using passive addition of oxygen to groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A field trial incorporating the addition of oxygen to ground water through a passive interception system to ground water in a shallow sand aquifer beneath a former gasoline station in southwestern Ontario (Canada) has been initiated. The purpose of the trial is to evaluate the degree of remediation by oxygen-enhanced biodegradation. Based on the results of preliminary tests, the selected oxygen source is an oxygen-releasing compound (ORC), a proprietary metal peroxide powder. The ORC is mixed with sand, wrapped in a permeable filter sock and lowered down an unpumped well to the ground water zone in a retrievable plastic harness. In the design configuration adopted for the test, seven source wells constructed of 20 cm diameter PVC plastic were installed across a segment of a plume containing elevated concentrations of BTEX. The wells were screened (No. 8 slot) across the water table from 3 m below ground surface to their terminal depths at 6 m. The source wells were installed at 0.8 m centers in staggered fashion in two adjacent rows separated by 0.8 m. The experiment was designed with the intent of inducing convergent flow of ground water through the source wells to ensure interception of the plume across the trial segment by maintaining hydraulic conductivity of the ORC-filled chambers within the wells above that of the surrounding aquifer materials.

Smyth, D.J.A. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Wilson, R.D.; Byerley, B.T.; Chapman, S.W.; Mackay, D.M.

1995-09-01

100

Dynamic and topographic observation of calcite dissolution using enhanced in-situ phase-shift interferometry  

Science.gov (United States)

The dissolution rate of calcite in water with and without flow was measured using enhanced phase-shift interferometry (PSI). This technique uses a white light source instead of laser light to shorten the coherent wave-length providing quick and precise measurements of mineral dissolution and growth over relatively short time scales (several tens of minutes). Phase shift interferometry is non-invasive technique that allows surface observation at the molecular level in water as well as direct, simultaneous measurement of step velocity and the behavior of crystal surfaces during dissolution. The theoretical PSI resolution in the vertical direction in water is 0.78 nm; however the practical detection limit of the calcite dissolution experiments was 4.2 nm due to the effects of external and internal inferences such as apparatus drift, air drag, etc.The calcite dissolution rate at zero water flow was estimated from the retreat velocity as 0.0494 nm/s, which corresponds to flux rate of 1.33E-10 mol/cm2/s. This is around the lower limit of previously published data obtained mainly by powder experiments. The dissolution rates for different vicinal slopes of the surface were also measured. These rates were well-correlated with the vicinal slopes in accordance with BCF theory indicating that there is a mutual interaction between neighboring growth/dissolution steps via diffusion, consistent with previously published AFM measurements.The effect of topographical features on the microscopic dissolution behavior was clearly observed during the PSI measurements. The dissolution velocity at the isolated step in pure water was obtained as 2.8 nm/s by fitting the experimental data. Thus, it is possible to examine and determine global calcite dissolution rates using the topographical measurements determined from PSI experiments.

Ueta, Shinzo; Satoh, Hisao; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Akira; Tsukamoto, Katsuo

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Elicitation and in situ adsorption enhanced secondary metabolites production of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. adventitious root fragment liquid cultures in shake flask and a modified bubble column bioreactor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The experiments of elicitation and in situ adsorption were conducted in shake flasks and then tested in a modified bubble column bioreactor for enhancing the productions of three active metabolites in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., triptolide, wilforgine and wilforine. Methyl jasmonate was screened out as the elicitor and the non-ionic polymeric ion-exchange resin of Amberlite(®) XAD-7 was used for in situ product removal and protecting the alkaloids from degradation in the medium. In shake flask experiments, 3.55-fold, 49.11-fold, and 10.40-fold of triptolide, wilforgine, and wilforine, respectively, could be recovered from the medium and XAD-7 resin by elicitation and in situ product removal, compared with the control. The modified 10 L bubble column bioreactor had similar productions of the three active metabolites but needed a further optimization of parameters for better growth of adventitious roots.

Miao GP; Zhu CS; Yang YQ; Feng MX; Ma ZQ; Feng JT; Zhang X

2013-08-01

102

In-situ plasmon-driven chemical reactions revealed by high vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With strong surface plasmons excited at the metallic tip, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) has both high spectroscopic sensitivity and high spatial resolution, and is becoming an essential tool for chemical analysis. It is a great challenge to combine TERS with a high vacuum system due to the poor optical collection efficiency. We used our innovatively designed home-built high vacuum TERS (HV-TERS) to investigate the plasmon-driven in-situ chemical reaction of 4-nitrobenzenethiol dimerizing to dimercaptoazobenzene. The chemical reactions can be controlled by the plasmon intensity, which in turn can be controlled by the incident laser intensity, tunneling current and bias voltage. The temperature of such a chemical reaction can also be obtained by the clearly observed Stokes and Anti-Stokes HV-TERS peaks. Our findings offer a new way to design a highly efficient HV-TERS system and its applications to chemical catalysis and synthesis of molecules, and significantly extend the studies of chemical reactions.

Sun M; Zhang Z; Zheng H; Xu H

2012-01-01

103

A pilot test of passive oxygen release for enhancement of in situ bioremediation of BTEX-contaminated ground water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pilot-scale field demonstration of the use of Oxygen Release Compound{trademark} (ORC) was conducted at the site of a former gasoline service station. ORC was installed into a barrier consisting of a tight pattern of treatment wells located relatively near the apparent source of hydrocarbon contamination. The purpose of the barrier was to enhance in situ biodegradation of BTEX in ground water by the passive release of oxygen from the unpumped treatment wells placed across the migration path of the plume. Detailed monitoring was carried out using fencelines of multilevel monitoring wells located up- and downgradient of the barrier. Total BTEX concentrations influent to the barrier were found to be highly variable in space and time. Total influent BTEX concentrations averaged on a cross section transverse to flow were less variable over time, ranging from 10 to 16 mg/L. Significant decreases in BTEX mass flux through the zone impacted by the treatment wells were observed. For the entire portion of the plume impacted by the treatment wells, estimated BTEX treatment efficiency was approximately 70% on Day 51 of the test and declined thereafter.

Chapman, S.W.; Byerley, B.T.; Smyth, D.J.A.; Mackay, D.M.

1997-09-01

104

Ultrasensitive DNA Microarray Biosensing via in situ RNA Transcription-Based Amplification and Nanoparticle-Enhanced SPR Imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA microarrays are invaluable tools for the detection and identification of nucleic acids in biosensing applications. The sensitivity and selectivity of multiplexed single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) surface bioaffinity sensing can be greatly enhanced when coupled to a surface enzymatic reaction. Herein we describe a novel method where the specific sequence-dependent adsorption of a target ssDNA template molecule onto a ssDNA-modified gold microarray is followed with the generation of multiple copies of ssRNA via in situ surface transcription by RNA polymerase. The RNA created on this “generator” element is then detected by specific adsorption onto a second adjacent “detector” element of ssDNA that is complementary to one end of the ssRNA transcript. SPR imaging is then used to detect the subsequent hybridization of complementary DNA-coated gold nanoparticles with the surface-bound RNA. This RNA transcription-based, dual element amplification method is used to detect ssDNA down to a concentration of 1 fM in a volume of 25 ?L (25 zeptomoles).

Sendroiu, Iuliana E.; Gifford, Lida K.; Luptak, Andrej; Corn, Robert M.

2011-01-01

105

Retargeting vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviral vectors with enhanced stability by in situ synthesized polymer shell.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability to introduce transgenes with precise specificity to the desired target cells or tissues is key to a more facile application of genetic therapy. Here, we describe a novel method using nanotechnology to generate lentiviral vectors with altered recognition of host cell receptor specificity. Briefly, the infectivity of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) pseudotyped lentiviral vectors was shielded by a thin polymer shell synthesized in situ onto the viral envelope, and new binding ability was conferred to the shielded virus by introducing acrylamide-tailored cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptide to the polymer shell. We termed the resulting virus "targeting nanovirus." The targeting nanovirus had similar titer with VSV-G pseudotypes and specifically transduced Hela cells with high transduction efficiency. In addition, the encapsulation of the VSV-G pseudotyped lentivirus by the polymer shell did not change the pathway that VSV-G pseudotypes enter and fuse with cells, as well as later events such as reverse transcription and gene expression. Furthermore, the targeting nanovirus possessed enhanced stability in the presence of human serum, indicating protection of the virus by the polymer shell from human serum complement inactivation. This novel use of nanotechnology demonstrates proof of concept for an approach that could be more generally applied for redirecting viral vectors for laboratory and clinical purposes.

Liang M; Yan M; Lu Y; Chen IS

2013-02-01

106

A pilot test of passive oxygen release for enhancement of in situ bioremediation of BTEX-contaminated ground water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pilot-scale field demonstration of the use of Oxygen Release Compound trademark (ORC) was conducted at the site of a former gasoline service station. ORC was installed into a barrier consisting of a tight pattern of treatment wells located relatively near the apparent source of hydrocarbon contamination. The purpose of the barrier was to enhance in situ biodegradation of BTEX in ground water by the passive release of oxygen from the unpumped treatment wells placed across the migration path of the plume. Detailed monitoring was carried out using fencelines of multilevel monitoring wells located up- and downgradient of the barrier. Total BTEX concentrations influent to the barrier were found to be highly variable in space and time. Total influent BTEX concentrations averaged on a cross section transverse to flow were less variable over time, ranging from 10 to 16 mg/L. Significant decreases in BTEX mass flux through the zone impacted by the treatment wells were observed. For the entire portion of the plume impacted by the treatment wells, estimated BTEX treatment efficiency was approximately 70% on Day 51 of the test and declined thereafter

1997-01-01

107

Enhancement of intestinal absorption of akebia saponin D by borneol and probenecid in situ and in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Akebia saponin D is a typical bioactive triterpenoid saponin isolated the rhizome of Dipsacus asper Wall. Our previous studies demonstrated that the oral bioavailability of akebia saponin D was very low, but the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. The present study aims to investigate the intestinal absorptive characteristics of akebia saponin D as well as the absorptive transport behavior influenced by co-administration of three absorption-enhancing agents and three efflux protein inhibitors using an in vitro everted gut sac method and an in situ intestinal perfusion model. The results showed that akebia saponin D had a quite limited intestinal permeability, and there was a non-linear increase in transepithelial transportation with increasing concentrations of akebia saponin D. The absorption of akebia saponin D was intestinal segment selective and the small intestine was the best absorptive site. Among three absorption promoters, borneol could significantly improve the permeability of akebia saponin D across ileum, while Tween-80 and DMSO had almost no absorption-enhancing effect. In addition, verapamil, probenecid and pantoprazole in the perfusates were used in this study as modulators of transporters such as P-glycoprotein, MRPs and BCRP in the intestinal mucosa, respectively. The results exhibited that the ileal permeability of akebia saponin D was markedly elevated by the co-administration of probenecid, indicating that akebia saponin D may be likely a substrate of MRPs. The above-mentioned results suggest that akebia saponin D has a poor intestinal absorption not only due to its poor transepithelial permeability but also owing to the contribution of efflux transporters such as MRPs in the intestine.

Zhou Y; Li W; Chen L; Ma S; Ping L; Yang Z

2010-05-01

108

Enhancement of intestinal absorption of akebia saponin D by borneol and probenecid in situ and in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Akebia saponin D is a typical bioactive triterpenoid saponin isolated the rhizome of Dipsacus asper Wall. Our previous studies demonstrated that the oral bioavailability of akebia saponin D was very low, but the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. The present study aims to investigate the intestinal absorptive characteristics of akebia saponin D as well as the absorptive transport behavior influenced by co-administration of three absorption-enhancing agents and three efflux protein inhibitors using an in vitro everted gut sac method and an in situ intestinal perfusion model. The results showed that akebia saponin D had a quite limited intestinal permeability, and there was a non-linear increase in transepithelial transportation with increasing concentrations of akebia saponin D. The absorption of akebia saponin D was intestinal segment selective and the small intestine was the best absorptive site. Among three absorption promoters, borneol could significantly improve the permeability of akebia saponin D across ileum, while Tween-80 and DMSO had almost no absorption-enhancing effect. In addition, verapamil, probenecid and pantoprazole in the perfusates were used in this study as modulators of transporters such as P-glycoprotein, MRPs and BCRP in the intestinal mucosa, respectively. The results exhibited that the ileal permeability of akebia saponin D was markedly elevated by the co-administration of probenecid, indicating that akebia saponin D may be likely a substrate of MRPs. The above-mentioned results suggest that akebia saponin D has a poor intestinal absorption not only due to its poor transepithelial permeability but also owing to the contribution of efflux transporters such as MRPs in the intestine. PMID:21787607

Zhou, Yongqiang; Li, Weize; Chen, Lvyi; Ma, Shuwei; Ping, Li; Yang, Zhonglin

2010-01-29

109

In situ study of the antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of silver nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are extensively used as an antibacterial additive in commercial products and their release has caused environmental risk. However, conventional methods for the toxicity detection of Ag NPs are very time consuming and the mechanisms of action are not clear. We developed a new, in situ, rapid, and sensitive fingerprinting approach, using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), to study the antibacterial activity and mechanism of Ag NPs of 80 and 18 nm (Ag80 and Ag18, respectively), by using the strong electromagnetic enhancement generated by Ag NPs. Sensitive spectra changes representing various biomolecules in bacteria were observed with increasing concentrations of Ag NPs. They not only allowed SERS to monitor the antibacterial activity of Ag NPs of different sizes in different water media but also to study the antibacterial mechanism at the molecular level. Ag18 were found to be more toxic than Ag80 in water, but their toxicity declined to a similar level in the PBS medium. The antibacterial mechanism was proposed on the basis of a careful identification of the chemical origins by comparing the SERS spectra with model compounds. The dramatic change in protein, hypoxanthine, adenosine, and guanosine bands suggested that Ag NPs have a significant impact on the protein and metabolic processes of purine. Finally, by adding nontoxic and SERS active Au NPs, SERS was successfully utilized to study the action mode of the NPs unable to produce an observable SERS signal. This work opens a window for the future extensive SERS studies of the antibacterial mechanism of a great variety of non-SERS-active NPs. PMID:23656550

Cui, Li; Chen, Pengyu; Chen, Shaode; Yuan, Zhihua; Yu, Changping; Ren, Bin; Zhang, Kaisong

2013-05-21

110

In-situ integration of squaraine nanowire array based Schottky-type photodetectors with enhanced switching performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organic nanostructure based photodetectors are important building blocks for future high-performance, low-cost, and flexible nano-optoelectronic devices. However, the device integration remains a big challenge, and the device structure dependent performance is seldom studied yet. Here we report the in-situ integration of 2,4-bis[4-(N,N -dimethylamino)phenyl]squaraine (SQ) nanowire (NW) array based photodetectors by growing the organic NW arrays on pre-fabricated electrodes through evaporation-induced self-assembly process. Differing from the ohmic-contact devices, asymmetric electrodes pairs of Au-Ti were utilized to achieve the construction of Schottky-type photodetectors based on the organic NW arrays. Significantly, the Schottky-type photodetectors exhibited much enhanced performance as compared to the ohmic-type devices in terms of higher photosensitivity and switching speed. The presence of strong built-in electric filed at junction interface, which could greatly facilitate the separation/transportation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, were suggested to be responsible for the superior performance of the Schottky-type photodetectors. More importantly, the organic NW arrays based devices also showed higher sensitivity and reproducibility than that of the single NW based devices, and were capable for low-light detection. Investigation on the photodetector circuitry also disclosed a very low pixel-to pixel variation owing to the average effect of the NW array based devices. It is expected that the organic NW array based Schottky-type photodetectors will have important applications in future organic nano-opotelectronic devices.

Zhang Y; Deng W; Zhang X; Zhang X; Zhang X; Xing Y; Jie J

2013-07-01

111

Performance Enhancement Among Adolescent Players After 10 weeks Pitching Training with Appropriate Baseball Weights.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Compared to regulation-weight baseballs, lightweight baseballs generate lower torque on the shoulder and elbow joints without altering the pitching movement and timing. This study investigates the throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and maximum shoulder external rotation (MSER) of adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate lightweight baseballs. We assigned 24 adolescent players to a lightweight baseball group (Group L) and a regulation-weight baseball group (Group R) based on their pre-training throwing velocity. Both groups received pitching training 3 times per week for 10 weeks with 4.4-oz and 5-oz baseballs. The players' throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and MSER were measured from 10 maximum efforts throws using a regulation-weight baseball before and after undergoing the pitching training. The results showed that the players in Group L significantly increased their throwing velocity and arm swing velocity (p < .05) after 10 weeks of pitching training with 4.4-oz baseball, whereas Group R did not (p > .05). Furthermore, the percentage change in the throwing velocity and arm swing velocity of Group L was significantly superior to that of Group R (p <.05). Thus, we concluded that the 10 weeks of pitching training with an appropriate lightweight baseball substantially enhanced the arm swing velocity and throwing velocity of the adolescent baseball players. These findings suggest that using a lightweight baseball, which can reduce the risk of injury without altering pitching patterns, has positive training effects on players in the rapid physical growth and technique development stage.

Yang WW; Liu YC; Lu LC; Chang HY; Chou PP; Liu C

2013-04-01

112

In situ growth of a ZnO nanowire network within a TiO(2) nanoparticle film for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cell performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

ZnO nanowire networks featuring excellent charge transport and light scattering properties are grown in situ within TiO(2) films. The resultant TiO(2) /ZnO composites, used as photoanodes, remarkably enhance the overall conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by 26.9%, compared to that of benchmark TiO(2) films. PMID:22930471

Bai, Yang; Yu, Hua; Li, Zhen; Amal, Rose; Lu, Gao Qing Max; Wang, Lianzhou

2012-08-29

113

In situ formation of nanocrystals from a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system to enhance oral bioavailability of fenofibrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available You-Meei Lin1, Jui-Yu Wu2, Ying-Chen Chen3, Yu-Der Su3, Wen-Tin Ke3, Hsiu-O Ho31Department of Pharmacy, Shuang Ho Hospital, 2Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, 3School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROCObjectives: In situ formation of nanocrystals and dissolution profiles of fenofibrate (FFB) from a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) were characterized.Methods: SMEDDS formulated with Myritol® and surfactant mixture (Smix) of D-?-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) and either Tween® 20 (A, C, E, G, M, S, N, T, O) or Tween® 80 (B, D, F, H, P, U, Q, V, R) at various oil/Smix ratios (Group I: A and B of 0.42, C and D of 0.25, E and F of 0.11; Group II: G and H of 1.38, M and P of 1.11, S and U of 0.9, N and Q of 0.73, T and V of 0.58, and O and R of 0.46) and water contents (1: 9.5%, 2: 5.0%, 3: 0.0%, G-V: 4.5%). Their dissolutions were conducted at different rotation speeds. Two optimal SMEDDSs containing Tween 80(B2) or a higher oil/Smix ratio(Q) and B2(solution) were selected for pharmacokinetic study.Results: FFB particles formed within the nanosize range from Group I gradually increased with time but decreased with increasing stirring rates. However, the mean size of FFB formed by B series was as low as 200 nm, which was smaller than that of A series at three stirring rates. The release rate from both groups obviously increased with increasing stirring rate. However, incomplete release was observed for S and N in Tween 20 series, whereas a faster release rate and complete release were observed for Tween 80 series with an insignificant difference among them. Results of pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the highest-ranked area under the curve and Cmax values were for Q(SMEDDS) and B2(solution), respectively. The relative bioavailability of Q(SMEDDS) with respect to Tricor® was enhanced by about 1.14-1.22-fold.Conclusion: SMEDDS, consisting of Myritol 318 and TPGS combined with Tween 80 at 4:1, was able to enhance the oral bioavailability of FFB.Keywords: SMEDDS, fenofibrate, microemulsion, dissolution, TPGS

Lin YM; Wu JU; Chen YC; Su YD; Ke WT; Ho HO; Sheu MT

2011-01-01

114

Photocurrent enhancement for Ti-doped Fe?O? thin film photoanodes by an in situ solid-state reaction method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work, a higher concentration of Ti ions are incorporated into hydrothermally grown Ti-doped (2.2% by atomic ratio) micro-nanostructured hematite films by an in situ solid-state reaction method. The doping concentration is improved from 2.2% to 19.7% after the in situ solid-state reaction. X-ray absorption analysis indicates the substitution of Fe ions by Ti ions, without the generation of Fe²? defects. Photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals the dramatic improvement of the electrical conductivity of the hematite film after the in situ solid-state reaction. As a consequence, the photocurrent density increases 8-fold (from 0.15 mA/cm² to 1.2 mA/cm²), and it further increases up to ?1.5 mA/cm² with the adsorption of Co ions. Our findings demonstrate that the in situ solid-state reaction is an effective method to increase the doping level of Ti ions in hematite films with the retention of the micro-nanostructure of the films and enhance the photocurrent.

Miao C; Shi T; Xu G; Ji S; Ye C

2013-02-01

115

Enhanced hydrogen embrittlement of Pd-coated niobium metal membrane detected by in situ small punch test under hydrogen permeation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The hydrogen embrittlement of pure niobium metal membrane was investigated under a hydrogen atmosphere by using a newly developed in situ small punch apparatus. The boundary for the ductile-to-brittle transition of the palladium-coated pure niobium was determined from a series of the in situ small punch tests. The measured boundary was found to be shifted greatly to the lower hydrogen content region as compared to that of palladium non-coated niobium membrane. The present result will provide us a clue to the design of niobium-based permeable membrane against the hydrogen embrittlement

2007-10-31

116

In-situ treatment of a mixed hydrocarbon plume through enhanced bio-remediation and a PRB system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Groundwater is frequently polluted with mixtures of contaminants that are amenable to different types of remediation. One example is the combination of petroleum hydrocarbons (BTEX) and chlorinated solvents (PCE, TCE, DCE, VC), as it occurs in the groundwater beneath the industrial site that is the objective of the present case study. The site is located in Italy near a main river (Arno), which is supposed to be the final recipient of the contamination and where a possible exposure might take place. The aim of the treatment is the plume containment within the site boundaries in order to avoid further migration of the contaminants towards the river. The design of the remediation system was based on an extensive site characterization that included - but was not limited to - the following information: geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with analytical data (i.e. contaminant concentrations). Pilot tests were also implemented in order to collect the necessary parameters for the full-scale treatment design and calibration. The monitoring of the site conditions was carried out throughout a period of several months, both with periodical measurements and sampling and with fixed monitoring probes, in order to record the aquifer changes (levels, concentrations, etc.) related both to seasonal variations and to the pilot tests. The groundwater is located in a highly heterogeneous aquifer, with a saturated thickness of 1.5 m and an average hydraulic conductivity of 2.5 x 10{sup -5} m/s. The seepage velocity is extremely low, with a mean value around 1.3 mm/d. This results in a long residence time and limited volumes per time unit to be treated. The site was contaminated by a mixed plume of more than 15 different contaminants, ranging from BTEX, to MTBE, to PAH, to chlorinated solvents. The concentration peaks were in the order of 1-100 mg/l for each contaminant. Petroleum hydrocarbons are quickly degradable through oxidative mechanisms (especially aerobic biodegradation), whereas fully-chlorinated compounds are only biodegradable via reductive pathways. Therefore, a mixed plume of both types of contaminants requires a combined approach with the application of different treatment technologies. The remediation strategy elaborated combines an enhanced bio-remediation of the hot spots with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) in a funnel and gate configuration for the down-gradient plume containment. Pilot tests were carried out in order to assess the efficiency and feasibility of such technologies in the site of interest. The enhanced bio-remediation is going to be carried out by means of injections of hydrogen release compounds (HRC) and oxygen release compounds (ORC) for the biodegradation of chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons respectively. A pilot test was conducted to determine the degradation rates of the different contaminants. The pilot test was monitored with a periodic sampling and analysis of the groundwater and with a continuous monitoring of the physical-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, conductivity, redox potential and dissolved oxygen) in the monitoring wells placed immediately down-gradient of the injection points. The tests showed the possibility to use the enhanced bio-remediation with the double aim to reduce the hot spot concentrations, in order to lower the contaminant load on the PRB, and to control the lateral spreading of the plume in the side regions. Permeable reactive barriers are passive groundwater treatment systems that are able to decontaminate groundwater as it flows through a permeable treatment medium under natural gradients. The main advantage of this technology over ex-situ and other in-situ groundwater remediation approaches is the reduced operation- and maintenance costs. For the permeable reactive barrier, a funnel and gate configuration was selected. This system uses low permeability materials (funnel) to direct groundwater towards a permeable treatment zone (gate). To ensure that flow beneath the system does not occur, funnel and gate systems

Aglietto, I.; Bargoni, G.; Bretti, L.L. [Studio aglietto s.r.l. (Italy)

2005-07-01

117

Synthesis of Pt-Ni/graphene via in situ reduction and its enhanced catalyst activity for methanol oxidation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple in situ reduction approach was used to obtain Pt3Ni/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with dominant {111} facets. The catalytic activity of Pt-Ni/rGO toward methanol electro-oxidation was studied by performing cyclic voltammetry. The Pt3Ni/rGO nanocatalysts exhibited improved catalytic activity and durability.

Li L; Wu Y; Lu J; Nan C; Li Y

2013-09-01

118

Ion-irradiation-induced defects in isotopically-labeled two layered graphene: enhanced in-situ annealing of the damage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contrary to theoretical estimates based on the conventional binary collision model, experimental results indicate that the number of defects in the lower layer of the bi-layer graphene sample is smaller than in the upper layer. This observation is explained by in situ self-annealing of the defects.

Kalbac M; Lehtinen O; Krasheninnikov AV; Keinonen J

2013-02-01

119

Increased tumor oxygenation and drug uptake during anti-angiogenic weekly low dose cyclophosphamide enhances the anti-tumor effect of weekly tirapazamine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment is associated with anti-angiogenic activity and is anticipated to generate exploitable hypoxia using hypoxia-activated prodrugs. Weekly administration of tirapazamine (TPZ; 5 mg/kg body weight i.p.) failed to inhibit the growth of 9L gliosarcoma tumors grown s.c. in scid mice. However, the anti-tumor effect of weekly cyclophosphamide (CPA) treatment (140 mg/kg BW i.p.) was substantially enhanced by weekly TPZ administration. An extended tumor free period and increased frequency of tumor eradication without overt toxicity were observed when TPZ was given 3, 4 or 5 days after each weekly CPA treatment. Following the 2(nd) CPA injection, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Oximetry indicated significant increases in tumor pO(2), starting at 48 hr, which further increased after the 3(rd) CPA injection. pO(2) levels were, however, stable in growing untreated tumors. A strong negative correlation (-0.81) between tumor pO(2) and tumor volume during 21 days of weekly CPA chemotherapy was observed, indicating increasing tumor pO(2) with decreasing tumor volume. Furthermore, CPA treatment resulted in increased tumor uptake of activated CPA. CPA induced increases in VEGF RNA, which reached a maximum on day 1, and in PLGF RNA which was sustained throughout the treatment, while anti-angiogenic host thrombospondin-1 increased dramatically through day 7 post-CPA treatment. Weekly cyclophosphamide treatment was anticipated to generate exploitable hypoxia. However, our findings suggest that weekly CPA treatment induces a functional improvement of tumor vasculature, which is characterized by increased tumor oxygenation and drug uptake in tumors, thus counter-intuitively, benefiting intratumoral activation of TPZ and perhaps other bioreductive drugs. PMID:19754361

Doloff, J C; Khan, N; Ma, J; Demidenko, E; Swartz, H M; Jounaidi, Y

2009-09-01

120

Increased tumor oxygenation and drug uptake during anti-angiogenic weekly low dose cyclophosphamide enhances the anti-tumor effect of weekly tirapazamine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment is associated with anti-angiogenic activity and is anticipated to generate exploitable hypoxia using hypoxia-activated prodrugs. Weekly administration of tirapazamine (TPZ; 5 mg/kg body weight i.p.) failed to inhibit the growth of 9L gliosarcoma tumors grown s.c. in scid mice. However, the anti-tumor effect of weekly cyclophosphamide (CPA) treatment (140 mg/kg BW i.p.) was substantially enhanced by weekly TPZ administration. An extended tumor free period and increased frequency of tumor eradication without overt toxicity were observed when TPZ was given 3, 4 or 5 days after each weekly CPA treatment. Following the 2(nd) CPA injection, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Oximetry indicated significant increases in tumor pO(2), starting at 48 hr, which further increased after the 3(rd) CPA injection. pO(2) levels were, however, stable in growing untreated tumors. A strong negative correlation (-0.81) between tumor pO(2) and tumor volume during 21 days of weekly CPA chemotherapy was observed, indicating increasing tumor pO(2) with decreasing tumor volume. Furthermore, CPA treatment resulted in increased tumor uptake of activated CPA. CPA induced increases in VEGF RNA, which reached a maximum on day 1, and in PLGF RNA which was sustained throughout the treatment, while anti-angiogenic host thrombospondin-1 increased dramatically through day 7 post-CPA treatment. Weekly cyclophosphamide treatment was anticipated to generate exploitable hypoxia. However, our findings suggest that weekly CPA treatment induces a functional improvement of tumor vasculature, which is characterized by increased tumor oxygenation and drug uptake in tumors, thus counter-intuitively, benefiting intratumoral activation of TPZ and perhaps other bioreductive drugs.

Doloff JC; Khan N; Ma J; Demidenko E; Swartz HM; Jounaidi Y

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Comparative studies of atomic layer deposition and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition Ta2O5 and the effects on electrical properties of in situ nitridation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ta2O5 and TaOxNy thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from Ta(NMe2)5 (PDMAT) with water, oxygen plasma, and nitrogen added oxygen plasma. The film properties were comparatively investigated focusing on the electrical properties from metal oxide semiconductor capacitor structure with 10 nm Ta2O5 or TaOxNy. The results show that plasma-enhanced ALD (PE-ALD) Ta2O5 film has better electrical properties including lower interface state density and leakage current than thermal ALD. Moreover, PE-ALD TaOxNy shows the best properties, indicating the beneficial effects of in situ nitridation. Especially, time dependent dielectric breakdown was significantly improved up to 4000 times of thermal ALD Ta2O5. These results show that, intentional in situ nitrogen incorporation with good electrical properties was successfully achieved by PE-ALD using nitrogen-oxygen mixture. (author)

2007-01-01

122

In situ monitoring of protein adsorption on a nanoparticulated gold film by attenuated total reflection surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In situ surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) with an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration has been used to monitor the adsorption kinetics of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) on a Au nanoparticle (NP) film. The IR absorbance for BHb molecules on a gold nanoparticle film deposited on a Si hemispherical optical window is about 58 times higher than that on a bare Si optical window and the detection sensitivity has been improved by 3 orders of magnitude. From the IR signal as a function of adsorption time, the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics can be explored in situ. It is found that both the electrostatic interaction and the coordination bonds between BHb residues and Au NP film surface affect the adsorption kinetics. The maximum adsorption can be obtained in solution pH 7.0 (close to the isoelectric point of the protein) due to the electrostatic interaction among proteins. In addition, the isotherm of BHb adsorption follows well the Freundlich adsorption model.

Jin B; Bao WJ; Wu ZQ; Xia XH

2012-06-01

123

Bacterial-fungal interactions enhance power generation in microbial fuel cells and drive dye decolourisation by an ex situ and in situ electro-Fenton process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work, the potential for sustainable energy production from wastes has been exploited using a combination fungus-bacterium in microbial fuel cell (MFC) and electro-Fenton technology. The fungus Trametes versicolor was grown with Shewanella oneidensis so that the bacterium would use the networks of the fungus to transport the electrons to the anode. This system generated stable electricity that was enhanced when the electro-Fenton reactions occurred in the cathode chamber. This configuration reached a stable voltage of approximately 1000mV. Thus, the dual benefits of the in situ-designed MFC electro-Fenton, the simultaneous dye decolourisation and the electricity generation, were demonstrated. Moreover, the generated power was effectively used to drive an ex situ electro-Fenton process in batch and continuous mode. This newly developed MFC fungus-bacterium with an in situ electro-Fenton system can ensure a high power output and a continuous degradation of organic pollutants.

Fernández de Dios MA; Del Campo AG; Fernández FJ; Rodrigo M; Pazos M; Sanromán MA

2013-08-01

124

Octane enhancement and total liquid product yield improvements in catalytic cracking using in-situ crystallized ZSM-5 clai aggregates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Octane and total yield improvement in catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions under cracking conditions can be obtained by adding to conventional cracking catalysts small amounts of an additive catalyst comprising a class of zeolites characterized by a silica to alumina mole ratio greater than 5 and a Constraint Index of 1 to 12 wherein the zeolite additive catalyst is prepared via in-situ crystallization of preformed aggregates.

Chu, P.; Pasquale, G. M.

1985-06-11

125

Enhanced production of the polysaccharide arabinogalactan using immobilized cultures of Tinospora cordifolia by elicitation and in situ adsorption.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immobilized callus cultures of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Miers ex Hooks and Thoms were investigated to find out the combined effect of elicitation, cell permeabilization with chitosan and in situ product recovery by polymeric neutral resin-like Diaion HP 20. In this study, callus cultures of T. cordifolia were immobilized using sodium alginate and calcium chloride and the beads were cultured in Murashige and Skoog's basal medium along with benzyl adenine (BA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 3% sucrose. The immobilized cultures, when subjected to elicitation and cell permeabilization with chitosan and in situ removal of the secondary metabolites by addition of resin, showed a 10-fold increase in production of arabinogalactan (0.490% dry weight) as compared to respective controls devoid of resin and chitosan. This indicates that in situ adsorption may have reduced the feedback inhibition caused by accumulation of secondary metabolites in the media, while the dual effect of elicitation and cell permeabilization by chitosan may have released the intracellular (secreted) berberine and the polysaccharide arabinogalactan, respectively. PMID:16321052

Roja, G; Bhangale, A S; Juvekar, A R; Eapen, S; D'Souza, S F

126

The in situ and in vivo study on enhancing effect of borneol in nasal absorption of Geniposide in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this research was to study the in situ and in vivo nasal absorption of Geniposide (Ge) co-administered with borneol. A rat in situ nasal perfusion technique with a novel volumeadjusted calculation was used to examine the absorption rate and extent of Ge. The influence of different experimental conditions such as purity of extract, drug concentration, co-administration with synthetic borneol or natural borneol were also investigated. Results indicated nasal absorption of Ge was primarily by passive diffusion that resembled first order kinetics. Following co-administration with borenol, the drug absorption was increased by 1.4 and 1.7 folds for natural borneol and synthetic borneol, respectively. However, the effect of other factors on drug absorption was not significant. In addition, it was also observed that there is a positive correlation between the absorption of water and Ge by the nasal route. In vivo studies carried out in rats where Ge was co-administered with NB and the pharmacokinetic profile obtained following intranasal administration were compared with those after intravenous administration. The bioavailability of Ge by intranasal was 101.5% and T(max) was 2.04 +/- 0.64 min. MRT was 218.7 +/- 74.1 min and 44.4 +/- 8.9 min for intranasal and intravenous, respectively. Combined with the borneol, Ge can be promptly and thoroughly absorbed intranasally in rats.

Lu Y; Chen X; Du S; Wu Q; Yao Z; Zhai Y

2010-05-01

127

The in situ and in vivo study on enhancing effect of borneol in nasal absorption of Geniposide in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to study the in situ and in vivo nasal absorption of Geniposide (Ge) co-administered with borneol. A rat in situ nasal perfusion technique with a novel volumeadjusted calculation was used to examine the absorption rate and extent of Ge. The influence of different experimental conditions such as purity of extract, drug concentration, co-administration with synthetic borneol or natural borneol were also investigated. Results indicated nasal absorption of Ge was primarily by passive diffusion that resembled first order kinetics. Following co-administration with borenol, the drug absorption was increased by 1.4 and 1.7 folds for natural borneol and synthetic borneol, respectively. However, the effect of other factors on drug absorption was not significant. In addition, it was also observed that there is a positive correlation between the absorption of water and Ge by the nasal route. In vivo studies carried out in rats where Ge was co-administered with NB and the pharmacokinetic profile obtained following intranasal administration were compared with those after intravenous administration. The bioavailability of Ge by intranasal was 101.5% and T(max) was 2.04 +/- 0.64 min. MRT was 218.7 +/- 74.1 min and 44.4 +/- 8.9 min for intranasal and intravenous, respectively. Combined with the borneol, Ge can be promptly and thoroughly absorbed intranasally in rats. PMID:20512466

Lu, Yang; Chen, Xiaolan; Du, Shouying; Wu, Qing; Yao, Zongling; Zhai, Yongsong

2010-05-29

128

Enhancement of the sweep efficiency of waterflooding operations by the in-situ microbial population of petroleum reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Live cores were obtained from five reservoirs using special precautions to prevent contamination by exogenous microorganisms and minimize exposure to oxygen. The depths from which the cores were obtained ranged from 2,705 ft to 6,568 ft. Core plugs were cut radially from live cores, encased in heat-shrink plastic tubes, placed in core holders, and fitted with inlets and outlets. Nutrient additions stimulated the in-situ microbial population to increase, dissolve stratal material, produce gases, and release oil. Reduction in flow through the core plugs was observed in some cases, while in other cases flow was increased, probably due to the dissolution of carbonates in the formation. A field demonstration of the ability of the in-situ microbial population to increase oil recovery by blocking the more permeable zones of the reservoir is currently underway. This demonstration is being conducted in the North Blowhorn Creek Unit situated in Lamar County, Alabama. Live cores were obtained from a newly drilled well in the field and tested as described above. The field project involves four test patterns each including one injector, four to five producers, and a comparable control injector with its four to five producers. Nutrient injection in the field began November 1994.

Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A.; Stephens, J.O.; Azadpour, A.

1995-12-31

129

Gold nano-popcorn-based targeted diagnosis, nanotherapy treatment, and in situ monitoring of photothermal therapy response of prostate cancer cells using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death among the American male population, and the cost of treating prostate cancer patients is about $10 billion/year in the United States. Current treatments are mostly ineffective against advanced-stage prostate cancer and are often associated with severe side effects. Driven by these factors, we report a multifunctional, nanotechnology-driven, gold nano-popcorn-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assay for targeted sensing, nanotherapy treatment, and in situ monitoring of photothermal nanotherapy response during the therapy process. Our experimental data show that, in the presence of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells, multifunctional popcorn-shaped gold nanoparticles form several hot spots and provide a significant enhancement of the Raman signal intensity by several orders of magnitude (2.5 × 10(9)). As a result, it can recognize human prostate cancer cells at the 50-cells level. Our results indicate that the localized heating that occurs during near-infrared irradiation can cause irreparable cellular damage to the prostate cancer cells. Our in situ time-dependent results demonstrate for the first time that, by monitoring SERS intensity changes, one can monitor photothermal nanotherapy response during the therapy process. Possible mechanisms and operating principles of our SERS assay are discussed. Ultimately, this nanotechnology-driven assay could have enormous potential applications in rapid, on-site targeted sensing, nanotherapy treatment, and monitoring of the nanotherapy process, which are critical to providing effective treatment of cancer.

Lu W; Singh AK; Khan SA; Senapati D; Yu H; Ray PC

2010-12-01

130

Performance enhancements and muscular adaptations of a 16-week recreational football intervention for untrained women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study investigated the performance effects and physiological adaptations over 16 weeks of recreational football training and continuous running for healthy untrained premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group [Football group (FG): n=21; running group (RG): n=18; CO: n=14]. Two weekly 1-h training sessions were performed in FG and RG. After 4 and 16 weeks of training VO(2max) was elevated (P<0.05) by 7% and 15%, respectively, in FG, and by 6% and 10%, respectively, in RG. After 16 weeks, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 performance was 33% and 19% better (P<0.05) for FG and 29% and 21% better (P<0.05) for RG than after 4 and 0 weeks, respectively. Peak sprinting speed was 12% higher (21.0 +/- 0.6 vs 18.8 +/- 0.7 km/h; P<0.05) for FG after the training period, whereas no difference was observed for RG. After 4 weeks citrate synthase (CS) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity was 9% and 8%, respectively, higher (P<0.05) than before training in FG with no furtherchanges during the last 12 weeks. In RG, CS increased (P<0.05) by 12% after 4 weeks and no significant increase was observed for HAD. In FG, the number of capillaries per fiber was 18% higher (P<0.05) after 16 weeks (2.44 +/- 0.15 vs 2.07 +/- 0.05 cap/fiber), with no significant difference for RG. No differences were observed between 0 and 16 weeks for CO. In conclusion, recreational women's football leads to significant increases in VO(2max), performance and muscular adaptations throughout a 16-week training period. Thus, football can be used as an activity to elevate the physical capacity of untrained women.

Bangsbo, Jens; Nielsen, Jens Jung

2010-01-01

131

Tunable Near Infrared to Ultraviolet Upconversion Luminescence Enhancement in (?-NaYF4 :Yb,Tm)/CaF2 Core/Shell Nanoparticles for In situ Real-time Recorded Biocompatible Photoactivation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A family of upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) with a tunable UV enhancement is developed via a facile approach. The design leads to a maximum 9-fold enhancement in comparison with known optimal ?-phase core/shell UCNPs in water. A highly effective and rapid in situ real-time live-cell photoactivation is recorded for the first time with such nanoparticles.

Shen J; Chen G; Ohulchanskyy TY; Kesseli SJ; Buchholz S; Li Z; Prasad PN; Han G

2013-05-01

132

Tunable Near Infrared to Ultraviolet Upconversion Luminescence Enhancement in (?-NaYF4 :Yb,Tm)/CaF2 Core/Shell Nanoparticles for In situ Real-time Recorded Biocompatible Photoactivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A family of upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) with a tunable UV enhancement is developed via a facile approach. The design leads to a maximum 9-fold enhancement in comparison with known optimal ?-phase core/shell UCNPs in water. A highly effective and rapid in situ real-time live-cell photoactivation is recorded for the first time with such nanoparticles. PMID:23696330

Shen, Jie; Chen, Guanying; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y; Kesseli, Samuel J; Buchholz, Steven; Li, Zhipeng; Prasad, Paras N; Han, Gang

2013-05-22

133

The enhancement of butanol production by in situ butanol removal using biodiesel extraction in the fermentation of ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol).  

Science.gov (United States)

High butanol accumulation is due to feedback inhibition which leads to the low butanol productivity observed in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The aim of this study is to use biodiesel as an extractant for the in situ removal of butanol from the broth. The results indicate that adding biodiesel as an extractant at the beginning of fermentation significantly enhances butanol production. No significant toxicity of biodiesel on the growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum is observed. In the fed-batch operation with glucose feeding, the maximum total butanol obtained is 31.44g/L, as compared to the control batch (without the addition of biodiesel) at 9.85g/L. Moreover, the productivity obtained is 0.295g/Lh in the fed-batch, which is higher than that of 0.185g/Lh for the control batch. The in situ butanol removal by the addition of biodiesel has great potential for commercial ABE production. PMID:23219689

Yen, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yi-Cheng

2012-11-17

134

In situ monitoring of protein adsorption on a nanoparticulated gold film by attenuated total reflection surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) with an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration has been used to monitor the adsorption kinetics of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) on a Au nanoparticle (NP) film. The IR absorbance for BHb molecules on a gold nanoparticle film deposited on a Si hemispherical optical window is about 58 times higher than that on a bare Si optical window and the detection sensitivity has been improved by 3 orders of magnitude. From the IR signal as a function of adsorption time, the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics can be explored in situ. It is found that both the electrostatic interaction and the coordination bonds between BHb residues and Au NP film surface affect the adsorption kinetics. The maximum adsorption can be obtained in solution pH 7.0 (close to the isoelectric point of the protein) due to the electrostatic interaction among proteins. In addition, the isotherm of BHb adsorption follows well the Freundlich adsorption model. PMID:22624668

Jin, Bo; Bao, Wen-Jing; Wu, Zeng-Qiang; Xia, Xing-Hua

2012-06-07

135

The enhancement of butanol production by in situ butanol removal using biodiesel extraction in the fermentation of ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High butanol accumulation is due to feedback inhibition which leads to the low butanol productivity observed in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The aim of this study is to use biodiesel as an extractant for the in situ removal of butanol from the broth. The results indicate that adding biodiesel as an extractant at the beginning of fermentation significantly enhances butanol production. No significant toxicity of biodiesel on the growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum is observed. In the fed-batch operation with glucose feeding, the maximum total butanol obtained is 31.44g/L, as compared to the control batch (without the addition of biodiesel) at 9.85g/L. Moreover, the productivity obtained is 0.295g/Lh in the fed-batch, which is higher than that of 0.185g/Lh for the control batch. The in situ butanol removal by the addition of biodiesel has great potential for commercial ABE production.

Yen HW; Wang YC

2013-10-01

136

Semi-continuous in situ magnetic separation for enhanced extracellular protease production-modeling and experimental validation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In modern biotechnology proteases play a major role as detergent ingredients. Especially the production of extracellular protease by Bacillus species facilitates downstream processing because the protease can be directly harvested from the biosuspension. In situ magnetic separation (ISMS) constitutes an excellent adsorptive method for efficient extracellular protease removal during cultivation. In this work, the impact of semi-continuous ISMS on the overall protease yield has been investigated. Results reveal significant removal of the protease from Bacillus licheniformis cultivations. Bacitracin-functionalized magnetic particles were successfully applied, regenerated and reused up to 30 times. Immediate reproduction of the protease after ISMS proved the biocompatibility of this integrated approach. Six subsequent ISMS steps significantly increased the overall protease yield up to 98% because proteolytic degradation and potential inhibition of the protease in the medium could be minimized. Furthermore, integration of semi-continuous ISMS increased the overall process efficiency due to reduction of the medium consumption. Process simulation revealed a deeper insight into protease production, and was used to optimize ISMS steps to obtain the maximum overall protease yield.

Cerff M; Scholz A; Käppler T; Ottow KE; Hobley TJ; Posten C

2013-08-01

137

Usage of waste products from thermal recycling of plastics waste in enhanced oil recovery or in-situ coal conversion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this contribution a thermal method for crude oil mobilization and in-situ liquefaction of coal is discussed, which will finally yield more organic material, as which has been put in from plastics waste originally into the process. The conversion product from thermal treatment is pumped down into exhausted crude oil reservoirs, where the hydrogen can degrade the residual high viscous oil to cause it to become more prone to flow so that it can be recovered. Such a process will envision two goals: 1. more organic raw material (as crude oil) will be recovered than is initially put in as waste product. 2. atmospheric pollutants from the conversion plant will be trapped in the reservoir, which simplifies the construction of the plant. An analogous process may be performed with coal seams. Coal seams with their high porosity and large specific surface are believed to be in particular useful to filter atmospheric pollutants. Depending on the type of coal the mobilization of organic material by this process may be in the background. (orig./SR)

Fink, M.; Fink, J.K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

1998-09-01

138

Two-stage in situ gas stripping for enhanced butanol fermentation and energy-saving product recovery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two-stage gas stripping for butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation with Clostridium acetobutylicum JB200 in a fibrous bed bioreactor was studied. Compared to fermentation without in situ gas stripping, more ABE (10.0 g/L acetone, 19.2 g/L butanol, 1.7 g/L ethanol vs. 7.9 g/L acetone, 16.2 g/L butanol, 1.4 g/L ethanol) were produced, with a higher butanol yield (0.25 g/g vs. 0.20 g/g) and productivity (0.40 g/L·h vs. 0.30 g/L·h) due to reduced butanol inhibition. The first-stage gas stripping produced a condensate containing 175.6 g/L butanol (227.0 g/L ABE), which after phase separation formed an organic phase containing 612.3g/L butanol (660.7 g/L ABE) and an aqueous phase containing 101.3 g/L butanol (153.2 g/L ABE). After second-stage gas stripping, a highly concentrated product containing 420.3 g/L butanol (532.3 g/L ABE) was obtained. The process is thus effective in producing high-titer butanol that can be purified with much less energy.

Xue C; Zhao J; Liu F; Lu C; Yang ST; Bai FW

2013-05-01

139

In situ detection of a heat-shock regulatory element binding protein using a soluble short synthetic enhancer sequence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In various studies, enhancer binding proteins have been successfully absorbed out by competing sequences inserted into plasmids, resulting in the inhibition of the plasmid expression. Theoretically, such a result could be achieved using synthetic enhancer sequences not inserted into plasmids. In this study, a double stranded DNA sequence corresponding to the human heat shock regulatory element was chemically synthesized. By in vitro retardation assays, the synthetic sequence was shown to bind specifically a protein in extracts from the human T cell line Jurkat. When the synthetic enhancer was electroporated into Jurkat cells, not only the enhancer was shown to remain undegraded into the cells for up to 2 days, but also its was shown to bind intracellularly a protein. The binding was specific and was modulated upon heat shock. Furthermore, the binding protein was shown to be of the expected molecular weight by UV crosslinking. However, when the synthetic enhancer element was co-electroporated with an HSP 70-CAT reporter construct, the expression of the reporter plasmid was consistently enhanced in the presence of the exogenous synthetic enhancer.

Harel-Bellan, A.; Brini, A.T.; Farrar, W.L. (National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (USA)); Ferris, D.K. (Program Resources, Inc., Frederick, MD (USA)); Robin, P. (Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France))

1989-06-12

140

Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell using graphene-TiO2 photoanode prepared by a novel in situ simultaneous reduction-hydrolysis technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a DSSC using graphene-TiO2 photoelectrodes prepared by our recent in situ simultaneous reduction-hydrolysis technique (Adv. Funct. Mater., 2012, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202349, in press) was achieved. The DSSCs based on the G-TiO2 nanocomposites improved their overall energy conversion efficiency to 7.1%. The results prove that the promoting effect of graphene is strongly dependent on its content; namely, the efficiency of DSSCs increases and then decreases with increasing graphene content in TiO2-graphene composites. Excessive graphene in the nanocomposite leads to a decrease of the light harvest of dye molecules and thus a negative effect on the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs.

Chen, Liang; Zhou, Yong; Tu, Wenguang; Li, Zhengdao; Bao, Chunxiong; Dai, Hui; Yu, Tao; Liu, Jianguo; Zou, Zhigang

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell using graphene-TiO2 photoanode prepared by a novel in situ simultaneous reduction-hydrolysis technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a DSSC using graphene-TiO2 photoelectrodes prepared by our recent in situ simultaneous reduction-hydrolysis technique (Adv. Funct. Mater., 2012, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202349, in press) was achieved. The DSSCs based on the G-TiO2 nanocomposites improved their overall energy conversion efficiency to 7.1%. The results prove that the promoting effect of graphene is strongly dependent on its content; namely, the efficiency of DSSCs increases and then decreases with increasing graphene content in TiO2-graphene composites. Excessive graphene in the nanocomposite leads to a decrease of the light harvest of dye molecules and thus a negative effect on the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs.

Chen L; Zhou Y; Tu W; Li Z; Bao C; Dai H; Yu T; Liu J; Zou Z

2013-04-01

142

The effects of nitrogen profile and concentration on negative bias temperature instability of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition HfOxNy prepared by in situ nitridation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have prepared plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition HfOxNy thin films by in situ nitridation using nitrogen/oxygen mixture plasma and studied the effects of nitrogen contents and profiles on the negative bias temperature instability (NBTI). The nitrogen depth profiles and concentrations were controlled by changing the exposure sequences and the nitrogen to oxygen flow ratio, respectively. The best immunity to NBTI degradations was obtained for the nitrogen to oxygen ratio of 2:1 when nitrogen atoms are incorporated away from the high k/Si interface. We propose a dielectric degradation mechanism based on the reaction-diffusion model in which nitrogen plays a role of hydrogen generator at the interface and diffusion barrier in the bulk film.

2008-09-15

143

Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell using graphene-TiO2 photoanode prepared by a novel in situ simultaneous reduction-hydrolysis technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced photovoltaic performance of a DSSC using graphene-TiO2 photoelectrodes prepared by our recent in situ simultaneous reduction-hydrolysis technique (Adv. Funct. Mater., 2012, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202349, in press) was achieved. The DSSCs based on the G-TiO2 nanocomposites improved their overall energy conversion efficiency to 7.1%. The results prove that the promoting effect of graphene is strongly dependent on its content; namely, the efficiency of DSSCs increases and then decreases with increasing graphene content in TiO2-graphene composites. Excessive graphene in the nanocomposite leads to a decrease of the light harvest of dye molecules and thus a negative effect on the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs. PMID:23483083

Chen, Liang; Zhou, Yong; Tu, Wenguang; Li, Zhengdao; Bao, Chunxiong; Dai, Hui; Yu, Tao; Liu, Jianguo; Zou, Zhigang

2013-03-13

144

Enhanced and sustained topical ocular delivery of cyclosporine A in thermosensitive hyaluronic acid-based in situ forming microgels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yijun Wu, Jing Yao, Jianping Zhou, Fatima Zohra Dahmani State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: For nearly a decade, thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gels have been recognized as an interesting and promising ocular topical delivery vehicle for lipophilic drugs. In this study, a series of thermosensitive copolymers, hyaluronic acid-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (HA-g-PNIPAAm), was synthesized, by coupling carboxylic end-capped PNIPAAm to aminated hyaluronic acid through amide bond linkages, and was used as a potential carrier for the topical ocular administration of cyclosporine A (CyA). The lower critical solution temperature of HA-g-PNIPAAm59 in aqueous solutions was measured as 32.7°C, which was not significantly affected by the polymer concentration. Moreover, HA-g-PNIPAAm59 microgels showed a high drug loading efficiency (73.92%) and a controlled release profile that are necessary for biomedical application. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations showed that HA-g-PNIPAAm microgels were spherical in shape with homogeneous size. Based on the result of the eye irritation test, the HA-g-PNIPAAm microgels formulation was shown to be safe and nonirritant for rabbit eyes. In addition, HA-g-PNIPAAm microgels achieved significantly higher CyA concentration levels in rabbit corneas (1455.8 ng/g of tissue) than both castor oil formulation and commercial CyA eye drops. Therefore, these newly described thermoresponsive HA-g-PNIPAAm microgels demonstrated attractive properties to serve as pharmaceutical delivery vehicles for a variety of ophthalmic applications. Keywords: thermosensitive microgels, ophthalmic drug delivery, hyaluronic acid, cyclosporine A

Wu Y; Yao J; Zhou J; Dahmani FZ

2013-01-01

145

An in situ reduction method for preparing silver/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Novel silver/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite films were obtained by an in situ reduction method, in which the silver nitrate, sodium poly({gamma}-glutamic acid) (PGA) and PVA acted as precursor, stabilizer and polyol reducant, respectively. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-activity of as-prepared nanocomposite films was investigated using benzoic acid (BA) as probed molecule. The results showed that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band on silver films was more symmetric with stronger intensity than silver colloidal solution, indicating that the Ag nanoparticle distribution on the film substrate was uniform. The fact was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) measurements. It was found that PGA-stabilized silver/PVA nanocomposite film revealed the presence of well-dispersed and spherical silver nanoparticles with average diameter of 90 nm, while the particle sizes were enlarged as the PGA concentration increased. The new substrate presented high SERS enhancement and the enhanced factor was estimated to be 10{sup 6} for the detection of benzoic acid.

Yu, D.-G. [Department of Textile Science, Nanya Institute of Technology, Chung-Li, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, W.-C. [Department of Polymer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: heparin1199@yahoo.com.tw; Lin, C.-H. [Department of Polymer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, L.-M. [Department of Polymer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, M.-C. [Department of Polymer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2007-01-15

146

An in situ reduction method for preparing silver/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Novel silver/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite films were obtained by an in situ reduction method, in which the silver nitrate, sodium poly(?-glutamic acid) (PGA) and PVA acted as precursor, stabilizer and polyol reducant, respectively. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-activity of as-prepared nanocomposite films was investigated using benzoic acid (BA) as probed molecule. The results showed that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band on silver films was more symmetric with stronger intensity than silver colloidal solution, indicating that the Ag nanoparticle distribution on the film substrate was uniform. The fact was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) measurements. It was found that PGA-stabilized silver/PVA nanocomposite film revealed the presence of well-dispersed and spherical silver nanoparticles with average diameter of 90 nm, while the particle sizes were enlarged as the PGA concentration increased. The new substrate presented high SERS enhancement and the enhanced factor was estimated to be 106 for the detection of benzoic acid.

2007-01-15

147

Individualized 12-week exercise training programs enhance aerobic capacity of cancer survivors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in aerobic capacity were evaluated after 12 weeks of training among a motivated heterogeneous group of cancer survivors (N = 54 [41 women and 13 men]), living at moderate altitude. Changes in power at lactate threshold (PT(lact)), peak power (P(peak)), and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2) peak) were evaluated in this group (average age, 53.8 + or - 10.8 years) that completed a minimum of 12 weeks of an individualized exercise program (on average 5 days x week(-1) for 47.5 + or - 17.2 min x session(-1)). Daily exercise duration was based on the goals and functional capacity of each individual. Training intensity for each subject was based on heart rate (HR) value at lactate threshold (T(lact)) obtained during a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test. Intensity was categorized into 5 ranges: recovery (60%-80% HR T(lact)); endurance (80%-100% HR T(lact)); threshold (100%-105% HR T(lact)); intervals (105%-115% HR T(lact)); and maximal efforts (> or = 115% HR T(lact)). Overall compliance with the exercise prescription was approximately 72% and subjects reported exercising within the 5 training ranges, 12.1%, 63.9%, 18.6%, 4.2%, and 1.2% of the time, respectively. After training, PT(lact) increased 9.5% (121.8 + or - 43.5 vs 133.2 + or - 34.1 W; P workouts per week can elicit significant changes in aerobic capacity of a diverse group of cancer survivors. PMID:20048530

Klika, Riggs J; Callahan, Kathleen E; Drum, Scott N

2009-10-01

148

In situ, field-scale evaluation of surfactant-enhanced DNAPL recovery using a single-well, ``push-pull'' test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall goal of this project was to further develop the single-well, ``push-pull'' test method as a feasibility assessment and site-characterization tool for studying the fundamental fate and transport behavior of injected surfactants and their ability to solubilize and mobilize dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface. The specific objectives were to develop a modified push-pull test for use in identifying and quantifying the effects of sorption, precipitation, and biodegradation on the fate and transport of injected surfactants, use the developed test method to quantify the effects of these processes on the ability of injected surfactants to solubilize and mobilize residual phase trichloroethane (TCE), and demonstrate the utility of the developed test method for performing site characterization and feasibility studies for surfactant-enhanced DNAPL recovery systems in the field. The results from the intermediate-scale laboratory experiments conducted for this project indicate that the single-well, push-pull test method can provide quantitative information on the effectiveness of injected surfactants in enhancing DNAPL solubilization in natural aquifer sediments. Specifically, the results of this research demonstrate the ability of the single-well, push-pull test to characterize the behavior of multi-component surfactants in the presence of natural aquifer sediment under laboratory and in-situ field conditions.

Istok, J.D.; Field, J.A.

1999-10-01

149

Individualized 12-week exercise training programs enhance aerobic capacity of cancer survivors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in aerobic capacity were evaluated after 12 weeks of training among a motivated heterogeneous group of cancer survivors (N = 54 [41 women and 13 men]), living at moderate altitude. Changes in power at lactate threshold (PT(lact)), peak power (P(peak)), and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2) peak) were evaluated in this group (average age, 53.8 + or - 10.8 years) that completed a minimum of 12 weeks of an individualized exercise program (on average 5 days x week(-1) for 47.5 + or - 17.2 min x session(-1)). Daily exercise duration was based on the goals and functional capacity of each individual. Training intensity for each subject was based on heart rate (HR) value at lactate threshold (T(lact)) obtained during a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test. Intensity was categorized into 5 ranges: recovery (60%-80% HR T(lact)); endurance (80%-100% HR T(lact)); threshold (100%-105% HR T(lact)); intervals (105%-115% HR T(lact)); and maximal efforts (> or = 115% HR T(lact)). Overall compliance with the exercise prescription was approximately 72% and subjects reported exercising within the 5 training ranges, 12.1%, 63.9%, 18.6%, 4.2%, and 1.2% of the time, respectively. After training, PT(lact) increased 9.5% (121.8 + or - 43.5 vs 133.2 + or - 34.1 W; P < 0.05), P(peak) increased 12.6% (175.5 + or - 55.6 vs 195.6 + or - 54.2 W; P < 0.05) and VO(2) peak increased 11.4% (33.4 + or - 12.5 vs 37.2 + or - 10.4 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1); P < 0.05). The results of this research indicate that: 1) cardiopulmonary exercise testing with lactate threshold determination was safe and effective in the evaluation and exercise prescription phase for a group of cancer survivors and 2) a training program based on 2 higher intensity workouts per week can elicit significant changes in aerobic capacity of a diverse group of cancer survivors.

Klika RJ; Callahan KE; Drum SN

2009-10-01

150

Radiation induced dehydrochlorination as an in-situ doping technique for enhancement of the conductivity of polyaniline blends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In our earlier studies we have shown that acid doping in PANI/PVC blends can be achieved by radiation induced HCl release from PVC parts. In order to enhance radiation-induced acid doping process in PANI blends we have prepared solution cast films of PANI with the copolymers of vinylidene chloride with vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride. Homogeneous films obtained from these binary systems as well as from PANI/PVC blends were exposed to gamma rays under ambient conditions. The increase in the conductivity of initially non-conducting films was significant, reaching values of 10{sup -2} S/cm from initial values of 10{sup -7} S/cm upon irradiation to 500 kGy dose. Chemical changes leading to relatively high conductivities were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy by following the changes taking place in 1149 cm{sup -1} and 814 cm{sup -1} bands which are indicative of conductivity and chlorine binding in polyaniline.

Bodugoez, Hatice [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, 06532 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Gueven, Olgun [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, 06532 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: guven@hacettepe.edu.tr

2005-07-01

151

Remarkable biocompatibility enhancement of porous NiTi alloys by a new surface modification approach: in-situ nitriding and in vitro and in vivo evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An in-situ nitriding method has been developed to modify the outer surface and the pore walls of both open and closed pores of porous NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) as part of their sintering process. XRD and XPS examinations revealed that the modified layer is mainly TiN. The biocompatibility of the in-situ nitrided sample has been characterized by its corrosion resistance, cell adherence, and implant surgery. The in-situ nitrided porous NiTi SMAs exhibit much better corrosion resistance, cell adherence, and bone tissue induced capability than the porous NiTi alloys without surface modification. Furthermore, the released Ni ion content in the blood of rabbit is reduced greatly by the in-situ nitriding. The excellent biocompatibility of in-situ nitrided sample is attributed to the formation of the TiN layer on all the pore walls including both open and closed pores.

Li H; Yuan B; Gao Y; Chung CY; Zhu M

2011-12-01

152

In-situ treatment of a mixed hydrocarbon plume through a permeable reactive barrier and enhanced bio-remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater is frequently polluted with mixtures of contaminants that are amenable to different types of remediation. One example is the combination of petroleum hydrocarbons (mostly BTEX) and chlorinated solvents (chlorinated ethenes and propanes), as it occurs in the groundwater beneath the industrial site that is the objective of the present case study. The site is located in Italy near a main river (Arno), which is supposed to be the final recipient of the contamination and where a possible exposure might take place. The aim of the treatment is the plume containment within the site boundaries in order to avoid further migration of the contaminants towards the river. The design of the remediation system was based on an extensive site characterization that included - but was not limited to - the following information: geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with analytical data (i.e. contaminant concentrations). Pilot tests were also implemented in order to collect the necessary parameters for the full-scale treatment design and calibration. The site was contaminated by a mixed plume of more than 30 different contaminants, ranging from BTEX, to MTBE, to PAH, to chlorinated solvents. The concentration peaks were in the order of 1-100 mg/l for each contaminant. Petroleum hydrocarbons are quickly degradable through oxidative mechanisms (especially aerobic biodegradation), whereas fully-chlorinated compounds are only degradable via reductive pathways. A mixed plume of both types of contaminants therefore requires a combined approach with the application of different treatment technologies. The remediation strategy elaborated combines a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) in a funnel and gate configuration for the down-gradient plume containment, with the enhanced bio-remediation of the contaminants for the control of the plume boundaries and for the abatement of the concentration peaks. Pilot tests were carried out in order to assess the efficiency and feasibility of such technologies in the site of interest. The article describes the tests that have been carried out and the results achieved, together with the selected treatment train, its design and dimensioning. (authors)

2005-01-01

153

Differentiation of acute and four-week old myocardial infarct with Gd(ABE-DTTA)-enhanced CMR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Standard extracellular cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) contrast agents (CA) do not provide differentiation between acute and older myocardial infarcts (MI). The purpose of this study was to develop a method for differentiation between acute and older myocardial infarct using myocardial late-enhancement (LE) CMR by a new, low molecular weight contrast agent. Dogs (n = 6) were studied in a closed-chest, reperfused, double myocardial infarct model. Myocardial infarcts were generated by occluding the Left Anterior Descending (LAD) coronary artery with an angioplasty balloon for 180 min, and four weeks later occluding the Left Circumflex (LCx) coronary artery for 180 min. LE images were obtained on day 3 and day 4 after second myocardial infarct, using Gd(DTPA) (standard extracellular contrast agent) and Gd(ABE-DTTA) (new, low molecular weight contrast agent), respectively. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) histomorphometry validated existence and location of infarcts. Hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining provided histologic evaluation of infarcts. Results Gd(ABE-DTTA) or Gd(DTPA) highlighted the acute infarct, whereas the four-week old infarct was visualized by Gd(DTPA), but not by Gd(ABE-DTTA). With Gd(ABE-DTTA), the mean ± SD signal intensity enhancement (SIE) was 366 ± 166% and 24 ± 59% in the acute infarct and the four-week old infarct, respectively (P Conclusions Late enhancement CMR with separate administrations of standard extracellular contrast agent, Gd(DTPA), and the new low molecular weight contrast agent, Gd(ABE-DTTA), differentiates between acute and late subacute infarct in a reperfused, double infarct, canine model.

Kirschner Robert; Toth Levente; Varga-Szemes Akos; Simor Tamas; Suranyi Pal; Kiss Pal; Ruzsics Balazs; Toth Attila; Baker Robert; Brott Brigitta C; Litovsky Silvio; Elgavish Ada; Elgavish Gabriel A

2010-01-01

154

Controlled synthesis of Bi2S3/ZnS microspheres by an in situ ion-exchange process with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel Bi2S3/ZnS heterostructure has been synthesized through an in situ cation-exchange method between ZnS and bismuth(III) chloride. The obtained samples were characterized by multiform techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy, UV-visible diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectra. The photocatalytic activities of the obtained photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and refractory oxytetracycline (OTC) under visible-light irradiation (? ? 400 nm). The as-prepared Bi2S3/ZnS photocatalysts exhibit wide absorption in the visible-light region and display superior visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities in degradation of RhB and OTC compared with pristine ZnS microspheres and Bi2S3 nanorods. The dramatic enhancement in the visible light photocatalytic performance of the Bi2S3/ZnS composites could be attributed to the effective electron-hole separations at the interfaces of the two semiconductors, which facilitate the transfer of the photoinduced carriers. The present study provides helpful insight into the design of novel and highly efficient sulfate heterostructure photocatalysts. PMID:23868676

Wu, Zhudong; Chen, Linlin; Xing, Chaosheng; Jiang, Deli; Xie, Jimin; Chen, Min

2013-07-19

155

Characterizing early contrast uptake of ductal carcinoma in situ with high temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast: a pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improvements in the reliable diagnosis of preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) are needed. In this study, we present a new characterization of early contrast kinetics of DCIS using high temporal resolution (HiT) DCE-MRI and compare it with other breast lesions and normal parenchyma. Forty patients with mammographic calcifications suspicious for DCIS were selected for HiT imaging using T1-weighted DCE-MRI with ?7 s temporal resolution for 90 s post-contrast injection. Pixel-based and whole-lesion kinetic curves were fit to an empirical mathematical model (EMM) and several secondary kinetic parameters derived. Using the EMM parameterized and fitted concentration time curve for subsequent analysis allowed for calculation of kinetic parameters that were less susceptible to fluctuations due to noise. The parameters' initial area under the curve (iAUC) and contrast concentration at 1 min (C1min) provided the highest diagnostic accuracy in the task of distinguishing pathologically proven DCIS from normal tissue. There was a trend for DCIS lesions with solid architectural pattern to exhibit a negative slope at 1 min (i.e. increased washout rate) compared to those with a cribriform pattern (p

2010-10-07

156

Characterizing early contrast uptake of ductal carcinoma in situ with high temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast: a pilot study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improvements in the reliable diagnosis of preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) are needed. In this study, we present a new characterization of early contrast kinetics of DCIS using high temporal resolution (HiT) DCE-MRI and compare it with other breast lesions and normal parenchyma. Forty patients with mammographic calcifications suspicious for DCIS were selected for HiT imaging using T{sub 1}-weighted DCE-MRI with {approx}7 s temporal resolution for 90 s post-contrast injection. Pixel-based and whole-lesion kinetic curves were fit to an empirical mathematical model (EMM) and several secondary kinetic parameters derived. Using the EMM parameterized and fitted concentration time curve for subsequent analysis allowed for calculation of kinetic parameters that were less susceptible to fluctuations due to noise. The parameters' initial area under the curve (iAUC) and contrast concentration at 1 min (C{sub 1min}) provided the highest diagnostic accuracy in the task of distinguishing pathologically proven DCIS from normal tissue. There was a trend for DCIS lesions with solid architectural pattern to exhibit a negative slope at 1 min (i.e. increased washout rate) compared to those with a cribriform pattern (p < 0.04). This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative analysis of early contrast kinetics at high temporal resolution and points to the potential for such an analysis to improve the characterization of DCIS. (note)

Jansen, S A; Fan, X; Medved, M; Abe, H; Shimauchi, A; Zamora, M; Foxley, S; Karczmar, G S; Newstead, G M [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave, MC 2026, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Yang, C; Olopade, O I, E-mail: gnewstead@radiology.bsd.uchicago.ed [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave, MC 2115, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2010-10-07

157

Long-term population dynamics and in situ physiology in activated sludge systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal operated with and without nitrogen removal  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the combination of FISH with microautoradiography (MAR) were used in order to study the long-term population dynamics (2.5 years) and the in situ physiology in two parallel activated sludge pilot systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The two systems received the same influent wastewater, but were differently operated (with and without nitrogen removal, respectively). Both systems showed a significant P removal that increased when different substrates (phosphorus (P), acetate and glucose, respectively) were added to the influent wastewater. Rhodocyclus-related bacteria were present in both systems in significant numbers (ranging from 4 to 28%) throughout the whole period. This supports the hypothesis that these bacteria occur in significant numbers in different types of well-operating EBPR activated sludge processes. However, we observed a lower correlation (0.9). The Actinobacteria were the only additional group of bacteria whichshowed a similar degree of correlation to the P content in activated sludge as the Rhodocyclus-related bacteria - but only for the system without nitrogen removal. Significant amounts (less than or equal to12%) of glycogen-accumulating bacteria (GAOs) were detected in the system with nitrogen removal (but not in the other system), but had no, in contrast to previous observations, apparent negative effect on the overall EBPR performance. FISH-MAR indicated that a significant part of the Betaproteobacteria (part of them identified as Rhodocyclus-related bacteria) as well as the Actinobacteria were able to take up P-33(i), [H-3]-acetate and [H-3]-glucose under anaerobic-aerobic conditions. The contribution of anoxic P-33(i) uptake under alternating anaerobic-anoxic conditions was significantly lower. Interestingly, not all Rhodocyclus-related bacteria showed uptake of these three radioactive substrates. This may be due to differences in metabolic state, physiological potential or genotype, not detectable by thepresent probe set for Rhodocyclus-related bacteria. Comparison of the P-33(i), [H-3]-acetate and [H-3]-glucose uptake by activated sludge after different fixation and incubation procedures showed that a part of the observed P-33(i), uptake may have been caused by a combination of a biological and chemical or biologically induced chemical P adsorption.

Lee, N.; Nielsen, P.H.

2003-01-01

158

An 8-Week Web-Based Weight Loss Challenge With Celebrity Endorsement and Enhanced Social Support: Observational Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Initial engagement and weight loss within Web-based weight loss programs may predict long-term success. The integration of persuasive Web-based features may boost engagement and therefore weight loss. Objective To determine whether an 8-week challenge within a commercial Web-based weight loss program influenced weight loss, website use, and attrition in the short term, when compared to the standard program. Methods De-identified data for participants (mean age 36.7±10.3 years; 86% female) who enrolled in the Biggest Loser Club (BLC) (n=952) and the BLC’s Shannan Ponton Fast Track Challenge (SC) for 8 weeks (n=381) were compared. The BLC program used standard evidence-based website features, with individualized calorie and exercise targets to facilitate a weight loss of 0.5-1 kg per week (–500kcal/day less than estimated energy expenditure). SC used the same website features but in addition promoted greater initial weight loss using a 1200 kcal/day energy intake target and physical activity energy expenditure of 600 kcal/day. SC used persuasive features to facilitate greater user engagement, including offering additional opportunities for social support (eg, webinar meetings with a celebrity personal trainer and social networking) endorsed by a celebrity personal trainer. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 8 weeks. A primary analysis was undertaken using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with all available weight records for all participants included. Dropout (participants who cancelled their subscription) and nonusage (participants who stopped using the Web-based features) attrition rates at 8 weeks were calculated. The number of participants who accessed each website feature and the total number of days each feature was used were calculated. The difference between attrition rates and website use for the two programs were tested using chi-square and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests, respectively. Results Using GLMM, including weight data for all participants, there was significantly greater (P=.03) 8-week weight loss in SC (–5.1 kg [–5.5 to –4.6 kg] or –6.0%) compared to BLC participants (–4.5 kg [–4.8, –4.2] or –5.0%). Dropout rates were low and consistent across groups (BLC: 17 (1.8%) vs SC: 2 (0.5%), P=.08) and 48.7% (456/936) of BLC and 51.2% (184/379) of SC participants accessed the website at 8 weeks, with no difference between programs (P=.48). SC participants accessed the discussion forums, menu plans, exercise plans, and educational materials significantly more than BLC participants (PWeb-based weight loss program may facilitate greater initial weight loss and engagement with some program components. The results support the need for a more rigorous and prospective evaluation of Web-based weight loss programs that incorporate additional strategies to enhance initial weight loss and engagement, such as a short-term challenge.

Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

2013-01-01

159

Redeeming features of in situ combustion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ combustion remains the most tantalizing enhanced oil recovery method. It has been tested extensively - in over 150 field tests - in both heavy and light oil reservoirs. What we have learned from this experience is that in situ combustion works under most conditions, but the nature of the problems is such that it is seldom profitable. Also, looking at many previous in situ combustion tests, steam injection, and even waterflooding, would have been a better choice. Yet in situ combustion has unique features not found in any other EOR method. These must be weighed against its shortcomings to evaluate a potential application. This paper discusses the redeeming features of in situ combustion, in particular the reservoir conditions under which in situ combustion may be superior to other EOR methods are outlined. All variations of in situ combustion - forward, reverse, wet, dry - as well as combinations with other EOR methods are considered. The conclusions is that in situ combustion still has a place, and its future application would depend on research on certain crucial aspects of the process.

Farouq Ali, S.M. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

1995-02-01

160

In situ hybridization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A non-radioactive in situ hybridization protocol is presented for localization of mRNA transcripts in thin tissue sections. In situ hybridization provides spatial resolution of transcript distribution at the cellular level that is not attained by Northern hybridization or PCR-based methods using organ- or tissue-derived RNA. With appropriately designed gene-specific probes, in situ hybridization can discriminate closely related gene family members. Although the procedure for tissue section preparation is tedious and lengthy, once prepared, the probe labeling, hybridization and signal detection steps can be easily scaled to handle multiple genes for comparative analysis.

Tsai CJ; Harding SA

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Surface enhanced Raman scattering on non-SERS active substrates and in situ electrochemical study based on a single gold microshell.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A single gold microshell, which was elaborately fabricated to carry numerous hot spots on its own surface, enabled the acquisition of the SERS spectra from the molecules on non-SERS active substrates such as Si/SiO2, ITO, and glass. A self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanols on the gold microshell offered an easy and reliable way to electrically insulate from the underlying flat Pt electrode and accomplish in situ monitoring the electrochemical reaction with minimal interference.

Kim S; Piao L; Han D; Kim BJ; Chung TD

2013-04-01

162

A novel in situ preconcentration method with ionic liquid-based surfactants resulting in enhanced sensitivity for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from toasted cereals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A preconcentration procedure utilizing IL-based surfactants it is described for the first time. The procedure is based on transforming a water-soluble IL-based surfactant, 1-hexadecyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide (C??C?Im-Br), into a water-insoluble IL, 1-hexadecyl-3-butylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide (C??C?Im-NTf?), via a simple metathesis reaction. The preconcentration procedure is used in combination with a micellar microwave-assisted extraction (MMAE) method for the analysis of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from toasted cereals. The obtained microdroplet of C??C?Im-NTf? containing the extracted PAHs is then diluted with acetonitrile and injected into a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) employing UV-vis and fluorescence detection. This in situ preconcentration step highly improves the sensitivity of the MMAE despite the complexity of the solid matrix. The developed in situ preconcentration method exhibited almost quantitative extraction efficiencies (80-95% in average) for the PAHs studied, and good precision values (lower than 14%). The overall MMAE+in situ preconcentration method presented limits of detection down to 0.03 ?g kg?¹.

Germán-Hernández M; Pino V; Anderson JL; Afonso AM

2012-03-01

163

In situ pollutant measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The program is for development and demonstration of instrumental technology for the in situ analysis of a wide spectrum of inorganic, organic and radionuclide species in oceans and freshwater sediments

1976-01-01

164

A verification of the high density after contrast enhancement in the 2nd week in cerebroischemic lesion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the indication, it is necessary to make clear the relation among the Stage (time and course), the Strength, the Pathogenesis, and the Effects of the operation in these diseases (SSPE relation). In this report, we focused on the High Density of CT after the contrast enhancement in the cases of ischemic lesions (the High Density was named ''Ribbon H. D.''). Seventeen cases of Ribbon H. D. in fresh infarctions were verified concerning the time of the appearance of the H. D., the features of its location and nature, and the histological findings. The results were as follows: The Ribbon H. D. appeared in the early stage of infarctions, and had its peak density at the end of the 2nd week after the onset. The Ribbon H. D. was mostly located along the cortical line, showing a ribbon-like band. The Ribbon H. D. did not appear in the sharply demarcated coagulation necrosis in the early stage or in the defined Low Density (L. D.) in the late stage of infarctions. Although the Ribbon H. D. shows the extravasation of contrast media, it does not necessarily show the existence of the hemorrhagic infarction. Some part of the Ribbon H. D. changes to a well-defined L. D. and the rest of the part becomes relative isodensity in the late stage. This change corresponds to the change in the incomplete necrosis which is afterwards divided into a resolution with a cystic cavity and the glial replacement in the late stage. In conclusion, it is possible to understand that the Ribbon H. D. corresponds to the lesion of an incomplete necrosis, with neovascularization, in the early stage of infarctions. Therefore, in addition to the present indication of a by-pass operation (TIA, RIND), this incomplete necrosis (Ribbon H. D.), its surrounding area and just before the appearance of the Ribbon H. D. might be another indication of the operation. (author)

1978-01-01

165

In-situ remediation strategy for enhanced microbial de-acidification of geogenic sulphuric acid mining lakes - mesocosmic studies; In situ-Sanierungsstrategie zur Foerderung der mikrobiellen Entsaeuerung von geogen schwefelsauren Bergbaurestseen - Mesokosmosstudien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author investigated whether neutralisation of acid mining lakes can be enhanced by adding low-cost, complex organic carbon sources. Subjects: Selection of a complex carbon source suited for stimulation of dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction; design and observation of a near-natural landscape compartment (mesocosmos) at different scales as a preparation for the field study; Description of reactions in the mesocosmic lake water and sediment; Assessment of neutralisation equivalents and neutralisation rates on the basis of an identification of reduced iron and sulphur compounds. [German] Die Hypothese, dass durch Zugabe kostenguenstiger komplexer organischer Kohlenstoffquellen in die sedimentnahe Wasserzone eines sauren Tagebaurestsees seeinterne Neutralisierungsprozesse gefoerdert werden, liegt dieser Arbeit zu Grunde. Seeinterne Neutralisationsprozesse, wie die dissimilatorische Eisen- und Sulfatreduktion, fuehren ueber die Akkumulierung von reduzierten Eisen- und Schwefelverbindungen im Sediment zur Alkalinitaetsbildung im Gewaessersystem und im Seewasser zu hoeheren pH-Werten. Daher leiten sich folgende Ziele fuer diese Arbeit ab: - Auswahl einer geeigneten komplexen Kohlenstoffquelle zur Stimulierung der dissimilatorischen Eisen- und Sulfatreduktion - Design und Beobachtung eines naturnahen Landschaftsausschnittes (Mesokosmos) unterschiedlicher Massstabsebenen in Vorbereitung fuer die Fallstudie im Freiland - Beschreibung von Stoffumsetzungen im Seewasser und -sediment der Mesokosmen - Abschaetzung von Neutralisationsaequivalenten und Bestimmung von Neutralisationsraten anhand der Identifizierung reduzierter Eisen- und Schwefelverbindungen. (orig.)

Froemmichen, R.

2001-07-01

166

Exercise training-induced enhancement in myocardial mechanics is lost after 2 weeks of detraining in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exercise training is assumed to improve myocardial function; however, the role of detraining and its effect on myocardial parameters are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of detraining on ventricular remodeling and myocardial mechanical parameters after an 8 week (5 days/week, 60 min/day) swimming training period. Forty-three female Wistar rats were distributed into six groups: trained (T, n = 9), detrained 2 weeks (D2, n = 8), detrained 4 weeks (D4, n = 8) and their respective controls: untrained (U, n = 5), untrained 2 weeks (U2, n = 5) and untrained 4 weeks (U4, n = 5). Detrained rats underwent training and then remained sedentary (i.e., "detraining") for 2 or 4 weeks. After training, the T group demonstrated increased physical capacity, left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness, and LV end-diastolic diameter, along with decreased heart rate, as evaluated by echocardiogram. In addition, the inotropism and lusitropism parameters studied on papillary muscles showed improvement in the T group (P < 0.05). However, after just 2 weeks of detraining, all parameters regressed back to values which were similar to those of the untrained groups. In conclusion, our results confirmed that exercise training is capable of inducing myocardial remodeling and improving contractile performance; however, these changes are completely lost after a short period of detraining. PMID:20300769

Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Carvalho, Eduardo V A; de Sousa, Ana Flavia Mello; Levy, Rozeli Ferreira; Tucci, Paulo J F

2010-03-19

167

Exercise training-induced enhancement in myocardial mechanics is lost after 2 weeks of detraining in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exercise training is assumed to improve myocardial function; however, the role of detraining and its effect on myocardial parameters are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of detraining on ventricular remodeling and myocardial mechanical parameters after an 8 week (5 days/week, 60 min/day) swimming training period. Forty-three female Wistar rats were distributed into six groups: trained (T, n = 9), detrained 2 weeks (D2, n = 8), detrained 4 weeks (D4, n = 8) and their respective controls: untrained (U, n = 5), untrained 2 weeks (U2, n = 5) and untrained 4 weeks (U4, n = 5). Detrained rats underwent training and then remained sedentary (i.e., "detraining") for 2 or 4 weeks. After training, the T group demonstrated increased physical capacity, left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness, and LV end-diastolic diameter, along with decreased heart rate, as evaluated by echocardiogram. In addition, the inotropism and lusitropism parameters studied on papillary muscles showed improvement in the T group (P < 0.05). However, after just 2 weeks of detraining, all parameters regressed back to values which were similar to those of the untrained groups. In conclusion, our results confirmed that exercise training is capable of inducing myocardial remodeling and improving contractile performance; however, these changes are completely lost after a short period of detraining.

Bocalini DS; Carvalho EV; de Sousa AF; Levy RF; Tucci PJ

2010-07-01

168

Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using solution-based in situ synthesis and fabrication of Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanocrystal counter electrode.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On the bright side: A solution-based strategy was developed for in situ synthesis and film deposition of Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanocrystal films (samples a-d). The obtained Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanocrystal films can be used as an effective counter-electrode (CE) material to replace Pt, and yield low-cost, high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The assembled solar cell devices exhibit an efficiency of 7.82?% under 1?sun irradiation (see figure).

Yuan SJ; Zhou ZJ; Hou ZL; Zhou WH; Yao RY; Zhao Y; Wu SX

2013-07-01

169

In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation.

Hazen, T.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Looney, B.B.; Enzien, M.; Franck, M.M.; Fliermans, C.B.; Eddy, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-12-31

170

Enhancement of growth and structure properties of YBa2Cu3O7-? thin layers by in situ incorporation of gold nano-clusters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For most hetero-epitactic growth techniques, structural defects due to the lattice misfit, namely tilts, precipitates or holes, turn out to be limiting factors for the successful fabrication of multilayer systems. A new approach of an in situ growth technique dealing with this problem by incorporation of gold nano-clusters is examined. Therefore, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of a high-TC YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) layer onto a strontium titanate (STO) template with a temporary interlayer of gold with a well-defined film thickness is investigated. Within this process, the gold interlayer shows nano-clustering behavior. Effects on the properties of structure like crystallographic or surface features of the ablated YBCO layer by variation of the film thickness of the gold and YBCO layers are presented. Moreover, distribution and clustering behavior of the crystallized gold nano-particles as well as the basic superconducting properties of the layer system are analyzed.

2011-01-01

171

Uranium in situ leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Despite the depressed situation that has affected the uranium industry during the past years, the second Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium In Situ Leaching, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and held in Vienna from 5 to 8 October 1992, has attracted a relatively large number of participants. A notable development since the first meeting was that the majority of the contributions came from the actual operators of in situ leaching uranium production. At the present meeting, presentations on operations in the USA were balanced by those of the eastern European and Asian countries. Contributions from Bulgaria, China, Czechoslovakia, Germany (from the operation in the former German Democratic Republic), the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan represent new information not commonly available. In situ leach mining is defined in one of the paper presented as a ''mining method where the ore mineral is preferentially leached from the host rock in place, or in situ, by the use of leach solutions, and the mineral value is recovered. Refs, figs and tabs

1992-10-08

172

In situ hydrogenation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of an experimental study to assess the potential of in situ hydrogenation as a method for production of heavy oils are summarized in this report. This project was designed to determine whether improvements in chemical and physical properties o...

P. R. Stapp

1989-01-01

173

Forward In-Situ Combustion Numerical Modelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced oil recovery by in situ combustion is often considered for viscous and heavy oils. The aim of this work is the realization of a combustion model at the deposit scale and of reasonable cost. A simplified model is first presented, describing only t...

P. Le Thiez

1986-01-01

174

Rapid and sensitive in-situ detection of polar antibiotics in water using a disposable Ag-graphene sensor based on electrophoretic preconcentration and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A disposable Ag-graphene sensor was developed for rapid and sensitive in-situ detection of polar antibiotics in water using electrophoretic preconcentration (EP) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The Ag-graphene sensor was fabricated by depositing Ag-graphene nanocomposites synthesized through a facile one-pot method on the disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SERS properties and detection applicability of the developed sensor were systematically investigated. It is shown that the polar antibiotics can be selectively adsorbed on the oppositely charged sensors after applying different potentials during the EP procedure, and the SERS signals of antibiotics with an effective amplification can be achieved with proper time of preconcentration. Moreover, the Ag-graphene sensor could facilitate the molecule adsorption through weak ?-? interactions between graphene and antibiotics, further improving the sensitivity of SERS detection. Under the optimum EP conditions, the representative SERS spectra of a mixed solution containing four different antibiotics can be obtained within 10 min, and each antibiotic is easily distinguished by its characteristic peaks with a sub-nM detection level. The results demonstrate that the proposed disposable Ag-graphene sensor based on EP-SERS can be used for rapid and sensitive in-situ detection of polar antibiotics in aqueous samples without a pre-separation step. PMID:23287654

Li, Yuan-Ting; Qu, Lu-Lu; Li, Da-Wei; Song, Qi-Xia; Fathi, Farkhondeh; Long, Yi-Tao

2012-12-13

175

Rapid and sensitive in-situ detection of polar antibiotics in water using a disposable Ag-graphene sensor based on electrophoretic preconcentration and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A disposable Ag-graphene sensor was developed for rapid and sensitive in-situ detection of polar antibiotics in water using electrophoretic preconcentration (EP) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The Ag-graphene sensor was fabricated by depositing Ag-graphene nanocomposites synthesized through a facile one-pot method on the disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SERS properties and detection applicability of the developed sensor were systematically investigated. It is shown that the polar antibiotics can be selectively adsorbed on the oppositely charged sensors after applying different potentials during the EP procedure, and the SERS signals of antibiotics with an effective amplification can be achieved with proper time of preconcentration. Moreover, the Ag-graphene sensor could facilitate the molecule adsorption through weak ?-? interactions between graphene and antibiotics, further improving the sensitivity of SERS detection. Under the optimum EP conditions, the representative SERS spectra of a mixed solution containing four different antibiotics can be obtained within 10 min, and each antibiotic is easily distinguished by its characteristic peaks with a sub-nM detection level. The results demonstrate that the proposed disposable Ag-graphene sensor based on EP-SERS can be used for rapid and sensitive in-situ detection of polar antibiotics in aqueous samples without a pre-separation step.

Li YT; Qu LL; Li DW; Song QX; Fathi F; Long YT

2013-05-01

176

The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-component DNAPLS with surfactant solutions. Topical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Laboratory studies were conducted at the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY) while numerical simulation and field work were undertaken by INTERA Inc. in collaboration with Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc. at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Kentucky. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). Ten of these were capable of solubilizing TCE to concentrations greater than 15,000 mg/L, compared to its aqueous solubility of 1,100 mg/L. Four surfactants were identified as good solubilizers of all three chlorinated solvents. Of these, a secondary alcohol ethoxylate was the first choice for in situ testing because of its excellent solubilizing ability and its low propensity to sorb. However, this surfactant did not meet the Commonwealth of Kentucky`s acceptance criteria. Consequently, it was decided to use a surfactant approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration as a food-grade additive. As a 1% micellar-surfactant solution, this sorbitan monooleate has a solubilization capacity of 16,000 mg TCE/L, but has a higher propensity to sorb to clays than has the alcohol ethoxylate.

NONE

1995-01-01

177

In situ steam generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ thermal technologies have helped increase the recovery rates of conventional heavy oil production, with demands for treated water and emissions of greenhouse gases. An experimental solvent thermal resource innovations process (STRIP) developed by RII North America Inc. might be able to increase even recovery rates while reducing water usage and greenhouse gases emissions. This process uses injected oxygen and methane and downhole produced water to generate steam within the reservoir and thus heat up the oil bearing formation.

Ross, Elsie

2011-01-15

178

In situ monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Systems for in situ analysis of radionuclides around storage areas and nuclear sites are being developed. The development and initial use of an intrinsic Ge system for the determination of Pu and Am in soils were completed. A method based on gamma-ray analysis of grazing animal thyroids was developed as a possible method for U and Th exploration using their 226Ra and 228Ra daughters

1976-01-01

179

Upconversion: Tunable Near Infrared to Ultraviolet Upconversion Luminescence Enhancement in (?-NaYF4 :Yb,Tm)/CaF2 Core/Shell Nanoparticles for In situ Real-time Recorded Biocompatible Photoactivation (Small 19/2013).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can convert tissue-penetrable nearinfrared light into UV emission, making them promising as transducers for photoactivation in biology. However, the choice of the UV emitting UCNPs is limited and their NIR-to-UV efficiency is low. G. Han and co-workers have addressed this issue by developing a family of CaF2 -coated UCNPs with tunable UV enhancement. As reported on page 3213, such design outperforms known optimal UCNPs and in situ realtime live-cell photoactivation is recorded for the first time with such nanoparticles. This result is a potential game changer in photoactivation in living systems and a new tool for other biophotonic applications.

Shen J; Chen G; Ohulchanskyy TY; Kesseli SJ; Buchholz S; Li Z; Prasad PN; Han G

2013-10-01

180

Upconversion: Tunable Near Infrared to Ultraviolet Upconversion Luminescence Enhancement in (?-NaYF4 :Yb,Tm)/CaF2 Core/Shell Nanoparticles for In situ Real-time Recorded Biocompatible Photoactivation (Small 19/2013).  

Science.gov (United States)

Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can convert tissue-penetrable nearinfrared light into UV emission, making them promising as transducers for photoactivation in biology. However, the choice of the UV emitting UCNPs is limited and their NIR-to-UV efficiency is low. G. Han and co-workers have addressed this issue by developing a family of CaF2 -coated UCNPs with tunable UV enhancement. As reported on page 3213, such design outperforms known optimal UCNPs and in situ realtime live-cell photoactivation is recorded for the first time with such nanoparticles. This result is a potential game changer in photoactivation in living systems and a new tool for other biophotonic applications. PMID:24101557

Shen, Jie; Chen, Guanying; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y; Kesseli, Samuel J; Buchholz, Steven; Li, Zhipeng; Prasad, Paras N; Han, Gang

2013-10-11

 
 
 
 
181

Late-onset epithelial ingrowth after laser in situ keratomileusis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a case of late-onset epithelial ingrowth that occurred between 17 months and 20 months after an uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) enhancement. The patient denied a history of trauma or symptoms consistent with epithelial disruption. Post-LASIK treatment had included lifting the flap and scraping the epithelial cells followed by placement of corneal flap sutures for several weeks and a bandage contact lens for 3 days. Gradual regression of epithelial cells was noted. The last recorded uncorrected distance visual acuity 24 months after scraping was 20/25. Epithelial ingrowth can occur many months after LASIK even in the absence of predisposing factors such as trauma or recurrent erosion syndrome.

Todani A; Melki SA

2009-11-01

182

Late-onset epithelial ingrowth after laser in situ keratomileusis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of late-onset epithelial ingrowth that occurred between 17 months and 20 months after an uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) enhancement. The patient denied a history of trauma or symptoms consistent with epithelial disruption. Post-LASIK treatment had included lifting the flap and scraping the epithelial cells followed by placement of corneal flap sutures for several weeks and a bandage contact lens for 3 days. Gradual regression of epithelial cells was noted. The last recorded uncorrected distance visual acuity 24 months after scraping was 20/25. Epithelial ingrowth can occur many months after LASIK even in the absence of predisposing factors such as trauma or recurrent erosion syndrome. PMID:19878839

Todani, Amit; Melki, Samir A

2009-11-01

183

In situ measurements of plasma drift velocity and enhanced NO+ in the auroral electrojet by the Bennett spectrometer on AE-C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simultaneous measurements of ion composition and plasma drift velocity by the Bennett mass spectrometer on the Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite reveal a direct correlation between enhancements in NO+ concentration and ion drift velocity in the southern auroral oval. Low altitude (137 to 250 km) data obtained between 1700 and 2400 hr magnetic local time on October 22, 1974 reveal a region of westward plasma flow at velocities up to 1.3 km/s between 620 and 680 invariant latitude, with corresponding NO+ enhancements of up to a factor of 20. A narrow region of reverse flow at approx. 0.9 km/s was also measured. These drift observations are consistent with convective flow patterns derived from electric field measurements, and their correlation with NO+ appears to support the suggestion that NO+ enhancements would be expected in regions of drift owing to the dependence on ion energy of the reaction O++N2?NO++N.

1975-01-01

184

Significant plasticity enhancement of ZrCu-based bulk metallic glass composite dispersed by in situ and ex situ Ta particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Confinement zone of Ta particles provide a plastic shielding to obstruct shear banding and so as to significantly increase the plasticity of Zr-based BMGC. Evidence of remarkable plasticity improvement of Zr-based BMGC dispersed by the combination of in situ and ex situ Ta particles can be seen from the stress–strain curve (a) as well as the fractured samples of monolithic BMG ((b): brittle fracture) and BMGC ((c): severe plastic deformation). Highlights: ? Shear bands are arrested by the interface of glassy matrix/Ta in the Zr-based BMGCs. ? Ta particles of BMGC distributed as a semi-uniform confinement zone. ? Confinement zone exhibits smaller size than plastic zone of crack-tip in the BMGC. ? Confinement zone of Ta provide a plastic shielding to obstruct shear banding. ? Plasticity can be improved from 0% (monolithic BMG) to 44% plastic strain (BMGC). - Abstract: Using two-step arc melting process and suction casting, the Zr47.3Cu32Al8Ag8Ta4Si0.7-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) rods with ex situ added micro-sized Ta particles have been successfully fabricated. The structure and thermal properties of these BMGCs samples were examined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that these BMGCs with ex situ added Ta exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison with their base alloy counterpart, with relatively high glass forming ability (GFA). For the mechanical study, the results of compression test show that more than 25% compressive plastic strain and 1800 MPa fracture strength at room temperature can be obtained for the 2 mm diameter rod of the ZrCu-based BMGC ex situ added 6 and 9 vol.% Ta particles, respectively. Images from SEM on the fractured surfaces show that the homogeneously distributed Ta particles (20 ± 8 ?m) would form semi-uniform confinement zones to restrict the shear band propagation. In other words, the inter-particle free space and the size of confinement zone (mean free path of shear bands) is apparently the controlling factor in affecting the plasticity of BMGCs.

2012-08-15

185

Mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells within polyglycolic acid tube observed in vivo after six weeks enhance facial nerve regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autografting is the gold-standard method for facial nerve repair with tissue loss. Its association with high-quality scaffolds and cell implants has disclosed distinct experimental outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional and histological effects of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) combined with polyglycolic acid tube (PGAt) in autografted rat facial nerves. After neurotmesis of the mandibular branch of the rat facial nerve, surgical repair consisted of nerve autografting (groups A-E) contained in pGAT (groups B-E), filled with basement membrane matrix (groups C-E) with undifferentiated BMSC (group D) or Schwann-like cells that had differentiated from BMSC (group E). Axon morphometrics and an objective compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) analysis were conducted. Immunofluorescence assays were carried out with Schwann cell marker S100 and anti-?-galactosidase to label exogenous cells. Six weeks after surgery, animals from either cell-containing group had mean CMAP amplitudes significantly higher than control groups. Differently from other groups, facial nerves with Schwann-like cell implants had mean axonal densities within reference values. This same group had the highest mean axonal diameter in distal segments. We observed expression of the reporter gene lacZ in nerve cells in the graft and distally from it in groups D and E. Group-E cells had lacZ coexpressed with S100. In conclusion, regeneration of the facial nerve was improved by BMSC within PGAt in rats, yet Schwann-like cells were associated with superior effects. Accordingly, groups D and E had BMSC integrated in neural tissue with maintenance of former cell phenotype for six weeks. PMID:23542586

Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi; Ferreira Bento, Ricardo; Salomone, Raquel; Azzi-Nogueira, Deborah; Zanatta, Daniela B; Paulino Costa, Márcio; da Silva, Ciro Ferreira; Strauss, Bryan E; Haddad, Luciana A

2013-03-28

186

Mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells within polyglycolic acid tube observed in vivo after six weeks enhance facial nerve regeneration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Autografting is the gold-standard method for facial nerve repair with tissue loss. Its association with high-quality scaffolds and cell implants has disclosed distinct experimental outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional and histological effects of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) combined with polyglycolic acid tube (PGAt) in autografted rat facial nerves. After neurotmesis of the mandibular branch of the rat facial nerve, surgical repair consisted of nerve autografting (groups A-E) contained in pGAT (groups B-E), filled with basement membrane matrix (groups C-E) with undifferentiated BMSC (group D) or Schwann-like cells that had differentiated from BMSC (group E). Axon morphometrics and an objective compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) analysis were conducted. Immunofluorescence assays were carried out with Schwann cell marker S100 and anti-?-galactosidase to label exogenous cells. Six weeks after surgery, animals from either cell-containing group had mean CMAP amplitudes significantly higher than control groups. Differently from other groups, facial nerves with Schwann-like cell implants had mean axonal densities within reference values. This same group had the highest mean axonal diameter in distal segments. We observed expression of the reporter gene lacZ in nerve cells in the graft and distally from it in groups D and E. Group-E cells had lacZ coexpressed with S100. In conclusion, regeneration of the facial nerve was improved by BMSC within PGAt in rats, yet Schwann-like cells were associated with superior effects. Accordingly, groups D and E had BMSC integrated in neural tissue with maintenance of former cell phenotype for six weeks.

Costa HJ; Ferreira Bento R; Salomone R; Azzi-Nogueira D; Zanatta DB; Paulino Costa M; da Silva CF; Strauss BE; Haddad LA

2013-05-01

187

Evaluation of an in situ forming hydrogel wound dressing based on oxidized alginate and gelatin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wound dressings that can be formed in situ offer several advantages over the use of preformed dressings such as conformability without wrinkling or fluting in the wound bed, ease of application and improved patient compliance and comfort. Here we describe such an in situ forming hydrogel wound dressing from gelatin, oxidized alginate and borax. Periodate oxidized alginate rapidly cross-links proteins such as gelatin in the presence of borax to give in situ forming hydrogels that are both non-toxic and biodegradable. The composite matrix has the haemostatic effect of gelatin, the wound healing-promoting feature of alginate and the antiseptic property of borax to make it a potential wound dressing material. The hydrogel was found to have a fluid uptake of 90% of its weight which would prevent the wound bed from accumulation of exudates. The water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) of the hydrogel was found to be 2686+/-124 g/m2/day indicating that the hydrogel can maintain a moist environment over wound bed in moderate to heavily exuding wound which would enhance epithelial cell migration during the healing process. The wound healing efficacy of hydrogel was evaluated in experimental full thickness wounds using a rat model which demonstrated that within 2 weeks, the wound covered with gel was completely filled with new epithelium without any significant adverse reactions. These in situ forming hydrogels fulfil many critical elements desirable in a wound dressing material.

Balakrishnan B; Mohanty M; Umashankar PR; Jayakrishnan A

2005-11-01

188

Evaluation of an in situ forming hydrogel wound dressing based on oxidized alginate and gelatin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wound dressings that can be formed in situ offer several advantages over the use of preformed dressings such as conformability without wrinkling or fluting in the wound bed, ease of application and improved patient compliance and comfort. Here we describe such an in situ forming hydrogel wound dressing from gelatin, oxidized alginate and borax. Periodate oxidized alginate rapidly cross-links proteins such as gelatin in the presence of borax to give in situ forming hydrogels that are both non-toxic and biodegradable. The composite matrix has the haemostatic effect of gelatin, the wound healing-promoting feature of alginate and the antiseptic property of borax to make it a potential wound dressing material. The hydrogel was found to have a fluid uptake of 90% of its weight which would prevent the wound bed from accumulation of exudates. The water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) of the hydrogel was found to be 2686+/-124 g/m2/day indicating that the hydrogel can maintain a moist environment over wound bed in moderate to heavily exuding wound which would enhance epithelial cell migration during the healing process. The wound healing efficacy of hydrogel was evaluated in experimental full thickness wounds using a rat model which demonstrated that within 2 weeks, the wound covered with gel was completely filled with new epithelium without any significant adverse reactions. These in situ forming hydrogels fulfil many critical elements desirable in a wound dressing material. PMID:15919113

Balakrishnan, Biji; Mohanty, M; Umashankar, P R; Jayakrishnan, A

2005-11-01

189

Ductal carcinoma in situ.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has evolved from radical surgery to the option of a more minimally invasive approach. Data show that breast conservation surgery performed with administration of radiotherapy, like mastectomy, is feasible and safe. Because efforts to find a safe group for elimination of radiotherapy have resulted in data that conflict, radiotherapy still remains standard of care as a part of breast conservation for DCIS. Tamoxifen has also shown a significant recurrence benefit and has become standard in the treatment of receptor-positive disease. Investigation of other agents, such as anastrazole and trastuzumab, are ongoing.

Bleicher RJ

2013-04-01

190

Linking microbial phylogeny to metabolic activity at the single-cell level by using enhanced element labeling-catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (EL-FISH) and NanoSIMS.  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine phylogenetic identity and metabolic activity of individual cells in complex microbial communities, we developed a method which combines rRNA-based in situ hybridization with stable isotope imaging based on nanometer-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Fluorine or bromine atoms were introduced into cells via 16S rRNA-targeted probes, which enabled phylogenetic identification of individual cells by NanoSIMS imaging. To overcome the natural fluorine and bromine backgrounds, we modified the current catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique by using halogen-containing fluorescently labeled tyramides as substrates for the enzymatic tyramide deposition. Thereby, we obtained an enhanced element labeling of microbial cells by FISH (EL-FISH). The relative cellular abundance of fluorine or bromine after EL-FISH exceeded natural background concentrations by up to 180-fold and allowed us to distinguish target from non-target cells in NanoSIMS fluorine or bromine images. The method was optimized on single cells of axenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae cultures. EL-FISH/NanoSIMS was then applied to study interrelationships in a dual-species consortium consisting of a filamentous cyanobacterium and a heterotrophic alphaproteobacterium. We also evaluated the method on complex microbial aggregates obtained from human oral biofilms. In both samples, we found evidence for metabolic interactions by visualizing the fate of substrates labeled with (13)C-carbon and (15)N-nitrogen, while individual cells were identified simultaneously by halogen labeling via EL-FISH. Our novel approach will facilitate further studies of the ecophysiology of known and uncultured microorganisms in complex environments and communities. PMID:18359832

Behrens, Sebastian; Lösekann, Tina; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weber, Peter K; Ng, Wing-On; Stevenson, Bradley S; Hutcheon, Ian D; Relman, David A; Spormann, Alfred M

2008-03-21

191

Linking microbial phylogeny to metabolic activity at the single-cell level by using enhanced element labeling-catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (EL-FISH) and NanoSIMS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To examine phylogenetic identity and metabolic activity of individual cells in complex microbial communities, we developed a method which combines rRNA-based in situ hybridization with stable isotope imaging based on nanometer-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Fluorine or bromine atoms were introduced into cells via 16S rRNA-targeted probes, which enabled phylogenetic identification of individual cells by NanoSIMS imaging. To overcome the natural fluorine and bromine backgrounds, we modified the current catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique by using halogen-containing fluorescently labeled tyramides as substrates for the enzymatic tyramide deposition. Thereby, we obtained an enhanced element labeling of microbial cells by FISH (EL-FISH). The relative cellular abundance of fluorine or bromine after EL-FISH exceeded natural background concentrations by up to 180-fold and allowed us to distinguish target from non-target cells in NanoSIMS fluorine or bromine images. The method was optimized on single cells of axenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae cultures. EL-FISH/NanoSIMS was then applied to study interrelationships in a dual-species consortium consisting of a filamentous cyanobacterium and a heterotrophic alphaproteobacterium. We also evaluated the method on complex microbial aggregates obtained from human oral biofilms. In both samples, we found evidence for metabolic interactions by visualizing the fate of substrates labeled with (13)C-carbon and (15)N-nitrogen, while individual cells were identified simultaneously by halogen labeling via EL-FISH. Our novel approach will facilitate further studies of the ecophysiology of known and uncultured microorganisms in complex environments and communities.

Behrens S; Lösekann T; Pett-Ridge J; Weber PK; Ng WO; Stevenson BS; Hutcheon ID; Relman DA; Spormann AM

2008-05-01

192

Diclofenac enables unprecedented week-long microneedle-enhanced delivery of a skin impermeable medication in humans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Microneedles applied to the skin create micropores, allowing transdermal drug delivery of skin-impermeable compounds. The first human study with this technique demonstrated delivery of naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) for two to three days. Rapid micropore closure, however, blunts the delivery window. Application of diclofenac (an anti-inflammatory) allows seven days of naltrexone delivery in animals. The purpose of the current work was to demonstrate delivery of naltrexone for seven days following one microneedle treatment in humans. METHODS: Human subjects were treated with microneedles, diclofenac (or placebo), and naltrexone. Impedance measurements were used as a surrogate marker to measure micropore formation, and plasma naltrexone concentrations were measured for seven days post-microneedle application. RESULTS: Impedance dropped significantly from baseline to post-microneedle treatment, confirming micropore formation. Naltrexone was detected for seven days in Group 1 (diclofenac + naltrexone, n?=?6), vs. 72 h in Group 2 (placebo + naltrexone, n?=?2). At study completion, a significant difference in impedance was observed between intact and microneedle-treated skin in Group 1 (confirming the presence of micropores). CONCLUSION: This is the first study demonstrating week-long drug delivery after one microneedle application, which would increase patient compliance and allow delivery of therapies for chronic diseases.

Brogden NK; Banks SL; Crofford LJ; Stinchcomb AL

2013-08-01

193

An enhanced postnatal autoimmune profile in 24 week-old C57BL/6 mice developmentally exposed to TCDD.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developmental exposure of mice to the environmental contaminant and AhR agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), causes persistent postnatal suppression of T cell-mediated immune responses. The extent to which prenatal TCDD may induce or exacerbate postnatal autoimmune disease remains unknown. In the present study, time-pregnant high affinity AhR C57BL/6 mice received a single oral administration of 0, 2.5, or 5 microg/kg TCDD on gestation day (gd) 12. Offspring of these mice (n=5/gender/treatment) were evaluated at 24 weeks-of-age and showed considerable immune dysregulation that was often gender-specific. Decreased thymic weight and percentages of CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes, and increased CD4(+)CD8(-) thymocytes, were present in the female but not male offspring. Males but not females showed decreased CD4(-)CD8(+) T cells, and increased Vbeta3(+) and Vbeta17a(+) T cells, in the spleen. Males but not females also showed increased percentages of bone marrow CD24(-)B220(+) B cell progenitors. Antibody titers to dsDNA, ssDNA and cardiolipin displayed increasing trends in both male and female mice, reaching significance for anti-dsDNA in both genders and for ssDNA in males at 5 microg/kg TCDD. Immunofluorescent staining of IgG and C3 deposition in kidney glomeruli increased in both genders of prenatal TCDD-exposed mice, suggestive of early stages of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Collectively, these results show that exposure to TCDD during immune system development causes persistent humoral immune dysregulation as well as altered cell-mediated responses, and induces an adult profile of changes suggestive of increased risk for autoimmune disease. PMID:18534654

Mustafa, A; Holladay, S D; Goff, M; Witonsky, S G; Kerr, R; Reilly, C M; Sponenberg, D P; Gogal, R M

2008-04-30

194

An enhanced postnatal autoimmune profile in 24 week-old C57BL/6 mice developmentally exposed to TCDD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Developmental exposure of mice to the environmental contaminant and AhR agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), causes persistent postnatal suppression of T cell-mediated immune responses. The extent to which prenatal TCDD may induce or exacerbate postnatal autoimmune disease remains unknown. In the present study, time-pregnant high affinity AhR C57BL/6 mice received a single oral administration of 0, 2.5, or 5 ?g/kg TCDD on gestation day (gd) 12. Offspring of these mice (n = 5/gender/treatment) were evaluated at 24 weeks-of-age and showed considerable immune dysregulation that was often gender-specific. Decreased thymic weight and percentages of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, and increased CD4+CD8- thymocytes, were present in the female but not male offspring. Males but not females showed decreased CD4-CD8+ T cells, and increased V?3+ and V?17a+ T cells, in the spleen. Males but not females also showed increased percentages of bone marrow CD24-B220+ B cell progenitors. Antibody titers to dsDNA, ssDNA and cardiolipin displayed increasing trends in both male and female mice, reaching significance for anti-dsDNA in both genders and for ssDNA in males at 5 ?g/kg TCDD. Immunofluorescent staining of IgG and C3 deposition in kidney glomeruli increased in both genders of prenatal TCDD-exposed mice, suggestive of early stages of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Collectively, these results show that exposure to TCDD during immune system development causes persistent humoral immune dysregulation as well as altered cell-mediated responses, and induces an adult profile of changes suggestive of increased risk for autoimmune disease.

2008-10-01

195

A New Method for In-situ Characterization of Important Actinides and Technetium Compounds via Fiberoptic Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project serves to fill information gap through the development of a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to selectively and sensitively monitor and characterize the chemical speciation of radionuclides at trace levels. The SERS technique permits both of these measurements to be made simultaneously, and results in significant improvement over current methods in reducing time of analysis, cost, and sample manipulation. Our overall goal is (a) to develop a scientific basis for this new methodology to detect radionuclides via SERS and (b) to rationally synthesize and evaluate novel sol-gel based SERS substrates tailored to sensitively detect and characterize inorganic radionuclides such as TcO4 -, actinyl ions (e.g. UO2 2+, NpO2 +, and PuO2 2+) and other chemical compounds of interest.

Dai, Sheng; Gu, B.

2003-06-15

196

A New Method for In-situ Characterization of Important Actinides and Technetium Compounds via Fiberoptic Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project serves to fill information gap through the development of a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to selectively and sensitively monitor and characterize the chemical speciation of radionuclides at trace levels. The SERS technique permits both of these measurements to be made simultaneously, and results in significant improvement over current methods in reducing time of analysis, cost, and sample manipulation. Our overall goal is (a) to develop a scientific basis for this new methodology to detect radionuclides via SERS and (b) to rationally synthesize and evaluate novel sol-gel based SERS substrates tailored to sensitively detect and characterize inorganic radionuclides such as TcO4 -, actinyl ions (e.g. UO2 2+, NpO2 +, and PuO2 2+) and other chemical compounds of interest.

Dai, Sheng; Gu, B.

2002-06-15

197

A New Method for In-situ Characterization of Important Actinides and Technetium Compounds via Fiberoptic Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project serves to fill information gap through the development of a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to selectively and sensitively monitor and characterize the chemical speciation of radionuclides at trace levels. The SERS technique permits both of these measurements to be made simultaneously, and results in significant improvement over current methods in reducing time of analysis, cost, and sample manipulation. Our overall goal is (a) to develop a scientific basis for this new methodology to detect radionuclides via SERS and (b) to rationally synthesize and evaluate novel sol-gel based SERS substrates tailored to sensitively detect and characterize inorganic radionuclides such as TcO4 -, actinyl ions (e.g. UO2 2+, NpO2 +, and PuO2 2+) and other chemical compounds of interest.

Dai Sheng; Gu, B.

2005-09-28

198

A New Method for In-situ Characterization of Important Actinides and Technetium Compounds via Fiberoptic Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project serves to fill information gap through the development of a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to selectively and sensitively monitor and characterize the chemical speciation of radionuclides at trace levels. The SERS technique permits both of these measurements to be made simultaneously, and results in significant improvement over current methods in reducing time of analysis, cost, and sample manipulation. Our overall goal is (a) to develop a scientific basis for this new methodology to detect radionuclides via SERS and (b) to rationally synthesize and evaluate novel sol-gel based SERS substrates tailored to sensitively detect and characterize inorganic radionuclides such as TcO4 -, actinyl ions (e.g. UO2 2+, NpO2 +, and PuO2 2+) and other chemical compounds of interest.

2005-01-01

199

Enhanced in situ toughening of silicon nitride by the addition of {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} whiskers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silicon nitride ceramics were processed with the addition of small quantities of {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} whiskers to a commercially available {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder. These whiskers grew preferentially during liquid phase sintering into very large, elongated {beta}-grains. Silicon nitride samples of the same compositions, but without the whiskers were also processed. The fracture toughness and R-curve behavior of the whisker seeded samples were compared to those of unseeded samples. The fracture toughness of the seeded samples was higher because grain pullout and crack bridging were enhanced by the very large, elongated {beta}-grains. R-curve behavior was present in both seeded and unseeded silicon nitrides.

Tikare, V. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Sanders, W.A. [Analex Corporation, Brookpark, OH (United States); Choi, S.R. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

1994-12-31

200

In situ measurement system  

Science.gov (United States)

A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop hairpin configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. Measurement means are provided for obtaining for each pair the electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner means sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

Lord, D.E.

1980-11-24

 
 
 
 
201

In situ growth of vanadia-titania nano/micro-porous layers with enhanced photocatalytic performance by micro-arc oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Micro-arc oxidation process was used to synthesize V2O5-TiO2 porous layers for the first time. Surface morphology and topography of the layers were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were also employed to evaluate phase structure and chemical composition of the layers. It was found that the V2O5-TiO2 layers consisted of anatase, rutile, and vanadium pentoxide phases fraction of which varied with the applied voltage and the electrolyte concentration. It was also revealed that pore size and surface roughness increased with the applied voltage and the electrolyte concentration. Optical properties of the layers were studied by a UV-vis spectrophotometer, and the band gap energies of the MAO-grown pure TiO2 and V2O5-TiO2 layers were respectively calculated as 3.21 and 2.56 eV. Furthermore, the composite layers exhibited a significantly enhanced photo-activity when compared to pure TiO2 layers. The photocatalytic reaction rate constants of degradation of methylene blue on the surface of the V2O5-TiO2 layers under ultraviolet and visible irradiations were measured as 0.0228 and 0.0117 min-1, respectively. As a consequence, micro-arc oxidation was deduced to be an appropriate and efficient method for synthesis of V2O5-TiO2 porous layers.

1684-01-00

202

In situ growth of vanadia-titania nano/micro-porous layers with enhanced photocatalytic performance by micro-arc oxidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Micro-arc oxidation process was used to synthesize V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-TiO{sub 2} porous layers for the first time. Surface morphology and topography of the layers were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were also employed to evaluate phase structure and chemical composition of the layers. It was found that the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-TiO{sub 2} layers consisted of anatase, rutile, and vanadium pentoxide phases fraction of which varied with the applied voltage and the electrolyte concentration. It was also revealed that pore size and surface roughness increased with the applied voltage and the electrolyte concentration. Optical properties of the layers were studied by a UV-vis spectrophotometer, and the band gap energies of the MAO-grown pure TiO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-TiO{sub 2} layers were respectively calculated as 3.21 and 2.56 eV. Furthermore, the composite layers exhibited a significantly enhanced photo-activity when compared to pure TiO{sub 2} layers. The photocatalytic reaction rate constants of degradation of methylene blue on the surface of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-TiO{sub 2} layers under ultraviolet and visible irradiations were measured as 0.0228 and 0.0117 min{sup -1}, respectively. As a consequence, micro-arc oxidation was deduced to be an appropriate and efficient method for synthesis of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-TiO{sub 2} porous layers.

Bayati, M.R., E-mail: bayati@iust.ac.i [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-195, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moshfegh, A.Z. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 14588-89694, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golestani-Fard, F. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16845-195, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-03-30

203

In situ micro Raman investigation of the laser crystallization in Si thin films plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition-grown from He-diluted SiH4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A cw Ar+ laser crystallization has been performed locally (on a 2 ?m sized spot), using a Raman microscope, on plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition-grown Si films. The deposition has been carried out from differently He-diluted SiH4 so that no high temperature dehydrogenation has been required before the laser treatment. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra of the deposited films reveal their amorphous nature whereas infrared spectra would indicate a larger degree of local order in the high dilution (HD) material (SiH4/He=0.02) if compared to the low dilution (LD) one (SiH4/He?3). Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images show large, well defined outgrowths, few hundreds of nanometers-sized, on the surface of the HD film whereas these are few tens of nanometers-sized in the case of the LD film. The threshold laser power densities (LPDs) required to attain the crystallization of the HD and the LD materials (in the range of times of irradiation investigated) are 1.2x105 and 2.0x105 W cm-2, respectively. The relative ease to crystallize the HD material possibly originates from the fact that the heavy dilution of the reacting gas implies a lower rate of growth and so a larger degree of order. Large crystalline fractions (?0.8) have been observed for the laser-treated HD material. Using a phenomenological model, the diameters of the nanocrystallites from the Raman shift of the crystalline peaks have been estimated. The size of the small crystals increases with the time of irradiation (up to a certain time). The smallest nanocrystals would have been fabricated irradiating the LD material at the threshold LPD for the shortest time of irradiation considered in this work. This low temperature process is of great technological interest (e.g., optoelectronics, microelectronics) because it allows the patterning down to a micrometric scale of (amorphous) a-Si:H films deposited onto glass and/or plastic substrates

2004-05-15

204

Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Resources What's New Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ...

205

In situ bioremediation in Europe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Site remediation activity in Europe is increasing, even if not at the forced pace of the US. Although there is a better understanding of the benefits of bioremediation than of other approaches, especially about in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, relatively few projects have been carried out full-scale in Europe or in the US. Some engineering companies and large industrial companies in Europe are investigating bioremediation and biotreatment technologies, in some cases to solve their internal waste problems. Technologies related to the application of microorganisms to the soil, release of nutrients into the soil, and enhancement of microbial decontamination are being tested through various additives such as surfactants, ion exchange resins, limestone, or dolomite. New equipment has been developed for crushing and mixing or injecting and sparging the microorganisms, as have new reactor technologies (e.g., rotating aerator reactors, biometal sludge reactors, and special mobile containers for simultaneous storage, transportation, and biodegradation of contaminated soil). Some work has also been done with immobilized enzymes to support and restore enzymatic activities related to partial or total xenobiotic decontamination. Finally, some major programs funded by public and private institutions confirm that increasing numbers of firms have a working interest in bioremediation.

Porta, A. [Battelle Europe, Geneva (CH); Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1993-06-01

206

In-situ infrared spectroelectrochemistry. Report No. 44. Technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In-situ infrared (IR) spectroelectrochemistry has become a viable experimental technique only within about the past five years, but it has already proved to be an important addition to the small number of in-situ spectroelectrochemical methods currently in use (electron spin resonance spectrometry, ellipsometry, uv-visible spectrometry,resonance Raman, and surface-enhanced Raman spectrometry),. The technique has found two broad areas of application.

Pons, S.; Foley, J.K.

1986-07-30

207

Effectiveness of Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, on increasing health-enhancing physical activity: a controlled study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The use of the organized sports sector as a setting for health-promotion is a relatively new strategy. In the past few years, different countries have been investing resources in the organized sports sector for promoting health-enhancing physical activity. In the Netherlands, National Sports Federations were funded to develop and implement "easily accessible" sporting programs, aimed at the least active population groups. Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, developed by the Dutch Athletics Organization, is one of these programs. In this study, the effects of Start to Run on health-enhancing physical activity were investigated. METHODS: Physical activity levels of Start to Run participants were assessed by means of the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) at baseline, immediately after completing the program and six months after baseline. A control group, matched for age and sex, was assessed at baseline and after six months. Compliance with the Dutch physical activity guidelines was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures were the total time spent in physical activity and the time spent in each physical activity intensity category and domain. Changes in physical activity within groups were tested with paired t-tests and McNemar tests. Changes between groups were examined with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: In the Start to Run group, the percentage of people who met the Dutch Norm for Health-enhancing Physical Activity, Fit-norm and Combi-norm increased significantly, both in the short- and longer-term. In the control group, no significant changes in physical activity were observed. When comparing results between groups, significantly more Start to Run participants compared with control group participants were meeting the Fit-norm and Combi-norm after six months. The differences in physical activity between groups in favor of the Start to Run group could be explained by an increase in the time spent in vigorous-intensity activities and sports activities. CONCLUSIONS: Start to Run positively influences levels of health-enhancing physical activity of participants, both in the short- and longer-term. Based on these results, the use of the organized sports sector as a setting to promote health-enhancing physical activity seems promising.

Ooms L; Veenhof C; de Bakker DH

2013-01-01

208

Effectiveness of Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, on increasing health-enhancing physical activity: a controlled study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The use of the organized sports sector as a setting for health-promotion is a relatively new strategy. In the past few years, different countries have been investing resources in the organized sports sector for promoting health-enhancing physical activity. In the Netherlands, National Sports Federations were funded to develop and implement “easily accessible” sporting programs, aimed at the least active population groups. Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, developed by the Dutch Athletics Organization, is one of these programs. In this study, the effects of Start to Run on health-enhancing physical activity were investigated. Methods Physical activity levels of Start to Run participants were assessed by means of the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) at baseline, immediately after completing the program and six months after baseline. A control group, matched for age and sex, was assessed at baseline and after six months. Compliance with the Dutch physical activity guidelines was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures were the total time spent in physical activity and the time spent in each physical activity intensity category and domain. Changes in physical activity within groups were tested with paired t-tests and McNemar tests. Changes between groups were examined with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results In the Start to Run group, the percentage of people who met the Dutch Norm for Health-enhancing Physical Activity, Fit-norm and Combi-norm increased significantly, both in the short- and longer-term. In the control group, no significant changes in physical activity were observed. When comparing results between groups, significantly more Start to Run participants compared with control group participants were meeting the Fit-norm and Combi-norm after six months. The differences in physical activity between groups in favor of the Start to Run group could be explained by an increase in the time spent in vigorous-intensity activities and sports activities. Conclusions Start to Run positively influences levels of health-enhancing physical activity of participants, both in the short- and longer-term. Based on these results, the use of the organized sports sector as a setting to promote health-enhancing physical activity seems promising.

2013-01-01

209

In situ mercury stabilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

BNL Royalty Project Internal Status Report. The funds from the allotment of royalty income were used to experimentally explore feasibility of related, potential new techniques based on the Environmental Sciences Department successful technology licensed for the ex situ treatment of mercury. Specifically, this work is exploring the concept of using Sulfur Polymer Cement (SPC) in an in situ application to stabilize and/or remove mercury (Hg) from surficial soil. Patent disclosure forms have been filed for this process. Soil was artificially spiked with 500 ppm Hg and a series of experiments were set up in which SPC rods were placed in the center of a mass of this soil. Some experiments were conducted at 20 C and others at 50 C. After times ranging from 11 to 24 days, these experiments were opened, photographed and the soil was sampled from discrete locations in the containers. The soil and SPC samples were analyzed for Fe and Hg by x-ray fluorescence. The Hg profile in the soil was significantly altered, with concentrations along the outer edge of the soil reduced by as much as 80% from the starting concentration. Conversely, closer to the treatment rod containing SPC, concentrations of Hg were significantly increased over the original concentration. Preliminary results for elevated temperature sample are shown graphically in Figure 2. Apparently the Hg had migrated toward the SPC and reacted with sulfur to form Hg S. This appears to be a reaction between gaseous phases of both S and Hg, with Hg having a greater vapor pressure. The concentration of low solubility HgS (i.e., low leaching properties) developed within 11 days at 50 C and 21 days at 20 C, confirming the potential of this concept.

Fuhrmann, M.; Kalb, P.; Adams, J.

2004-09-01

210

Publication bias in situ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Publication bias, as typically defined, refers to the decreased likelihood of studies' results being published when they are near the null, not statistically significant, or otherwise "less interesting." But choices about how to analyze the data and which results to report create a publication bias within the published results, a bias I label "publication bias in situ" (PBIS). Discussion PBIS may create much greater bias in the literature than traditionally defined publication bias (the failure to publish any result from a study). The causes of PBIS are well known, consisting of various decisions about reporting that are influenced by the data. But its impact is not generally appreciated, and very little attention is devoted to it. What attention there is consists largely of rules for statistical analysis that are impractical and do not actually reduce the bias in reported estimates. PBIS cannot be reduced by statistical tools because it is not fundamentally a problem of statistics, but rather of non-statistical choices and plain language interpretations. PBIS should be recognized as a phenomenon worthy of study – it is extremely common and probably has a huge impact on results reported in the literature – and there should be greater systematic efforts to identify and reduce it. The paper presents examples, including results of a recent HIV vaccine trial, that show how easily PBIS can have a large impact on reported results, as well as how there can be no simple answer to it. Summary PBIS is a major problem, worthy of substantially more attention than it receives. There are ways to reduce the bias, but they are very seldom employed because they are largely unrecognized.

Phillips Carl V

2004-01-01

211

Pituitary carcinoma in situ.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Pituitary carcinomas are extremely rare tumors associated with poor prognosis despite surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. The hallmark of diagnosis implies subarachnoid, brain, or systemic tumor spread. METHODS: We report a case of rapid transformation of atypical nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma to a carcinoma. RESULTS: A 64-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of ophthalmoplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a pituitary macroadenoma (2.2 x 2.1 cm) with invasion of the right cavernous sinus. Biochemical data was consistent with a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma. Pathology showed a pituitary adenoma with negative immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones. The patient returned a month later with weakness, lethargy, and a dilated nonreactive right pupil. MRI showed an invasive large mass (5 x 4.7 cm). After an emergent second transsphenoidal surgery, histopathologic examination revealed a widely infiltrative neoplasm invading the overlying mucosa and showing a high mitotic activity and necrosis and a very high Ki-67 (MIB-1) proliferation index (80%). MIB-1 retrospectively performed on the first specimen was also elevated (30%). Soon after the second surgery, MRI showed a 7.9 x 8.0 cm mass that metastasized to dura mater and extended into the right orbit, right middle cranial fossa, nasopharynx, clivus, posterior fossa, and along the right tentorium cerebelli, resulting in significant compression of the brainstem. CONCLUSION: Development of a pituitary carcinoma from an adenoma is an exceptional occurrence and predictors of such course are currently lacking. A very high Ki-67 proliferation index should raise concern of a pituitary carcinoma in situ or premetastatic carcinoma.

Pasquel FJ; Vincentelli C; Brat DJ; Oyesiku NM; Ioachimescu AG

2013-05-01

212

Publication bias in situ.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Publication bias, as typically defined, refers to the decreased likelihood of studies' results being published when they are near the null, not statistically significant, or otherwise "less interesting." But choices about how to analyze the data and which results to report create a publication bias within the published results, a bias I label "publication bias in situ" (PBIS). DISCUSSION: PBIS may create much greater bias in the literature than traditionally defined publication bias (the failure to publish any result from a study). The causes of PBIS are well known, consisting of various decisions about reporting that are influenced by the data. But its impact is not generally appreciated, and very little attention is devoted to it. What attention there is consists largely of rules for statistical analysis that are impractical and do not actually reduce the bias in reported estimates. PBIS cannot be reduced by statistical tools because it is not fundamentally a problem of statistics, but rather of non-statistical choices and plain language interpretations. PBIS should be recognized as a phenomenon worthy of study - it is extremely common and probably has a huge impact on results reported in the literature - and there should be greater systematic efforts to identify and reduce it. The paper presents examples, including results of a recent HIV vaccine trial, that show how easily PBIS can have a large impact on reported results, as well as how there can be no simple answer to it. SUMMARY: PBIS is a major problem, worthy of substantially more attention than it receives. There are ways to reduce the bias, but they are very seldom employed because they are largely unrecognized.

Phillips CV

2004-08-01

213

In situ leaching of uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A process is described for the in-situ leaching of uranium-containing ores employing an acidic leach liquor containing peroxymonosulphuric acid. Preferably, additionally, sulphuric acid is present in the leach liquor. (author)

1980-01-01

214

Cystic tricholemmal carcinoma in situ.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An 89-year-old man presented with a clinically cystic 4-mm papule on the left temple. The clinical impression was a benign cyst. Pathologic examination revealed a small, symmetric-appearing, well-circumscribed, dermal-based cystic lesion with markedly atypical-appearing clear to squamoid cells lining the cyst wall, consistent with carcinoma in situ involving the cyst. The cells showed abundant glycogen-containing cytoplasm (confirmed by Periodic acid Schiff stains with and without diastase), consistent with tricholemmal differentiation, and areas of tricholemmal/pilar-type keratinization (without a granular layer), consistent with tricholemmal carcinoma in situ, most likely arising in a tricholemmal/pilar cyst. Ki-67 and p53 immunohistochemical stains were strongly positive (with more than 20% of nuclei staining on Ki-67 and more than 80% on p53) in the cyst-lining cells, further supporting the interpretation of carcinoma in situ. Multiple deeper level sections were examined but did not show any evidence of an associated invasive carcinoma. Tricholemmal (pilar) cysts are common benign adnexal lesions and atypia/dysplasia or carcinoma in situ arising within them is exceedingly rare. Previously, only one case of a tricholemmal cyst with carcinoma in situ has been reported. That case was associated with an atypical fibroxanthoma. We report only the second case of tricholemmal carcinoma in situ, most likely involving a tricholemmal cyst, which was not associated with another tumor or evidence of invasive carcinoma.

Lin SK; Cassarino DS

2013-08-01

215

Enhanced N-terminal degradation of troponin I blunts cardiac function responsiveness to isoproterenol in 4-week tail-suspended rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The N-terminal extension of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is important in regulating cardiac function. Although the normal rat myocardium shows some cTnI N-terminal degradation (cTnI-ND), exposure to 4 weeks of tail-suspension markedly increased cTnI-ND. We hypothesized that the increased cTnI-ND in tail-suspended rats may affect cardiac function, particularly during ?-adrenergic (?-A) stimulation. The increase in cardiac output with isoproterenol (ISO) treatment was smaller in tail-suspended rats compared with controls. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was elevated and increases in maximal rates of left ventricular pressure development and relaxation were lower during ISO treatment in tail-suspended rats. Response to ISO, forskolin, DB-cAMP and IBMX was also lower in cardiomyocytes from tail-suspended rats. The increase in shortening and re-lengthening the rates of cardiomyocytes at a maximal dose of ISO, forskolin, DB-cAMP and IBMX treatment was limited in tail-suspended rats. There was no difference in Ca2+ sensitivity of the isometric force between tail-suspended and control rats, although Ca2+ sensitivity was decreased less in tail-suspended rats versus control rats during PKA phosphorylation. There was no difference in PKA protein expression and activation during ISO stimulation between the two groups. Due to the increase in cTnI-ND, ISO-induced phosphorylation of cTnI was reduced in tail-suspended rats. The total phospholamban expression and phosphorylation by ISO was unaltered in tail-suspended rat hearts. These data suggest that enhanced cTnI-ND following 4-week tail-suspension is a major component of the ?-A receptor signaling pathway, depressing cardiac function under ISO stimulation.

Zhang L; Song Z; Chang H; Wang YY; Yu ZB

2013-01-01

216

Enhanced N-terminal degradation of troponin I blunts cardiac function responsiveness to isoproterenol in 4-week tail-suspended rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The N-terminal extension of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is important in regulating cardiac function. Although the normal rat myocardium shows some cTnI N-terminal degradation (cTnI-ND), exposure to 4 weeks of tail-suspension markedly increased cTnI-ND. We hypothesized that the increased cTnI-ND in tail-suspended rats may affect cardiac function, particularly during ?-adrenergic (?-A) stimulation. The increase in cardiac output with isoproterenol (ISO) treatment was smaller in tail-suspended rats compared with controls. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was elevated and increases in maximal rates of left ventricular pressure development and relaxation were lower during ISO treatment in tail-suspended rats. Response to ISO, forskolin, DB-cAMP and IBMX was also lower in cardiomyocytes from tail-suspended rats. The increase in shortening and re-lengthening the rates of cardiomyocytes at a maximal dose of ISO, forskolin, DB-cAMP and IBMX treatment was limited in tail-suspended rats. There was no difference in Ca2+ sensitivity of the isometric force between tail-suspended and control rats, although Ca2+ sensitivity was decreased less in tail-suspended rats versus control rats during PKA phosphorylation. There was no difference in PKA protein expression and activation during ISO stimulation between the two groups. Due to the increase in cTnI-ND, ISO-induced phosphorylation of cTnI was reduced in tail-suspended rats. The total phospholamban expression and phosphorylation by ISO was unaltered in tail-suspended rat hearts. These data suggest that enhanced cTnI-ND following 4-week tail-suspension is a major component of the ?-A receptor signaling pathway, depressing cardiac function under ISO stimulation. PMID:23042367

Zhang, Lin; Song, Zhen; Chang, Hui; Wang, Yun-Ying; Yu, Zhi-Bin

2012-10-08

217

In situ uranium stabilization by microbial metabolites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Microbial melanin production by autochthonous bacteria was explored in this study as a means to increase U immobilization in U contaminated soil. This article demonstrates the application of bacterial physiology and soil ecology for enhanced U immobilization in order to develop an in situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >106 cells per g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U complexing and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in a field test demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments

2008-01-01

218

In situ biofilm coupon device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus for characterization of in-situ microbial biofilm populations in subsurface groundwater. The device permits biofilm-forming microorganisms to adhere to packing material while emplaced in a groundwater strata, so that the packing material can be later analyzed for quantity and type of microorganisms, growth rate, and nutrient requirements.

Peyton, Brent M. (Kennewick, WA); Truex, Michael J. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01

219

In situ solution mining technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of in situ solution mining is disclosed in which a primary leaching process employing an array of 5-spot leaching patterns of production and injection wells is converted to a different pattern by converting to injection wells all the production wells in alternate rows.

1978-01-01

220

'In situ' expanded graphite extinguishant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is concerning the development of the extinguishant for sodium fire and the investigation of its extinguishing property. The experiment result shows that 'in situ' expanded graphite developed by the authors is a kind of extinguishant which extinguishes sodium fire quickly and effectively and has no environment pollution during use and the amount of usage is little.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

The in situ tumour response to combinations of cyclophosphamide and tirapazamine.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential of tirapazamine to enhance the in situ efficacy of the anti-cancer drug cyclophosphamide (CP) was evaluated in two rodent tumours (KHT sarcoma, 16C mammary carcinoma) and one human ovarian tumour xenograft (MLS) using end points of in vivo to in vitro cell survival or in situ tumour gr...

Siemann, D. W.

222

???????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? "IN SITU" Means of measurement of active capacity on low and average frequencies "IN SITU" ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? "IN SITU"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? "in situ" ? ?????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??? ???? ????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??????.The basic ways of measurement of active capacity on low and average frequencies "in situ" are given and perspectives of use for these purposes of magnetoresistive converters of an electromagnetic field on basis ferromagnetic tapes is determined. The list of tasks of further research these tapes are determined.???????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????? "in situ" ?? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??? ??? ????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ???? ?? ?????? ????????????? ??????.

A. I. Vytiaganets; Val. S. Vuntesmeri

2007-01-01

223

National Engineers Week  

Science.gov (United States)

Now an annual event, National Engineers Week was founded by the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1951. In 1988, the National Engineers Week consortium expanded and now includes "more than 100 engineering, scientific, and education societies and major corporations dedicated to enhancing the public understanding of the engineering profession and to promoting pre-college interest in math, science, and engineering as a career option." From this website, visitors can read suggestions for ways to get involved in National Engineers Week (National Engineers Week 2004 was held February 22-28) and learn about other competitions for young and upcoming engineers. Also available online is the first Connecting the World teleconference which featured Alan Boeckmann, Chairman and CEO of Fluor Corporation, speaking about Engineering in the 21st Century. The website currently promotes the "Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day," which was presented to the United Nations as part of an international briefing, Girls and Technology: New Educational Opportunities. Another feature of interest is the section highlighting the accomplishments of engineers and their inspirational stories about becoming "the engineer behind the sounds of Star Wars," for example. The New Faces of Engineering program highlights the work of young engineers. A discussion forum and various educational resources are also available from this website. Finally, a section on Engineer / Volunteer Kits suggests ways engineers, community members and teachers can get involved in supporting up-and-coming engineers.

2005-11-06

224

Integrated in-situ remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents an integrated approach to ex-situ and in-situ remediation. A sequence of processes, used successfully in their own right, but used synergistically in this approach, have achieved short-term, economic remediation. In addition the range of contaminants that can be treated is extended. The Process uses ozone, compressed oxygen, water vapor, heat, bioaugmentation and vapor extraction to remediate lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

Fustos, V. [Remedial Technologies Inc., Hermitage, PA (United States); Lieberman, P. [National Technical Systems, Fullerton, CA (United States)

1996-01-01

225

Toward regenerating a human thumb in situ.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Regenerative technology promises to alleviate the problem of limited donor supply for bone or organ transplants. Most expensive and time consuming is cell expansion in laboratories. We propose a method of magnetically enriched osteoprogenitor stem cells, dispersed in self-assembling hydrogels and applied onto new ultra-high resolution, jet-based, three-dimensional printing of living human bone in a single-step for in situ bone regeneration. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) were enriched with CD 117+ cells, dispersed in different collagen I and RAD 16I hydrogel mixes, and applied onto three-dimensional printed btricalcium phosphate=poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds, printed from ultra-high-resolution volumetric CT images of a human thumb. Constructs were directly implanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 6 weeks. In vivo radiographic volumetric CT scanning and histological evaluations were performed at 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks, and expression of bone-specific genes and biomechanical compression testing at 6 weeks endpoint. Time-dependant accumulation of bone-like extracellular matrix was most evident in CD 117+ hBMSCs using collagen I=RAD 16I hydrogel mix. This was shown histologically by Toluidine blue, von Kossa, and alkaline phosphatase staining, paralleled by increased radiological densities within implants approximating that of human bone, and confirmed by high expression of bone-specific osteonectin and biomechanical stiffness at 6 weeks. Human origin of newly formed tissue was established by expression of human GAPDH using RT-PCR. Statistical analysis confirmed high correlations between biomechanical stiffness, radiological densities, and bone markers. Bone tissue can be successfully regenerated in vivo using a single-step procedure with constructs composed of RAD 16I=collagen I hydrogel, CD 117+-enriched hBMSCs, and porous b-tricalcium phosphate=poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds.

Weinand C; Gupta R; Weinberg E; Madisch I; Neville CM; Jupiter JB; Vacanti JP

2009-09-01

226

Tensile properties of in-situ precipitated polydimethylsiloxane networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tensile propertiesof polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) networks filled with in-situ precipitated silica were investigated. Experimental results showed that increasing the swelling time of cured rubber sheets in tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) solution or elevating the humidity and temperature of precipitation reaction atmosphere can render to a positive reinforcing effect. Moreover the in-situ precipitation method can be used to further enhance the tensile properties of fumed silica filled PDMS networks. The reinforcement introduced by the in-situ precipitated silica gel particles can probably be attributed to the adsorption of polymer chains onto silica surface, the pinning effect of polymer chains within gel particles, and the fillerfiller gel structure among gel particles.

Z. Zhang; Y-L. Yue; C. Zhang; H. Zhang; D-H. Zhang; X. Chen; Y-F. Chen

2013-01-01

227

Nanoparticles laden in situ gelling system for ocular drug targeting  

Science.gov (United States)

Designing an ophthalmic drug delivery system is one of the most difficult challenges for the researchers. The anatomy and physiology of eye create barriers like blinking which leads to the poor retention time and penetration of drug moiety. Some conventional ocular drug delivery systems show shortcomings such as enhanced pre-corneal elimination, high variability in efficiency, and blurred vision. To overcome these problems, several novel drug delivery systems such as liposomes, nanoparticles, hydrogels, and in situ gels have been developed. In situ-forming hydrogels are liquid upon instillation and undergo phase transition in the ocular cul-de-sac to form viscoelastic gel and this provides a response to environmental changes. In the past few years, an impressive number of novel temperature, pH, and ion-induced in situ-forming systems have been reported for sustain ophthalmic drug delivery. Each system has its own advantages and drawbacks. Thus, a combination of two drug delivery systems, i.e., nanoparticles and in situ gel, has been developed which is known as nanoparticle laden in situ gel. This review describes every aspects of this novel formulation, which present the readers an exhaustive detail and might contribute to research and development.

Kumar, Divya; Jain, Nidhi; Gulati, Neha; Nagaich, Upendra

2013-01-01

228

In Situ Magnetic Separation for Extracellular Protein Production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new approach for in situ product removal from bioreactors is presented in which high-gradient magnetic separation is used. This separation process was used for the adsorptive removal of proteases secreted by Bacillus licheniformis. Small, non-porous bacitracin linked magnetic adsorbents were employed directly in the broth during the fermentation, followed by in situ magnetic separation, Proof of the concept was first demonstrated in shake flask culture, then scaled up and applied during a fed batch cultivation ill a 3.7 L bioreactor. It could be demonstrated that growth of B. licheniformis was not influenced by the in situ product removal step. Protease production also remained the same after the separation step. Furthermore, degradation of the protease, which followed first order kinetics, was reduced by using the method. Using a theoretical modeling approach, we Could show that protease yield in total was enhanced by using in situ magnetic separation. The process described here is a promising technique toimprove overall yield in No production processes which are often limited due to weak downstream operations, Potential limitations encountered during a bioprocess can be overcome such as product inhibition or degradation. We also discuss the key points where research is needed to implement in situ magnetic separation in industrial production.

Kappler, T.; Cerff, Martin

2009-01-01

229

Nanoparticles laden in situ gelling system for ocular drug targeting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Designing an ophthalmic drug delivery system is one of the most difficult challenges for the researchers. The anatomy and physiology of eye create barriers like blinking which leads to the poor retention time and penetration of drug moiety. Some conventional ocular drug delivery systems show shortcomings such as enhanced pre-corneal elimination, high variability in efficiency, and blurred vision. To overcome these problems, several novel drug delivery systems such as liposomes, nanoparticles, hydrogels, and in situ gels have been developed. In situ-forming hydrogels are liquid upon instillation and undergo phase transition in the ocular cul-de-sac to form viscoelastic gel and this provides a response to environmental changes. In the past few years, an impressive number of novel temperature, pH, and ion-induced in situ-forming systems have been reported for sustain ophthalmic drug delivery. Each system has its own advantages and drawbacks. Thus, a combination of two drug delivery systems, i.e., nanoparticles and in situ gel, has been developed which is known as nanoparticle laden in situ gel. This review describes every aspects of this novel formulation, which present the readers an exhaustive detail and might contribute to research and development.

Kumar D; Jain N; Gulati N; Nagaich U

2013-01-01

230

IN SITU URANIUM STABILIZATION BY MICROBIAL METABOLITES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil contaminated with U was the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >106 cells/g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U chelating and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in field tests demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments.

Turick, C; Anna Knox, A; Chad L Leverette,C; Yianne Kritzas, Y

2006-11-29

231

Autofluorescence correction for fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optimal sensitivity of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) requires bright signals and low background fluorescence. Use of locus-specific probes is especially dependent on high sensitivity. Some tissue preparations show high autofluorescence, masking small or dim signals. We have developed a new method for subtracting autofluorescence from digital images on a pixel-by-pixel basis. It is based on the observation that fluorescent labels for FISH have narrower excitation and emission spectra than the chemical components responsible for autofluorescence. Our new approach uses calculation of the ratio of autofluorescence between multiple color images for correction of autofluorescence in each individual image. By subtracting autofluorescence components, we were able to enhance centromeric signals and make previously indistiguishable cosmid signals clearly visible. This image-processing approach to autofluorescence correction may widen the applicability of gene-specific probes in FISH analysis of tumor material. 15 refs., 3 fig., 1 tab.

Szoelloesi, J.; Balazs, M.; Waldman, F.C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01

232

Fungal biodegradation of phthalate plasticizer in situ.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This unique study describes how Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium brocae and Purpureocillium lilacinum, three novel isolates of our laboratory from heavily plastics-contaminated soil completely utilized the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) bound to PVC blood storage bags (BB) in simple basal salt medium (BSM) by static submerged growth (28 °C). Initial quantification as well as percentage utilization of DEHP blended to BB were estimated periodically by extracting it into n-hexane. A two-stage cultivation strategy was employed for the complete mycoremediation of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, about two-third parts of total (33.5% w/w) DEHP bound to BB were utilized in two weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.32 g per g BB) and sharp declining (to ~3) of initial pH (7.2). At this stagnant growth state (low pH), spent medium was replaced by fresh BSM (pH, 7.2), and thus in the second stage the remaining DEHP (one-third) in BB was utilized completely. The ditches and furrows seen from the topology of the BB as seen by the 3D AFM image further confirmed the bioremediation of DEHP physically bound to BB in situ. Of the three mycelial fungi employed, P. lilacinum independently showed highest efficiency for the complete utilization of DEHP bound to BB, whose activity was comparable to that of the consortium comprising all the three fungi described herein. To sum up, the two-stage cultivation strategy demonstrated in this study shows that a batch process would efficiently remediate the phthalic acid esters blended in plastics on a large scale, and thus it offers potentials for the management of plastics wastes.

Pradeep S; Faseela P; Josh MK; Balachandran S; Devi RS; Benjamin S

2013-04-01

233

In situ high temperature NMR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is important to analyze structure of slag and mold flux in the steel-making process with complicated multi-component systems from the viewpoint of appropriate management of the process and their effective use. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), a nuclide specific method, is a powerful tool for structural analysis of slag with complicated structure. We have developed in situ high temperature NMR technique for analysis of melt structure and dynamics up to 1500 degrees Celsius and some information have been obtained: (1) an averaged coordination number around Al increases with elevating temperature and (2) atomic-scale motion is closely related to macroscopic viscous flow. (author)

2010-01-01

234

DOE In Situ Remediation Integrated Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRP) supports and manages a balanced portfolio of applied research and development activities in support of DOE environmental restoration and waste management needs. ISRP technologies are being developed in four areas: containment, chemical and physical treatment, in situ bioremediation, and in situ manipulation (including electrokinetics). the focus of containment is to provide mechanisms to stop contaminant migration through the subsurface. In situ bioremediation and chemical and physical treatment both aim to destroy or eliminate contaminants in groundwater and soils. In situ manipulation (ISM) provides mechanisms to access contaminants or introduce treatment agents into the soil, and includes other technologies necessary to support the implementation of ISR methods. Descriptions of each major program area are provided to set the technical context of the ISM subprogram. Typical ISM needs for major areas of in situ remediation research and development are identified.

1993-01-01

235

In situ and on-site bioremediation. Volume 4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Collected in this voluem are articles that examine the use of microbial, physical, and chemical processes to support and enhance in situ bioremediation. Genetically engineered microorganisms, nutrient addition and delivery systems, bioaugmentation, biobarriers, and other emerging bioremediation technologies are discussed. Several articles focus on toxicity and geochemical considerations and the particular challenges presented by crude oil bioremediation in marine environments. Other articles review the regulatory, economic, and public perception issues surrounding the use of bioremediation technologies.

Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A.

1997-11-01

236

In situ measurements of neutron multiplying systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Historical and recent examples of the application of in situ measurements to provide knowledge for specific operations and general criticality safety guidance are reviewed. The importance of the American National Standard, Safety in Conducting Subcritical Neutron-Multiplication Measurements In Situ, ANSI/ANS-8.6, 1988 is discussed. Examples of possible future applications of in-situ measurements are provided. 4 refs., 4 figs.

McLaughlin, T.P.

1989-01-01

237

In Situ Measurements of Interstellar Dust  

CERN Document Server

We present the mass distribution of interstellar grains measured in situ by the Galileo and Ulysses spaceprobes as cumulative flux. The derived in situ mass distribution per logarithmic size interval is compared to the distribution determined by fitting extinction measurements. Large grains measured in situ contribute significantly to the overall mass of dust in the local interstellar cloud. The problem of a dust-to-gas mass ratio that contradicts cosmic abundances is discussed.

Landgraf, M

1997-01-01

238

Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ to increase the amount of DNA associated with a chromosome or chromosome region is described. The amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ provides for the synthesis of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) painting probes from single dissected chromosome fragments, the production of cDNA libraries from low copy mRNAs and improved in Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) procedures.

Christian, Allen T. (Tracy, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Livermore, CA); Tucker, James D. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

239

In situ measurements of neutron multiplying systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Historical and recent examples of the application of in situ measurements to provide knowledge for specific operations and general criticality safety guidance are reviewed. The importance of the American National Standard, Safety in Conducting Subcritical Neutron-Multiplication Measurements In Situ, ANSI/ANS-8.6, 1988 is discussed. Examples of possible future applications of in-situ measurements are provided. 4 refs., 4 figs

1989-12-01

240

In situ treatability test plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes the plans for the in situ treatment zone (ISTZ) treatability test for groundwater contaminated with strontium-90. The treatability test is to be conducted at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, in a portion of the 100-N Area adjacent to the Columbia River referred to as N-Springs. The purpose of the treatability test is to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative technology to prevent the discharge of strontium-90 contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River. The ISTZ is a passive technology that consists of placing a treatment agent in the path of the groundwater. The treatment agent must restrict target radioactive contaminants and provide time for the contaminant to decay to acceptable levels. The permeability of the treatment zone must be greater than or equal to that of the surrounding sediments to ensure that the contaminated groundwater flows through the treatment zone agent and not around the agent.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

In situ oil shale process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method and improvement for recovery of hydrocarbons in situ from subterranean oil shale format is disclosed by forming generally horizontal electrodes from the injection of molten metal into preheated or unheated fractures of the formation. A nonconductive spacing material is positioned in the casing of the borehole between the electrodes. A fracture horizontally intermediate between to metallic electrodes is propped with a nonconductive granular material. Unterminated standing waves from a radio frequency (R.F.) generator are passed between the electrodes so as to heat the oil shale formation. The hydrocarbons in the formation are vaporized and are recovered at the surface by the migration through the intermediate fracture and tubing. By this method radial metallic electrodes be formed at various depths throughout a subterranean oil shale formation so as to vaporize the hydrocarbons contained within the oil shale formation.

Osborne, J.S.

1983-08-30

242

In-situ measurement system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop "hairpin" configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. The electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements are obtained, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

Lord, David E. (Livermore, CA)

1983-01-01

243

In-situ spectrophotometric probe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A spectrophotometric probe for in situ absorption spectra measurements comprising a first optical fiber carrying light from a remote light source, a second optical fiber carrying light to a remote spectrophotometer, the proximal ends of the first and second optical fibers parallel and coterminal, a planoconvex lens to collimate light from the first optical fiber, a reflecting grid positioned a short distance from the lens to reflect the collimated light back to the lens for focussing on the second optical fiber. The lens is positioned with the convex side toward the optical fibers. A substrate for absorbing analyte or an analyte and reagent mixture may be positioned between the lens and the reflecting grid.

Prather, William S. (2419 Dickey Rd., Augusta, GA 30906)

1992-01-01

244

Innovative Raman spectroscopic concepts for in situ monitoring of chemicals in seawater  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical sensors based on Raman spectroscopy are suitable for a rapid identification and quantification of pollutants such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has gained increasing attention as a powerful technique for in-situ monitoring of these substances in seawater to achieve limits of detection (LODs) in the sub-nmol/l range. A low-cost method based on electroless plating solution of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was developed in our group to construct a gold island film as SERS substrate to achieve a well reproducible, high sensitive and seawater resistant SERS sensor. The substrates show good resistance against seawater determined by long-term stability tests carried out over 12 weeks of storage of the substrates in artificial seawater. The investigations show that the substrates still have about 50 % of their initial activity after 4 weeks of storage and about 15 % after two months. This type of substrate is reproducible with variability in the SERS intensities of about 8 %. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) was applied by using a microsystem diode laser emitting at 784.3 nm and 784.8 nm to remove the fluorescence interference and to improve the Raman signals. This combination of SERS and SERDS yields a limit of detection of 1 nmol/l for pyrene which was selected as representative PAH. These quantitative results show that the designed SERS substrates are suitable for the in-situ monitoring of PAHs in the marine environment.

Sowoidnich, Kay; Fernández López, María.; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

2013-05-01

245

Enhancement of growth and structure properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin layers by in situ incorporation of gold nano-clusters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For most hetero-epitactic growth techniques, structural defects due to the lattice misfit, namely tilts, precipitates or holes, turn out to be limiting factors for the successful fabrication of multilayer systems. A new approach of an in situ growth technique dealing with this problem by incorporation of gold nano-clusters is examined. Therefore, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of a high-T{sub C} YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) layer onto a strontium titanate (STO) template with a temporary interlayer of gold with a well-defined film thickness is investigated. Within this process, the gold interlayer shows nano-clustering behavior. Effects on the properties of structure like crystallographic or surface features of the ablated YBCO layer by variation of the film thickness of the gold and YBCO layers are presented. Moreover, distribution and clustering behavior of the crystallized gold nano-particles as well as the basic superconducting properties of the layer system are analyzed.

Erlebach, Ralf; Huebner, Michael; Christke, Sandra; Grosse, Veit; Schmidl, Frank; Seidel, Paul [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Kraeusslich, Juergen [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Rettenmayr, Markus [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Loebdergraben 32, 07743 Jena (Germany)

2011-07-01

246

Technology assessment of in situ uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The objective of the PNL portion of the Technology Assessment project is to provide a description of the current in situ uranium mining technology; to evaluate, based on available data, the environmental impacts and, in a limited fashion, the health effects; and to explore the impediments to development and deployment of the in situ uranium mining technology

1981-01-01

247

In situ atomic force microscope imaging of supported lipid bilayers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In situ AFM images of phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) hydrolysis of mica-supported one- and two-component lipid bilayers are presented. For one-component DPPC bilayers an enhanced enzymatic activity is observed towards preexisting defects in the bilayer. Phase separation is observed in two-component DMPC-DSPC bilayers and a remarkable enhanced hydrolytic activity of the PLA/sub 2/-enzyme for the DMPC-rich phase is seen. Furthermore, in a supported double bilayer system a characteristic ripple structure, most likely related to the formation of the P/sub beta /-ripple phase is observed.

Kaasgaard, Thomas; Leidy, Chad

2001-01-01

248

In-situ zeolite drying  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of warm, dry air is a viable method by which SDS liner zeolites may be dried. The method is simple, easily adaptable to storage pool use, and may be used without insulation between the liner and the pool water. It is signficant that only very small amounts of hydrogen are apparently generated during irradiation of dried zeolites (approx. 3.3 wt. % H/sub 2/O) in a /sup 60/Co source with a dose of 8 x 10/sup 6/ rad, an order of magnitude higher than the average flux calculated for a high-activity SDS liner (approx. 60,000 Ci of Cs and Sr). Irradiation with /sup 60/Co gamma does not entirely duplicate the exposure of dried zeolite loaded with radioactive Cs and Sr, but only small differences in gas yields would be expected. An upper limit to the hydrogen produced may be calculated using reported radiolysis hydrogen yields. Using a G/sub H/sub 2// value of 0.015 for zeolite loaded to 60,000 Ci of Cs and Sr and 3 wt. % water, calculations indicate the total H/sub 2/ generation in an unvented liner after 14 days (maximum shipping time from TMI to PNL) would be approx. 13 L. Based on these data, the system described for the in-situ drying of the zeolite contained in SDS liners is an acceptable method to prepare the zeolite for shipment under existing regulations. 4 figures, 4 tables.

Bryan, G.H.; Burger, L.L.; Knowlton, D.E.

1984-01-01

249

In situ thickness determination of multilayered structures using single wavelength ellipsometry and reverse engineering.  

Science.gov (United States)

An in situ monitoring setup and process control loop were developed and integrated into a magnetron sputtering coater equipped with a Sentech SE 401 single wavelength ellipsometer, including the engineering of software for in situ process control to enhance production accuracy. By using that software, the system allows direct monitoring of the layer thickness on a moving substrate. It is shown that it is possible to determine the complex index of refraction from the distribution of measurements depending on the layer thickness. A strategy has been developed for in situ reverse thickness engineering of the top layers to compensate measurement errors. PMID:21460942

Rademacher, Daniel; Vergöhl, Michael; Richter, Uwe

2011-03-20

250

In situ thickness determination of multilayered structures using single wavelength ellipsometry and reverse engineering.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An in situ monitoring setup and process control loop were developed and integrated into a magnetron sputtering coater equipped with a Sentech SE 401 single wavelength ellipsometer, including the engineering of software for in situ process control to enhance production accuracy. By using that software, the system allows direct monitoring of the layer thickness on a moving substrate. It is shown that it is possible to determine the complex index of refraction from the distribution of measurements depending on the layer thickness. A strategy has been developed for in situ reverse thickness engineering of the top layers to compensate measurement errors.

Rademacher D; Vergöhl M; Richter U

2011-03-01

251

Graphene oxide reinforced polyimide nanocomposites via in situ polymerization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Graphene oxide (GO) reinforced polyimide nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ polymerization of monomers in the presence of GO sheets dispersed in N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The functional groups (e.g., hydroxyl, epoxide, and carboxyl groups) associated with the GO make GO excellent dispersion in the organic solvent, which benefits the subsequent in situ polymerization. This process enabled uniform dispersion of GO sheets in the polymer matrix. The resultant GO-polyimide nanocomposite films were studied by tensile test, TGA and SEM. The results showed that the GO sheets incorporated in the polymer matrix exhibited a layer-aligned structure without destruction of the thermal stability of the polymer matrix, and a loading of GO (10 wt%) resulted in a significant enhancement in elastic modulus (86.4%).

Hu N; Wei L; Wang Y; Gao R; Chai J; Yang Z; Kong ES; Zhang Y

2012-01-01

252

DOE cost-shared in situ combustion projects revisited  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of its enhanced oil recovery (EOR) program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations sponsored several cost-shared in situ combustion projects in the 1960s and 1970s. The goal of these projects was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of in situ combustion as a thermal oil recovery technique and provide information in the public domain as a means of reducing the risks associated with these high cost ventures. This study reviewed specific features of the cost-shared demonstration and experimental projects, and examined the causes that led to their success or failure. The failed projects were compared with the successful projects under similar settings to further document why these projects failed. The lessons learned were detailed.

Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K. [NIPER/BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

1995-02-01

253

In situ bioremediation using horizontal wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Situ Bioremediation (ISB), which is the term used in this report for Gaseous Nutrient Injection for In Situ Bioremediation, remediates soils and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) both above and below the water table. ISB involves injection of air and nutrients (sparging and biostimulation) into the ground water and vacuum extraction to remove .VOCs from the vadose zone concomitant with biodegradation of VOCs. The innovation is in the combination of 3 emerging technologies, air stripping, horizontal wells, and bioremediation via gaseous nutrient injection with a baseline technology, soil vapor extraction, to produce a more efficient in situ remediation system.

NONE

1995-04-01

254

Mixed Acanthamoeba and multidrug-resistant Achromobacter xyloxidans in late-onset keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 31-year-old woman developed a spontaneous flap interface keratitis in the left eye 6 years after a laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) enhancement. Cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were positive for Achromobacter xyloxidans resistant to first- and second-generation cephalosporin, aminoglycosides, and quinolones and also positive for Acanthamoeba T4. Treatment with topical fortified ceftazidime, topical chlorhexidine, and voriconazole and oral voriconazole did not stop the progression of the disease. Flap amputation revealed persistence of Acanthamoeba but not Achromobacter. Six weeks after flap amputation, the infiltrate had resolved, PCR was negative for Acanthamoeba, and the cornea had fully epithelialized. To our knowledge, this is the first report of post-LASIK infectious keratitis caused by mixed infection of Achromobacter xyloxidans and Acanthamoeba occurring years after the procedure without apparent ocular trauma. It is also the first report of the use of combined systemic and topical voriconazole as a therapy for Acanthamoeba keratitis after LASIK.

Arnalich-Montiel F; Almendral A; Arnalich F; Valladares B; Lorenzo-Morales J

2012-10-01

255

Mixed Acanthamoeba and multidrug-resistant Achromobacter xyloxidans in late-onset keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 31-year-old woman developed a spontaneous flap interface keratitis in the left eye 6 years after a laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) enhancement. Cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were positive for Achromobacter xyloxidans resistant to first- and second-generation cephalosporin, aminoglycosides, and quinolones and also positive for Acanthamoeba T4. Treatment with topical fortified ceftazidime, topical chlorhexidine, and voriconazole and oral voriconazole did not stop the progression of the disease. Flap amputation revealed persistence of Acanthamoeba but not Achromobacter. Six weeks after flap amputation, the infiltrate had resolved, PCR was negative for Acanthamoeba, and the cornea had fully epithelialized. To our knowledge, this is the first report of post-LASIK infectious keratitis caused by mixed infection of Achromobacter xyloxidans and Acanthamoeba occurring years after the procedure without apparent ocular trauma. It is also the first report of the use of combined systemic and topical voriconazole as a therapy for Acanthamoeba keratitis after LASIK. PMID:22999604

Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Almendral, Alfonso; Arnalich, Francisco; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

2012-10-01

256

In situ dehydration of yugawaralite  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The structural response of the natural zeolite yugawaralite (CaAl2Si6O16. 4H(2)O) upon thermally induced dehydration has been studied by Rietveld analysis of temperature-resolved powder diffraction data collected in situ in the temperature range 315-791 K using synchrotron radiation. The room-temperature monoclinic structure [Pc, a = 6.73200(9), b = 14.0157(2), c = 10.0607(1) Angstrom, beta = 111.189(1) degrees, Z = 2, at 315 K] has the Ca cations in the channels coordinated to four framework O atoms and to four water molecules, with two of the water sites (OW1 and OW4) showing positional disorder progressively disappearing as the dehydration proceeds. The yugawaralite structure reacts to the release of water molecules with small changes in the Ca-O bond distances and minor distortions of the tetrahedral framework up to about 695 K. Above this temperature the Ca coordination falls below 7 (four framework O atoms and three water molecules) and a major rearrangement in the cation coordination takes place, causing a first order phase transition involving both a large decrease in the cell volume and the change in the space group symmetry. A satisfactory structure model for the high-temperature phase stable in the range 695-791 K could not be obtained because of the complexity of the structure. A model approximately describing the average structure [Pn, a = 12.703(1), b = 13.067(1), c = 9.839(1) Angstrom, beta = 110.894(9), Z = 4, at 749 K] has been used to follow the temperature evolution of the cell parameters in the measured temperature range. This model involves a sixfold coordination of the Ca cations (five framework O atoms and one water molecule). There is no indication of significant structure changes before collapse, likely occurring when the last water molecule is expelled from the structure and the cation coordination drops below 6, as observed in other Ca-rich zeolites (i.e., laumontite, scolecite, mesolite).

Artioli, G.; Ståhl, Kenny

2001-01-01

257

Banned Books Week  

Science.gov (United States)

Next week is Banned Books Week, and the American Library Association (ALA) offers this site giving background on Banned Books Week and censorship as well as resources to help teachers, librarians, and booksellers observe the week. Once again, the Harry Potter series tops this year's list of most challenged books. At the ALA site, users will find the complete list as well as the most challenged books of the past decade. In addition, the site hosts a press kit, resources for sale to celebrate the week, links to other banned books sites, and a page on book burning.

2000-01-01

258

In situ nitrification in controlled landfills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research focused on the potential for in situ nitrification in controlled and modified bioreactor landfills using leachate recirculation. A laboratory scale simulated landfill column was constructed and operated for 366 days to demonstrate the feasibility of conversion of leachate ammonia nitrogen concentrations of 150--200 mg/L to nitrate. Sufficient carbon and nutrients were made available to the nitrifiers by leachate recirculation. Therefore, the efficacy of in situ nitrification in controlled landfills bioreactors was confirmed.

Onay, T.T.; Pohland, F.G. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-11-01

259

In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts  

CERN Document Server

Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

Rodriguez, Jos? A; Chupas, Peter J

2013-01-01

260

DOE In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. In situ manipulation technologies subprogram plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRP) supports and manages a balanced portfolio of applied research and development activities in support of DOE environmental restoration and waste management needs. ISRP technologies are being developed in four areas: containment, chemical and physical treatment, in situ bioremediation, and in situ manipulation (including electrokinetics). the focus of containment is to provide mechanisms to stop contaminant migration through the subsurface. In situ bioremediation and chemical and physical treatment both aim to destroy or eliminate contaminants in groundwater and soils. In situ manipulation (ISM) provides mechanisms to access contaminants or introduce treatment agents into the soil, and includes other technologies necessary to support the implementation of ISR methods. Descriptions of each major program area are provided to set the technical context of the ISM subprogram. Typical ISM needs for major areas of in situ remediation research and development are identified.

Yow, J.L. Jr.

1993-12-22

 
 
 
 
261

Biofouling: A critical consideration for evaluating in situ biotreatment feasibility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is recognized by the EPA and many state and local regulatory agencies that in situ bioremedial treatment can be a technically sound and highly cost-effective method for the mitigation of soil and groundwater contamination, and numerous case histories corroborate this belief. Though not widely publicized (for understandable reasons), notable failures of similar treatment attempts can be traced to the consequences of biofouling, resultant from the inappropriate use of in situ treatment technologies. Such consequences can be related to the development of anaerobiosis due to inadequate diffusion of bioavailable oxygen to allow for aerobic metabolism within the contaminated soil matrix. Appropriate engineering and hydrogeological considerations of a site`s compatibility with in situ treatment requirements prior to process initiation can preclude the potential for the generation of noxious and/or toxic/explosive gases, as well as toxic endproducts of anaerobic microbial metabolism. Appropriate utilization of hydrogen peroxide, taking into account for the requirement for the enzyme catalase, and the biotoxic nature of hydrogen peroxide to many microorganisms, can minimize the deleterious effects of anaerobiosis and enhance oxidative bioremedial activity.

Kaufman, K.A.

1995-09-01

262

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

263

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

Agrawal A; Gieg LM

2013-01-01

264

Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination of TCE in a Basalt Aquifer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A field evaluation of enhanced reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in groundwater has been in progress since November 1998 to determine whether in situ biodegradation can be significantly enhanced through the addition of an electron donor (lactate). An in situ treatment cell was established in the residual source area of a large TCE plume in a fractured basalt aquifer utilizing continuous ground water extraction approximately 150 meters downgradient of the injection location. After a 1-month tracer test and baseline sampling period, the pulsed injection of lactate was begun. Ground water samples were collected from 11 sampling points on a biweekly basis and in situ water quality parameters were recorded every 4 hours at two locations. Within 2 weeks after the initial lactate injection, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were observed to decrease substantially at all sampling locations within 40 m of the injection well. Decreases in nitrate and sulfate concentrations were also observed. Both quantitative in situ rate estimation methods and qualitative measures such as changes in redox conditions, decreases in chlorine number, and changes in biomass indicator parameters are being used throughout the test to evaluate the extent to which biodegradation of TCE is enhanced.

K. S. Sorenson; L. N. Peterson (INEEL); R. Ely (U of Idaho)

1999-04-01

265

Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination of TCE in a Basalt Aquifer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A field evaluation of enhanced reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in ground water has been in progress since November 1998 to determine whether in situ biodegradation can be significantly enhanced through the addition of an electron donor (lactate). An in situ treatment cell was established in the residual source area of a large TCE plume in a fractured basalt aquifer utilizing continuous ground water extraction approximately 150 meters downgradient of the injection location. After a 1-month tracer test and baseline sampling period, the pulsed injection of lactate was begun. Ground water samples were collected from 11 sampling points on a biweekly basis and in situ water quality parameters were recorded every 4 hours at two locations. Within 2 weeks after the initial lactate injection, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were observed to decrease substantially at all sampling locations within 40 m of the injection well. Decreases in nitrate and sulfate concentrations were also observed. Both quantitative in situ rate estimation methods and qualitative measures such as changes in redox conditions, decreases in chlorine number, and changes in biomass indicator parameters are being used throughout the test to evaluate the extent to which biodegradation of TCE is enhanced.

Sorenson, Kent Soren; Peterson, Lance Nutting; Ely, R. L.

1999-04-01

266

In vivo and in situ evaluation of a wireless magnetoelastic sensor array for plastic biliary stent monitoring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents the in vivo and in situ evaluation of a system that wirelessly monitors the accumulation of biliary sludge in a plastic biliary stent. The sensing element, located within the stent, is a passive array of magnetoelastic resonators that is queried by a wireless electromagnetic signal. The in vivo and in situ testing uses commercially-available plastic biliary stents, each enhanced with an array of ribbon sensors (formed from Metglas™ 2826 MB). The sensor array is approximately 70 mm long and contains individual resonators that are 1 mm in width and have lengths of 10 mm, 14 mm, and 20 mm. The array is anchored into the 2.8 mm inner-diameter stent using a thermal staking technique. For the in situ testing, an instrumented stent is placed in various locations within the abdominal cavity of a female domestic swine carcass to evaluate the wireless range of the system; these results show that a wireless signal can be obtained from a range of at least 7.5 cm from a sensor array covered in bile. The in vivo testing includes the endoscopic implantation of an instrumented stent into the bile duct of a swine. After implantation, the swine was housed for a period of 4 weeks, during which the animal showed no ill effects and followed the expected growth curve from 29 kg to 42 kg. At the conclusion of the in vivo test, the animal was euthanized, and the instrumented stent explanted and examined. The results presented in this paper indicate that the monitoring system does not adversely affect the health of the animal and can feasibly provide sufficient wireless range after implantation.

Green SR; Kwon RS; Elta GH; Gianchandani YB

2013-06-01

267

Reinforcing bioceramic scaffolds with in situ synthesized ?-polycaprolactone coatings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In situ ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (?-CL) was performed to coat ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting in order to enhance their mechanical performance while preserving the predesigned macropore architecture. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from ?-TCP commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a three-dimensional mesh of interpenetrating rods. Then, ?-CL was in situ polymerized within the ceramic structure using a lipase as catalyst and toluene as solvent, to obtain a highly homogeneous coating and full impregnation of in-rod microporosity. The strength and toughness of scaffolds coated by ?-polycaprolactone (?-PCL) were significantly increased (twofold and fivefold increase, respectively) over those of the bare structures. Enhancement of both properties is associated to the healing of preexisting microdefects in the bioceramic rods. These enhancements are compared to results from previous work on fully impregnated structures. The implications of the results for the optimization of the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 101A: 3551-3559, 2013.

Martínez-Vázquez FJ; Miranda P; Guiberteau F; Pajares A

2013-12-01

268

In-situ retorting of oil shale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluid, such as liquid water, is injected into the rock surrounding an in situ oil shale retort at sufficient pressure and flow rate so that the injected fluid flows toward the retort to block the path of hot liquid and gaseous kerogen decomposition products escaping from the retort and to return heat to the retort. The successful conduct of an oil shale retorting operation usually requires that the retort temperature be maintained at a temperature sufficient to decompose efficiently the kerogen contained in the oil shale. By reducing the heat loss from an active retort, the amount of energy required to maintain a desired temperature therein is reduced. The fluid injection method also maintains pressure in an in-situ oil shale retort, allowing in-situ oil shale retorting to be efficiently conducted at a desired pressure. The method also reduces the danger to mineworkers who may be engaged in adjacent mining operations due to the escape of hazardous gases from an active retort. The method allows a series of sequential in-situ oil shale retorts in an oil shale formation to be placed more closely together than previously practical by reducing hot fluid leakage from each active retort to one or more abandoned retorts adjacent thereto, thus improving the recovery factor from the formation. The method also minimizes contamination of the formation surrounding an active in-situ retort due to hazardous chemicals which may be contained in the kerogen decomposition products leaking from the retort.

Peters, G.G.; West, R.C.

1984-11-20

269

In situ forming polymeric drug delivery systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DL-lactic acid), poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and poly-caprolactone. The choice of solvents like water, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methyl pyrrolidone, triacetin and 2-pyrrolidone for these formulations depends on the solubility of polymer used. Mainly in situ gels are administered by oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable and intraperitoneal routes. The in situ gel forming polymeric formulations offer several advantages like sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems. The article presents a detailed review of these types of polymeric systems, their evaluation, advancements and their commercial formulations. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost.

Madan M; Bajaj A; Lewis S; Udupa N; Baig JA

2009-05-01

270

In situ forming polymeric drug delivery systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In situ forming polymeric formulations are drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but once administered, undergo gelation in situ, to form a gel. The formation of gels depends on factors like temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions and ultra violet irradiation, from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in situ gels include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly(DL-lactic acid), poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and poly-caprolactone. The choice of solvents like water, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methyl pyrrolidone, triacetin and 2-pyrrolidone for these formulations depends on the solubility of polymer used. Mainly in situ gels are administered by oral, ocular, rectal, vaginal, injectable and intraperitoneal routes. The in situ gel forming polymeric formulations offer several advantages like sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems. The article presents a detailed review of these types of polymeric systems, their evaluation, advancements and their commercial formulations. From a manufacturing point of view, the production of such devices is less complex and thus lowers the investment and manufacturing cost.

Madan M; Bajaj A; Lewis S; Udupa N; Baig J

2009-01-01

271

in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization Yoshiko Fujita (Yoshiko.fujita@inl.gov) (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Robert W. Smith (University of Idaho-Idaho Falls, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Subsurface radionuclide and trace metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE’s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide strontium-90, is co-precipitation in calcite. Calcite, a common mineral in the arid western U.S., can form solid solutions with trace metals. The rate of trace metal incorporation is susceptible to manipulation using either abiotic or biotic means. We have previously demonstrated that increasing the calcite precipitation rate by stimulating the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms can result in significantly enhanced Sr uptake. Urea hydrolysis causes the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity, and also by liberating the reactive cations from the aquifer matrix via exchange reactions involving the ammonium ion derived from urea: H2NCONH2 + 3H2O ? 2NH4+ + HCO3- + OH- urea hydrolysis >X:2Ca + 2NH4+ ? 2>X:NH4 + Ca2+ ion exchange Ca2+ + HCO3- + OH- ? CaCO3(s) + H2O calcite precipitation where >X: is a cation exchange site on the aquifer matrix. This contaminant immobilization approach has several attractive features. Urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which is produced by many indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Addition of foreign microbes is unnecessary. In turn the involvement of the native microbes and the consequent in situ generation of reactive components in the aqueous phase (e.g., carbonate and Ca or Sr) can allow dissemination of the reaction over a larger volume and/or farther away from an amendment injection point, as compared to direct addition of the reactants at a well (which can lead to clogging). A final particularly attractive characteristic of this approach is its long-term sustainability; the remediation scheme is geared toward environments that are already saturated with respect to calcite, and in such systems the bulk of any newly precipitated calcite will remain stable once engineered manipulations cease. This means that the co-precipitated contaminants will be effectively sequestered over the long term. We are currently conducting integrated field, laboratory, and computational research to evaluate a) the relationships between urea hydrolysis rate, calcite precipitation rate, and trace metal partitioning under environmentally relevant conditions; and b) the coupling between flow/flux manipulations and calcite precipitate distribution and metal uptake. We are also assessing the application of geophysical and molecular biological tools to monitor the relevant chemical and physical processes. The primary emphasis is on field-scale processes, with the laboratory and modeling activities designed specifically to support the field studies. Field experiments are being conducted in perched water (vadose zone) at the Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP) at the Idaho National Laboratory; the VZRP provides an uncontaminated setting that is an analog of the 90Sr-contaminated vadose zone at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. A summary of results to date will be presented.

Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith

2009-08-01

272

In situ radical detection under very low pressure photolysis conditions using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. Kinetics of CF/sub 3/ radicals produced from IR multiphoton dissociation of hexafluoroacetone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and mass spectrometry have been used to measure the kinetics of CF/sub 3/ radicals inside a very low pressure photolysis (VLP/Phi/) cell. Infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) of hexafluoroacetone (HFA) is used to generate the radicals according to CF/sub 3/COOF/sub 3/ ..-->.. CF/sub 3/ + CF/sub 3/CO. REMPI spectra of vibrationally hot and thermalized CF/sub 3/ radicals are presented. The absolute density of CF/sub 3/ in the reactor is determined from the REMPI signal by using mass spectral data. This puts the calibration on the absolute basis necessary to treat competing unimolecular and bimolecular reactions of CF/sub 3/ free radical. Measuring the CT/sub 3/ density as a function of time between pulses of the IR laser and of HFA flow rate allows direct determination of the first- and second-order loss rates for CF/sub 3/. The CF/sub 3/CO radical is stable under the authors conditions and engages in recombination back to HFA at higher radical densities.

Robertson, R.M.; Golden, D.M.; Rossi, M.J.

1988-09-22

273

Mapping of single-copy DNA sequences on human chromosomes by in situ hybridization with biotinylated probes: Enhancement of detection sensitivity by intensified-fluorescence digital-imaging microscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two single-copy DNA segments of 6 kilobases (kb) and 2.3 kb were labeled with biotin-labeled dUTP (Bio-11-dUTP) and hybridized to human chromosomes. These probes were detected by immunofluorescence and directly mapped on chromosomes by using classical fluorescence microscopy and a microchannel-plate-intensified video camera. By a subsequent R-banding, the 6-kb and 2.3-kb fragments were precisely localized to the 18p11.3 band and to the 22q11.2 band, respectively, in agreement with previous results obtained with radioactive probes. The adaptation of fluorescence intensification and digital image processing (frame integration to enhance signal-to-noise ratio and linear contrast stretching) to microscopy makes it possible to detect very weak fluorescent spots on chromosomes. This system allows a high spatial resolution, even at very low fluorescence levels. The efficiency and the specificity of the hybridization and detection methodology give a direct and precise localization of the short single-copy sequences on human chromosomes.

Viegas-Pequignot, E.; Dutrillaux, B.; Magdelenat, H. (Institut Curie, Paris (France)); Coppey-Moisan, M. (Institut Curie, Paris (France) Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Orsay (France))

1989-01-01

274

Florid lobular carcinoma in situ: molecular profiling and comparison to classic lobular carcinoma in situ and pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated genomic alterations and biomarker expression in 20 florid lobular carcinomas in situ using array-based comparative genomic hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis. The genetic characteristics of florid lobular carcinoma in situ were compared with 20 classic lobular carcinomas in situ and 21 pleomorphic lobular carcinomas in situ (which included 8 apocrine variants), from our previously published data performed on a similar array-based comparative genomic hybridization platform. All 20 florid lobular carcinoma in situ cases were E-cadherin negative, and 92% were positive for estrogen receptor. Cyclin D1 expression correlated significantly negatively with estrogen receptor expression and was higher in cases with cyclin D1 (CCND1) gene amplification. Compared with classic lobular carcinoma in situ, florid lobular carcinoma in situ displayed significantly more fraction genome alteration (mean, 0.109 versus 0.072; P=.007), fraction genome loss (mean, 0.06 versus 0.03; P=.007), numbers of breakpoints (mean, 11.55 versus 6.95; P=.002), numbers of chromosome with breakpoints (mean, 5.85 versus 3.8; P=.004), and higher numbers of amplifications (mean, 2.10 versus 0.25; P=.03). Interestingly, florid lobular carcinoma in situ had the same genetic complexity as apocrine pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ. Our study demonstrated that florid lobular carcinoma in situ shares the cytologic features, E-cadherin loss, and the lobular genetic signature of 1q gain and 16q loss found in classic lobular carcinoma in situ. However, this variant demonstrates more genomic alterations than classic lobular carcinoma in situ and shares the same genetic complexity as apocrine pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ. Our data support the conclusion that florid lobular carcinoma in situ is genetically more advanced compared with the indolent phenotype of classic lobular carcinoma in situ. This may explain the greater frequency of concurrent invasive carcinoma in florid lobular carcinoma in situ compared with classic lobular carcinoma in situ.

Shin SJ; Lal A; De Vries S; Suzuki J; Roy R; Hwang ES; Schnitt SJ; Waldman FM; Chen YY

2013-10-01

275

In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Buried Waste Program was established in October, 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a recommended long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Feasibility Study format to identify methods for the long-term management of the mixed waste buried. This In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan gives a brief description of the site, work breakdown structure, and project organization: the in situ vitrification technology; the purpose of the tests and demonstrations; and the equipment and materials required for the tests and demonstration. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Charboneau, B.L.; Landon, J.L.

1989-03-01

276

In-situ optical photoreflectance during MOCVD  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the development of in situ optical photoreflectance as a tool for measuring impurity concentrations in compound semiconductors. The authors have successfully explored the use of photoreflectance as an in situ tool for measuring n-type doping levels in metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown GaAs materials. The technique measures phase and frequency shifts in Franz-Keldysh oscillations measured on uniformly doped thin films. Doping concentrations from 5 {times} 10{sup 16} to 1 {times} 10{sup 18} can be measured at temperatures below 130 C. A method has been developed to include photoreflectance as the last step in the pre-growth in situ calibration procedure for MOCVD thin film structures. This combined capability now enables one to rapidly and accurately determine growth rates, chemical composition, and doping levels necessary to generate a recipe to fabricate complex optoelectronic compound semiconductor devices.

Breiland, W.G.; Hammons, B.E.; Hou, H.Q.; Mei, X.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical Processing Sciences Dept.

1998-01-01

277

In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Buried Waste Program was established in October, 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a recommended long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Feasibility Study format to identify methods for the long-term management of the mixed waste buried. This In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan gives a brief description of the site, work breakdown structure, and project organization: the in situ vitrification technology; the purpose of the tests and demonstrations; and the equipment and materials required for the tests and demonstration. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

1989-01-01

278

In-situ vitrification of waste materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for the in-situ vitrification of waste materials in a disposable can that includes an inner container and an outer container is disclosed. The method includes the steps of adding frit and waste materials to the inner container, removing any excess water, heating the inner container such that the frit and waste materials melt and vitrify after cooling, while maintaining the outer container at a significantly lower temperature than the inner container. The disposable can is then cooled to ambient temperatures and stored. A device for the in-situ vitrification of waste material in a disposable can is also disclosed. 7 figs.

1996-06-24

279

In situ recovery of shale oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale and having horizontal cleavage planes extending parallel to the bedding of the formation and approximately orthogonal vertical cleavage plane sets extending perpendicular to the horizontal cleavage planes. The in situ retort is formed by excavating an opening or void in a retort site in the formation and placing explosive in the formation adjacent the void such that the explosive can fracture formation along the vertical cleavage planes and expand remaining formation within the retort site toward the void, forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the retort site.

Ridley, R.D.

1984-01-03

280

Ductal carcinoma in situ: an overview.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Advances in methods used to diagnose breast cancer have resulted in the increased detection of ductal carcinoma in situ; most of these are detected by screening mammograms and are confirmed by core needle biopsy. Currently, classification schemas are moving toward a molecular approach. Treatment options for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ are multiple and take into consideration end points such as local, regional or distant recurrence, overall survival and quality of life. Treatment methods continue to be controversial and debated in the oncology community. The quality of local control is multifactorial and depends on adequate surgical clearance, biological characteristics of the tumor, clinical presentation and the possibility of radiation therapies.

Duggal S; Robin J; Julian TB

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Recent developments in in-situ ? spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the present contribution is to improve standard in-situ ? spectrometry by two means: first, results of post-Chernobyl measurements of the attenuation of radiation from cesium, ruthenium, barium and iodine isotopes on lawns and meadows are presented, allowing to derive representative values of the attenuation of radiation for different time periods after deposition. Second, a method has been developed to derive the actual attenuation of the radiation from the measured spectrum by comparing the fluences of photons with different energies from single radionuclides. The application to 16 spectra demonstrates an obvious improvement of standard in-situ ? spectrometry.

1992-01-01

282

In-situ vitrification of waste materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for the in-situ vitrification of waste materials in a disposable can that includes an inner container and an outer container is disclosed. The method includes the steps of adding frit and waste materials to the inner container, removing any excess water, heating the inner container such that the frit and waste materials melt and vitrify after cooling, while maintaining the outer container at a significantly lower temperature than the inner container. The disposable can is then cooled to ambient temperatures and stored. A device for the in-situ vitrification of waste material in a disposable can is also disclosed.

Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY); Reich, Morris (Kew Gardens Hills, NY); Barletta, Robert (Wading River, NY)

1997-11-14

283

In situ lyophilisation of nifedipine directly in hard gelatine capsules.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hydrophobic drugs present a challenge due to: (i) adhesion and agglomeration; hence the choice of the suitable processing technique to have the drugs into orally administered dosage forms is critical. (ii) Poor dissolution and poor aqueous solubility; hence poor bioavailability. A novel method which is in situ lyophilisation directly in hard gelatin capsule shells was used in this research to enhance the dissolution of nifedipine (a model hydrophobic drug) in the presence of co-povidone, Pluronic(®)F-127 and inulin as enhancement excipients (to the best of our knowledge those excipients have not been previously used with nifedipine in lyophilised forms). Solutions of nifedipine and excipients in a range of concentrations (0.5, 1, 5 and 10%w/v) were prepared using a co-solvent system of tert- butyl alcohol/water mixture. These solutions were filled directly into bodies of size 000 hard gelatin capsule shells and freeze dried. Pure drug and all formulations were characterised by solubility, wetting studies and in vitro dissolution. Also, conformational integrity and thermal characteristics of nifedipine formulations were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The in situ lyophilisation of nifedipine with excipients, looks a promising method not only to improve the hydrophobic drug dissolution but also to be cost effective.

Crum M; Elkordy AA; Zarara M; Elkordy EA

2013-11-01

284

In situ lyophilisation of nifedipine directly in hard gelatine capsules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrophobic drugs present a challenge due to: (i) adhesion and agglomeration; hence the choice of the suitable processing technique to have the drugs into orally administered dosage forms is critical. (ii) Poor dissolution and poor aqueous solubility; hence poor bioavailability. A novel method which is in situ lyophilisation directly in hard gelatin capsule shells was used in this research to enhance the dissolution of nifedipine (a model hydrophobic drug) in the presence of co-povidone, Pluronic(®)F-127 and inulin as enhancement excipients (to the best of our knowledge those excipients have not been previously used with nifedipine in lyophilised forms). Solutions of nifedipine and excipients in a range of concentrations (0.5, 1, 5 and 10%w/v) were prepared using a co-solvent system of tert- butyl alcohol/water mixture. These solutions were filled directly into bodies of size 000 hard gelatin capsule shells and freeze dried. Pure drug and all formulations were characterised by solubility, wetting studies and in vitro dissolution. Also, conformational integrity and thermal characteristics of nifedipine formulations were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The in situ lyophilisation of nifedipine with excipients, looks a promising method not only to improve the hydrophobic drug dissolution but also to be cost effective. PMID:22992055

Crum, Matthew; Elkordy, Amal Ali; Zarara, Moataz; Elkordy, Eman Ali

2012-09-20

285

In situ Investigation of the Silver-CTAB system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent research has shown that biologically inspired approaches to materials synthesis and self-assembly, hold promise of unprecedented atomic level control of structure and interfaces. In particular, the use of organic molecules to control the production of inorganic technological materials has the potential for controlling grain structure to enhance material strength; controlling facet expression for enhanced catalytic activity; and controlling the shape of nanostructured materials to optimize optical, electrical and magnetic properties. In this work, we use organic molecules to modify silver crystal shapes towards understanding the metal-organic interactions that lead to nanoparticle shape control. Using in situ electrochemical AFM (EC-AFM) as an in situ probe, we study the influence of a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylamminobromide (CTAB) on Ag growth during electrochemical deposition on Ag(100). The results show that the organic surfactant promotes the growth of steps on the (100) surface and changes the surface evolution from island nucleation to step flow growth. Overall, this leads to a smoother, faster growing (100) surface, which may promote plate-formation.

Gray, J J; Orme, C A; Du, D; Srolovitz, D

2007-04-16

286

Chemo-mechanical softening during in situ nanoindentation of anodic porous alumina with anodization processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Simultaneous application of mechanical stresses on a material as it undergoes an electrochemical reaction can result in interesting coupling effects between the chemical and mechanical responses of the material. In this work, anodic porous alumina supported on Al is found to exhibit significant softening during in situ nanoindentation with anodization processing. Compared with ex situ nanoindentation without anodization processing, the in situ hardness measured on the alumina is found to be much lower, when the estimated maximum stress underneath the indenter is exerted on the metal/oxide (m/o) interface at the bottom of the oxide. Numerical calculation reveals that a high electric field exists across the nanometrically thin barrier layer where the electrochemical reactions mainly take place. In microindentation with a flat punch, in situ softening is also observed, but no significant difference in the deformation of the oxide and the Al substrate between in situ and ex situ cases can be observed from cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy examination. The evidence, therefore, indicates that the observed in situ softening is due to a combination of high compression stress and electric field acting near the m/o interface, and it is likely that such conditions enhance Al ionization at the m/o interface, thus causing the m/o interface to move faster into the Al substrate under the in situ condition.

Cheng, Chuan; Ngan, A. H. W.

2013-05-01

287

In situ bioremediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated water by a resting-cell methanotrophic microbial filter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is testing and developing an in situ microbial filter technology for remediating migrating subsurface plumes contaminated with low concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE). Their current focus is the establishment of a replenishable bioactive zone (catalytic filter) along expanding plume boundaries by the Injection of a representative methanotrophic bacterium, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. We have successfully demonstrated this microbial filter strategy using emplaced, attached resting cells (no methane additions) in a 1.1-m flow-through test bed loaded with water-saturated sand. Two separate 24 h pulses of TCE (109 ppb and 85 ppb), one week apart, were pumped through the system at a flow velocity of 1.5 cm/h; no TCE (<0.5 ppb) was detected on the downstream side of the microbial filter. Subsequent excavation of the wet sand confirmed the existence of a TCE-bioactive zone 19 days after it had been created. An enhanced longevity of the cellular, soluble-form methane monooxygenase produced by this methanotroph Is a result of our laboratory bioreactor culturing conditions. Additional experiments with cells in sealed vials and emplaced in the 1.1-m test bed yielded a high resting-cell finite TCE biotransformation capacity of [approximately] 0.25 mg per mg of bacteria; this is suitable for a planned sand-filled trench field demonstration at a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site.

Taylor, R.T.; Duba, A.G.; Durham, W.B.; Hanna, M.L.; Jackson, K.J.; Jovanovich, M.C.; Knapp, R.B.; Knezovich, J.P.; Shah, N.N.; Shonnard, D.R.; Wijesinghe, A.M.

1992-10-01

288

Aquifer restoration at in-situ leach uranium mines: evidence for natural restoration processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted experiments with aquifer sediments and leaching solution (lixiviant) from an in-situ leach uranium mine. The data from these laboratory experiments and information on the normal distribution of elements associated with roll-front uranium deposits provide evidence that natural processes can enhance restoration of aquifers affected by leach mining. Our experiments show that the concentration of uranium (U) in solution can decrease at least an order of magnitude (from 50 to less than 5 ppM U) due to reactions between the lixiviant and sediment, and that a uranium solid, possibly amorphous uranium dioxide, (UO/sub 2/), can limit the concentration of uranium in a solution in contact with reduced sediment. The concentrations of As, Se, and Mo in an oxidizing lixiviant should also decrease as a result of redox and precipitation reactions between the solution and sediment. The lixiviant concentrations of major anions (chloride and sulfate) other than carbonate were not affected by short-term (less than one week) contact with the aquifer sediments. This is also true of the total dissolved solids level of the solution. Consequently, we recommend that these solution parameters be used as indicators of an excursion of leaching solution from the leach field. Our experiments have shown that natural aquifer processes can affect the solution concentration of certain constituents. This effect should be considered when guidelines for aquifer restoration are established.

Deutsch, W.J.; Serne, R.J.; Bell, N.E.; Martin, W.J.

1983-04-01

289

Non-cytotoxic, in situ gelable hydrogels composed of N-carboxyethyl chitosan and oxidized dextran.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of in situ gelable hydrogels were prepared from oxidized dextran (Odex) and N-carboxyethyl chitosan (CEC) without any extraneous crosslinking agent. The gelation readily took place at physiological pH and body temperature. The gelation process was monitored rheologically, and the effect of the oxidation degree of dextran on the gelation process was investigated. The higher the oxidation degree of Odex, the faster the gelation. A highly porous hydrogel structure was revealed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Swelling and degradation of the Odex/CEC hydrogels in PBS showed that both swelling and degradation were related to the crosslinking density of the hydrogels. In particular, the hydrogels underwent fast mass loss in the first 2 weeks, followed by a more moderate degradation. The results of long-term cell viability tests revealed that the hydrogels were non-cytotoxic. Mouse fibroblasts were encapsulated in the hydrogels and cell viability was at least 95% within 3 days following encapsulation. Furthermore, cells entrapped inside the hydrogel assumed round shape initially but they gradually adapted to the new environment and spread-out to assume more spiny shapes. Additionally, the results from applying the Odex/CEC system to mice full-thickness transcutaneous wound models suggested that it was capable of enhancing wound healing. PMID:18639926

Weng, Lihui; Romanov, Alexander; Rooney, Jean; Chen, Weiliam

2008-07-21

290

Non-cytotoxic, in situ gelable hydrogels composed of N-carboxyethyl chitosan and oxidized dextran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A series of in situ gelable hydrogels were prepared from oxidized dextran (Odex) and N-carboxyethyl chitosan (CEC) without any extraneous crosslinking agent. The gelation readily took place at physiological pH and body temperature. The gelation process was monitored rheologically, and the effect of the oxidation degree of dextran on the gelation process was investigated. The higher the oxidation degree of Odex, the faster the gelation. A highly porous hydrogel structure was revealed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Swelling and degradation of the Odex/CEC hydrogels in PBS showed that both swelling and degradation were related to the crosslinking density of the hydrogels. In particular, the hydrogels underwent fast mass loss in the first 2 weeks, followed by a more moderate degradation. The results of long-term cell viability tests revealed that the hydrogels were non-cytotoxic. Mouse fibroblasts were encapsulated in the hydrogels and cell viability was at least 95% within 3 days following encapsulation. Furthermore, cells entrapped inside the hydrogel assumed round shape initially but they gradually adapted to the new environment and spread-out to assume more spiny shapes. Additionally, the results from applying the Odex/CEC system to mice full-thickness transcutaneous wound models suggested that it was capable of enhancing wound healing.

Weng L; Romanov A; Rooney J; Chen W

2008-10-01

291

In-situ infrared spectroscopic studies of electrochemical energy conversion and storage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With their ability to convert chemical energy of fuels directly into electrical power or reversibly store electrical energy, systems such as fuel cells and lithium ion batteries are of great importance in managing energy use. In these electrochemical energy conversion and storage (EECS) systems, controlled electrochemical redox reactions generate or store the electrical energy, ideally under conditions that avoid or kinetically suppress side reactions. A comprehensive understanding of electrode reactions is critical for the exploration and optimization of electrode materials and is therefore the key issue for developing advanced EECS systems. Based on its fingerprint and surface selection rules, electrochemical in-situ FTIR spectroscopy (in-situ FTIRS) can provide real-time information about the chemical nature of adsorbates and solution species as well as intermediate/product species involved in the electrochemical reactions. These unique features make this technique well-suited for insitu studies of EECS. In this Account, we review the characterization of electrode materials and the investigation of interfacial reaction processes involved in EECS systems by using state-of-the-art in-situ FTIR reflection technologies, primarily with an external configuration. We introduce the application of in-situ FTIRS to EECS systems and describe relevant technologies including in-situ microscope FTIRS, in-situ time-resolved FTIRS, and the combinatorial FTIRS approach. We focus first on the in-situ steady-state and time-resolved FTIRS studies on the electrooxidation of small organic molecules. Next, we review the characterization of electrocatalysts through the IR properties of nanomaterials, such as abnormal IR effects (AIREs) and surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA). Finally, we introduce the application of in-situ FTIRS to demonstrate the decomposition of electrolyte and (de)lithiation processes involved in lithium ion batteries. The body of work summarized here has substantially advanced the knowledge of electrode processes and represents the forefront in studies of EECS at the molecular level.

Li JT; Zhou ZY; Broadwell I; Sun SG

2012-04-01

292

Genetic bioaugmentation as an effective method for in situ bioremediation  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic bioaugmentation is an in situ bioremediation method that stimulates horizontal transfer of catabolic plasmids between exogenous donor cells and indigenous bacteria to increase the biodegradation potential of contaminants. A critical outcome of genetic bioaugmentation is the expression of an active catabolic phenotype upon plasmid conjugation. Using a pWW0-derivative TOL plasmid, we showed that certain genetic characteristics of the recipient bacteria, including genomic guanine-cytosine (G + C) content and phylogeny, may limit the expression of the transferred catabolic pathway. However, such genetic limitations observed in transconjugants could be overcome by the presence of an additional carbon source. Glucose and Luria-Bertani broth were shown to enhance the toluene degradation rates of transconjugants; these enhancement effects were dependent on transconjugant genomic G + C contents. Based on these observations, thorough genetic characterization of the indigenous microbial community in the contaminated environment of interest may provide a predictive tool for assessing the success of genetic bioaugmentation.

Ikuma, Kaoru; Gunsch, Claudia K.

2012-01-01

293

In situ fructooligosaccharide production and sucrose reduction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An in situ process for producing fructooligosaccharides in a food product comprising, a) obtaining a food product containing sucrose and b) contacting the food product with a fructosyltransferase to enzymatically convert sucrose in the food product to fructooligosaccharides (FOSs), wherein the food product is an orange juice.

HENDERSON WAYNE E; KING WILLIAM; SHETTY JAYARAMA K

294

Nanoindentation in situ a Transmission Electron Microscope  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The technique of Nanoindentation in situ Transmission Electron Microscope has been implemented on a Philips CM20. Indentations have been performed on Si and Sapphire (?-Al2O3) cut from wafers; Cr/Sc multilayers and Ti3SiC2 thin films. Different sample geometries and preparation methods have been eva...

Johnson, Lars

295

Parametric melting studies for in situ vitrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a series of simulation studies which examine heat conduction and electric heating during in situ vitrification (ISV). The simulation studies determine the effects of soil parameter changes on the ISV process. Changes in heat capacity, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity are considered. The results of these studies provide a basis for experimental measurement accuracy requirements.

1991-01-01

296

Design Games for In-Situ Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The mobile culture has spawned a host of context-based products, like location-based and tag-based applications. This presents a new challenge for the designer. There is a need of design methods that acknowledge the context and allows it to influence the design ideas. This article focuses on a design problem where an in-situ design practice may further the early design process: the case of designing a pervasive game. Pervasive games are computer games, played using the city as a game board and often using mobile phones with GPS. Some contextual design methods exist, but the author proposes an approach that calls for the designer to conceptualise and perform ideas in-situ, that is on the site, where the game is supposed to be played. The problem was to design a creativity method that incorporated in-situ design work and which generated game concepts for pervasive games. The proposed design method, called sitestorming, is based on a game using Situationistic individual exploration of the site and different types of game cards, followed by a joint evaluation of the generated ideas. A series of evaluations showed that the designers found the method enjoyable to use, that the method motivated idea generation, and that using in-situ design influenced their design ideas.

Kristiansen, Erik

2013-01-01

297

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in situ in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIMS: To assess the presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to see if the number of biopsy sites facilitates detection of CIS. METHODS: Formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded biopsy specimens (n = 285) from 187 patients with NPC in 1987 were studied for...

Chan, C W; Nicholls, J M; Sham, J S; Dickens, P; Choy, D

298

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in situ in nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: To assess the presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to see if the number of biopsy sites facilitates detection of CIS. Methods: Formalin fixed, parafin wax embedded biopsy specimens (n = 285) from 187 patients with NPC in 1987 were studied for ...

Chan, CW; Nicholls, JM; Sham, JST; Dickens, P; Choy, D

299

Transesterification in situ of sunflower seed oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transesterification of sunflower seed oil in situ has produced methyl and ethyl esters in yields greater than 40% of the dry seed weight. This figure compares with a typical yield of ca. 30% when the esters were prepared in the conventional manner from preextracted seed oil. 14 references.

Harrington, K.J.; D' Arch-Evans, C.

1985-06-01

300

[Carcinoma in situ and human papillomavirus infection  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paperwork objective is to analyze if the HPV infections are associated to Ca in situ (CIS). The cytologic, colposcopic and histologic examinations of women affected by CIS were revised. It was determined that a group of them were also infected by HPV. On them, it was determined the viral genotype by nucleic acids hybridization. The Toki score was also utilized.

Salas O; Tisné J; Osorio O; Waissbluth A; Capetillo M; Ojeda JM; Ojeda B

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

IN SITU LEAD IMMOBILIZATION BY APATITE  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead contamination is of environmental concern due to its effect on human health. he purpose of this study was to develop a technology to immobilize Pb in situ in contaminated soils and wastes using apatite. ydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2]was reacted with aqueous Pb, resinexchang...

302

In situ measurement of strain during electrodeposition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most important factors which influence the behaviour of electrodeposited films is the strain induced by the electrodeposition process. In this communication the authors report a new optical fiber interferometer-based technique for the in situ measurement of strain during electrodeposition. The measurement system is shown.

Butler, M.A.; Ginley, D.S.

1987-02-01

303

TECHNICAL REFERENCE DOCUMENT: IN SITU THERMAL TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

This report will describe the state of practice and current capabilities of in-situ thermal treatment technologies. PLEASE NOTE: If peer review is needed, it will be conducted by the Army Corps of Engineers who is our partner in developing this report....

304

Mars In Situ Water Extractor (MISWE)  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a method for extracting water in-situ. A deep fluted drill acquires icy-soil, retracts into a cylindrical reactor where heat or microwaves are used to sublime ice, and dumps dry soil on the ground. Water vapor is captured onto cold finger.

Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Craft, J.; Oryshchyn, L.; Sanders, J.; Mueller, R.

2012-06-01

305

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU VITRIFICATION - GEOSAFE CORPORATION  

Science.gov (United States)

in Situ Vitrification (ISV) is designed to treat soils, sludges, sediments, and mine tailings contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds. The process uses electrical current to heat (mett) and vitrify the soil in place. Organic contaminants are decomposed by the extreme h...

306

In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chlorinated solvents and their natural transformation products are the most frequently observed groundwater contaminants in the United States. In situ bioremediation using anaerobic or aerobic co-metabolic processes is a promising means of cleaning up contaminated aquifers. Studies show that under n...

Semprini, L

307

In Situ Vitrification software requirements specification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the Software Requirements Specification for the Electrical Resistance Heating and Thermal Energy Transport models of the In-Situ Vitrification (ISV) process. It contains the Data Flow Diagrams, Process Specifications, Data Structure Diagrams, and the Data Dictionary. 5 refs.

Grush, W.H.; Marwil, E.S.

1990-09-01

308

Accelerated in situ bioremediation of groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ bioremediation, as applied in this project, is based on the principal of biostimulation: supplying nutrients to indigenous microbes to stimulate their metabolic activity and subsequent degradation of contaminants. Typically, a network of injection and extraction wells are used to recirculate groundwater into which amendments are added and distributed within the aquifer. The objective of the in situ process is to create in the aquifer a microbially active zone that maximizes contaminant destruction while controlling the distribution of microbial growth. It is important to control microbial growth to avoid plugging the aquifer near the injection well and to establish and sustain maximum treatment zones for each injection well. Figure I illustrates this concept for in situ bioremediation. The technology described herein is innovative in its use of the computer-based Accelerated Bioremediation Design Tool (ABDT) to aid in selecting appropriate system designs and to determine optimal operating strategies. In addition, numerical simulations within the design tool proved to be valuable during remediation operations to determine appropriate changes in the` operating strategy as the bioremediation process progressed. This is particularly important because in situ bioremediation is not a steady- state process, and corrective actions to operating parameters are typically needed to maintain both rapid destruction rates and hydraulic containment.

Truex, M.J.; Hooker, B.S.; Anderson, D.B.

1996-07-01

309

In situ and simulated in situ primary production in the Gulf of Gdañsk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The method discussed in this article allows the simulated in situ primary production in the southern Baltic to be evaluated. To estimate the daily primary production at a~given field station, the following parameters have to be measured: the coefficients AN and Es (constants from the photosynthesis-light curve for phytoplankton), and the scalar irradiance attenuation coefficient (k), chlorophyll a concentration (Chl) and daily irradiation just below the sea surface (PAR). The results of simulated in situ primary production are in good agreement with the in situ measurements.

Henryk Renk; Stanis³aw Ochocki; S³awomir Kurzyk

2000-01-01

310

In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of Energy's Hazardous Facilities'', found that conventional glass fiber HEPA filters are structurally weak and easily damaged by water or fire. The structurally stronger sintered metal and ceramic filters would reduce the potential of a catastrophic HEPA filter failure due to filter media breakthrough in the process ventilation system. An in situ regenerable system may also find application in recovering nuclear materials, such as plutonium, collected on glove box exhaust HEPA filters. This innovative approach of the in situ regenerative filtration system may be a significant improvement upon the shortfalls of conventional disposable HEPA filters

2002-01-01

311

In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

1994-01-01

312

Towards in situ detection of PAH trace in sea-water using SERS-active sensors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports the development of a sensor based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for analyses in sea-water. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are targeted by these sensors and their detection in situ summons up chemical synthesis and optical development. Firstly, a relevant syn...

Peron, Olivier; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Lehaitre, Michel; Colas, Florent; Compere, Chantal

313

In situ generation of diimide from hydrazine and oxygen: continuous-flow transfer hydrogenation of olefins.  

Science.gov (United States)

No catalyst required! A highly efficient, catalyst-free process to generate diimide in?situ from hydrazine monohydrate and molecular oxygen for the selective reduction of alkenes has been developed. The use of a gas-liquid segmented flow system allowed safe operating conditions and dramatically enhanced this atom-economical reaction, resulting in short processing times. PMID:23946202

Pieber, Bartholomäus; Martinez, Sabrina Teixeira; Cantillo, David; Kappe, C Oliver

2013-08-14

314

The determination of the in situ structure by nuclear spin contrast variation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polarized neutron scattering from polarized nuclear spins in hydrogenous substances opens a new way of contrast variation. The enhanced contrast due to proton spin polarization was used for the in situ structure determination of tRNA of the functional complex of the E.coli ribosome.

Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS Forschungszentrum, Geesthacht (Germany); Nierhaus, K.H. [Max-Planch-Institut fuer Molekulare Genetik, Berlin (Germany)

1994-12-31

315

The determination of the in situ structure by nuclear spin contrast variation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Polarized neutron scattering from polarized nuclear spins in hydrogenous substances opens a new way of contrast variation. The enhanced contrast due to proton spin polarization was used for the in situ structure determination of tRNA of the functional complex of the E.coli ribosome

1994-01-01

316

Osteogenic efficiency of in situ gelling poloxamine systems with and without bone morphogenetic protein-2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In situ gelling solutions for minimally invasive local application of bone growth factors are attracting increasing attention as efficient and patient-friendly alternative to bone grafts and solid scaffolds for repairing bone defects. Poloxamines, i.e., X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers with an ethylenediamine core (Tetronic®), were evaluated both as an active osteogenic component and as a vehicle for rhBMP-2 injectable implants. After cytotoxicity screening of various poloxamine varieties, Tetronic 908, 1107, 1301 and 1307 solutions were chosen as the most cytocompatible and their sol-to-gel transitions were rheologically characterized. Viscoelastic gels, formed at 37 ºC, sustained protein release under physiological-like conditions. Formulations of rhBMP-2 led to differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts, quantified as alkaline phosphatase activity with a maximum at day 7, and to mineralized nodules. Interestingly, poloxamine solely gels led to an initial proliferation of the mesenchymal stem cells (first week), followed by differentiation to osteoblasts (second to third week). Histochemical analysis revealed that Tetronic 908 is only osteoinductive; Tetronic 1107 is mostly osteoinductive, although its use leads to a minor differentiation to adipocytes; Tetronic 1307, solely or loaded with rhBMP-2, causes differentiation of both osteoblasts and adipocytes. Enhanced expression levels of CBFA-1 and collagen type I were observed for Tetronic 908, 1107 and 1307, both solely and combined with rhBMP-2. The intrinsic osteogenic activity of poloxamines (not observed for Pluronic F127) offers novel perspectives for bone regeneration using minimally invasive procedures (i.e., injectable scaffolds) and overcoming the safety and the cost/effectiveness concerns associated with large scale clinical use of recombinant growth factors.

A Rey-Rico; M Silva; J Couceiro; A Concheiro; C Alvarez-Lorenzo

2011-01-01

317

Radio frequency enhanced soil vapor extraction for in situ remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional forms of soil vapor extraction seek to volatilize and remove organic contaminants by percolation of environmental air through the contaminated soil volume. As a practical matter this is effective for contaminants with vapor pressures in excess of about 1 torr at soil temperatures, below about 20{degrees}C. The list of potentially susceptible contaminants can be expanded by heating the soil to increase the vapor pressure. Steam heat may be used, but its effect is limited to established vapor passageways. Radio frequency heating has many advantages because of its ability to heat volumetrically. However, the RF absorption of soil types, and thus the observed heating rate, varies widely depending on soil constituents and moisture content. We present measurements of soil RF absorption and contaminant removal rates, as projected from measurements of soil water removal, in a measured RF electric field at 27 MHz. Heat transfer effects in the small laboratory fixture are estimated from additional experiments and applied to estimate the temperatures which might be achieved in a large volume field test at the same electric field. Though the uncertainty is high, the desired temperature range (in excess of 150{degrees}C) is achievable in most soil types.

Pearce, J.A.; Daniel, D.E.; Boerigter, J.; Zuluga, A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

318

The use of hydraulic fracturing to enhance in situ bioremediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Bioremediation was determined to be a viable method of degrading the hydrocarbon contaminants at a fuel distribution and storage facility in Dayton, Ohio. Laboratory tests done by the on-site contractor indicated that percolating water containing oxygen and nutrients through the soil would result in biodegradation of the contaminants. The site is underlain by silty clay till of relatively low hydraulic conductivity, so conventional methods of delivery were expected to result in either slow rates of percolation, and thus slow rates of remediation, or excessive drilling costs. Therefore, the site was selected as a candidate for hydraulic fracturing, a technique of creating high permeability channel ways in tight soils. 1 fig

1992-01-01

319

LIGHT ENHANCEMENT OF MERCURY EMISSIONS: IN SITU OCCURRENCE. (R825249)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

320

International Week '13  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project deals with planning the event International Week 2013 - to raise awareness about the international standing of RUC and what it has to offer both international and Danish students. The project features a discussion of potential collaborative partners that could be involved, the marketing...

Kirchhübel, Nicola; Fattoul, Soufian

 
 
 
 
321

In-situ restoration techniques for aquifers contaminated with hazardous wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improper disposal of hazardous wastes is a threat to the nation's ground-water supply. Methods that prevent contamination are probably the most-effective techniques to protect ground water. Once contamination problems occur, there are a number of in-situ techniques that can be used to cleanse the ground water and at least partially restore the aquifer. Chemical and physical treatment techniques include processes such as neutralization, chemical reaction, extraction and immobilization. Biological techniques for in-situ treatment generally involve enhancing the degradative capacity of the indigenous microflora or the addition of organisms acclimated to degrade the contaminants.

Lee, M.D.; Wilson, J.T.; Ward, C.H.

1987-01-01

322

In-situ transmission electron microscopy of liposomes in an aqueous environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The characterization of liposomes was undertaken using in-situ microfluidic transmission electron microscopy. Liposomes were imaged without contrast enhancement staining or cryogenic treatment, allowing for the observation of functional liposomes in an aqueous environment. The stability and quality of the liposome structures observed were found to be highly dependent on the surface and liposome chemistries within the liquid cell. The successful imaging of liposomes suggests the potential for the extension of in-situ microfluidic TEM to a wide variety of other biological and soft matter systems and processes.

Hoppe SM; Sasaki DY; Kinghorn AN; Hattar K

2013-08-01

323

Dynamic in-situ eutectic formation for topical drug delivery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The relationship between the solution-state chemistry of eutectic systems and their transmembrane transport characteristics is difficult to define as these mixtures are sensitive to delivery vehicle-induced penetration enhancement. Through in-situ formation of a molten eutectic mixture using highly evaporative sprays this study aimed to gain an understanding of solution-state thermodynamic and chemical properties of eutectic combinations pertinent to transmembrane transport in the absence of a delivery vehicle. METHODS: In-situ molten lidocaine-prilocaine eutectics were formed using a hydroflouroalkane (HFA) propellant. Transport through silicone membranes and human skin in upright Franz diffusion cells was determined using in-house manufactured creams as controls. KEY FINDINGS: The application of the two drugs in an HFA spray produced a molten oil even when the melting point of the drug mixture was above the experimental temperature at the membrane surface. In the absence of vehicle effects, molecule presentation to the membrane interface was most effective using a lidocaine-rich mixture of 0.7% w/w lidocaine:prilocaine - 1985.06 ± 128.87 µg/h/cm(2). CONCLUSIONS: There appeared to be no link between melting point and transmembrane transport of lidocaine:prilocaine from a eutectic mixture. The rate of drug presentation to the membrane interface, which was highest in drug-rich, high-activity molten eutectic mixtures, was the driver for transmembrane transport in the absence of significant barrier interactions.

Fiala S; Brown MB; Jones SA

2011-11-01

324

In situ diesel fuel bioremediation: A case history  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a result of a ruptured fuel line, the study site had diesel fuel soil contamination and free product more than 2 ft (0.75 m) thick on the groundwater surface. Diesel fuel, which is composed of a high percentage of nonvolatile compounds, has proven difficult to remediate using conventional extraction remediation techniques. A number of remedial alternatives were reviewed, and the patented in situ biodegradation BioSparge{sup SM} technology was selected for the site and performed under license by a specialty contractor. BioSparge{sup SM} is a field-proven closed-loop (no vapor emissions) system that supplies a continuous, steady supply of oxygen, moisture, and additional heat to enhance microorganism activity. The system injects an enriched airstream beneath the groundwater surface elevation and/or within the contaminant plume and removes residual vapors from vadose zone soil within and above the contaminant plume. The technology has no air discharge, which is critical in areas where strict air discharge regulations apply. The focus of this paper is the viability of in situ biodegradation as an effective remediation alternative for reducing nonvolatile petroleum products.

Rhodes, D.K.; Burke, G.K.; Smith, N. [Hayward Baker Environmental, Inc., Odenton, MD (United States); Clark, D. [Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Co., Topeka, KS (United States)

1995-12-31

325

Impregnation of ?-tricalcium phosphate robocast scaffolds by in situ polymerization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (?-CL) and L-lactide (LLA) was performed to impregnate ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from ?-TCP commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a 3D mesh of interpenetrating rods. ?-CL and LLA were in situ polymerized within the ceramic structure by using a lipase and stannous octanoate, respectively, as catalysts. The results show that both the macropores inside the ceramic mesh and the micropores within the ceramic rods are full of polymer in either case. The mechanical properties of scaffolds impregnated by in situ polymerization (ISP) are significantly increased over those of the bare structures, exhibiting similar values than those obtained by other, more aggressive, impregnation methods such as melt-immersion (MI). ISP using enzymatic catalysts requires a reduced processing temperature which could facilitate the incorporation of growth factors and other drugs into the polymer composition, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the composite scaffold. The implications of these results for the optimization of the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 101A: 3086-3096, 2013. PMID:23526780

Martínez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Perera, Fidel H; Meulen, Inge van der; Heise, Andreas; Pajares, Antonia; Miranda, Pedro

2013-03-25

326

Impregnation of ?-tricalcium phosphate robocast scaffolds by in situ polymerization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (?-CL) and L-lactide (LLA) was performed to impregnate ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from ?-TCP commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a 3D mesh of interpenetrating rods. ?-CL and LLA were in situ polymerized within the ceramic structure by using a lipase and stannous octanoate, respectively, as catalysts. The results show that both the macropores inside the ceramic mesh and the micropores within the ceramic rods are full of polymer in either case. The mechanical properties of scaffolds impregnated by in situ polymerization (ISP) are significantly increased over those of the bare structures, exhibiting similar values than those obtained by other, more aggressive, impregnation methods such as melt-immersion (MI). ISP using enzymatic catalysts requires a reduced processing temperature which could facilitate the incorporation of growth factors and other drugs into the polymer composition, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the composite scaffold. The implications of these results for the optimization of the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 101A: 3086-3096, 2013.

Martínez-Vázquez FJ; Perera FH; Meulen Iv; Heise A; Pajares A; Miranda P

2013-11-01

327

Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyazomethine nanocomposites via in situ interlayer polymerization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Nanocomposites of polyazomethine with the organoclay C{sub 12}-MMT were synthesized by using the in situ interlayer polymerization method. {yields} The thermal properties of the polyazomethine hybrids increase with the addition of the organoclay up to a critical content and then decrease with further organoclay loading. {yields} Liquid crystalline compositions with 0-9 wt% organoclay have threaded Schlieren nematic textures. - Abstract: Nanocomposites of polyazomethine (PAM) with the organoclay C{sub 12}-MMT were synthesized by using the in situ interlayer polymerization method. The variations with organoclay content of the thermal properties, morphology, and liquid crystalline mesophases of the hybrids were determined for concentrations from 0 to 9 wt% C{sub 12}-MMT. The thermal properties and the morphologies of the PAM nanocomposites were examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), wide angle X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). The XRD analysis and TEM micrographs show that the levels of nanosize dispersion can be controlled by varying the C{sub 12}-MMT content. The clay particles are better dispersed in the matrix polymer at low clay contents than at high clay contents. With the exception of the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), the maximum enhancement in the thermal properties was found to arise at an organoclay content of 1 wt%. Further, the PAM hybrids were shown to exhibit a nematic liquid crystalline phase for organoclay contents in the range 0-9 wt%.

Min, Ungki [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi 730-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jin-Hae, E-mail: changjinhae@hanmail.net [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi 730-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-09-15

328

Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyazomethine nanocomposites via in situ interlayer polymerization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Nanocomposites of polyazomethine with the organoclay C12-MMT were synthesized by using the in situ interlayer polymerization method. ? The thermal properties of the polyazomethine hybrids increase with the addition of the organoclay up to a critical content and then decrease with further organoclay loading. ? Liquid crystalline compositions with 0-9 wt% organoclay have threaded Schlieren nematic textures. - Abstract: Nanocomposites of polyazomethine (PAM) with the organoclay C12-MMT were synthesized by using the in situ interlayer polymerization method. The variations with organoclay content of the thermal properties, morphology, and liquid crystalline mesophases of the hybrids were determined for concentrations from 0 to 9 wt% C12-MMT. The thermal properties and the morphologies of the PAM nanocomposites were examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), wide angle X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). The XRD analysis and TEM micrographs show that the levels of nanosize dispersion can be controlled by varying the C12-MMT content. The clay particles are better dispersed in the matrix polymer at low clay contents than at high clay contents. With the exception of the glass transition temperature (Tg), the maximum enhancement in the thermal properties was found to arise at an organoclay content of 1 wt%. Further, the PAM hybrids were shown to exhibit a nematic liquid crystalline phase for organoclay contents in the range 0-9 wt%.

2011-09-15

329

Methylation-specific PCR in situ hybridization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in situ hybridization, using paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissues or formalin-fixed cell preparations, allows one to determine which specific cells have silencing of a given gene owing to hypermethylation of the promoter. Standard in situ hybridization, after conversion of nonmethylated bases, would not have sufficient sensitivity to detect the one or two copies of the promoter region of interest. The framework of the methodology is the same as solution-phase methylation-specific PCR. However, when working with intact tissue or cell preparations, adequate formalin fixation and protease digestion are essential for satisfactory results. Furthermore, since one often uses an oligoprobe, probe size (at least 40 bp), labeling method (3' end tailing), probe concentration, and posthybridization stringency conditions can all have an impact on the final results.

Nuovo GJ

2004-01-01

330

BEATRIX-II: In situ tritium test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The BEATRIX-II irradiation experiment is an in-situ tritium release experiment being carried out in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor to evaluate the tritium release characteristics of fusion solid breeder materials. A sophisticated tritium gas handling system has been developed to continuously monitor the tritium recovery from the specimens and facilitate tritium removal from the experiment's sweep gas flow stream. The in-situ recovery experiment accommodates two different in-reactor specimen canisters with individual gas streams and temperature monitoring/control. Ionization chambers have been specifically designed to respond to the rapid changes in the tritium release rate at the anticipated tritium concentrations. Two ceramic electrolysis cells have proved effective in reducing the moisture in the gas streams to hydrogen/tritium. A tritium getter system, capable of reducing the tritium level by a factor greater than 4000, is used to reduce the tritium in the sweep gas to a level acceptable for release.

1990-01-01

331

In situ stabilization of entrapped elemental mercury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Elemental mercury is a dense immiscible fluid which gets entrapped as residual mercury in the pore spaces of the subsurface during improper disposals and accidental spills. This paper investigates in situ stabilization of entrapped elemental mercury to mercury sulphide using aqueous sodium polysulphide solution. Batch experiments showed 100% conversion efficiency of elemental mercury to mercury sulphide in a period of 96 h with sodium polysulphide/elemental mercury molar ratio of 1. XRD analysis identified the precipitate formed as mercury sulphide. Micromodel experiments, with glass beads as porous media, further demonstrated in situ stabilization of entrapped mercury under different residual mercury saturations. It was found that in a period of 10 days, 10% of entrapped mercury was stabilized as mercury sulphide, 0.088% was removed as dissolved mercury and the remaining elemental mercury was retained in porous media encapsulated by the newly formed mercury sulphide precipitate. However, there was no leaching of mercury from the micromodel effluent once stabilization was achieved.

Devasena M; Nambi IM

2013-09-01

332

In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl{sub 4}, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations.

Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1992-04-01

333

In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl4, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations

1992-01-01

334

AVARIS. AREVA valve repair in-situ  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] AREVA has designed, built and applied a set of modular machines to refurbish the seal seats of installed valves in NPPs. This innovative new service is called AREVA Valve Repair In-Situ. AVARIS machinery has the unique ability to conduct several processes, in-situ, i.e. in the pipe system in very tight space. The main processes of AVARIS are: - turning of damaged seal areas, - built-up welding of a new hardfacing and - finishing of the welded areas. A gate valve that has been refurbished with the AVARIS method is as good as a new valve regarding the sealing function and life expectancy. By applying AVARIS, the valve is brought back into its original state, so the system remains unchanged. Thus, all original documents keep their validity. (orig.)

2011-01-01

335

Review Genomic in situ hybridization in plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), which is a modification of fluorescent in situ hybridization, has been widely used in the study of plants. It has become one of the most important techniques for molecular cytogenetics. GISH is a technique that allows distinguishing the genomes in a cell. With this technique, it is possible to differentiate the genomes in a hybrid; consequently, this tool has been applied to the study of hybrid lineages, genetic improvement programs, and studies of the evolution of polyploids. Moreover, GISH can be applied to the analysis of the meiotic behavior in hybrids and polyploids, providing information concerning the relationship between species. This review presents the wide application of this technique in plants.

Silva GS; Souza MM

2013-01-01

336

In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented.

Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

1994-11-01

337

In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive 137Cs and 60Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of 137Cs and 60Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented

1994-01-01

338

In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chlorinated solvents and their natural transformation products are the most frequently observed groundwater contaminants in the United States. In situ bioremediation using anaerobic or aerobic co-metabolic processes is a promising means of cleaning up contaminated aquifers. Studies show that under natural conditions trichloroethylene can be anaerobically degraded to dichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and ethylene. Pilot scale field studies of in situ aerobic co-metabolic transformations have shown that indigenous microbes grown on phenol are more effective at degrading trichloroethylene and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene than microbes grown on methane. Modeling studies support field observations and indicate that the removal of trichloroethylene and cis-dichloroethylene results from the biostimulation of an indigenous microbial population. Field tests and modeling studies indicate that, at high TCE concentration, degradation becomes stoichiometrically limited. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Semprini, L. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1995-06-01

339

In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl{sub 4}, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations.

Skeen, R.S.; Roberson, K.R.; Workman, D.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Petersen, J.N.; Shouche, M. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1992-04-01

340

In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment - various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field preliminary results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications.

1997-01-01

342

In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications.

Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

1997-02-01

343

Application of in situ combustion in Romania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In-situ combustion experiments and applications at Supacu de Barcau, and the Videle and Balaria oil fields have been described, with particular emphasis on the geology, physical characteristics, production stage and the number of wells within the experimental patterns. For industrial projects currently in operation, progress in primary and secondary recovery, power consumption, and the difficulties encountered, were also discussed. Special mention was made of an experiment in the West Videle field, where simultaneous and separated exploitation will be tested by in situ combustion through the same wells, from two superimposed oil-bearing strata. Measures taken to maintain effective sand control, and normal receptivity for the injected air, and measures to protect the environment were also described. 44 refs., 38 figs.

Machedon, V.; Popescu, T.; Paduraru, R. [PETROM R. A. - ICPT Cimpina, (Romania)

1993-12-31

344

Quantitative in situ nanoindentation of aluminum films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the development of a method for quantitative, in situ nanoindentation in an electron microscope and its application to study the onset of deformation during the nanoindentation of aluminum films. The load-displacement curve developed during in situ nanoindentation shows the characteristic ''staircase'' instability at the onset of plastic deformation. The instability corresponds to the first appearance of dislocations in previously defect-free grains, and occurs at a force near that measured in conventional nanoindentation experiments on similarly oriented Al grains. Plastic deformation proceeds through the formation and propagation of prismatic loops punched into the material, and half-loops that emanate from the sample surface. This new experimental technique permits the direct observation of the microstructural mechanisms that operate at the onset of deformation.

Minor, Andrew M.; Stach, Eric A.; Morris Jr., J.W.

2001-04-04

345

Technology for in situ uranium leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In situ leaching (ISL) is an alternative method of mining uranium from deposits that are low-grade, deeplying, and water-saturated. ISL recovers uranium by transporting fluids through rock rather than by moving rock. This paper reviews some of the technical and economic aspects of the ISL process and briefly discusses key subsurface engineering functions associated with well pattern design and operation. 12 refs

1980-01-01

346

Surgical margins for melanoma in situ.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A controversy in the treatment of melanoma in situ is the required width of surgical margin. The currently accepted 5-mm margin is based on a 1992 consensus opinion, despite data since then showing this is inadequate. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop guidelines for predetermined surgical margins for excision of melanoma in situ. METHODS: A prospectively collected series of 1072 patients with 1120 melanoma in situs was studied. All lesions were excised by Mohs micrographic surgery with frozen-section examination of the margin. The minimal surgical margin was 6 mm, and the total margin was calculated by adding an additional 3 mm for each subsequent stage required. The minimum surgical margin that would successfully remove 97% of all tumors was calculated. Local recurrence was also tabulated. RESULTS: In all, 86% of melanoma in situs were successfully excised with a 6-mm margin; 9 mm removed 98.9% of melanoma in situs. The superiority of 9-mm to 6-mm margins was significant (P < .001). Gender, location, and diameter did not affect results. Recurrence rate for this set of patients treated with Mohs micrographic surgery was 0.3% (n = 3). LIMITATIONS: Margins less than 6 mm were not studied. This is a referral center for melanoma in situ and 10% of tumors were previously treated before presentation to our clinic. CONCLUSION: The frequently recommended 5-mm margin for melanoma is inadequate. Standard surgical excision of melanoma in situ should include 9 mm of normal-appearing skin, similar to that recommended for early invasive melanoma.

Kunishige JH; Brodland DG; Zitelli JA

2012-03-01

347

In-situ studies of nanocatalysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A heterogeneous catalyst in industry consists of nanoparticles with variable crystallite sizes, shapes, and compositions. Its catalytic performance (activity, selectivity, and durability) derives from surface chemistry of catalyst nanoparticles during catalysis. However, the surface chemistry of the catalyst particles during catalysis, termed in-situ information, is a "black box" because of the challenges in characterizing the catalysts during catalysis. The lack of such in-situ information about catalysts has limited the understanding of catalytic mechanisms and the development of catalysts with high selectivity and activity. The challenges in understanding heterogeneous catalysis include measurement of reaction kinetics, identification of reaction intermediates, bridging pressure gap and materials gap. The pressure gap is the difference in surface structure and chemistry between a catalyst during catalysis and under an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) condition. The materials gap represents the difference between the structural and compositional complexity of industrial catalysts and the well-defined surface of model catalysts of metals or oxides. Development of in-situ characterization using electron spectroscopy and electron microscopy in recent decades has made possible studies of surface chemistry and structure of nanocatalysts under reaction conditions or during catalysis at near ambient pressure. In this Account, we review the new chemistries and structures of nanocatalysts during reactions revealed with in-situ analytical techniques. We discuss changes observed during catalysis including the evolution of composition, oxidation state, phase, and geometric structure of the catalyst surface, and the sintering of catalysts. These surface chemistries and structures have allowed researchers to build a correlation between surface chemistry and structure of active nanocatalysts and their corresponding catalytic performances. Such a correlation provides critical insights for understanding catalysis, optimization of existing nanocatalysts, and development of new nanocatalysts with high activity and selectivity.

Zhang S; Nguyen L; Zhu Y; Zhan S; Tsung CK; Tao FF

2013-08-01

348

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugiyama, Asami

1997-12-31

349

Excursion control at in situ uranium mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes excursions (uncontrolled movement of lixiviant beyond the ore zone) based on case histories of 8 in situ uranium mines (7 in Wyoming and 1 in Texas). These case histories were compiled from data provided by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, and the Texas Department of Water Resources. Most of these data were provided to the above agencies by mining companies in response to regulatory requirements pertaining to licensing actions.

Staub, W.P.

1987-01-01

350

A Novel in situ Trigger Combination Method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and their performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding of the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, to be combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a W boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. The in situ combination method has advantages of scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and of insensitivity to correlations between triggers. We compare the inclusion and in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF WH search.

2012-01-01

351

In situ denitrification in controlled landfill systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The characteristics of leachate from landfill disposal sites vary according to the operational stage of the landfill. Leachates from old landfills are often rich in ammonia nitrogen due to the hydrolysis and fermentation of nitrogenous fractions of biodegradable refuse substrates. The relative concentration accumulating as stabilization progresses is also influenced by washout as leachate is collected and removed for external treatment. However, in landfills operated as bioreactors with leachate containment, collection and in situ recirculation to accelerate decomposition of readily available organic fractions of the refuse, leachate ammonia nitrogen concentrations may accumulate to much higher levels. High leachate ammonia nitrogen concentrations in landfill leachate have been reported, resulting in separate treatment challenges if direct discharge to either land or receiving waters is practiced. External treatment options for landfill leachate may involve complex physical-chemical and/or biological processes for removal of both high-strength organic and inorganic fractions, including nitrogen. Such separate leachate treatment systems are often costly and difficult to control on a continuum. Therefore, this study focused on the investigation of landfill ammonia nitrogen generation patterns, and the potential for its in situ attenuation and conversion in landfills constructed to permit sequential nitrification and denitrification using leachate recirculation. Accordingly, the landfill is constructed and operated as a controlled bioreactor system, with opportunity to convert ammonia to nitrate by nitrification and nitrate to nitrogen gas by denitrification. The results presented in this paper focus on in situ landfill denitrification of nitrified ammonia.

Onay, T.T.; Pohland, F.G. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1996-11-01

352

Practical application of in situ aerosol measurement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of in situ, real-time measurement techniques permits the characterization of airborne droplets and particles under conditions where traditional sampling methods can fail. For example, sampling method rely on the ability to sample and transport particles without biasing the properties of interest, and often are not applicable in harsh environment. Although in situ methods offer unique opportunities in these cases, these techniques introduce new concerns and must be used carefully if accurate measurement are to be made. Several in situ measurement techniques are reviewed here. As the field is rapidly evolving, the discussion is limited to those techniques which: (1) are commercially available, (2) provide real-time output, (3) measure the aerosol size distribution. Discussion is divided between single particle counters (which provide a flux-based or temporal measurement) and ensemble techniques (which provide a concentration-based or spatial measurement). Specific techniques discussed include phase Doppler, Mie scattering, and Fraunhofer diffraction, and commercial instruments based on these techniques.

O`Hern, T.J.; Rader, D.J.

1993-09-01

353

IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes2. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in2 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what conditions, the tests were conducted. The descriptions and analyses provide data useful for refining and confirming the understanding of flow, drift seepage, and transport processes in the UZ. The UZ testing activities included measurement of permeability distribution, quantification of the seepage of water into the drifts, evaluation of fracture-matrix interaction, study of flow along faults, testing of flow and transport between drifts, characterization of hydrologic heterogeneity along drifts, estimation of drying effects on the rock surrounding the drifts due to ventilation, monitoring of moisture conditions in open and sealed drifts, and determination of the degree of minimum construction water migration below drift. These field tests were conducted in two underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) drift, and the cross-drift for Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB), as described in Section 1.2. Samples collected in boreholes and underground drifts have been used for additional hydrochemical and isotopic analyses for additional understanding of the UZ setting. The UZ transport tests conducted at the nearby Busted Butte site (see Figure 1-4) are also described in this scientific analysis report.

2004-01-01

354

Design and Development of pH-monitered in situ Gel of Lomefloxacin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present Study was focused on Design and Development of in situ gel of Lomefloxacin HCL.Lomefloxacin HCL is an antibacterial agent which exhibits rapid precorneal elimination and poor ocular bioavailability, when given in the form of conventional ophthalmic solutions. To overcome this, an attempt has been made to formulate pH-triggered in situ gelling system of Lomefloxacin HCL to provide sustained release of drug based on polymeric carriers that undergo sol-to-gel transition upon change in pH. The Lomefloxacin HCL in situ gelling system formulated by using poly acrylic acid (Carbopol 940) and in combination with hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) which acted as viscosity enhancing agent. The developed formulation was stable, non-irritant and provided sustained release over 8-hour period and it is a viable alternative to conventional eye drops.

Jayant Deshpande; Dr. P. B Shah; Dr. Anil Bhandari

2013-01-01

355

In situ hybridization technique and the applications in aquaculture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In situ hybridization technique is a new technique rapidly developing. In this paper, the basic principles and a few in situ hybridization techniques were reviewd,and then curent applications of this technique in aquaculture were described, including gene locallization, sex identification, and virus detection and so on. Opinions on the development of the in situ hybridization technique in the future are put forward.

He Yuying; Li Jian; Liu Ping; Wang Qingyin

2005-01-01

356

Combined microRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical detection of protein markers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

MicroRNAs are short (18-23 nucleotides) non-coding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression through their specific binding to the 3'UTR of mRNAs. MicroRNAs can be detected in tissues using specific locked nucleic acid (LNA)-enhanced probes. The characterization of microRNA expression in tissues by in situ detection is often crucial following a microRNA biomarker discovery phase in order to validate the candidate microRNA biomarker and allow better interpretation of its molecular functions and derived cellular interactions. The in situ hybridization data provides information about contextual distribution and cellular origin of the microRNA. By combining microRNA in situ hybridization with immunohistochemical staining of protein markers, it is possible to precisely characterize the microRNA expressing cells and to identify the potential microRNA targets. This combined technology can also help to monitor changes in the level of potential microRNA targets in a therapeutic setting. In this chapter we present a fluorescence-based technology that allows the combination of microRNA in situ hybridization with immunohistochemistry exemplified by the in situ detection of miR-21 and miR-205 in combination with PDCD4 and smooth muscle a-actin.

Nielsen BS; Holmstrøm K

2013-01-01

357

In-situ emulsion polymerization of ethylene derivatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a method for profile control in a subterranean hydrocarbonaceous fluid-containing formation or reservoir where substantially high flow rates of high pressures are encountered. It comprises injecting into a more permeable zone of the formation a water-external emulsion which contains an ethylene monomer derivative and a cross-linker in an amount sufficient to form plastic-like solid spheres; and allowing the emulsion to remain in the more permeable zone for a time sufficient to form in-situ plastic-like solid spheres by polymerization therein which spheres are sufficient to divert fluids utilized in enhanced oil recovery operations from the zone where high flow rates and high pressures are encountered.

Phelps, C.H.; Strom, E.T.; Hoefner, M.L.

1991-09-17

358

Sustained ophthalmic delivery of gatifloxacin from In situ gelling system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional ophthalmic solutions due to rapid precorneal elimination of drug may be overcome by the use of in situ gel-forming systems that are instilled as drops into the eye and undergo a sol-gel transition in the cul-de-sac. The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of an ophthalmic delivery system of an antibacterial agent, gatifloxacin, based on the concept of ion-activated systems. Sodium alginate was used as the gelling agent in combination with hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (Methocel E50LV), which acted as a viscosity enhancing agent. The developed formulations were therapeutically efficacious, stable, non-irritant and provided sustained release of the drug over an eight hour period. The developed system is thus a viable alternative to conventional eye drops.

Doijad R; Manvi F; Malleswara Rao V.S.N; Alase Prajakta

2006-01-01

359

In situ formation of phosphate barriers in soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reactive barriers and methods for making reactive barriers in situ in soil for sequestering soil ontaminants including actinides and heavy metals. The barrier includes phosphate, and techniques are disclosed for forming specifically apatite barriers. The method includes injecting dilute reagents into soil in proximity to a contamination plume or source such as a waste drum to achieve complete or partial encapsulation of the waste. Controlled temperature and pH facilitates rapid formation of apatite, for example, where dilute aqueous calcium chloride and dilute aqueous sodium phosphate are the selected reagents. Mixing of reagents to form precipitate is mediated and enhanced through movement of reagents in soil as a result of phenomena including capillary action, movement of groundwater, soil washing and reagent injection pressure.

Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM)

2002-01-01

360

In-situ groundwater remediation by selective colloid mobilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An in-situ groundwater remediation pump and treat technique effective for reclamation of aquifers that have been contaminated with a mixed, metal-containing waste, which promotes selective mobilization of metal oxide colloids with a cationic surfactant, preferably a quaternary alkylammonium surfactant, without significantly reducing formation permeability that often accompanies large-scale colloid dispersion, thus increasing the efficiency of the remediation effort by enhancing the capture of strongly sorbing contaminants associated with the oxide phases. The resulting suspension can be separated from the bulk solution with controlled pH adjustments to destabilize the oxide colloids, and a clear supernatant which results that can be recycled through the injection well without further waste treatment.

Seaman, John C. (New Ellenton, SC); Bertch, Paul M. (Aiken, SC)

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

BusinessWeek Online  

Science.gov (United States)

_Business Week_, published by the McGraw Hill Companies, has recently made its web debut. The site is highlighted by the full text of articles from the print magazine. Also included are a selected browsable archive back to late 1995; a daily briefing section (frames based), with concise summaries of news and market information including performance information on new IPOs (initial public offerings); BW Plus, with topical information on such issues as the best business schools, mutual funds, and women in business; a computer buying guide; and an interactive portfolio manager. A complete five-year searchable archive (fee based) will soon be available.

1995-01-01

362

CERN safety week  

CERN Multimedia

Following an increase in the number of accidents in 2008, the Safety Commission is organising a CERN safety week from 8 to 12 June for riders of bicycles, scooters and motorbikes. We invite you to take part in the programme, which will be held in the Main Building (Bldg. 500) and will consist of an exhibition, organised events and hands-on activities, including demonstrations of emergency braking, a driving simulator, simulation of what it feels like to drive under the influence of alcohol, demonstrations by the Fire Brigade, video projections, etc. There will also be a number of prizes to be won. Please sign up via your DSO.

DG Unit

2009-01-01

363

High resolution measurements of carbon monoxide along a late Holocene Greenland ice core: evidence for in-situ production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present high-resolution measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations from continuous analysis of a shallow ice core from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling project (NEEM-2011-S1). An Optical Feedback – Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer (OF-CEAS) was coupled to a continuous melter system during a 4-week laboratory-based measurement campaign. This analytical setup generates highly stable measurements of CO concentrations with an external precision of 7.8 ppbv (1 sigma) based on a comparison of replicate cores. The NEEM-2011-S1 CO record spans 1800 yr and exhibits highly variable concentrations at the scale of annual layers, ranging from 75 to 1327 ppbv. The most recent section of this record (i.e. since 1700 AD) agrees with existing discrete CO measurements from the Eurocore ice core and the deep NEEM firn. However, it is difficult to interpret in terms of atmospheric CO variation due to high frequency, high amplitude spikes in the data. 68% of the elevated CO spikes are observed in ice layers enriched with pyrogenic aerosols. Such aerosols, originating from boreal biomass burning emissions, contain organic compounds, which can be oxidized or photodissociated to produce CO in-situ. We suggest that elevated CO concentration features could present a new integrative proxy for past biomass burning history. Furthermore, the NEEM-2011-S1 record reveals an increase in baseline CO level prior to 1700 AD (129 m depth), with the concentration remaining high even for ice layers depleted in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Overall, the processes driving in-situ production of CO within the NEEM ice are complex and may involve multiple chemical pathways.

X. Faïn; J. Chappellaz; R. H. Rhodes; C. Stowasser; T. Blunier; J. R. McConnell; E. J. Brook; S. Preunkert; M. Legrand; T. Desbois; D. Romanini

2013-01-01

364

In-situ combustion simulation with dynamic grid; Simulacao de combustao in-situ com grades dinamicas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, we study the effects of the introduction of 3D dynamics grids on in-situ combustion simulation results as means of describing the most realistically possible the dynamics of these processes, in particular of the combustion front. The dynamic refinement of grid blocks is important because in thesis it enhances the precision in the calculations once that more grid blocks are considered in the grid, especially within the narrow region of high temperature of the combustion front. We have performed dry combustion simulation (only water injection) and wet combustion simulation (air + water injection) for forward combustion in a variety of well configurations. Our initial results have shown changes in oil, water and gas productions when we use dynamics grids in the simulations, making clear the relevance of its usage in the understanding of the dynamics of these processes. (author)

Ferraz, C.H.A.; Almeida, M.P.; Vasconcelos, H.H.M.; Oliveira, C.L.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

2008-07-01

365

Iran Weekly Press Digest  

Science.gov (United States)

The Iran Weekly Press Digest, a weekly review of the Iranian press in English, contains a number of articles on the summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference and its significance for Iran in its archived and current issues. The eighth summit of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference was recently held in Tehran, Iran. Iran recently hosted representatives from 55 countries to a three-day Muslim summit in Tehran in a move which is being seen as a new phase in the country's re-emergence after years of relative isolation. The acceptance of Iran's invitations by senior figures from former enemies such as Saudi Arabia and Iraq has been portrayed by Iranian leaders and many others as a strong setback for US attempts to politically quarantine that country. Representatives considered 142 resolutions prepared by foreign ministers on issues including Middle East peace, regional conflicts, terrorism and human rights. However, perhaps the most significant outcome of the summit has been a reintroduction of Iran into the Muslim community of nations. Capitalizing on current anti-American sentiments and the recent election of a relatively moderate president, Iran hopes to rebuild its relationships with its neighbors and once again become a regional leader, a position it held for approximately 3000 years.

1997-01-01

366

ATLAS overview week highlights  

CERN Multimedia

A warm and early October afternoon saw the beginning of the 2005 ATLAS overview week, which took place Rue de La Montagne Sainte-Geneviève in the heart of the Quartier Latin in Paris. All visitors had been warned many times by the ATLAS management and the organisers that the premises would be the subject of strict security clearance because of the "plan Vigipirate", which remains at some level of alert in all public buildings across France. The public building in question is now part of the Ministère de La Recherche, but used to host one of the so-called French "Grandes Ecoles", called l'Ecole Polytechnique (in France there is only one Ecole Polytechnique, whereas there are two in Switzerland) until the end of the seventies, a little while after it opened its doors also to women. In fact, the setting chosen for this ATLAS overview week by our hosts from LPNHE Paris has turned out to be ideal and the security was never an ordeal. For those seeing Paris for the first time, there we...

D. Froidevaux

2005-01-01

367

In situ recovery of shale oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean oil shale deposit by excavating a columnar void having a vertically extending free face. This is accomplished by drilling blasting holes adjacent to the columnar void, loading the blasting holes with explosive, and detonating the explosive in a single round to expand the shale adjacent to the columnar void toward the free face, to fill the columnar void with fragmented oil shale and the space in the in-situ retort originally occupied by the expanded shale prior to the expansion. A room having a horizontal floor plan that coincides approximately with the horizontal cross section of the retort to be formed is excavated so as to intersect the columnar void. The room can lie above the columnar void, below the columnar void, or intermediate the ends of the columnar void. The expanded or fragmented shale has a low average void volume. The void volume of the fragmented shale increases at the bottom of the in situ retort. In one embodiment the higher void volume is obtained since the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the columnar void to the horizontal cross-sectional area of the retort is decreased near the bottom. Backfilling part of a void with fragmented shale prior to explosive expansion provides a high void volume in another embodiment. In an embodiment with a room at the bottom of the columnar void, shale in one region can expand downwardly toward the room as well as toward the columnar void and hence has a higher void volume than a region where shale expands only toward the columnar void.

French, G.B.

1981-05-12

368

The treatment of in situ breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carcinoma in situ is the earliest histologically recognisable form of malignancy and as such provides an opportunity to treat the disease in a curative way. The two major variants, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) will be considered separately as the two conditions have divergent natural histories. DCIS is increasing in incidence since microcalcification may be detected radiologically in the screening of asymptomatic women. The extent of microcalcification may not indicate the extent of disease. It has yet to be determined whether there is a difference in behaviour of the tumour forming and the asymptomatic types of DCIS. After a biopsy has shown DCIS there will be residual DCIS at the biopsy site in one-third of patients, and multifocal DCIS in another third. A coexistent infiltrating carcinoma may be present in up to 16%. Due to sampling problems areas of invasion may be missed. Axillary nodal metastases are found in only 1% of patients with histological DCIS. Radical surgery by total or modified mastectomy is almost curative, but 3% of patients will die of metastases. Taking results of uncontrolled trials, local relapse rates are as follows: excision alone 50%, wide excision 30%, wide excision plus radiotherapy 20%. Two prospective trials are underway run by the EORTC and NSABP in which patients with DCIS are treated by wide excision with or without external radiotherapy. LCIS is usually an incidental finding with a bilateral predisposition to subsequent infiltrating carcinomas. Curative procedures such as bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction may represent overtreatment. A systemic rather than local approach would seem appropriate and a trial is now underway run by the EORTC in which patients with histologically confirmed LCIS are randomised to observation alone or to receive tamoxifen 20 mg daily for 5 years. (orig./MG).

1989-01-01

369

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF pH-TRIGGERED IN SITU GELLING SYSTEM OF CIPROFLOXACIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present work was formulation and evaluation of in situ gelling system of ciprofloxacin. The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional ophthalmic solutions due to rapid precorneal elimination of the drug may be overcome by the use of in situ gel-forming systems that are instilled as drops into the eye and undergo a sol–gel transition in the cul-de-sac. Hence, the purpose of the present work was to formulate pH-triggered, temperature triggered & ion activated in situ Gelling system of ciprofloxacin to provide sustained release of drug based on polymeric carriers that undergo sol-to-gel transition upon change in pH. The ciprofloxacin in situ gelling system formulated by using poly acrylic acid (Carbopol 934) in combination with hydroxyl propylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) which acted as viscosity enhancing agent. The developed formulation was efficacious, stable, non-irritant and provided sustained release over 8-hour period and it is a viable alternative to conventional eye drops by virtue of its ability to enhance bioavailability through its longer precorneal residence time & ability to produced sustained drug release.

Lokhande Umesh Ramchandra; Gorde Vikas D.; Gadhave M. V.; Jadhav S. L.; Gaikwad D. D.

2012-01-01

370

Development of in-situ monitoring system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of in-situ monitoring system using an optical fiber to measure the real time temperature variation of subsurface water for the evaluation of flow characteristics. We describe the feasibility of developing a fiber-optic temperature sensor using a thermochromic material. A sensor-tip is fabricated by mixing of a thermochromic material powder. The relationships between the temperatures and the output voltages of detectors are determined to measure the temperature of water. It is expected that the fiber-optic temperature monitoring sensor using thermochromic material can be used to measure the real time temperature variation of subsurface water

2010-01-01

371

In situ characterization of undulator magnetic fields.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new in situ method is proposed to characterize the peak magnetic fields of undulator sources. The X-ray beam emitted by the HU52 Apple-2 undulator of the DEIMOS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron is analyzed using the Bragg diffraction of a Si(111) crystal. Measurements over the undulator gap range in linear horizontal polarization are compared with simulations in order to rebuild the Halbach function linking the undulator gaps to their peak magnetic fields. The method presented also allows information about the electron beam to be obtained.

Moreno T; Otero E; Ohresser P

2012-03-01

372

In situ viscometry by optical trapping interferometry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency of the flow, which is simply proportional to the viscosity, when measured in units of the thermal power spectral density at the same frequency. Measurements are validated on different water-glycerol mixtures, as well as in a glycerol gradient, where no a priori knowledge of the solution is used to determine the glycerol concentration.

Guzmán, C.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

2008-01-01

373

ISSZT--in-situ saturated zone technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a status report on this patented technique which has a unique capability for lowering the ground water level without the need for ground water pumping. The technology lowers the ground water by applying and maintaining compressed air at a slight positive pressure to the ground water bearing soils within a contained area. This creates a new unsaturated zone -- a vadose zone -- in an area which had previously been below the ground water table. A variety of containment and in-situ treatment approaches are possible using this approach.

Hassett, A.F. [Oak Hill Company, Malvern, PA (United States)

1997-12-31

374

Carcinoma in situ and treatment options.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a high-grade and aggressive manifestation of transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder that has a highly variable course. The treatment of CIS has undergone dramatic changes since this malignancy was first recognized. While cystectomy was once recommended as the initial treatment of choice, recognition of the highly variable prognosis and the uniformly high response rate to intravesical BCG has prompted a more conservative approach to management. Patients who fail BCG immunotherapy without evidence of progression may yet be candidates for intravesical chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, or alternative immunotherapies such as alpha-2b interferon, bromopirimine, or keyhole limpet haemocyanin. PMID:8738617

Erton, M; Ilker, Y; Akda?

1996-01-01

375

Measure of Legionella pneumophila activity in situ  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detection of Legionella pneumophila by serogroup-specific fluorescent antibodies was combined with a tetrazolium dye (INT) to measure electron transport activity. The biological uptake and reduction of the INT dye was studied in pure cultures and in natural water samples with respect to temperature. Uptake was complete within 60 minutes. Controls inhibited with formaldehyde demonstrated little activity. Both the in vitro and in situ determinations suggested that the electron transport system of Legionella was active over a temperature range of 25/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/C.

Fliermans, C.B.; Soracco, R.J.; Pope, D.H.

1981-01-01

376

Improving a joint inversion of GRACE, GPS and modelled ocean bottom pressure by using in-situ data.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the changes in ocean bottom pressure (OBP) and ocean mass Rietbroek et al. (2009) performed a joint least square inversion of weekly GRACE solutions, patterns of large-scale deformation measured by a network of GPS stations and modelled OBP from the Finite Element Sea ice Ocean Model (FESOM). The correlation of this inversion with in-situ OBP ranges between 0.7 and 0.8 in some regions but for example in the tropical Atlantic the correlation is below 0.4. To improve the agreement of the inversion with in-situ data, a part of the in-situ data is included directly into the inversion. The in-situ OBP data was taken from the global OBP data base of Macrander et al. (2010) and averaged to weekly means. Depending on the weight put on the in-situ data, the correlation and regression increases significantly to a value larger than 0.9. The variance of the system is locally reduced by almost 50% at the locations included into the inversion while the difference of the global ocean mean is on average below 10%. Furthermore the global ocean mean is used to compute a bias term for correcting the global ocean mean obtained by the FESOM model.

Gebler, M.; Rietbroek, R.; Schröter, J.; Wolff, J.-O.

2012-04-01

377

In situ migration experiment in argillaceous formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International cooperative R and D has been performed within the five years framework of the bilateral agreement between PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) and SCK/CEN (Studiecentrum voor Kernergie/Centre D'etude de L'energie Nucleaire, Mol, Belgium) which is focused on 'The Migration Experiment in argillaceous formation.' This Tertiary argillaceous formation, called Boom clay, is located at about 230m depth in Mol-Dessel area, Belgium. The argillaceous rock is considered to have a high capability for retardation to radionuclides when they migrate in geosphere because of a high content of clay minerals and dissolved carbon-rich pore water. The main purpose of this collaboration work is to characterize the migration phenomena in sedimentary rock through understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides migration in the argillaceous formation. The present report describes the preliminary results of in situ one-dimensional migration experiment with labelled clay core emplaced in borehole under advective condition. In the experiment, radioactive tracer Sr-85 and Eu-152+154 have been used in order to determine the apparent dispersion coefficient and retardation factor of Boom clay. Finally, the following conclusions were obtained by in situ measurement and calculation based on a appropriate migration model; a) From the Sr-85 experiment, diffusive behavior is interpreted to be a dominant phenomena on radionuclides transportation. b) From the Eu-152+154 experiment, very small non-retarded fraction is observed. (author)

1990-01-01

378

In situ gelling properties of anionic thiomers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate in situ crosslinking systems of anionic thiolated polymers. In order to accelerate the increase in dynamic viscosity of thiolated polymers (thiomers), they were combined with hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide and ammonium persulfate. Thiomers (pectin-cysteine (Pec-Cys), sodium carboxymethylcellulose-cysteine (NaCMC-Cys) and poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-Cys)) were synthesized via amide bond formation between the carboxylic acid group of polymers and the primary amino group of l-cysteine. The rheological properties of 1% (m/v) thiomer solutions with oxidizing agents were compared by oscillatory measurements over time (120?min). Pec-Cys and NaCMC-Cys with hydrogen and carbamide peroxide showed a sol-gel phase transition within a few minutes and scored up to 13,000-fold increase in dynamic viscosity. Furthermore, only thiomers exhibiting a polysaccharide backbone (Pec-Cys and NaCMC-Cys) showed a significant increase in viscosity (p?ammonium persulfate showed an initial increase in viscosity. Afterwards, a decrease in viscosity was observed likely caused by chain scission. According to these results, carbohydrate thiomer/oxidizing agent systems might be useful for various pharmaceutical applications such as for in situ gelling liquid/semisolid formulations or in tissue engineering. PMID:22324362

Hintzen, Fabian; Laffleur, Flavia; Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Leithner, Katharina; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

2012-02-11

379

In situ gelling properties of anionic thiomers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to investigate in situ crosslinking systems of anionic thiolated polymers. In order to accelerate the increase in dynamic viscosity of thiolated polymers (thiomers), they were combined with hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide and ammonium persulfate. Thiomers (pectin-cysteine (Pec-Cys), sodium carboxymethylcellulose-cysteine (NaCMC-Cys) and poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-Cys)) were synthesized via amide bond formation between the carboxylic acid group of polymers and the primary amino group of l-cysteine. The rheological properties of 1% (m/v) thiomer solutions with oxidizing agents were compared by oscillatory measurements over time (120?min). Pec-Cys and NaCMC-Cys with hydrogen and carbamide peroxide showed a sol-gel phase transition within a few minutes and scored up to 13,000-fold increase in dynamic viscosity. Furthermore, only thiomers exhibiting a polysaccharide backbone (Pec-Cys and NaCMC-Cys) showed a significant increase in viscosity (p?in situ gelling liquid/semisolid formulations or in tissue engineering.

Hintzen F; Laffleur F; Sakloetsakun D; Leithner K; Bernkop-Schnürch A

2012-12-01

380

BEATRIX-II: In situ tritium test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The BEATRIX-II irradiation experiment is an in-situ tritium release experiment being carried out in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor to evaluate the tritium release characteristics of fusion solid breeder materials. A sophisticated tritium gas handling system has been developed to continuously monitor the tritium recovery from the specimens and facilitate tritium removal from the experiment's sweep gas flow stream. The in-situ recovery experiment accommodates two different in-reactor specimen canisters with individual gas streams and temperature monitoring/control. Ionization chambers have been specifically designed to respond to the rapid changes in the tritium release rate at the anticipated tritium concentrations. Two ceramic electrolysis cells have proved effective in reducing the moisture in the gas streams to hydrogen/tritium. A tritium getter system, capable of reducing the tritium level by a factor greater than 4000, is used to reduce the tritium in the sweep gas to a level acceptable for release.

Baker, D.E. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Kuraswa, T. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)); Miller, J.M. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.); Slagle, O.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological f