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Chemically enhanced in situ recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Sale, T. [CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States); Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K. [Surtek, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

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Enhancing in situ bioremediation with pneumatic fracturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A major technical obstacle affecting the application of in situ bioremediation is the effective distribution of nutrients to the subsurface media. Pneumatic fracturing can increase the permeability of subsurface formations through the injection of high pressure air to create horizontal fracture planes, thus enhancing macroscale mass-transfer processes. Pneumatic fracturing technology was demonstrated at two field sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Tests were performed to increase the permeability for more effective bioventing, and evaluated the potential to increase permeability and recovery of free product in low-permeability soils consisting of fine-grain silts, clays, and sedimentary rock. Pneumatic fracturing significantly improved formation permeability by enhancing secondary permeability and by promoting removal of excess soil moisture form the unsaturated zone. Postfracture airflows were 500% to 1,700% higher than prefracture airflows for specific fractured intervals in the formation. This corresponds to an average prefracturing permeability of 0.017 darcy, increasing to an average of 0.32 darcy after fracturing. Pneumatic fracturing also increased free-product recovery rates of number 2 fuel from an average of 587 L (155 gal) per month before fracturing to 1,647 L (435 gal) per month after fracturing.

Anderson, D.B.; Peyton, B.M. [Battelle Pacific Northwest, Richland, WA (United States); Liskowitz, J.J.; Fitzgerald, C.D. [Accutech Remedial Systems, Keyport, NJ (United States); Schuring, J.R. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, and Environmental Science

1995-12-31

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Contrast enhanced MRI findings of ductal carcinoma in situ  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to describe characteristic contrast enhanced MR mammographic findings of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and also DCIS with microinvasion. From January 2000 to July 2005, 32 women with 33 lesions affected by DCIS or DCIS with microinvasion underwent contrast enhanced MRI, and they were then retrospectively evaluated. All the patients had previously undergone mammography and ultrasonography. All the findings of mammography, ultrasonography (US), and MRI were analyzed by using an ACR BI-RADS lexicon. All 33 cases were enhanced on the enhanced MR images. A smooth margined homogeneous enhanced mass was seen in the two (2/33) cases, and nonmass enhancement was seen in 31 (31/33) cases. Among the non-mass enhancement, focal enhancement (7/31), ductal enhancement (5/31), segmental enhancement (9/31), and regional enhancement (10/31) were observed. On the kinetic study, a wash-out pattern (10/33), a plateau pattern (20/33), and a persistent pattern (3/33) were demonstrated. No significant differences were noted between the pure and microinvasive DCIS. There is no significant difference between pure and microinvasive DCIS. However, contrast enhanced MR images can demonstrate occult foci, multifocal lesion and the tumor extent of DCIS on mammogram or ultrasonogram.

Kang, Bong Joo; Cha, Eun Suk; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Suh, Young Jin; Choi, Hyun Joo [College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2006-08-15

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In situ redox manipulation: Enhancement of contaminant destruction and immobilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses a project to develop, test, and evaluate in situ methods for immobilizing inorganic contaminants (metals, inorganic ions, and radionuclides) and destroying nitrates organic contaminants, (primarily chlorinated hydrocarbons). This research work is being performed for the US Department of Energy through the In situ Remediation Integrated Program

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In-situ chemical oxidation combined with enhanced aerobic bioremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In-situ chemical oxidation combined with enhanced aerobic bioremediation of a former fuel storage facility adjacent to a strip mall in an Alberta community was presented. The background on the site was first described, with particular reference to the nearest body of water, which was less than 1 kilometre from the site; surrounding land use which included a residential area and a park to the east; and shallow groundwater which had the potential for being used as a DUA as defined by Alberta Environment. The presentation also outlined the lithology, remedial approach, and the chemical applications. Prior to full scale application of the remediation chemicals, an aquifer response pilot test was completed. The injection grid was staggered to offset the previous events grid in order to provide aerial coverage. The process was found to provide an excellent source reduction, and concentrations were reduced at a cost far below any excavation cost. The presentation concluded with some lessons learned, particularly that more preliminary site characterization is required. tabs., figs.

Jordan, P. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

2010-07-01

6

In situ enhanced soil mixing. Innovative technology summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Situ Enhanced Soil Mixing (ISESM) is a treatment technology that has been demonstrated and deployed to remediate soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The technology has been developed by industry and has been demonstrated with the assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and Technology and the Office of Environmental Restoration. The technology is particularly suited to shallow applications, above the water table, but can be used at greater depths. ISESM technologies demonstrated for this project include: (1) Soil mixing with vapor extraction combined with ambient air injection. [Contaminated soil is mixed with ambient air to vaporize volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The mixing auger is moved up and down to assist in removal of contaminated vapors. The vapors are collected in a shroud covering the treatment area and run through a treatment unit containing a carbon filter or a catalytic oxidation unit with a wet scrubber system and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter.] (2) soil mixing with vapor extraction combined with hot air injection [This process is the same as the ambient air injection except that hot air or steam is injected.] (3) soil mixing with hydrogen peroxide injection [Contaminated soil is mixed with ambient air that contains a mist of diluted hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution. The H2O2 solution chemically oxidizes the VOCs to carbon dioxide (CO2dizes the VOCs to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water.] (4) soil mixing with grout injection for solidification/stabilization [Contaminated soil is mixed as a cement grout is injected under pressure to solidify and immobilize the contaminated soil in a concrete-like form.] The soils are mixed with a single-blade auger or with a combination of augers ranging in diameter from 3 to 12 feet

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Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate ampersand Treat (E ampersand T), and Pump ampersand Treat (P ampersand T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios

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Passive in-situ cometabolic biotreatment of gasoline and diesel in soil and groundwater: An electrokinetic enhanced bioremediation case history  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of passive in-situ biotreatment of gasoline and diesel conducted at the subject facility in Hayward, California. Past spills of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels from an underground storage tank farm caused soil and shallow groundwater contamination in the clayey Bay Mud. The soil contamination was limited to a depth of about 10 feet with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration of 100 to 3,900 ppm. Due to the low permeability of the clayey Bay Mud, a passive in-situ biotreatment (PISB) system was designed and implemented for both soil and groundwater plumes. The PISB consisted of a system of electrokinetic, oxygen, nutrient and moisture enhancement units covering the soil and groundwater plumes. The electrokinetic system was installed to promote rapid migration of nutrient oxidant between electrodes to enhance the in-situ biodegradation processes. The gasoline and diesel in soil was remediated to less than 100 ppm of TPH. The TPH in groundwater was remediated to less than 10 ppm of TPH. The TPH in groundwater was remediated to less than 10 ppm. The groundwater remediation is in progress and the target cleanup levels were to be less than 10 ppm TPH and BTEX to less than 0.005, 1.0, 0.7 and 10.0 ppm respectively which are all below the MCL under the EPA primary drinking water standard. The total duration of this PISB was completed in less than 4 weeks

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The ductal carcinoma in situ in contrast enhanced dynamic MR mammography: Morphology and signal enhancement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The detectability with magnetic resonance mammography (MR-M) of non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), its morphology, and patterns of contrast enhancement were studied. Material and methods: A total of 849 MR-M examinations were performed in 741 patients using a dynamic, contrast-enhanced FLASH 3D sequence at 1.0 T. Surgical breast biopsies were obtained in 332 cases. Histological work-up confirmed 164 carcinomas, including 20 DCIS. Results: Of 20 DCIS, 14 were correctly diagnosed by MR-M on the basis of focal increase of signal intensity. In two cases (10%), no increase of signal intensity was observed. In another three cases (15%), multifocal enhancement lead to a false-negative diagnosis. In one case (5%), DCIS was a random finding in a patient diagnosed and treated for adjacent phylloides tumour. The sensitivity of MR-M was 70%. 4 (20%) of the DCIS did not show microcalcifications at conventional mammography and were only detected at MR-M. The sensitivity of conventional mammography also amounted to 70%. However, the combination of both imaging methods increased sensitivity to 90%. (orig./AJ)

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Fast attrition-enhanced deracemization of naproxen by a gradual in situ feed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grind and cure: Using the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug naproxen, a novel concept is demonstrated to dramatically enhance the rate of the recently discovered process of deracemization using abrasive grinding. The process relies on a gradual feed of the racemic target material by an in situ conversion. PMID:19431167

Noorduin, Wim L; Kaptein, Bernard; Meekes, Hugo; van Enckevort, Willem J P; Kellogg, Richard M; Vlieg, Elias

2009-01-01

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Engineering an in situ crosslinkable hydrogel for enhanced remyelination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Remyelination has to occur to fully regenerate injured spinal cords or brain tissues. A growing body of evidence has suggested that exogenous cell transplantation is one promising strategy to promote remyelination. However, direct injection of neural stem cells or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the lesion site may not be an optimal therapeutic strategy due to poor viability and functionality of transplanted cells resulted from the local hostile tissue environment. The overall objective of this study was to engineer an injectable biocompatible hydrogel system as a supportive niche to provide a regeneration permissive microenvironment for transplanted OPCs to survive, functionally differentiate, and remyelinate central nervous system (CNS) lesions. A highly biocompatible hydrogel, based on thiol-functionalized hyaluronic acid and thiol-functionalized gelatin, which can be crosslinked by poly-(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), was used. These hydrogels were optimized first regarding cell adhesive properties and mechanical properties to best support the growth properties of OPCs in culture. Transplanted OPCs with the hydrogels optimized in vitro exhibited enhanced survival and oligodendrogenic differentiation and were able to remyelinate demyelinated axons inside ethidium bromide (EB) demyelination lesion in adult spinal cord. This study provides a new possible therapeutic approach to treat CNS injuries in which cell therapies may be essential. PMID:23239823

Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Cui, Lin; Brunson, Christopher; Zhao, Wen; Bhat, Narayan R; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Xuejun

2013-03-01

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An integrated numerical and physical modeling system for an enhanced in situ bioremediation process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater contamination due to releases of petroleum products is a major environmental concern in many urban districts and industrial zones. Over the past years, a few studies were undertaken to address in situ bioremediation processes coupled with contaminant transport in two- or three-dimensional domains. However, they were concentrated on natural attenuation processes for petroleum contaminants or enhanced in situ bioremediation processes in laboratory columns. In this study, an integrated numerical and physical modeling system is developed for simulating an enhanced in situ biodegradation (EISB) process coupled with three-dimensional multiphase multicomponent flow and transport simulation in a multi-dimensional pilot-scale physical model. The designed pilot-scale physical model is effective in tackling natural attenuation and EISB processes for site remediation. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed system is effective in modeling the EISB process, and can thus be used for investigating the effects of various uncertainties. - An integrated modeling system was developed to enhance in situ bioremediation processes

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Engineered Injection and Extraction for Enhanced In-situ Remediation of Sorbing Solutes in Groundwater  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater remediation is becoming increasingly more important as the world's population grows and the necessity of access to clean drinking water persists. The majority of current groundwater treatment methods involve pumping the contaminated groundwater out of the soil and treating it above ground. Sorbed contaminants are difficult to remediate using this conventional pump-and-treat method, and often produce poor treatment results because sorbed contaminants are difficult to extract from the aquifer; therefore in-situ remediation research is of particular importance. One type of in-situ groundwater remediation involves a treatment solution of varying composition being injected into the polluted aquifer to react with the contaminant and degrade it to an acceptable byproduct. Increasing the amount of spreading between the contaminant and the treatment solution promotes an increase in contact area and more desired reactions. It has been previously determined that sequential injection and extraction using four wells for in-situ remediation can enhance the spreading of an aqueous contaminant and treatment solution and increase degradation through more reactions. In this work, we focus on sorbing contaminants and investigate the effectiveness of the injection and extraction methods on varying degrees of contaminant sorption. Tests were conducted in homogeneous and heterogeneous soil media, and with instantaneous and kinetic reaction. It was determined that engineered injection and extraction methods previously developed for aqueous contaminants also enhance in-situ remediation of sorbing solutes.

Webber, B. D.; Neupauer, R. M.; Piscopo, A. N.; Mays, D. C.

2012-12-01

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Application Research of Enhanced in-situ micro-ecological Remediation for Oil Contaminated Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reduction of the oil content in soil contaminated by the exploitation of oil field in Zhongyuan District that was then recovered for use has been realized in this paper, through the enhanced in-situ micro-ecological remediation method that is micro-ecological remediation technique, by which the cultivation of alfalfa is combined with the regulation of soil environmental factors by means of the enhanced in-situ microbial communities companied with physical and chemical means. The experimental results showed that the oil contents in the contaminated soil with the average 2898.25 mg/kg can be reduced to about 99.37% after the in-situ micro-ecological remediation after the above mentioned recovery for 99 days, which demonstrated the effectiveness of the in-situ micro-ecological remediation methods for oil contaminated soil in this district, meanwhile, the practical and feasible application of these methods have been explored in this paper.

Sheng Zhang

2013-12-01

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Enhancement of biosensing performance in a droplet-based bioreactor by in situ microstreaming.  

Science.gov (United States)

A droplet-based micro-total-analysis system involving biosensor performance enhancement by integrated surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) microstreaming is shown. The bioreactor consists of an encapsulated droplet with a biosensor on its periphery, with in situ streaming induced by SAW. This paper highlights the characterization by particle image tracking of the speed distribution inside the droplet. The analyte-biosensor interaction is then evaluated by finite element simulation with different streaming conditions. Calculation of the biosensing enhancement shows an optimum in the biosensor response. These results confirm that the evaluation of the Damköhler and Peclet numbers is of primary importance when designing biosensors enhanced by streaming. PMID:20644661

Ducloux, Olivier; Galopin, Elisabeth; Zoueshtiagh, Farzam; Merlen, Alain; Thomy, Vincent

2010-01-01

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Field-scale evaluation of enhanced aquifer remediation using in-situ alcohol flushing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In-situ flushing of soils and aquifers contaminated with a variety of fuels and oils (e.g., gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, solvents, degreasers, coal tar, creosote, etc.) is based on enhanced mobilization and/or solubilization of the entrapped residual oils. The former technique involves immiscible displacement of oil macroemulsions, ganglia, blobs, and banks, whereas the latter technique is based on enhanced solubilization of the oil constituents and their miscible displacement. Results from lab-scale and field-scale evaluations of in-situ flushing with water-alcohol mixtures for enhanced solubilization of residual oils will be discussed. Emphasis of the presentation will be on the data collected during a recently completed field test of the in-situ cosolvent flushing technology, which was conducted at the Hill Air Force Base, utah, to remediate a shallow, unconfined aquifer contaminated with jet fuel and chlorinated solvents. As a part of this field test, studies were also conducted to evaluate the use of partitioning tracers (methyl alcohols) for quantifying the residual oils present at the site prior to and after cosolvent flushing. Criteria for performance assessment as well as the technological, regulatory, and economic factors governing full-scale applications for aquifer remediation will be discussed.

Rao, P.S.C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Annable, M.D.; Hatfield, K.H.; Graham, W.D.; Wood, A.L.; Enfield, C.

1995-09-01

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In situ generation of self-enhanced luminophore by ?-lactamase catalysis for highly sensitive electrochemiluminescent aptasensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work described a new electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor for ultrasensitive detection of thrombin (TB) based on the in situ generating self-enhanced luminophore by ?-lactamase catalysis for signal amplification. Briefly, a ruthenium complex (Ru-Amp), including two regions of [Ru(phen)2(cpaphen)](2+) and ampicillin (Amp), was synthesized as a self-enhanced ECL luminophore, which can produce an ECL signal through intramolecular interactions. Then, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used for immobilization of Ru-Amp via ?-? stacking interactions to form the Ru-Amp@CNTs nanocomposite. Using poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) as a linkage reagent, Au nanocages (AuNCs), owing to their electronic property and large surface areas, were decorated to the CNTs to form the Ru-Amp@CNTs-PEI-AuNCs nanocomposites, which were further used to immobilize thrombin binding aptamer II (TBA II) to form a signal probe (Ru-Amp@CNTs-PEI-AuNCs-TBA II). Through "sandwich" tactics, TBA II bioconjugates, TB and TBA I were immobilized onto the gold nanoparticles modified electrode. Then, with the enzyme catalysis of ?-lactamase, a novel self-enhanced ECL luminophore (Ru-AmpA) was in situ produced, which could exhibit a significant enhancement of ECL signal, due to the structure transformation of an amide bond into a secondary amine. A sandwich ECL assay for TB detection was developed with excellent sensitivity of a concentration variation from 1.0 fM to 1.0 pM and a detection limit of 0.33 fM. Therefore, the self-enhanced ECL luminophore, combining the further enhancement by in situ enzymatic reaction, is expected to have potential applications in biotechnology and clinical diagnosis. PMID:24857788

Gui, Guo-Feng; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo

2014-06-17

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Enhancing the design of in situ chemical barriers with multicomponent reactive transport modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the need for systematic control of field-scale performance in the emplacement and operation of in situ chemical treatment barriers; in particular, it addresses the issue of how the local coupling of reaction kinetics and material heterogeneities at the laboratory or bench scale can be accurately upscaled to the field. The authors have recently developed modeling analysis tools that can explicitly account for all relevant chemical reactions that accompany the transport of reagents and contaminants through a chemically and physically heterogeneous subsurface rock or soil matrix. These tools are incorporated into an enhanced design methodology for in situ chemical treatment technologies, and the new methodology is demonstrated in the ongoing design of a field experiment for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) project at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The ISRM design approach, which systematically integrates bench-scale and site characterization information, provides an ideal test for the new reactive transport techniques. The need for the enhanced chemistry capability is demonstrated by an example that shows how intra-aqueous redox kinetics can affect the transport of reactive solutes. Simulations are carried out on massively parallel computer architectures to resolve the influence of multiscale heterogeneities on multicomponent, multidimensional reactive transport. The technology will soon be available to design larger-scale remediation schemes

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Observations of in-situ generated gravity waves during a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE event  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evidence for in situ generated atmospheric gravity waves associated with a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE are presented. The signatures of two sets of gravity waves are observed by molecular-aerosol lidar in conjunction with the early December 2000 STE event above Sondrestrom, Greenland. The first set of gravity waves shows downward phase progression with a vertical wavelength of ~8 km while the second set shows upward phase progression with a vertical wavelength of ~9 km. With estimates of the background wind fields from synoptic analyses, the various intrinsic gravity wave parameters of these two wave structures are found. The observed wave features compare well to previous numerical modeling predictions.

A. J. Gerrard

2011-11-01

20

Controlled in situ nanoscale enhancement of gold nanowire arrays with plasmonics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The controlled in situ growth of ordered gold nanoparticles and nanowire arrays has been studied by optically tracking changes in the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectrum. A spectrometer and custom-programmed analysis software track changes in the LSPR spectrum. The peak position, peak height (i.e. extinction intensity) and peak width (e.g. radius of curvature) were tracked over time to quantify the dynamic growth of gold as soon as the system was exposed to a commercial gold enhancement solution. This enables the controlled dynamic growth of nano-objects without the necessity of characterizing the growth and aggregation kinetics of the gold enhancement solution. The result was the successful enhancement of their electrically conductive and plasmonic properties, as well as the controlled growth and transformation of line-patterned nanoparticles into conductive particle-based nanowires.

 
 
 
 
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Integrated modelling of enhanced in situ biodenitrification in a fractured aquifer: biogeochemistry and isotope geochemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced in-situ biodenitrification is a feasible technology to recovery groundwater polluted by nitrates and achieves drinking water standards. Under optimum conditions, nitrate is reduced by autochthonous bacteria trough different reactions until arrive to harmless dinitrogen gas. Isotopic fractionation monitoring in field applications allows knowing the exact degree and the real scope of this technology. Using the Rayleigh equation the change in the isotope ratio of the nitrate molecule (?15N-NO3-, ?18O-NO3-) is related to the fraction of molecules remaining as a result of biodenitrification. However, Rayleigh application at field scale is sometimes limited due to other processes involved during groundwater flow such as dispersion or adsorption and geological media heterogeneities that interferes in concentration values. Then, include isotope fractionation processes in reactive transport models is a useful tool to interpret and predict data from in-situ biodenitrification. We developed a reactive transport model of enhanced in situ application at field scale in a fractured aquifer that considers biogeochemical processes as well as isotope fractionation to enable better monitoring and management of this technology. Processes considered were: microbiological- exogenous and endogenous nitrate and sulfate respiration coupled with microbial growth and decay, geochemical reactions (precipitation of calcite) and isotopic fractionation (?15N-NO3-; ?18O- NO3- and carbon isotope network). The 2-D simulations at field scale were developed using PHAST code. Modeling of nitrate isotope geochemistry has allowed determining the extent of biodenitrification in model domain. We have quantified which is the importance in decreasing of nitrate concentrations due to biodegradation (percentage of biodegradation, 'B%') and due to dilution process (percentage of dilution, 'D%'). On the other hand, the stable carbon isotope geochemistry has been modeled. We have considered the isotopic carbon fractionation of different carbon species involved in enhanced biodenitrification: external organic carbon, biomass, inorganic carbon (in different forms) and calcite. The inclusion of carbon isotopes in the model, which are involved in both direct (oxidation of organic carbon) and indirect (carbonate mineral interaction) processes of enhanced biodenitrification, improves the evaluation of the overall model consistency due to the central role of carbon in the reaction network.

Rodríguez-Escales, Paula; Folch, Albert; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Vidal-Gavilan, Georgina; Soler, Albert

2014-05-01

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A novel and sensitive in situ instrument using incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for trace gas measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) is a technique with high sensitivity to quantify trace gas concentrations based on their absorption features. The design and calibration of an incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) setup employing a 20 m long optical cavity is described for sensitive in situ measurements of light extinction between 630 nm and 690 nm. The setup was installed at the SAPHIR atmospheric simulation chamber during an intercomparison of instruments for nitrate (NO3) radical detection. The long cavity was stable for the entire duration of the two week campaign. A detection limit of ca. 2 pptv for NO3 with a stable acquisition time of 5 s was achieved. In addition to monitoring NO3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were simultaneously retrieved and compared against concurrent measurements by a chemiluminescence detector. The spectral analysis of NO3¬ and NO2 from the SAPHIR chamber studies and comparison with a long path DOAS instrument are presented. Moreover, results from a field campaign at Roches Point, Ireland, will be discussed.

Ruth, A. A.; Varma, R. M.; Venables, D. S.; Heitmann, U.; Schlosser, E.; Dixneuf, S.

2009-04-01

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In situ synthesis of Pt/carbon nanofiber nanocomposites with enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pt/carbon nanofiber (Pt/CNF) nanocomposites were facilely synthesized by the reduction of hexachloroplatinic acid (H(2)PtCl(6)) using formic acid (HCOOH) in aqueous solution containing electrospun carbon nanofibers at room temperature. The obtained Pt/CNF nanocomposites were characterized by TEM and EDX. The Pt nanoparticles could in situ grow on the surface of CNFs with small particle size, high loading density, and uniform dispersion by adjusting the concentration of H(2)PtCl(6) precursor. The electrocatalytic activities of the Pt/CNF nanocomposites were also studied. These Pt/CNF nanocomposites exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation reaction compared with commercial E-TEK Pt/C catalyst. The results presented may offer a new approach to facilely synthesize direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) catalyst with enhanced electrocatalytic activity and low cost. PMID:22082800

Wang, Dawei; Liu, Yang; Huang, Jianshe; You, Tianyan

2012-02-01

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Rapidly in situ forming platelet-rich plasma gel enhances angiogenic responses and augments early wound healing after open abdomen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. The purposes of our present study were to evaluate the potential of platelet-rich plasma gel to enhance granulation tissue formation after open abdomen and to examine whether the effect was attributable to stimulating rapid neovascularization. Methods. Twenty-four rats underwent colon ascendens stent peritonitis surgery to induce sepsis, followed by intraperitoneal injection of nitrogen to create intra-abdominal hypertension. Four hours later, laparotomies were performed. The rats were randomized into three groups (n = 8 for each group): control, platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) groups. One week after the treatment, granulation tissue formation and angiogenesis were evaluated by histological and laser Doppler analysis. Results. The resultant platelet count in platelet-rich plasma was higher than that of PPP. The concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor BB, transforming growth factor ? -1, and vascular endothelial growth factor in PRP were significantly higher when compared with that of PPP. Myofibroblast count, granulation tissue thickness, vessel numbers, and blood perfusion were increased in PRP group, followed by PPP group, with control being the least. Conclusion. Rapidly in situ forming platelet-rich plasma gel promoted remarkable neovascularization and early wound healing after open abdomen and may lead to novel and effective treatments for open abdominal wounds. PMID:24382956

Zhou, Bo; Ren, Jianan; Ding, Chao; Wu, Yin; Hu, Dong; Gu, Guosheng; Li, Jieshou

2013-01-01

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Enhanced Raman Scattering of Silicon Nanowires by Ag Nanoparticles in-situ Decoration  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, metallic nanoparticles decorated semiconductor nanowires, especially silicon, attract considerable attention, due to their potential applications in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, surface enhanced Raman scattering and biosensing. A common method that has been used to decorate silicon nanowires with metallic nanoparticles, e.g. Au or Pt, is galvanic displacement, in which metallic ions are reduced with electrons supplied by virtue of silicon half-cell reaction. Here we report a method to decorate silicon nanowires with Ag nanoparticles by surface reduction, in which a freshly etched silicon surface reduces Ag ions in-situ in aqueous silver nitrate solution. The as-grown Ag nanoparticles exhibit either highly single crystallinity or twinning boundaries, with most probably diameter ~25 nm (Figure 1). Raman mapping experiments suggest that 1st order Raman band of silicon nanowires exhibit uniform contrast along wire axis for pristine silicon nanowires, while for Ag nanoparticle decorated silicon nanowires a series of ``hot-spot,'' i.e., substantially enhanced Raman scattering were discovered along the wire axis. This was explained by local electric field enhancement due to Ag nanoparticle ``nano-antenna,'' which was supported by the correlation between atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis and Raman mapping (Figure 2). The enhancement is more or less delocalized in Raman mapping due to diffraction limit in our far-field mapping experiments. In addition, we also noticed a new side band feature ~495 cm-1 for nanowires appeared after HF etching, this new feature sustained after sequential Oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment which excluded the possibility due to any possible surface dangling bonds. We now suspect this feature is due to porosity resulted from HF etching and it is now being subjected to further investigations.

Peng, Zeping; Hu, Hailong; Wang, Shijie; Shen, Zexiang; Xiong, Qihua

2010-08-01

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ENHANCED IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION DEMONSTRATED IN FRACTURED BEDROCK IN: GROUND WATER CURRENTS NEWSLETTER, ISSUE 38, P. 2-3, 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

The USEPA's SITE Program conducted a demonstration of the Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation Process at the ITT Industries Night Vision Facility in Roanoke, VA. The biostimulation process, developed by the USEOE and licensed to Earth Tech, Inc., involves injecting a mixture of air, ...

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ENHANCEMENT OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE PULP BY IN-SITU FILLER PRECIPITATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate in bagasse fibers resulted in a very significant increase in specific scattering coefficient and consequently large improvements in opacity and brightness of the handsheets made from such pulp. At the same level of filler loading, the scattering coefficient of in-situ precipitated pulp was much greater than for directly loaded pulp. In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate caused a drop in strength properties of bagasse pulp, but such loss could be recovered to a large extent by blending with other pulps. The effect of in-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate on pulp fibers was quite different for bagasse pulp from hardwood pulp. In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate on hardwood fibers showed neither much improvement in optical properties nor much reduction in strength properties.

Pradeep Kumar

28

Cupric oxide nanowires assembled by nanoparticles in situ with enhancing electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid  

Science.gov (United States)

CuO nanowires are facilely fabricated on the surface of AgCuZn alloy in situ by direct oxidation and partial reduction procedures, which shows an improved electrocatalytic activity toward ascorbic acid oxidation. The morphology shows the nanowires are assembled by CuO nanoparticles and we consider the process that the unordered spheres convert to ordered wires is due to the reduction of [1 1 0] and [1¯???1???1] crystal planes in CuO. Moreover, the prepared modified electrode displays a high sensitivity of 1660 ?A cm-2 mM-1, wide linear range from 0.1 ?M to 3.1 mM and a low detection limit of 0.095 ?mol (signal/noise = 3). Further, the sensor is also tested for anti-interferences and real samples determination, exhibiting distinguished selectivity, accuracy, and recovery. Such excellent properties are owing to the special structure of the synthesized CuO that would provide more specific surface area and enhanced activity compared with common nanowires. Hence, this work of fabricating CuO nanowires assembled by CuO nanoparticles with high performance might supply a way for facile obtain more electrochemical sensor in this structure.

Wang, Chuanxi; Liu, Jie; Huang, Xing; Wang, Huanhuan; Zheng, Youdan; Lin, Li; Wang, Siyu; Chen, Song; Jin, Yong

2014-02-01

29

Enhanced reversible electrochromism via in situ phase transformation in tungstate monohydrate.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study demonstrates that realizing the correlation between in situ crystallographic structure modifications of an electrochromic material and its functionality leads to improved performances, which can then contribute to a variety of energy-efficient applications. PMID:20024240

Kattouf, Basila; Frey, Gitti L; Siegmann, Arnon; Ein-Eli, Yair

2009-12-21

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In Situ High Temperature Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for the Study of Interface Phenomena: Probing a Solid Acid on Alumina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Herein, we utilize surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for the in situ analyses of catalyst structure while operating at elevated temperatures in various atmospheres. In order to accomplish this, robust SERS substrates were generated by depositing an ultrathin protective coating of alumina on top of silver nanowires (NWs) via atomic layer deposition (ALD). In situ studies were then conducted by analyzing the effects of heating a solid acid, phosphotungstic acid (PTA), on the alumina surface in either an oxygen or hydrogen environment at temperatures up to 400 C. Interestingly, the distance-dependent decay of the enhancement factor of the SERS signal from the underlying NWs allowed us to probe with great detail the interfacial region between the PTA and the alumina surface. The ability to analyze the area closest to the alumina surface was further confirmed by assembling vanadia onto the substrate and monitoring the intensity differences between the V-O-Al and outer V = O bonds.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Formo, Eric V [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL

2011-01-01

31

In-situ monitoring of potential enhanced DNA related processes using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (EQCM-D)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of applied potential pulses on DNA functionalization (thiolated single stranded DNA) and hybridization processes has been monitored in-situ on gold surfaces using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (EQCM-D). The applied potentials were chosen with respect to the potential of zero charge (Epzc) of the gold surfaces: a positive potential to attract the negatively charged DNA molecules and a negative potential to enhance the vertical alignment due to electrostatic repulsion. The obtained results clearly show that both DNA modification and hybridization are strongly enhanced by applying potential pulses. Based on the EQCM-D results, we present a model to explain the influence of the potential pulsing. Aside fromthe effect of applied potentials on DNA related processes, this work also demonstrates the versatility of the combination of electrochemistry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation in facilitating real-time in situ monitoring of such processes.

Quan, Xueling; Heiskanen, Arto

2014-01-01

32

Enhancing the mechanical properties of cement paste by growing in-situ fiber reinforcement during hydration  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to improve the mechanical properties of concrete by modifying the cement paste matrix have focused entirely on strength enhancement. But the intrinsic brittleness of the cement paste matrix limits the possible improvement in the mechanical properties of concrete, and in particular the toughness of the material. Increasing the toughness of the cement paste matrix could lead to a reduction in flaw sensitivity by delaying unstable crack propagation. Consequently, the resistance of the material to cracking due to drying shrinkage, thermal shrinkage, expansive deterioration processes, and applied loads could increase considerably. The goal of this study was to grow in-situ fiber reinforcement in cement paste, a technique never before applied to cement-based materials, to enhance the toughness of the material. Ettringite, an existing, fiber-like hydration product was selected as the fiber reinforcement. Ettringite met all the necessary criteria to act as reinforcement in cement paste: adequate distribution in the matrix; adjustable volume fraction, aspect ratio and size; high stiffness along the fiber length; and finally compatibility with existing hydration products. Alkali-free accelerators were selected as the admixtures used to grow the ettringite in the cement paste. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy experiments were performed to study the volume fraction, distribution, size, and morphology of the ettringite crystals in the cement paste matrix (both plain and accelerator-containing). Mechanical tests (compression, splitting tension, flexural, compact tension) were used to evaluate the effect of the accelerators on the strength and toughness of cement paste. Microindentations on the surface of the cement paste matrix were performed to study the morphology of the cracks and the toughening mechanisms taking place. Through the characterization tests we identified that while more ettringite forms with the addition of the alkali-free accelerators, some of that ettringite forms in highly-porous inclusions distributed throughout the matrix. The compact tension specimen results showed that the accelerated specimens had a higher toughness and ductility compared to the control specimens. The dominant toughening mechanism identified was constrained microcracking, with the ettringite inclusions contributing to microcracking.

Constantinides, Margarita

33

Comparison of 1 week versus 4 weeks of albendazole therapy in single small enhancing computed tomography lesion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : The appropriate duration of albendazole therapy in neurocysticercosis is uncertain. The observation in small uncontrolled randomized trials in children that short-course therapy (1 week is as effective as the conventional regimen (4weeks must be tested. Objective : To compare the efficacy of 1 and 4 weeks of albendazole therapy in children with single small enhancing computed tomographic lesion (SSECTL. Study Design: An open-labeled, randomized, clinical trial. Materials and Methods : One hundred twenty children with SSECTLs presenting with seizure. Intervention: The subjects were assigned to two groups using random tables: group A (n=58 received albendazole for 1 week and group B (n=62 for 4 weeks. All the subjects were followed up for 6 months. Results : The proportions of subjects with complete resolution of lesion in the two groups were similar (group A 63.8% versus group B 51.6%. The proportion of subjects in the two groups in whom the lesion calcified on follow up (group A 19% versus group B 24.2% also did not differ significantly. The incidence of seizure recurrence during the 6-month follow-up period was also similar in both the groups (group A 9.6% versus group B 3.4%, P > 0.05. Conclusion : One week of albendazole therapy is as effective as 4 weeks of therapy in children with SSECTLs.

Kaur Prabhjeet

2010-01-01

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IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column returned to aerobic conditions, but the concentration later returned to below the clean-up level. Speciation analysis was conducted on soil collected from the treated column after rebound testing. The experimental results show that: (a) The mass of uranium resolubilized in more than four months of column testing was much lower than the amount precipitated. (b) The majority of the uranium was precipitated in the first few inches of the treated column. The majority of the uranium precipitated was associated with iron oxides or in other immobile/sequestered phases. It is important to contrast this result with the results reported by Bryan (2003) who shows that most of the uranium associated with contaminated aquifer solids at Fernald under the existing natural attenuation/pump and treat with reinjection conditions is carbonate bound. Carbonate bound forms are traditionally seen as fairly mobile, but may not be under a calcite/dolomite saturated condition. Fernald is currently conducting further studies to investigate the mobility of the carbonate bound forms. (c) Though reoxidation concentrations from the bench-scale column exceeded 30 {micro}g/L for a time, they later returned to below this value. Effluent concentrations from the treated column are expected to over predict full-scale concentrations for reasons discussed in depth in the text. Finally, these results must be viewed in light of the site's ongoing pump-and-treat with reinjection system. There is reason to believe that although the pump-and-treat technology is currently effectively controlling the uranium plume and reducing the groundwater concentration, it may not be able to reach the treatment standard of 30 {micro}g/L within an economical operating lifetime and then maintain that concentration without rebound. This study suggests that Enhanced Anaerobic Reductive Precipitation can change the speciation and thus reduce the mobility of uranium at the site and expedite closure.

Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

2003-08-01

35

In situ nitrogen-doped graphene grown from polydimethylsiloxane by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to its unique electronic properties and wide spectrum of promising applications, graphene has attracted much attention from scientists in various fields. Control and engineering of graphene’s semiconducting properties is considered to be the key of its applications in electronic devices. Here, we report a novel method to prepare in situ nitrogen-doped graphene by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) as a solid carbon source. Based on this approach, the concentration of nitrogen-doping can be easily controlled via the flow rate of nitrogen during the CVD process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the nitrogen atoms doped into graphene lattice were mainly in the forms of pyridinic and pyrrolic structures. Moreover, first-principles calculations show that the incorporated nitrogen atoms can lead to p-type doping of graphene. This in situ approach provides a promising strategy to prepare graphene with controlled electronic properties.

Wang, Chundong; Zhou, Yungang; He, Lifang; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Hong, Guo; Wu, Qi-Hui; Gao, Fei; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Wenjun

2013-01-21

36

Laboratory observations of permeability enhancement by fluid pressure oscillation of in situ fractured rock  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report on laboratory experiments designed to investigate the influence of pore pressure oscillations on the effective permeability of fractured rock. Berea sandstone samples were fractured in situ under triaxial stresses of tens of megapascals, and deionized water was forced through the incipient fracture under conditions of steady and oscillating pore pressure. We find that short?term pore pressure oscillations induce long?term transient increases in effective permeabil...

Elkhoury, J. E.; Niemeijer, A.; Brodsky, E. E.; Marone, C.

2011-01-01

37

Emulsion compression and coalescence under enhanced gravity studied with in-situ microscopy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report the results of experiments and numerical calculations of compression and coalescence in a monodisperse oil-in-water emulsion upon centrifugation. A custom-built setup allows in-situ monitoring of a rotating bilayer of emulsion droplets using an optical microscope. The oil volume fraction in a compressed layer of oil droplets stabilized against coalescence was measured experimentally as a function of time for different radial accelerations. The sedimentation was simulated using CFD i...

Krebs, T.; Slot, J. J.; Schroe?n, C. G. P. H.; Hoeijmakers, H. W. M.; Boom, R. M.

2012-01-01

38

JV Task 59-Demonstration of Accelerated In Situ Contaminant Degradation by Vacuum-Enhanced Nutrient Distribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at a former Mohler Oil site in Bismarck, North Dakota. The remedial strategy was based on the application of two innovative concepts: (1) design and deployment of the mobile extraction, treatment, and injection units to overcome site limitations associated with urban settings in high-traffic areas and (2) vacuum-controlled nutrient injection within and on the periphery of an induced hydraulic and pneumatic depression. Combined contaminant recovery since the beginning of the project in June 2003 totals over 13,600 lb ({approx}6,170 kg) of hydrocarbons, equivalent to 2176 gallons (8236 l) of product. In situ delivery of 1504 Ib (682 kg) of ionic nitrate and 540 Ib (245 kg) of dissolved oxygen translates into further reduction of about 489 Ib (222 kg) of benzene for the same period and provides for long-term stimulation of the natural attenuation process. In addition to contaminant recovered by extraction and reduced by in situ biodegradation, a total of 4136 Ib (1876 kg) of oxygen was delivered to the saturated zone, resulting in further in situ reduction of an estimated 1324 lb (600 kg) of dissolved-phase hydrocarbons. Based on the results of the EERC demonstration, the North Dakota Department of Health approved site abandonment and termination of the corrective action.

Jaroslav Solc

2007-03-15

39

Enhanced nucleic acid amplification with blood in situ by wire-guided droplet manipulation (WDM).  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many challenges facing the use of molecular biology to provide pertinent information in a timely, cost effective manner. Wire-guided droplet manipulation (WDM) is an emerging format for conducting molecular biology with unique characteristics to address these challenges. To demonstrate the use of WDM, an apparatus was designed and assembled to automate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a reprogrammable platform. WDM minimizes thermal resistance by convective heat transfer to a constantly moving droplet in direct contact with heated silicone oil. PCR amplification of the GAPDH gene was demonstrated at a speed of 8.67 s/cycle. Conventional PCR was shown to be inhibited by the presence of blood. WDM PCR utilizes molecular partitioning of nucleic acids and other PCR reagents from blood components, within the water-in-oil droplet, to increase PCR reaction efficiency with blood in situ. The ability to amplify nucleic acids in the presence of blood simplifies pre-treatment protocols towards true point-of-care diagnostic use. The 16s rRNA hypervariable regions V3 and V6 were amplified from Klebsiella pneumoniae genomic DNA with blood in situ. The detection limit of WDM PCR was 1 ng/?L or 10(5)genomes/?L with blood in situ. The application of WDM for rapid, automated detection of bacterial DNA from whole blood may have an enormous impact on the clinical diagnosis of infections in bloodstream or chronic wound/ulcer, and patient safety and morbidity. PMID:24140832

Harshman, Dustin K; Reyes, Roberto; Park, Tu San; You, David J; Song, Jae-Young; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

2014-03-15

40

Ag nanoparticles prepared by laser photoreduction as substrates for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis of dyes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work Ag nanoparticles (AgNP) with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity were prepared and immobilized by laser irradiation on a water/ solid interface where the aqueous phase contains the Ag+ cation and the solid surface is of hydrophilic nature (glass and cellulose). The so-prepared AgNP demonstrated a high SERS effectiveness in the detection of dispersed adsorbates such as the case of the anthraquinonic dye alizarin. The size and SERS effectiveness of AgNP increases with the irradiation time, the laser power, and the cation concentration. Laser-induced AgNP can be classified into two classes attending to the morphology: spherical and planar. The latter are formed after longer irradiation times, being more active regarding the SERS efficiency. Ag photoreduction can be employed for in situ detection of the dye alizarin, but when the dye is placed on a hydrophilic substrate. Even so, this in situ SERS technique could be attractive for analytical applications involving the in situ detection of the analyzed species, such as the case of dyes in artistical objects, textiles, foods, and surface analysis in general. PMID:17381143

Cañamares, M V; Garcia-Ramos, J V; Gómez-Varga, J D; Domingo, C; Sanchez-Cortes, S

2007-04-24

 
 
 
 
41

Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: In situ FTIR investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalyst on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} is produced as the final product during the reaction process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI photocatalysts showed enhanced photocatalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} was produced as the final product during the reaction process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high efficiency of charge separation was mainly ascribed to the hybrid effect. - Abstract: The dramatic enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Mg-ferrite/hematite nanospheres photocatalysts on benzene were obtained after hybridized by polyaniline (PANI) using the chemisorption method. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} is determined as the final product during the reaction process.

Shen, Yu [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Zhao, Qidong [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Yuan, Deling; Hou, Yang [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Shaomin, E-mail: shaomin.liu@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

2012-11-30

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In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy on probing the enhanced electrochemical activity of ternary PtRu@Pb catalysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cumulative synergistic effect generated by the combination of the components is a promising route for developing active ternary catalysts with reduced Pt content. In this article, synthesis, electrochemical property and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of a novel ternary catalyst PtRu@Pb/C have been reported. This ternary PtRu@Pb/C catalyst shows tenfold increase in the peak current density for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in comparison to the commercial state-of-the-art PtRu catalyst. To understand the mechanistic pathways and plausible reasons behind higher current density of PtRu@Pb, XAS and ?? analysis in combination with ab initio FEFF8 calculations have been performed. The results reveal the direct evidence of strong charge transfer from lead to platinum shedding the light on this enhanced activity. The electrochemical study in conjunction with the in situ spectroscopy affirms the different role played by Pb and Ru, where ligand mechanism is induced by Pb and the bi-functional mechanism is mostly operated by ruthenium both being responsible in the enhancement of high current density for MOR

43

Challenges of "going nano": enhanced electrochemical performance of cobalt oxide nanoparticles by carbothermal reduction and in situ carbon coating.  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrochemical performance of nano- and micron-sized Co(3)O(4) is investigated, highlighting the substantial influence of the specific surface area on the obtainable specific capacities as well as the cycling stability. In fact, Co(3)O(4) materials with a high surface area (i.e. a small particle size) show superior specific features, which are, however, accompanied by a rapid capacity fading, owing to the increased formation of an insulating polymeric surface film that results from transition-metal-catalyzed electrolyte decomposition. The simultaneous coating with carbon of Co(3)O(4) nanoparticles and in situ reduction of the Co(3)O(4) by a carbothermal route yields a CoO-Co-C nanocomposite. The formation of this material substantially enhances the long-term cycling stability and coulombic efficiency of the lithium-ion active material used. Although the metallic cobalt enhances the electronic conductivity within the electrode and remains electrochemically inactive (as revealed by in situ powder X-ray diffraction analysis), it might have a detrimental effect on the long-term cycling stability by catalytically inducing continuous electrolyte decomposition. PMID:24723308

Bresser, Dominic; Paillard, Elie; Niehoff, Philip; Krueger, Steffen; Mueller, Franziska; Winter, Martin; Passerini, Stefano

2014-07-21

44

In situ synthesis of CoS2/RGO nanocomposites with enhanced electrode performance for lithium-ion batteries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •CoS2/RGO was in situ synthesized by employing graphene oxides as oxidizer and Na2S2O3 as reductor. •The CoS2 particles of 150 nm were uniformly dispersed on the RGO nanosheets. •The enhanced properties can be attributed to the small particle size and the RGO networks. -- Abstract: This study reports a novel strategy of preparing CoS2/reduced graphene oxides (RGO) nanocomposites by employing graphene oxides (GO) as an oxidizing agent and Na2S2O3 as a reducing agent. CoS2 can be in situ synthesized with GO being reduced. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical test are used to characterize the nanocomposite. The CoS2 particles with the size of 150 nm are dispersed in the networks made from thin RGO nanosheets. The CoS2/RGO nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries can deliver excellent reversible capacity retention (640 mA hg?1) after cycling 50 times when tested at 100 mA g?1 and rate performance. The enhanced electrochemical properties can be attributed to the nanoscale particles sizes of CoS2 in addition to the effects of RGO networks in preventing the agglomeration of CoS2 and absorbing lithium polysulfides during the charge-discharge processes

45

Glycerol supplementation of the growth medium enhances in situ detoxification of furfural by Clostridium beijerinckii during butanol fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural adversely affect fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates to fuels and chemicals due to their toxicity on fermenting microbes. To harness the potential of lignocellulose as a cheap source of fermentable sugars, in situ detoxification of furfural and other lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors is essential. To enhance in situ detoxification and tolerance of furfural by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 during acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, the effect of glycerol on NADH/NADPH generation and ABE production by furfural (4, 5, and 6 g/L)-challenged cultures was investigated in this study. In all instances, beneficial outcomes were observed. For example, the fermentation medium supplemented with glycerol and subjected to 5 g/L furfural elicited up to 1.8- and 3-fold increases, respectively, in NADH and NADPH levels in C. beijerinckii 8052 relative to the control culture. These critical changes are the likely underpinnings for the glycerol-mediated 2.3-fold increase in the rate of detoxification of 5 g/L furfural, substrate consumption, and ABE production compared to the unsupplemented medium. Collectively, these results demonstrate that increased intracellular NADH/NADPH in C. beijerinckii 8052 due to glycerol utilization engenders favorable effects on many aspects of cellular metabolism, including enhanced furfural reduction and increased ABE production. PMID:24839212

Ujor, Victor; Agu, Chidozie Victor; Gopalan, Venkat; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

2014-07-01

46

In-situ rf plasma treatment of multi-wall carbon nanotubes with various reactive gases for enhanced field emission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Well-aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were fabricated at a low temperature of 400 .deg. C by utilizing a radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) system. The MWNTs were in-situ treated with external rf plasma sources, such as hydrogen (H2) and ammonia (NH3), in order to enhance the structural and electrical properties of the MWNTs. Structural properties of carbon nanotubes were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the emission properties of the MWNTs treated with various gases were also measured, for application in field emission displays in the near future.

47

In-Situ Fabrication of Expanded Graphite-Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite with Enhanced Thermal Conductivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D expanded graphite-carbon nanotube (EG-CNT nanocomposite was prepared by in situ growing CNTs between graphite layers in thermally expanded graphite. The morphology and microstructure of the nanocomoposite were characterized by SEM, TEM, Raman and XRD analyses, respectively. The results show that intimately contacted EG-CNT interface has been formed within the multilayered composite architecture. Furthermore, paraffin was used as a filler to occupy the free spaces of the EG-CNT nanocomposite for thermal application. The as-obtained composite structure is inclined to conduct heat isotropically and shows a thermal conductivity higher than 10 W/m·K at a paraffin loading of 49 wt.%, which indicates that EG-CNT nanocomposite could be promising candidates for thermal management in electronic package.

Jun Cao

2013-10-01

48

In-situ decorated gold nanoparticles on polyaniline with enhanced electrocatalysis toward dopamine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gold nanoparticles were in-situ decorated on top of a polyaniline film (GNPs-PANI) via the direct electroreduction of the adsorbed AuCl4- ions on a glassy carbon electrode that previously was coated with PANI by electropolymerization. The GNPs-PANI composite and the performance of the resultant sensors were investigated in some detail. The sensor was applied to the oxidation of dopamine (DA) with improved catalytic activity. Its catalytic current showed wide linear response toward dopamine ranging from 3 to 115 ?M, with a low detection limit of 0. 8 ?M (S/N=3). In addition, the sensor exhibits easy-operation, fast response to dopamine, as well as excellent reproducibility and stability. (author)

49

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE NASAL IN-SITU GEL USING FULVIC ACID AS NOVEL PERMEATION ENHANCER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sumatriptan succinate is a 5-HT1D (5-hydroxy tryptamine 1D-receptor agonist, used in the treatment of migraine and cluster headache Sumatriptan succinate has been shown to have a low oral bioavailability in human volunteers (15% because of high first pass metabolism.. Subcutaneous administration is an alternative; however, dislike of injections or inability to self-administer by this route makes subcutaneous treatment unacceptable to some individuals. These all above things justify a need of nasal drug delivery. To improve the nasal retention time of Sumatriptan succinate, it has been formulated as in situ mucoadhesive gel by using Pluronic PF127 and carbopol 974P. The objective of this work was to improve the nasal bioavailability of Sumatriptan succinate by increasing its nasal retention time as well as by means of nasal permeation. Nasal permeation of Sumatriptan succinate was improved by using fulvic acid extracted from Shilajit as a novel permeation enhancer. For the same the nasal in situ gel of Sumatriptan succinate and its complex with fulvic acid extracted from shilajit was made by cold method. The prepared in-situ gel was evaluated for gelation temperature, drug content, mucoadhesive force, gel strength and viscosity measurement. Further insitu gels prepared with and without permeation enhancer (Fulvic acid were evaluated for its In vitro drug diffusion study by Fran’s Diffusion Cell. The data of In vitro drug diffusion study of insitu gel prepared with and without permeation enhancer showed non Fickian or anomalous diffusion mechanism. The optimized batch C3 and F3 of insitu gel prepared with and without permeation enhancer respectively shows drug release in a controlled manner with higher permeation rate for 250min.. The drug permeation study across sheep nasal mucosa was conducted using C3 and F3 batch. The study showed that the insitu gel having fulvic acid have a significantly higher permeability as compared to the insitu gel which do not contain the fulvic acid. The higher permeation rate of C3 formulation as compare to F3 formulation is might be due to polymeric polyphenolic nature of fulvic acid because of which it have a tendency to interact with number of component resulting in higher permeation rate.

Shyam D. Badgujar

2010-10-01

50

Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) 3-D reconstruction of density enhancements behind interplanetary shocks: In-situ comparison near Earth and at STEREO  

Science.gov (United States)

SMEI and IPS remotely observe increased brightness and velocity enhancements behind interplanetary shocks that are also seen in situ. We use the UCSD time-dependent 3-D reconstruction technique to map these enhancements, and compare them with measurements at the SOHO, Wind, ACE, and STEREO spacecraft. The analyses of these shocks from hour-averaged in-situ data show that the enhanced density column associated with the shock response varies considerably between different instruments, even for in-situ instruments located at L1 near Earth. The relatively-low-resolution SMEI 3-D reconstructions generally show density enhancements, and within errors, the column excesses match those observed in situ. In these SMEI 3-D reconstructions from remotely-sensed data, the shock density enhancements appear not as continuous broad fronts, but as segmented structures. This may provide part of the explanation for the observed discrepancies between the various in-situ measurements at Earth and STEREO, but not between individual instruments near L1.

Jackson, B. V.; Hamilton, M. S.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Bisi, M. M.; Clover, J. M.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.

2011-07-01

51

In situ protein-DNA interactions at a dioxin-responsive enhancer associated with the cytochrome P1-450 gene.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We used an in situ exonuclease III protection technique (C. Wu, Nature [London] 309:229, 1984) to analyze protein-DNA interactions at a dioxin-responsive enhancer. Our results imply that the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-receptor complex interacts with the dioxin-responsive enhancer to activate transcription of the cytochrome P1-450 gene.

Durrin, L. K.; Whitlock, J. P.

1987-01-01

52

Enhancement in bioavailability of ketorolac tromethamine via intranasal in situ hydrogel based on poloxamer 407 and carrageenan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to construct a new in situ gel system based on the combination of poloxamer 407 and carrageenan (carrageenan-poloxamer 407 hydrogel, CPH) for intranasal delivery of ketorolac tromethamine. CPH showed potassium ion concentration - dependent erosion characteristics which ensured slow erosion in aqueous environment containing potassium ion at the physiological level. Loading with ketorolac tromethamine influenced erosion, drug release and thermosensitive properties of CPH. CPH containing 15% ketorolac tromethamine showed suitable gelation temperature (near 35°C) and in vitro sustained release profiles. Pharmacokinetic study of intranasal CPH containing 15% ketorolac tromethamine in rats demonstrated enhanced absolute bioavailability (68.8±23.3%) and prolonged mean residence time (8.8±3.5h) in comparison with the intranasal solution group (24.8±13.8%, 3.9±0.6h). Nasal ciliotoxicity evaluation on an in situ toad palate model preliminarily showed the safety of CPH for intranasal use. All results suggested the potential of CPH as a new sustained - release platform for the intranasal delivery of ketorolac tromethamine. PMID:25138250

Li, Chenxi; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Zheshuo; Li, Qiuhong; Yan, Xueying; Liu, Yu; Lu, Weiyue

2014-10-20

53

Liquid perfluorodecalin application for in situ extraction and enhanced naphthoquinones production in Arnebia euchroma cell suspension cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suspension cultures of Arnebia euchroma supported with liquid perfluorodecalin (PFD) degassed, aerated, or ethylene-saturated were investigated as a novel in situ extraction system for enhanced alkannin/shikonin production. Simultaneously, the effect of PFD applied as the liquid gas carrier on the growth of A. euchroma biomass was studied. The similar dry (4-fold) and fresh (7-fold) biomass increase was observed in the control (without PFD addition) and supplemented with PFD-degassed or PFD-aerated cultures while PFD-ethylene application impeded cell growth. The highest total of alkannin/shikonin production (23.23 mg flask(-1)) was observed when PFD-aerated has been used and it resulted in about 50% higher yield of alkannin/shikonin compared with the control culture. Chiral HPLC analysis revealed that in cultures supported with PFD, both alkannin and shikonin were produced. Their mutual ratio varied depending on culture conditions, and the accumulation of alkannin prevailed under almost all culture conditions. PFD has proved to be exceptionally efficient and cell-safe solvent for the in situ extraction of naphthoquinone red pigments without exerting any detrimental effects on cell growth. Extracellularly secreted red naphthoquinones were easily dissolved and extracted from the PFD phase, which can be regenerated and reused (e.g., in continuous culture system). PMID:24420283

Syk?owska-Baranek, Katarzyna; Pilarek, Maciej; Cichosz, Micha?; Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka

2014-03-01

54

Oxygen-enhanced in situ bioremediation in a sand and gravel aquifer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ bioremediation was chosen to remediate shallow oxygen-limited groundwater contaminated with volatile and semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons from a fuel release. The remediation system included groundwater recovery at rates up to 100 L/min and treatment with a packed-tower air stripper to remove volatiles and increase dissolved oxygen levels. Dissolved oxygen was further increased using a pressure-swing adsorption (PSA) oxygen generator and hollow-fiber oxygen dissolution membranes. This oxygenated water was injected back to the subsurface through two horizontal injection galleries. Prior to start-up of the remediation system, groundwater in contaminated wells was oxygen-limited, with levels from 0 to less than 1 mg/L. After several months of groundwater injection, dissolved oxygen levels began to increase in contaminated wells by 1 to 2 mg/L. A significant decrease in dissolved-phase hydrocarbons was observed in a well nearest an injection gallery once dissolved oxygen was increased to background levels. A decrease in nitrogen was also observed, suggesting that aerobic biodegradation was a significant factor in the hydrocarbon decrease.

Carter, S.R. [Matrix Environmental Technologies, Alton, NY (United States); Clark, J.E. [Agway, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

55

Oxygen-enhanced in situ bioremediation in a sand and gravel aquifer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ bioremediation was chosen to remediate shallow oxygen-limited groundwater contaminated with volatile and semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons from a fuel release. The remediation system included groundwater recovery at rates up to 100 L/min and treatment with a packed-tower air stripper to remove volatiles and increase dissolved oxygen levels. Dissolved oxygen was further increased using a pressure-swing adsorption (PSA) oxygen generator and hollow-fiber oxygen dissolution membranes. This oxygenated water was injected back to the subsurface through two horizontal injection galleries. Prior to start-up of the remediation system, groundwater in contaminated wells was oxygen-limited, with levels from 0 to less than 1 mg/L. After several months of groundwater injection, dissolved oxygen levels began to increase in contaminated wells by 1 to 2 mg/L. A significant decrease in dissolved-phase hydrocarbons was observed in a well nearest an injection gallery once dissolved oxygen was increased to background levels. A decrease in nitrogen was also observed, suggesting that aerobic biodegradation was a significant factor in the hydrocarbon decrease

56

Semi-continuous in situ magnetic separation for enhanced extracellular protease productionmodeling and experimental validation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In modern biotechnology proteases play a major role as detergent ingredients. Especially the production of extracellular protease by Bacillus species facilitates downstream processing because the protease can be directly harvested from the biosuspension. In situ magnetic separation (ISMS) constitutes an excellent adsorptive method for efficient extracellular protease removal during cultivation. In this work, the impact of semi?continuous ISMS on the overall protease yield has been investigated. Results reveal significant removal of the protease from Bacillus licheniformis cultivations. Bacitracin?functionalized magnetic particles were successfully applied, regenerated and reused up to 30 times. Immediate reproduction of the protease after ISMS proved the biocompatibility of this integrated approach. Six subsequent ISMS steps significantly increased the overall protease yield up to 98% because proteolytic degradation and potential inhibition of the protease in the medium could be minimized. Furthermore, integration of semi?continuous ISMS increased the overall process efficiency due to reduction of the medium consumption. Process simulation revealed a deeper insight into protease production, and was used to optimize ISMS steps to obtain the maximum overall protease yield. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 2161–2172. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ottow, Kim Ekelund; Hobley, Timothy John

2013-01-01

57

In-situ X-ray studies of Molecular Orientation Enhancement in Polyhedral Oligomeric silsesquioxanes(POSS)/iPP nanocomposites  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of molecular orientation enhancement in isotactic-polypropylene(iPP)/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) nanocomposite at different step shear conditions was investigated by means of In-situ SAXS and WAXD techniques. The WAXD results showed that under the same step shear conditions, the resultant ?-phase crystals were more oriented than those produced from pure i-PP. In addition, the ?-phase growth was considerably reduced in iPP/POSS nanocomposite. Overall, the oriented fraction of iPP crystallites, calculated from the SAXS data, showed higher orientation in iPP/POSS nanocomposite than in pure i-PP. Both WAXD and SAXS results suggest that the presence of POSS nanostructured molecules increases the molecular orientation of iPP chains and reduces the formation of the ?-phase crystals subjected to the step shear.

Yang, L.; Somani, R. H.; Fu, B. X.; Liu, L.; Hsiao, B. S.; Phillips, S. H.; Ruth, P.; Blansky, R.

2001-03-01

58

In situ synthesis of CoS{sub 2}/RGO nanocomposites with enhanced electrode performance for lithium-ion batteries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •CoS{sub 2}/RGO was in situ synthesized by employing graphene oxides as oxidizer and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} as reductor. •The CoS{sub 2} particles of 150 nm were uniformly dispersed on the RGO nanosheets. •The enhanced properties can be attributed to the small particle size and the RGO networks. -- Abstract: This study reports a novel strategy of preparing CoS{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxides (RGO) nanocomposites by employing graphene oxides (GO) as an oxidizing agent and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a reducing agent. CoS{sub 2} can be in situ synthesized with GO being reduced. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical test are used to characterize the nanocomposite. The CoS{sub 2} particles with the size of 150 nm are dispersed in the networks made from thin RGO nanosheets. The CoS{sub 2}/RGO nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries can deliver excellent reversible capacity retention (640 mA hg{sup ?1}) after cycling 50 times when tested at 100 mA g{sup ?1} and rate performance. The enhanced electrochemical properties can be attributed to the nanoscale particles sizes of CoS{sub 2} in addition to the effects of RGO networks in preventing the agglomeration of CoS{sub 2} and absorbing lithium polysulfides during the charge-discharge processes.

Qiu, Bin; Zhao, Xiuyun [College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Xia, Dingguo, E-mail: dgxia@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Theory and Technology of Advanced Battery Materials, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2013-12-05

59

Highly enhanced electrochemiluminescent strategy for tumor biomarkers detection with in situ generation of L-homocysteine for signal amplification.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, an ultrasensitive peroxydisulfate electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor using in situ generation of L-homocysteine (L-Hcys) for signal amplification was successfully constructed for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). In the reaction of biological methylation, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) catalyzed the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) to produce L-Hcys, which was inducted into ECL system to construct the immunosensor for signal amplification in this work. Simultaneously, Gold and palladium nanoparticles functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Au-PdNPs@MWCNTs) were prepared, which were introduced to immobilize the secondary antibody (Ab2) and SAHH with high loading amount and good biological activity due to their improved surface area and excellent biocompatibility. Then the proposed ECL immunosensor was developed by a sandwich-type format using Au-PdNPs@MWCNTs-SAHH-Ab2 as tracer and graphene together with AuNPs as substrate. Besides the enhancement of Au-PdNPs, the enzymatic catalysis reaction also amplified the ECL signal dramatically, which was achieved by efficient catalysis of the SAHH towards the hydrolysis of SAH to generate improved amount of L-Hcys in situ. Furthermore, due to the special interaction between Au-PdNPs and -SH or -NH2 in L-Hcys, L-Hcys would gradually accumulate on the surface of the immunosensor, which greatly enhanced the concentration of L-Hcys on the immunosensor surface and further improved the ECL intensity. With the amplification factors above, a wide linear ranged from 0.1 pg mL(-1) to 80 ng mL(-1) was acquired with a relatively low detection limit of 33 fg mL(-1) for CEA. PMID:24560368

Wang, Haijun; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo; Cao, Yaling; Bai, Lijuan

2014-03-01

60

In situ seed baiting to isolate germination-enhancing fungi for an epiphytic orchid, Dendrobium aphyllum (Orchidaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Orchid conservation efforts, using seeds and species-specific fungi that support seed germination, require the isolation, identification, and germination enhancement testing of symbiotic fungi. However, few studies have focused on developing such techniques for the epiphytes that constitute the majority of orchids. In this study, conducted in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Yunnan, China, we used seeds of Dendrobium aphyllum, a locally endangered and medicinally valuable epiphytic orchid, to attract germination promoting fungi. Of the two fungi isolated from seed baiting, Tulasnella spp. and Trichoderma spp., Tulasnella, enhanced seed germination by 13.6 %, protocorm formation by 85.7 %, and seedling development by 45.2 % (all P?Trichoderma suppressed seed germination by 26.4 % (P?in situ seed baiting can be used to isolate seed germination-enhancing fungi for the development of seedling production for conservation and reintroduction efforts of epiphytic orchids such as D. aphyllum. PMID:24563211

Zi, Xiao-Meng; Sheng, Chun-Ling; Goodale, Uromi Manage; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Gao, Jiang-Yun

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

Evaluation of Immunohistochemistry and Silver-Enhanced In Situ Hybridization Results for HER2/neu Manually and with Image Analysis System in Human Breast Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: HER2/neu (ErbB2 gene status is one of the important information while planing terapy in breast carcinoma. For HER2/ neu testing there is not standart assay that has been agreed on. Silver enhanced in situ hybridization is a cantitative and highly reproducible assay. Immunohistochemistry is a cheap and easy assay that has disadvantage of being less reproducible. Recently developed pathologist assisted computerized image analysis systems decrease the ratio of subjectivity due to manual evaluation, enable tele-consultation and make it easy to evaluate tumor morphology and markers. Our aim is to investigate the consistency of manual and computerized interpretation of the results of immunohistochemistry and silver enhanced in situ hybridization.Material and Method: Immunohistochemisty and silver enhanced in situ hybridization of 73 invasive breast carcinoma results were evaluated manually to determine HER2/neu status. Later, silver enhanced in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry results were reevaluated with Ventana Image Analysis System. Afterwards correlation of both methods with image analysis system and manuel interpretation were calculated.Result: All cases were score 2 with immunohistochemistry. With image analysis system, 5 cases were score 1, 56 cases were score 2 and 12 cases were score 3. When in situ hybridization results were reevaluated with image analysis system, 6 cases were discordant compared with manual interpretation.Conclusion: The correlation rate of immunohistochemistry interpretation results between manuel method and image analysis system was %76; but silver enhanced in situ hybridization interpretation results between manuel method and image analysis system were %91 concordant and it was statistically significant (k= 0.832 and p<0.001.

Do?u? ÖZDEM?R

2010-09-01

62

Nitrogen fate model for gas-phase ammonia-enhanced in situ bioventing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subsurface bioremediation of contaminants is sometimes limited by the availability of nitrogen. Introduction of gaseous ammonia to the subsurface is a feasible and economical approach to enhance biodegradation in some environments. A gaseous nutrient source may be a practical option for sites where surface application of liquid nutrients is not possible, such as sites with shallow groundwater or sites with surface operations. A conceptual nitrogen fate model was developed to provide remediation scientists and engineers with some practical guidelines in the use of ammonia-enhanced bioventing. Ammonia supplied to the subsurface dissolves readily in soil moisture and sorbs strongly to soil particles. The ammonium ion is the preferred nutrient form of many microorganisms. Some of the ammonia will be converted to nitrate by ammonia-oxidizing organisms. Field monitoring data from an operating ammonia-enhanced bioventing remediation site for diesel fuel contamination are presented. Conservative additions of ammonia promoted appreciable increases in evolved carbon dioxide and rate of oxygen utilization. An overabundance of added ammonia promoted formation of methane from likely anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation in the presence of nitrate as the electron acceptor

63

Silver-enhanced in situ hybridization for determination of EGFR copy number alterations in non-small cell lung cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation and high gene copy number (CN) predict response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in the adenocarcinoma subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aims of this study were first to compare automated enzyme metallographic silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH) with conventionally used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the determination of EGFR CN in NSCLC tissue sections, and second to assess the association of EGFR CN with EGFR mutations and clinicopathological parameters. FISH and SISH were performed on tissue microarrays and large sections. Samples from 56 consecutively surgically resected NSCLC patients (cohort 1) and from 60 selected lung adenocarcinoma patients (cohort 2) were analyzed. EGFR CN was classified applying the Colorado criteria, and agreement between both methods was evaluated using ? values. EGFR CN was compared with EGFR protein expression and EGFR gene mutations. The results of SISH and FISH were identical in 114 of the 116 cases examined using the 2 techniques. One case was FISH+, SISH-, and 1 case was FISH- and SISH+. The agreement between the 2 methods was good in cohort 1 (?=0.642 [0.428, 0.823]) and excellent in cohort 2 (?=0.963 [0.870, 1.000]). EGFR positivity by FISH and SISH was associated with high EGFR protein expression (P<0.001) and EGFR mutation (P<0.001). These results validate the use of SISH for assessing EGFR CN alterations in NSCLC. The advantage of a permanent result and the possibility of bright-field microscopy make SISH an attractive alternative to FISH. PMID:23154768

Wulf, Marie-Angela; Bode, Beata; Zimmermann, Dieter; Rufibach, Kaspar; Weder, Walter; Moch, Holger; Soltermann, Alex; Tischler, Verena

2012-12-01

64

Adhesion enhancement of biomimetic dry adhesives by nanoparticle in situ synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel method to increase the adhesion strength of a gecko-inspired dry adhesive is presented. Gold nanoparticles are synthesized on the tips of the microfibrils of a polymeric dry adhesive to increase its Hamaker constant. Formation of the gold nanoparticles is qualitatively studied through a colour change in the originally transparent substance and quantitatively analysed using ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. A pull-off force test is employed to quantify the adhesion enhancement. Specifically, adhesion forces of samples with and without embedded gold nanoparticles are measured and compared. The experimental results indicate that an adhesion improvement of 135% can be achieved. (paper)

65

Application of steam injection and electrical heating for enhanced in situ soil and ground water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The acceleration of recovery rates of second phase liquid contaminants from the subsurface during gas or water pumping operations is realized by an increase in soil temperature. Of the various methods of delivery of thermal energy to soils and ground water, steam injection appears to be the most economical and versatile technique for soils with sufficient permeability. The use of steam injection to recovery volatile semivolatile, and nonvolatile contaminants from the sub-surface also allows the exploitation of various thermodynamic and hydrodynamic mechanisms. These mechanisms include vaporization of liquids with boiling points below that of water, enhanced evaporation rates of semivolatile components, physical displacement of low viscosity liquids, dilution and displacement of aqueous contaminants, and removal of residual contaminants from low permeability zones by depressurization and vacuum drying. Electrical heating provides a means of preferentially heating the low permeability zones. A recently completed field-scale demonstration of the patented combined steam injection and electrical heating enhanced extraction technology (Dynamic Underground Stripping) to remove gasoline at a site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory confirms the effectiveness of this technique and its applicability to contaminants found above and below the water table

66

Improved CO sub 2 enhanced oil recovery -- Mobility control by in-situ chemical precipitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of this study has been to evaluate the feasibility of chemical precipitation to improve CO{sub 2} sweep efficiency and mobility control. The laboratory experiments have indicated that carbonate precipitation can alter the permeability of the core samples under reservoir conditions. Furthermore, the relative permeability measurements have revealed that precipitation reduces the gas permeability in favor of liquid permeability. This indicates that precipitation is occurring preferentially in the larger pores. Additional experimental work with a series of connected cores have indicated that the permeability profile can be successfully modified. However, Ph control plays a critical role in propagation of the chemical precipitation reaction. A numerical reservoir model has been utilized to evaluate the effects of permeability heterogeneity and permeability modification on the CO{sub 2} sweep efficiency. The computer simulation results indicate that the permeability profile modification can significantly enhance CO{sub 2} vertical and horizontal sweep efficiencies. The scoping studies with the model have further revealed that only a fraction of high permeability zones need to be altered to achieve sweep efficiency enhancement. 64 refs., 30 figs., 16 tabs.

Ameri, S.; Aminian, K.; Wasson, J.A.; Durham, D.L.

1991-06-01

67

Innovative Protocols for in SITU MTBE Degradation by Using Molecular Probes-An Enhanced Chemical-Bio Oxidation Technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a common technology to cleanup petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater. Sodium percarbonate (SPC) is an oxidant which is activated by iron (Fe) to produce Fenton-like reactions. Western Research Institute, in conjunction with Regenesis and the U.S. Department of Energy, conducted a study that investigated the performance of a 'safe' oxidant, SPC, to cleanup groundwater and soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and associated contaminants (e.g., MTBE). Results from a field pilot test in Frenchglen, Oregon showed VOC concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially within 2 weeks after injecting activated SPC (RegenOx). A protocol was established for determining RegenOx TOD in soils and groundwater. Total oxidant demand tests were necessary to determine the correct dosage of RegenOx to apply in the field and sufficiently degrade the contaminants of concern. Bench studies with RegenOx showed this technology was effective in degrading diesel fuel and 1,4-dioxane. The Fe-silica activator (RegenOx Part B) was tested with another oxidant, sodium persulfate. Bench tests results showed the combination of sodium persulfate and RegenOx Part B was effective in reducing PCE, MTBE, benzene, and n-heptane concentrations in water. Overall, the results of this project indicated that most petroleum contaminants in soil and groundwater can be sufficiently degraded using the RegenOx technology.

Paul Fallgren

2009-02-20

68

Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific objectives of the project were (1) to determine the prevalence of biosurfactant producers in oil reservoirs, and (2) to develop a nutrient regime that would stimulate biosurfactant production in the oil reservoir.

M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

2007-09-30

69

In-situ sonication for enhanced recovery of aquifer microbial communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sampling methods for characterization of microbial communities in aquifers should target both suspended and attached microorganisms (biofilms). We investigated the effectiveness and reproducibility of low-frequency (200 Hz) sonication pulses on improving extraction efficiency and quality of microorganisms from a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in Studen (Switzerland). Sonication pulses at different power levels (0.65, 0.9, and 1.1 kW) were applied to three different groundwater monitoring wells. Groundwater samples extracted after each pulse were compared with background groundwater samples for cell and adenosine tri-phosphate concentration. Turbidity values were obtained to assess the release of sediment fines and associated microorganisms. The bacterial community in extracted groundwater samples was analyzed by terminal-restriction-fragment-length polymorphism and compared with communities obtained from background groundwater samples and from sediment cores. Sonication enhanced the extraction efficiency up to 13-fold, with most of the biomass being associated with the sediment fines extracted with groundwater. Consecutive pulses at constant power were decreasingly effective, while pulses with higher power yielded the best results both in terms of extraction efficiency and quality. Our results indicate that low-frequency sonication may be a viable and cost-effective tool to improve the extraction of microorganisms from aquifers, taking advantage of existing groundwater monitoring wells. PMID:23937340

Ugolini, Fabio; Henneberger, Ruth; Bürgmann, Helmut; Zeyer, Josef; Schroth, Martin H

2014-01-01

70

Observing reduction of 4-nitrobenzenthiol on gold nanoparticles in situ using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, reduction of 4-nitrobenzenthiol (4-NBT) on Au nanoparticles (NPs) was characterized using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Plasmon-driven chemical transformation from 4-NBT dimering into p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) has been investigated on the surface of Au NPs. The laser power-dependent SERS spectra of 4-NBT on the surface of Au substrates were studied, and show that the laser power has an influence on the SERS signals of 4-NBT on Au NPs and production of DMAB by a plasmon-driven surface-catalyzed chemical reaction tends to be much easier under relative high laser power. Furthermore, we have used simple and efficient Au substrates (gold NPs with a size around 45 nm) exhibiting both catalytic properties and SERS activities to monitor the catalytic reaction of surface catalytic reaction process with borohydride solution. The experiments prove that the nitro-to-amino group conversion could be completed by borohydride at ambient conditions on Au substrates. Illuminated with high laser power, 4-NBT molecules and already formed DMAB molecules are further reduced into 4-aminobenzenthiol (4-ABT) by the addition of borohydride, While with low laser power 4-NBT molecules are transformed into 4-ABT with DMAB as the intermediate, which proves Au NPs are a mild and promising catalyst. Our studies might be helpful in extending the understanding of chemical reactions of 4-NBT and related research as well as providing a new strategy synthesis of azo dyes and anilines. PMID:23873410

Ren, Xiaoqian; Tan, Enzhong; Lang, Xiufeng; You, Tingting; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Hongyan; Yin, Penggang; Guo, Lin

2013-09-14

71

A pilot test of passive oxygen release for enhancement of in situ bioremediation of BTEX-contaminated ground water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pilot-scale field demonstration of the use of Oxygen Release Compound trademark (ORC) was conducted at the site of a former gasoline service station. ORC was installed into a barrier consisting of a tight pattern of treatment wells located relatively near the apparent source of hydrocarbon contamination. The purpose of the barrier was to enhance in situ biodegradation of BTEX in ground water by the passive release of oxygen from the unpumped treatment wells placed across the migration path of the plume. Detailed monitoring was carried out using fencelines of multilevel monitoring wells located up- and downgradient of the barrier. Total BTEX concentrations influent to the barrier were found to be highly variable in space and time. Total influent BTEX concentrations averaged on a cross section transverse to flow were less variable over time, ranging from 10 to 16 mg/L. Significant decreases in BTEX mass flux through the zone impacted by the treatment wells were observed. For the entire portion of the plume impacted by the treatment wells, estimated BTEX treatment efficiency was approximately 70% on Day 51 of the test and declined thereafter

72

Strong enhancement of trace mercury removal from aqueous solution with sodium thiosulfate by in situ formed Mn-(hydr)oxides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) on trace mercury removal from aqueous solution by in situ MnOx was investigated. Removal efficiency was studied at different molar ratios of Na2S2O3/Mn (0, 0.264, 0.593 and 1.582) and under changes in Mn dosage, reaction time and pH conditions. Additionally, the ionic strength and the mercury removal amount were examined to evaluate the efficiency of trace mercury removal. The results indicated that the presence of thiosulfate clearly improved removal of mercury from solution, and that increases in the ionic strength enhanced removal in a certain range of thiosulfate concentration. At neutral conditions, the mercury removal amount reached to maximum of 64 ?g/mg. It is proposed that the ability of thiosulfate to reduce some MnOx to Mn(2+) as well as transfer the uncharged mercury species to a negatively charged species [Formula: see text] improved trace mercury removal. The mechanism analysis revealed that ternary complexes or large aggregations may be formed because of surface complexation or electrostatic attraction. PMID:25086412

Lu, Xixin; Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yaan; Ma, Jun

2014-11-15

73

Enhanced effect of in-situ generated ammonium salts aerosols on the removal of NOx from simulated flue gas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The combined removal of sulfur dioxide (SO2, up to 3,000 ppm) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, up to 1,200 ppm) has been investigated in a bench-scale pulsed-corona enhanced wet electrostatic precipitator (wESP) with the optional injection of ammonia and/or ozone. The reaction of ammonia with SO2 produces submicron aerosols under certain conditions. Experiments have shown the feasibility of combined SO2 and NOx removal from simulated flue gases by the action of these in-situ generated aerosols. The mechanisms for NOx removal include oxidation of NO to NO2 and subsequent absorption of NO2 into the water wall of the wESP. The results have shown that injecting NH3 (NH3/NOx molar ratio 1) resulted in NOx removal of approximately 13% in a simulated combustion flue gas. Injecting 200 ppm ozone (no ammonia) increased NO conversion to 35% by oxidation, but total NOx removal increased to only 17%. Without the formation of ammonium salts aerosols (e.g., without SO2 in the gas), co-injection of ammonia and ozone increased NO conversion to 60% and NOx removal to 40%. However, high NOx removals were measured in simulated flue gas that contained NH3, SO2, and ozone. The total NOx removal efficiency was 79% when the ammonium salts aerosols were formed in the presence of 2400 ppm SO2, 312 ppm O3, and 2,900 ppm NH3. The energy efficiency of collection improved by approximately 250% for SO2 removal and more than 4700% for NOx removal under these conditions. It was determined that the ammonium salts aerosols produced from the reaction of ammonia and sulfur dioxide substantially enhanced total NOx removal. PMID:11506008

Tseng, C H; Keener, T C; Lee, J Y; Khang, S J

2001-08-01

74

In situ surface hydrogenation synthesis of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with enhanced visible light photoactivity  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel one-step, vapor-fed aerosol flame synthetic process (VAFS) has been developed to prepare Ti3+ self-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2). The freshly formed TiO2 was in situ surface hydrogenated during the condensation stage by introducing H2 above the flame, and Ti3+ ions were created near the surface of TiO2. The relative content of Ti3+ ions near the surface of TiO2 is estimated to be 8%. Because of the high absorption of visible light and suppression of charge recombination, the photocurrent density and decomposition of MB under visible light irradiation were remarkably enhanced. This study demonstrates a simple, potential method to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with effective photoactivity in visible light.A novel one-step, vapor-fed aerosol flame synthetic process (VAFS) has been developed to prepare Ti3+ self-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2). The freshly formed TiO2 was in situ surface hydrogenated during the condensation stage by introducing H2 above the flame, and Ti3+ ions were created near the surface of TiO2. The relative content of Ti3+ ions near the surface of TiO2 is estimated to be 8%. Because of the high absorption of visible light and suppression of charge recombination, the photocurrent density and decomposition of MB under visible light irradiation were remarkably enhanced. This study demonstrates a simple, potential method to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with effective photoactivity in visible light. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Schematic setup for Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanoparticles is shown in Fig. S1. The BET specific surface and pore-size distribution of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 is shown in Fig. S2. XRD patterns of pristine TiO2 and Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 are shown in Fig. S3. HRTEM image of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with mixture phase is shown in Fig. S4. The photographs of different colors of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with different flow rates of hydrogen are shown in Fig. S5. TEM images of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 samples with different flow rates of carrier gas are shown in Fig. S6. XPS spectrum of O 1s is shown in Fig. S7. Photodegradation of MB in aqueous solutions using Ti3+ self-doped TiO2, pristine TiO2 and P25 as photocatalysts with irradiation of ultraviolet light is shown in Fig. S8. UV-vis spectra of MB aqueous solutions at different times by using Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 as a photocatalyst under the irradiation of visible light is shown in Fig. S9. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00972j

Huo, Junchao; Hu, Yanjie; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

2014-07-01

75

In situ integration of squaraine-nanowire-array-based Schottky-type photodetectors with enhanced switching performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic nanostructure-based photodetectors are important building blocks for future high-performance, low-cost, flexible nano-optoelectronic devices. However, device integration remains a large challenge, and the structure-dependent performance of the device has been seldom studied. Here, we report the in situ integration of 2,4-bis[4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenyl]squaraine (SQ)-nanowire (NW)-array-based photodetectors by growing the organic NW arrays on prefabricated electrodes through an evaporation-induced self-assembly process. In contrast with ohmic-contact devices, asymmetric electrode pairs of Au-Ti were utilized to achieve the construction of Schottky-type photodetectors on the basis of organic NW arrays. Significantly, the Schottky-type photodetectors exhibited a significantly enhanced performance as compared to the ohmic-type devices in terms of their higher photosensitivity and switching speed. The presence of a strong built-in electric field at the junction interface, which greatly facilitated the separation/transportation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, was suggested to be responsible for the superior performance of the Schottky-type photodetectors. More importantly, the organic NW-array-based devices also showed a higher sensitivity and reproducibility than that of the single NW-based devices, and they were capable of low-light detection. The investigation of the photodetector circuitry also disclosed a very low pixel-to-pixel variation owing to the average effect of the NW-array-based devices. It is expected that organic NW-array-based Schottky-type photodetectors will have important applications in future organic nano-optoelectronic devices. PMID:23889229

Zhang, Yuping; Deng, Wei; Zhang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Xiwei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Xing, Yuliang; Jie, Jiansheng

2013-12-11

76

Increased Tumor Oxygenation and Drug Uptake During Anti-Angiogenic Weekly Low Dose Cyclophosphamide Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of Weekly Tirapazamine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment is associated with anti-angiogenic activity and is anticipated to generate exploitable hypoxia using hypoxia-activated prodrugs. Weekly administration of tirapazamine (TPZ; 5 mg/kg body weight i.p.) failed to inhibit the growth of 9L gliosarcoma tumors grown s.c. in scid mice. However, the anti-tumor effect of weekly cyclophosphamide (CPA) treatment (140 mg/kg BW i.p.) was substantially enhanced by weekly TPZ administration. An extended tumor free period ...

Doloff, J. C.; Khan, N.; Ma, J.; Demidenko, E.; Swartz, H. M.; Jounaidi, Y.

2009-01-01

77

In situ formation of nanocrystals from a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system to enhance oral bioavailability of fenofibrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available You-Meei Lin1, Jui-Yu Wu2, Ying-Chen Chen3, Yu-Der Su3, Wen-Tin Ke3, Hsiu-O Ho31Department of Pharmacy, Shuang Ho Hospital, 2Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, 3School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROCObjectives: In situ formation of nanocrystals and dissolution profiles of fenofibrate (FFB from a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS were characterized.Methods: SMEDDS formulated with Myritol® and surfactant mixture (Smix of D-?-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS and either Tween® 20 (A, C, E, G, M, S, N, T, O or Tween® 80 (B, D, F, H, P, U, Q, V, R at various oil/Smix ratios (Group I: A and B of 0.42, C and D of 0.25, E and F of 0.11; Group II: G and H of 1.38, M and P of 1.11, S and U of 0.9, N and Q of 0.73, T and V of 0.58, and O and R of 0.46 and water contents (1: 9.5%, 2: 5.0%, 3: 0.0%, G-V: 4.5%. Their dissolutions were conducted at different rotation speeds. Two optimal SMEDDSs containing Tween 80(B2 or a higher oil/Smix ratio(Q and B2(solution were selected for pharmacokinetic study.Results: FFB particles formed within the nanosize range from Group I gradually increased with time but decreased with increasing stirring rates. However, the mean size of FFB formed by B series was as low as 200 nm, which was smaller than that of A series at three stirring rates. The release rate from both groups obviously increased with increasing stirring rate. However, incomplete release was observed for S and N in Tween 20 series, whereas a faster release rate and complete release were observed for Tween 80 series with an insignificant difference among them. Results of pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the highest-ranked area under the curve and Cmax values were for Q(SMEDDS and B2(solution, respectively. The relative bioavailability of Q(SMEDDS with respect to Tricor® was enhanced by about 1.14-1.22-fold.Conclusion: SMEDDS, consisting of Myritol 318 and TPGS combined with Tween 80 at 4:1, was able to enhance the oral bioavailability of FFB.Keywords: SMEDDS, fenofibrate, microemulsion, dissolution, TPGS

Lin YM

2011-10-01

78

Rutile-structured TiO2 deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor on in-situ oxidized Ru electrode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor as well as in-situ oxidized ruthenium bottom electrode were used to grow rutile-structured titanium dioxide thin layers by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition. Metal–insulator–metal capacitors have been elaborated in order to study the electrical properties of the device. It is shown that this process leads to devices exhibiting excellent results in terms of dielectric constant and leakage current

79

In-situ treatment of hydrocarbons contamination through enhanced bio-remediation and two phase extraction system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It happens frequently to find industrial site affected by contamination of subsoil and groundwater with consequent presence of free phase product floating on the water table. The remediation technologies in this case shall be properly selected and coordinated in a way that the interactions between each activities will help to decontaminate the site. The case study deals with an industrial site located near Turin, in Italy, of about 50 hectares of extension where has been found an area of about 4000 square meters with contamination of subsoil and groundwater. The compounds with higher concentrations are petroleum hydrocarbons found both in soil and in groundwater. Another big problem is represented by the presence of a layer of free product floating on the water table with a maximum measured thickness of 70 cm; this situation can be considered in fact one of the major difficulty in management of selected remediation technologies because the complete recover of the free phase is a priority for any kind of remediation system to apply subsequently. The present work is based upon the selection and implementation of a multiple treatment for definitive remediation of subsoil and groundwater. Free product recovery has been faced with a two-phase extraction technology, then for the remediation of subsoil we implemented a bio-venting system to improve biodegradation processes and finally for groundwater treatment we apply an enhanced in situ bio-remediation injecting oxygen release compounds directly into the aquifer. To reach these choices we have to pass through a complex activity of investigation of the site made up of more than 40 sampling point, 8 monitoring wells, about 140 analysis on subsoil samples and 10 on groundwater samples and one well used for an aquifer test. The preliminary design of the remediation system was therefore based on an extensive site characterization that included geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with analytical data. After the study of all data acquired during investigations we could select the proper technologies for site remediation but to define correctly all project data we had to implement several laboratory tests to analyse bio-remediation processes, a series of pilot test for two phase extraction and bio-venting and a pilot test to select the best product for the release of oxygen into groundwater. The collection of the necessary parameters for the implementation of full-scale treatment was carried out throughout a period of several months, both with periodical measurements and sampling and with fixed monitoring probes, in order to record the aquifer changes related to contaminant concentrations, geochemical data, etc. At the end of all the tests we proceeded first with implementation of two phase extraction system through a double line of extraction wells that cover the extension of the area interested by the presence of free phase of LNAPL. The use of this technology instead of other more common system for free product recovery, is due to the fact that two phase extraction system results in an efficient recover of LNAPL and in a low extraction of groundwater that means lower treatment costs. Another important characteristic of this technology is that while extracting oil from the water table it extracts also soil gas from subsoil enhancing hydrocarbons bio-remediation through microbial activity. The second step after the complete recover of free product was to proceed with remediation of subsoil. Bio-remediation processes, enhanced by two phase extraction application, were increased with implementation of a bio-venting system made up of two horizontal wells installed along contaminated area. The injection of air through these wells supply oxygen to subsoil providing necessary aerobic conditions for degradation of hydrocarbon compounds. The results of laboratory tests showed that it would be suitable, to further stimulate microbial activity, to supply micro-nutrient compounds, principally nitrogen and phosphorous. For this reason after a first period

80

In-situ treatment of a mixed hydrocarbon plume through enhanced bio-remediation and a PRB system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater is frequently polluted with mixtures of contaminants that are amenable to different types of remediation. One example is the combination of petroleum hydrocarbons (BTEX) and chlorinated solvents (PCE, TCE, DCE, VC), as it occurs in the groundwater beneath the industrial site that is the objective of the present case study. The site is located in Italy near a main river (Arno), which is supposed to be the final recipient of the contamination and where a possible exposure might take place. The aim of the treatment is the plume containment within the site boundaries in order to avoid further migration of the contaminants towards the river. The design of the remediation system was based on an extensive site characterization that included - but was not limited to - the following information: geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with analytical data (i.e. contaminant concentrations). Pilot tests were also implemented in order to collect the necessary parameters for the full-scale treatment design and calibration. The monitoring of the site conditions was carried out throughout a period of several months, both with periodical measurements and sampling and with fixed monitoring probes, in order to record the aquifer changes (levels, concentrations, etc.) related both to seasonal variations and to the pilot tests. The groundwater is located in a highly heterogeneous aquifer, with a saturated thickness of 1.5 m and an average hydraulic conductivity of 2.5 x 10-5 m/s. The seepage velocity is extremely low, with a mean value around 1.3 mm/d. This results in a long residence time and limited volumes per time unit to be treated. The site was contaminated by a mixed plume of more than 15 different contaminants, ranging from BTEX, to MTBE, to PAH, to chlorinated solvents. The concentration peaks were in the order of 1-100 mg/l for each contaminant. Petroleum hydrocarbons are quickly degradable through oxidative mechanisms (especially aerobic biodegradation), whereas fully-chlorinated compounds are only biodegradable via reductive pathways. Therefore, a mixed plume of both types of contaminants requires a combined approach with the application of different treatment technologies. The remediation strategy elaborated combines an enhanced bio-remediation of the hot spots with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) in a funnel and gate configuration for the down-gradient plume containment. Pilot tests were carried out in order to assess the efficiency and feasibility of such technologies in the site of interest. The enhanced bio-remediation is going to be carried out by means of injections of hydrogen release compounds (HRC) and oxygen release compounds (ORC) for the biodegradation of chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons respectively. A pilot test was conducted to determine the degradation rates of the different contaminants. The pilot test was monitored with a periodic sampling and analysis of the groundwater and with a continuous monitoring of the physical-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, conductivity, redox potential and dissolved oxygen) in the monitoring wells placed immediately down-gradient of the injection points. The tests showed the possibility to use the enhanced bio-remediation with the double aim to reduce the hot spot concentrations, in order to lower the contaminant load on the PRB, and to control the lateral spreading of the plume in the side regions. Permeable reactive barriers are passive groundwater treatment systems that are able to decontaminate groundwater as it flows through a permeable treatment medium under natural gradients. The main advantage of this technology over ex-situ and other in-situ groundwater remediation approaches is the reduced operation- and maintenance costs. For the permeable reactive barrier, a funnel and gate configuration was selected. This system uses low permeability materials (funnel) to direct groundwater towards a permeable treatment zone (gate). To ensure that flow beneath the system does not occur, funnel and gate systems must

 
 
 
 
81

Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: In situ FTIR investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

f benzene under visible-light irradiation was mainly ascribed to the high efficiency of charge separation induced by the hybrid effect of PANI and Mg-ferrite/hematite. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO2 is determined as the final product during the reaction process.

82

IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. aste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. he use of steam enhances the stripping of v...

83

In-situ growth of C-axis oriented YBa2Cu3O7-x on silicon with composite buffer layers by plasma enhanced metalorganic chemical  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films which have been grown in-situ on Si (100) with a composite buffer layer of Pt/Ta/ONO (ONO stands for a SiO2/Si3N4/SiO2 trilayer) by plasma enhanced metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD). X-ray diffraction measurement indicate the c-axis oriented YBa2Cu3O7-x films are formed in-situ at substrate temperatures as low as 650 degrees C on Pt/Ta/ONO/Si. The composite Pt/Ta/ONO provided an adherent metallic interlayer and effectively prevented the interaction between YBa2Cu3O7-x and Si. Four probe resistivity measurement indicate the onset of superconductivity at 92 K and achieved zero resistance at 65 K

84

Performance enhancement among adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate baseball weights.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared with regulation-weight baseballs, lightweight baseballs generate lower torque on the shoulder and elbow joints without altering the pitching movement and timing. This study investigates the throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and maximum shoulder external rotation (MSER) of adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate lightweight baseballs. We assigned 24 adolescent players to a lightweight baseball group (group L) and a regulation-weight baseball group (group R) based on their pretraining throwing velocity. Both groups received pitching training 3 times per week for 10 weeks with 4.4- and 5-oz baseballs. The players' throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and MSER were measured from 10 maximum efforts throws using a regulation-weight baseball before and after undergoing the pitching training. The results showed that the players in group L significantly increased their throwing velocity and arm swing velocity (p baseball, whereas group R did not (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the percentage change in the throwing velocity and arm swing velocity of group L was significantly superior to that of group R (p baseball substantially enhanced the arm swing velocity and throwing velocity of the adolescent baseball players. These findings suggest that using a lightweight baseball, which can reduce the risk of injury without altering pitching patterns, has positive training effects on players in the rapid physical growth and technique development stage. PMID:23603999

Yang, Wen-Wen; Liu, Ya-Chen; Lu, Lee-Chang; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi; Liu, Chiang

2013-12-01

85

Enhanced and sustained topical ocular delivery of cyclosporine A in thermosensitive hyaluronic acid-based in situ forming microgels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yijun Wu, Jing Yao, Jianping Zhou, Fatima Zohra Dahmani State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: For nearly a decade, thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gels have been recognized as an interesting and promising ocular topical delivery vehicle for lipophilic drugs. In this study, a series of thermosensitive copolymers, hyaluronic acid-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (HA-g-PNIPAAm), was synthesiz...

Wu Y; Yao J.; Zhou J.; Fz, Dahmani

2013-01-01

86

X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies

87

X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Environmental Science and Engineering Div.; Lowe, K.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Murdoch, L.D. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Slack, W.W. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Houk, T.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States)

1998-03-01

88

Microwave-assisted in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-BiVO4 composite photocatalysts and their enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of ciprofloxacin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Microwave-assisted in situ growth of RGO-BiVO4 composite was proposed. ? A relatively small particle size with organic-additives free. ? Graphene was formed during the microwave-heating by oxygen capture. ? GB-2 sample exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (3 times over pure BiVO4). ? The enhancements of activities result from the effective charge separation. -- Abstract: To improve the photodegradation efficiency for ciprofloxacin (CIP), a new-type microwave-assisted in situ growth method is developed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) -BiVO4 composite photocatalysts. The as-produced RGO-BiVO4 composite photocatalysts show extremely high enhancement of CIP degradation ratio over the pure BiVO4 photocatalyst under visible light. Specially, the 2 wt% RGO-BiVO4 composite photocatalyst exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (68.2%) in 60 min, which is over 3 times than that (22.7%) of the pure BiVO4 particles. The enhancement of photocatalytic activities of RGO-BiVO4 photocatalysts can be attributed to the effective separation of electron–hole pairs rather than the improvement of light absorption

89

Microwave-assisted in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts and their enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of ciprofloxacin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? Microwave-assisted in situ growth of RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite was proposed. ? A relatively small particle size with organic-additives free. ? Graphene was formed during the microwave-heating by oxygen capture. ? GB-2 sample exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (3 times over pure BiVO{sub 4}). ? The enhancements of activities result from the effective charge separation. -- Abstract: To improve the photodegradation efficiency for ciprofloxacin (CIP), a new-type microwave-assisted in situ growth method is developed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) -BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts. The as-produced RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts show extremely high enhancement of CIP degradation ratio over the pure BiVO{sub 4} photocatalyst under visible light. Specially, the 2 wt% RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalyst exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (68.2%) in 60 min, which is over 3 times than that (22.7%) of the pure BiVO{sub 4} particles. The enhancement of photocatalytic activities of RGO-BiVO{sub 4} photocatalysts can be attributed to the effective separation of electron–hole pairs rather than the improvement of light absorption.

Yan, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Sun, Shaofang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Yanta Road 126, Xi’an, 710054 (China); Song, Yang; Yan, Xu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Guan, Weisheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Yanta Road 126, Xi’an, 710054 (China); Liu, Xinlin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Shi, Weidong, E-mail: swd1978@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China)

2013-04-15

90

Three-dimensional interconnected network of graphene-wrapped porous silicon spheres: in situ magnesiothermic-reduction synthesis and enhanced lithium-storage capabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel type of 3D porous Si-G micro/nanostructure (i.e., 3D interconnected network of graphene-wrapped porous silicon spheres, Si@G network) was constructed through layer-by-layer assembly and subsequent in situ magnesiothermic-reduction methodology. Compared with bare Si spheres, the as-synthesized Si@G network exhibits markedly enhanced anodic performance in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability, making it an ideal anode candidate for high-energy, long-life, and high-power lithium-ion batteries. PMID:24506494

Wu, Ping; Wang, Hui; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Yiming; Lu, Tianhong

2014-03-12

91

Low-temperature in situ formation of Y-Ba-Cu-O high Tc superconducting thin films by plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highly textured, highly dense, superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films with mirror-like surfaces have been prepared, in situ, at a reduced substrate temperature as low as 570 degree C by a remote microwave plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process (PE-MOCVD). Nitrous oxide was used as the oxidizer gas. The as-deposited films grown by PE-MOCVD show attainment of zero resistance at 72 K. PE-MOCVD was carried out in a commercial scale MOCVD reactor

92

Superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films on silver substrates by in situ plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An in situ microwave plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process was used to fabricate highly c-axis oriented YBa2Cu3O7-x superconducting thin films on metallic Ag substrates. The films were deposited at a reduced substrate temperature of 740 degree C in about 270 Pa of N2O ambient. Magnetic susceptibilities versus temperature of the as-deposited films show attainment of zero resistance of 85 K and composition of single (high Tc) phase. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the films deposited at 740 degree C have highly preferential orientation of the crystallite c axes perpendicular to the substrate surface

93

Enhancement of the sweep efficiency of waterflooding operations by the in-situ microbial population of petroleum reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Live cores were obtained from five reservoirs using special precautions to prevent contamination by exogenous microorganisms and minimize exposure to oxygen. The depths from which the cores were obtained ranged from 2,705 ft to 6,568 ft. Core plugs were cut radially from live cores, encased in heat-shrink plastic tubes, placed in core holders, and fitted with inlets and outlets. Nutrient additions stimulated the in-situ microbial population to increase, dissolve stratal material, produce gases, and release oil. Reduction in flow through the core plugs was observed in some cases, while in other cases flow was increased, probably due to the dissolution of carbonates in the formation. A field demonstration of the ability of the in-situ microbial population to increase oil recovery by blocking the more permeable zones of the reservoir is currently underway. This demonstration is being conducted in the North Blowhorn Creek Unit situated in Lamar County, Alabama. Live cores were obtained from a newly drilled well in the field and tested as described above. The field project involves four test patterns each including one injector, four to five producers, and a comparable control injector with its four to five producers. Nutrient injection in the field began November 1994.

Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A.; Stephens, J.O.; Azadpour, A.

1995-12-31

94

Facile in situ synthesis of hydrophilic RGO-CD-Ag supramolecular hybrid and its enhanced antibacterial properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a novel hydrophilic RGO-CD-Ag hybrid with the supramolecular ?-cyclodextrin (CD) as a conjugation interface was fabricated successfully by a facile in situ synthesis process. The results of several characterizations confirmed that the in situ reaction provided a straightforward approach to deposit the CD wrapped Ag nanoparticles onto the CD chemical functionalized RGO sheets through the head-to-head H-bond interactions between the linker CD molecules. Moreover, it was also found that the CD interface that existed indeed influences the structure and performances of RGO-CD-Ag nanocomposite. The analysis of the static contact angle revealed that the surface property of the hybrid could be transformed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic feature, which highly improved the aqueous dispersibility. And then, the bactericidal test of RGO-CD-Ag was demonstrated and clearly showed the strongest antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria among all samples. In short, this method may readily provide a new family of supramolecular based materials expected to find applications beyond the bactericidal field. PMID:24863236

Li, Tie; Shen, Jianfeng; Li, Na; Ye, Mingxin

2014-06-01

95

Enhancement of biodiesel production from marine alga, Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification process associated with acidic catalyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5%) > solvent quantity (26.7%) > reaction time (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (34.36%) > catalyst (28.62%) > time (19.72%) > temperature (17.32%). The overall biodiesel production appeared to be better using NaOH as an alkaline catalyst rather than using H2SO4 in an acidic process, at 55.07 ± 2.18% (based on lipid weight) versus 48.41 ± 0.21%. However, in considering the purified biodiesel, it was found that the acidic catalyst was approximately 2.5 times more efficient than the alkaline catalyst under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 70 °C (level 2), reaction time of 10 hrs (level 2), catalyst amount of 5% (level 3), and biomass to solvent ratio of 1 : 15 (level 2), respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the acidic solvent, which combined oil extraction with in situ transesterification, was an effective catalyst for the production of high-quantity, high-quality biodiesel from a Scenedesmus sp. PMID:24689039

Kim, Ga Vin; Choi, Woonyong; Kang, Dohyung; Lee, Shinyoung; Lee, Hyeonyong

2014-01-01

96

Microwave-assisted in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-BiVO4 composite photocatalysts and their enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of ciprofloxacin.  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve the photodegradation efficiency for ciprofloxacin (CIP), a new-type microwave-assisted in situ growth method is developed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) -BiVO4 composite photocatalysts. The as-produced RGO-BiVO4 composite photocatalysts show extremely high enhancement of CIP degradation ratio over the pure BiVO4 photocatalyst under visible light. Specially, the 2 wt% RGO-BiVO4 composite photocatalyst exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (68.2%) in 60 min, which is over 3 times than that (22.7%) of the pure BiVO4 particles. The enhancement of photocatalytic activities of RGO-BiVO4 photocatalysts can be attributed to the effective separation of electron-hole pairs rather than the improvement of light absorption. PMID:23434486

Yan, Yan; Sun, Shaofang; Song, Yang; Yan, Xu; Guan, Weisheng; Liu, Xinlin; Shi, Weidong

2013-04-15

97

Enhanced water window x-ray emission from in situ formed carbon clusters irradiated by intense ultra-short laser pulses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Enhanced water window x-ray emission (23–44 Å) from carbon clusters, formed in situ using a pre-pulse, irradiated by intense (I > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) ultra-short laser pulse, is demonstrated. An order of magnitude x-ray enhancement over planar graphite target is observed in carbon clusters, formed by a sub-ns pre-pulse, interacting with intense main pulse after a delay. The effect of the delay and the duration of the main pulse is studied for optimizing the x-ray emission in the water window region. This x-ray source has added advantages of being an efficient, high repetition rate, and low debris x-ray source.

Chakravarty, U.; Rao, B. S.; Arora, V.; Upadhyay, A.; Singhal, H.; Naik, P. A.; Chakera, J. A.; Mukherjee, C.; Gupta, P. D. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452 013 Madhya Pradesh (India)

2013-07-29

98

In situ polymerization of graphene oxide and cyanate ester-epoxy with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties  

Science.gov (United States)

Uniformly dispersed graphene oxide (GO)/cyanate ester (CE)-epoxy (EP) composites were successfully synthesized by in situ polymerization. Both the results of FT-IR and XPS verified that epoxide groups on the GO sheets reacted with cyanate group (Osbnd Ctbnd N) in the resin. These results could provide excellent dispersion of GO and strong interfacial interaction between GO and CE matrix. TEM confirmed that GO tended to be a single layer. XRD and SEM indicated that matrix molecules could be inserted into the interplanar spacing of GO. The mechanical properties and thermal behavior of the composites were investigated in detail. It is observed that GO reinforced EP-CE composites demonstrated improved mechanical properties and better thermal stability than that of EP-CE matrix, which make them suitable for use in aerospace applications and structural composites.

Ren, Fang; Zhu, Guangming; Ren, Penggang; Wang, Yongkun; Cui, Xiaoping

2014-10-01

99

Monitoring plasmon-driven surface catalyzed reactions in situ using time-dependent surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on single particles of hierarchical peony-like silver microflowers  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigating the kinetics of catalytic reactions with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on a single particle remains a significant challenge. In this study, the single particle of the constructed hierarchical peony-like silver microflowers (SMFs) with highly roughened surface led to the coupling of high catalytic activity with a strong SERS effect, which acts as an excellent bifunctional platform for in situ monitoring of surface catalytic reactions. The kinetics of the reaction of 4-nitrothiophenol (4-NTP) dimerizing into 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) was investigated and comparatively studied by using the SERS technique on a single particle of different morphologies of SMFs. The results indicate that a fully developed nanostructure of a hierarchical SMF has both larger SERS enhancement and apparent reaction rate constant k, which may be useful for monitoring and understanding the mechanism of plasmon-driven surface catalyzed reactions.Investigating the kinetics of catalytic reactions with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on a single particle remains a significant challenge. In this study, the single particle of the constructed hierarchical peony-like silver microflowers (SMFs) with highly roughened surface led to the coupling of high catalytic activity with a strong SERS effect, which acts as an excellent bifunctional platform for in situ monitoring of surface catalytic reactions. The kinetics of the reaction of 4-nitrothiophenol (4-NTP) dimerizing into 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) was investigated and comparatively studied by using the SERS technique on a single particle of different morphologies of SMFs. The results indicate that a fully developed nanostructure of a hierarchical SMF has both larger SERS enhancement and apparent reaction rate constant k, which may be useful for monitoring and understanding the mechanism of plasmon-driven surface catalyzed reactions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S12. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01939c

Tang, Xianghu; Cai, Wenya; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

2014-07-01

100

In-Situ Characterization of Electrode-Solution Interfacial Processes by Atomic-Resolution Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author's research is directed towards the atomic-molecular-level understanding of electrochemical interfacial processes, utilizing in-situ atomic-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The majority of this research effort has focussed on a systematic STM study of potential -induced surface reconstruction of gold single crystal electrodes and combined atomic-resolution STM and surface vibrational spectroscopy as in-situ probes of molecular adsorption and electrooxidation on metal electrodes. We have demonstrated for the first time that truly atomic-resolution STM images of gold surface reconstruction and molecular transformation can be observed at electrochemical interfaces under potential control conditions. The findings illustrate in a more general vein the power of STM for elucidating previously unobtainable details of surface atomic structure at electrochemical interfaces. The STM study shows that Au(111), (100), (110), (311), and (533) are observed to undergo reconstruction at the potentials corresponding to small (ca. 10-15 muc cm^{-2}) negative electrode charges. Some information regarding the mechanisms of the changes in atomic density required for reconstruction can be obtained from time- and potential -dependent sequences of STM images. In-situ potential-dependent STM studies of electrochemical processes of sulfide and iodide on Au(111), carbon monoxide on Rh(111) and (110) in aqueous solutions have been carried out and compared with SER spectra or infrared spectra. The details of potential-dependent adlayer structures and the formation of electrooxidation products, such as S _8 rings, polyiodide chains and crystal films, were observed and the results are in good agreement with the surface vibrational spectra. The orientation of adsorbed benzene and monosubstituted benzenes on gold electrodes have also been studied using SER spectroscopy. The results provide strong evidence that SERS selection rules can yield reliable information regarding adsorbate orientation on electrodes.

Gao, Xiaoping

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Enhanced Production of Botrallin and TMC-264 with in Situ Macroporous Resin Adsorption in Mycelial Liquid Culture of the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, an endophytic fungus from the hybrid “Neva” of Populus deltoides × P. nigra, is a high producer of the bioactive dibenzo-?-pyrones botrallin and TMC-264. However, both the botrallin and TMC-264 produced by Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 were retained as both intracellular and extracellular products. The aim of this study was to evaluate an in situ macroporous resin adsorption for enhancement of botrallin and TMC-264 production in mycelial liquid culture of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12. Production of botrallin and TMC-264 was most effectively enhanced by macroporous resin DM-301 among the thirteen nonionic macroporous resins tested. The highest botrallin yield (51.47 mg/L, which was 2.29-fold higher than the control at 22.49 mg/L was obtained by adding resin DM-301 at 4.38% (g/mL to the culture broth on day 24 and allowing a period of 4 days for adsorption. The highest TMC-264 yield reached 47.74 mg/L, which was 11.76-fold higher than that of the control (4.06 mg/L, and was achieved by adding DM-301 resin at 4.38% (w/v in the culture broth on day 24 and allowing a period of 6 days for adsorption. The results show that in situ resin adsorption is an effective strategy for enhancing production of botrallin and TMC-264, and also for facilitating their recovery from mycelial liquid culture of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12.

Haiyu Luo

2014-09-01

102

Enhanced Production of Botrallin and TMC-264 with in Situ Macroporous Resin Adsorption in Mycelial Liquid Culture of the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, an endophytic fungus from the hybrid "Neva" of Populus deltoides × P. nigra, is a high producer of the bioactive dibenzo-?-pyrones botrallin and TMC-264. However, both the botrallin and TMC-264 produced by Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 were retained as both intracellular and extracellular products. The aim of this study was to evaluate an in situ macroporous resin adsorption for enhancement of botrallin and TMC-264 production in mycelial liquid culture of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12. Production of botrallin and TMC-264 was most effectively enhanced by macroporous resin DM-301 among the thirteen nonionic macroporous resins tested. The highest botrallin yield (51.47 mg/L, which was 2.29-fold higher than the control at 22.49 mg/L) was obtained by adding resin DM-301 at 4.38% (g/mL) to the culture broth on day 24 and allowing a period of 4 days for adsorption. The highest TMC-264 yield reached 47.74 mg/L, which was 11.76-fold higher than that of the control (4.06 mg/L), and was achieved by adding DM-301 resin at 4.38% (w/v) in the culture broth on day 24 and allowing a period of 6 days for adsorption. The results show that in situ resin adsorption is an effective strategy for enhancing production of botrallin and TMC-264, and also for facilitating their recovery from mycelial liquid culture of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12. PMID:25211003

Luo, Haiyu; Liu, Hongwei; Cao, Yuheng; Xu, Dan; Mao, Ziling; Mou, Yan; Meng, Jiajia; Lai, Daowan; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang

2014-01-01

103

Design and implementation of two two-week Teacher Enhancement Institutes  

Science.gov (United States)

During this summer, I have been part of a four team effort that planned and executed two two-week Teacher Enhancement Institutes (TEI) for 40 K-8 teachers from this area. The TEI was designed to enhance teachers' background in aeronautics and technology so that they would be better equipped to encourage and to train students in the mathematics, science, and technology fields. The teachers were given a stipend and three graduate credits from Christopher Newport University for their participation in this program. The four ASEE fellows worked together to develop objectives and a schedule of activities for each two-week session based on the program outline given in the grants that were funding this effort. We divided the responsibilities in coordinating and implementing each part of the TEI based on the specific strengths and background of each ASEE fellow. My specific responsibilities were: (1) to develop the course syllabus and generally handle all matters involved with the graduate course; (2) coordinate the follow-up sessions; and (3) design and manage half of the technology sessions that we had scheduled (approximately 30% of the TEI was devoted to technology). Because the first two responsibilities were primarily administrative in nature, I will address only the last. The technology sessions were divided into computer-only and other technologies (e.g., television and digital technology including scanning, digital photography and CD-ROM). I had responsibility for the computer-only technology sessions. The emphasis of these sessions was on use of the Internet specifically to locate and use educational resources. To maximize learning, these sessions were hands-on with two teachers at each computer. Each teacher received instruction in, and actually used, the most popular tools available on the Internet: email (they were given temporary accounts at NASA LaRC), anonymous ftp and archie, gopher and veronica, mosaic, and telnet. Teachers participated in hands-on workshops to learn about these programs, but were also given time during the two-week session to explore on their own and to find resources on the Net that specifically met their needs. In order to ensure that Internet access continues after their return to the classroom, aIl teachers who did not have them also applied for Learning Link accounts (from WHRO, the local public television station) and Virginia Pen accounts (from the Department of Education of Virginia), both of which allow textbased access to Internet. In addition to getting exposure to and practice with Internet tools, teachers were aIso given a hands-on seminar (and also given practice time) on ClarisWorks, an integrated word processing, spreadsheet, database, and paint package. The technology sessions (and TEI as a whole) were enthusiastically received by both new and more experienced teachers as extremely helpful in improving their ability to use technology in developing lesson pIans.

Lambert, Lynn

1994-01-01

104

Two-stage in situ gas stripping for enhanced butanol fermentation and energy-saving product recovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two-stage gas stripping for butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation with Clostridium acetobutylicum JB200 in a fibrous bed bioreactor was studied. Compared to fermentation without in situ gas stripping, more ABE (10.0 g/L acetone, 19.2 g/L butanol, 1.7 g/L ethanol vs. 7.9 g/L acetone, 16.2 g/L butanol, 1.4 g/L ethanol) were produced, with a higher butanol yield (0.25 g/g vs. 0.20 g/g) and productivity (0.40 g/L·h vs. 0.30 g/L·h) due to reduced butanol inhibition. The first-stage gas stripping produced a condensate containing 175.6 g/L butanol (227.0 g/L ABE), which after phase separation formed an organic phase containing 612.3g/L butanol (660.7 g/L ABE) and an aqueous phase containing 101.3 g/L butanol (153.2 g/L ABE). After second-stage gas stripping, a highly concentrated product containing 420.3 g/L butanol (532.3 g/L ABE) was obtained. The process is thus effective in producing high-titer butanol that can be purified with much less energy. PMID:22939598

Xue, Chuang; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Fangfang; Lu, Congcong; Yang, Shang-Tian; Bai, Feng-Wu

2013-05-01

105

Usage of waste products from thermal recycling of plastics waste in enhanced oil recovery or in-situ coal conversion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this contribution a thermal method for crude oil mobilization and in-situ liquefaction of coal is discussed, which will finally yield more organic material, as which has been put in from plastics waste originally into the process. The conversion product from thermal treatment is pumped down into exhausted crude oil reservoirs, where the hydrogen can degrade the residual high viscous oil to cause it to become more prone to flow so that it can be recovered. Such a process will envision two goals: 1. more organic raw material (as crude oil) will be recovered than is initially put in as waste product. 2. atmospheric pollutants from the conversion plant will be trapped in the reservoir, which simplifies the construction of the plant. An analogous process may be performed with coal seams. Coal seams with their high porosity and large specific surface are believed to be in particular useful to filter atmospheric pollutants. Depending on the type of coal the mobilization of organic material by this process may be in the background. (orig./SR)

Fink, M.; Fink, J.K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

1998-09-01

106

ENVIROMETAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC., METAL-ENHANCED DECHLORINATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING AN IN-SITU REACTIVE IRON WALL  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes the results of a field demonstration conducted under the SITE program. The technology that was demonstrated was a metal-enhanced dechlorination process developed by EnviroMetal Technologies, Inc. to treat groundwater contaminated with chlorinated volatile ...

107

Encapsulation of LiFePO4 by in-situ graphitized carbon cage towards enhanced low temperature performance as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries  

Science.gov (United States)

The severe capacity decay of LiFePO4 at low temperatures (?0 °C) limits its wide applications as cathode materials for energy storage batteries. Creating comprehensive carbon network between particles with improved electronic conductivity is a well known solution to this problem. Here, a novel structured LiFePO4/C composite was prepared by a facile solid state route, in which nanosized LiFePO4 spheres were encapsulated by in-situ graphitized carbon cages. With the enhancement in electronic conductivity (2.15e-1 S cm-1), the composite presented excellent rate performance at room temperature and remarkable capacity retention at -40 °C, with charge transfer resistance much lower than commercial LiFePO4.

Yao, Bin; Ding, Zhaojun; Zhang, Jianxin; Feng, Xiaoyu; Yin, Longwei

2014-08-01

108

The effects of nitrogen profile and concentration on negative bias temperature instability of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition HfOxNy prepared by in situ nitridation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have prepared plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition HfOxNy thin films by in situ nitridation using nitrogen/oxygen mixture plasma and studied the effects of nitrogen contents and profiles on the negative bias temperature instability (NBTI). The nitrogen depth profiles and concentrations were controlled by changing the exposure sequences and the nitrogen to oxygen flow ratio, respectively. The best immunity to NBTI degradations was obtained for the nitrogen to oxygen ratio of 2:1 when nitrogen atoms are incorporated away from the high k/Si interface. We propose a dielectric degradation mechanism based on the reaction-diffusion model in which nitrogen plays a role of hydrogen generator at the interface and diffusion barrier in the bulk film

109

An in situ reduction method for preparing silver/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Novel silver/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposite films were obtained by an in situ reduction method, in which the silver nitrate, sodium poly(?-glutamic acid) (PGA) and PVA acted as precursor, stabilizer and polyol reducant, respectively. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-activity of as-prepared nanocomposite films was investigated using benzoic acid (BA) as probed molecule. The results showed that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band on silver films was more symmetric with stronger intensity than silver colloidal solution, indicating that the Ag nanoparticle distribution on the film substrate was uniform. The fact was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) measurements. It was found that PGA-stabilized silver/PVA nanocomposite film revealed the presence of well-dispersed and spherical silver nanoparticles with average diameter of 90 nm, while the particle sizes were enlarged as the PGA concentration increased. The new substrate presented high SERS enhancement and the enhanced factor was estimated to be 106 for the detection of benzoic acid

110

Performance enhancements and muscular adaptations of a 16-week recreational football intervention for untrained women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study investigated the performance effects and physiological adaptations over 16 weeks of recreational football training and continuous running for healthy untrained premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group [Football group (FG): n=21; running group (RG): n=18; CO: n=14]. Two weekly 1-h training sessions were performed in FG and RG. After 4 and 16 weeks of training VO(2max) was elevated (P<0.05) by 7% and 15%, respectively, in FG, and by 6% and 10%, respectively, in RG. After 16 weeks, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 performance was 33% and 19% better (P<0.05) for FG and 29% and 21% better (P<0.05) for RG than after 4 and 0 weeks, respectively. Peak sprinting speed was 12% higher (21.0 +/- 0.6 vs 18.8 +/- 0.7 km/h; P<0.05) for FG after the training period, whereas no difference was observed for RG. After 4 weeks citrate synthase (CS) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity was 9% and 8%, respectively, higher (P<0.05) than before training in FG with no furtherchanges during the last 12 weeks. In RG, CS increased (P<0.05) by 12% after 4 weeks and no significant increase was observed for HAD. In FG, the number of capillaries per fiber was 18% higher (P<0.05) after 16 weeks (2.44 +/- 0.15 vs 2.07 +/- 0.05 cap/fiber), with no significant difference for RG. No differences were observed between 0 and 16 weeks for CO. In conclusion, recreational women's football leads to significant increases in VO(2max), performance and muscular adaptations throughout a 16-week training period. Thus, football can be used as an activity to elevate the physical capacity of untrained women.

Bangsbo, Jens; Nielsen, Jens Jung

2010-01-01

111

Bifunctional Au@Pt core-shell nanostructures for in situ monitoring of catalytic reactions by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Optical probes of heterogeneous catalytic reactions are of great importance for in situ determination of the catalytic activity and monitoring of the reaction process. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy could be used as a sensitive optical probe for this purpose provided that plasmonic metal nanoparticles for Raman enhancement are properly integrated with catalytic metals to form a single entity. Herein we present a facile approach for synthesizing Au@Pt core-shell nanostructures with a controllable surface density of sub-5 nm Pt nanoparticles on the surface of Au nanorods. Systematic investigations on both SERS and catalytic activities of the hybrid nanostructures reveal an optimized surface coverage of Pt. More importantly, we demonstrate that, due to their dual functionalities, the hybrid nanostructures are able to track the Pt-catalysed reaction in real time by measuring the SERS signals of the reactant, intermediate and final products. This SERS-based synergy technique provides a novel approach for quantitatively studying catalytic chemical reaction processes and is suitable for many applications such as reduction and oxidation reactions in fuel cells and catalytic water splitting.Optical probes of heterogeneous catalytic reactions are of great importance for in situ determination of the catalytic activity and monitoring of the reaction process. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy could be used as a sensitive optical probe for this purpose provided that plasmonic metal nanoparticles for Raman enhancement are properly integrated with catalytic metals to form a single entity. Herein we present a facile approach for synthesizing Au@Pt core-shell nanostructures with a controllable surface density of sub-5 nm Pt nanoparticles on the surface of Au nanorods. Systematic investigations on both SERS and catalytic activities of the hybrid nanostructures reveal an optimized surface coverage of Pt. More importantly, we demonstrate that, due to their dual functionalities, the hybrid nanostructures are able to track the Pt-catalysed reaction in real time by measuring the SERS signals of the reactant, intermediate and final products. This SERS-based synergy technique provides a novel approach for quantitatively studying catalytic chemical reaction processes and is suitable for many applications such as reduction and oxidation reactions in fuel cells and catalytic water splitting. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00770k

Bao, Zhi Yong; Lei, Dang Yuan; Jiang, Ruibin; Liu, Xin; Dai, Jiyan; Wang, Jianfang; Chan, Helen L. W.; Tsang, Yuen Hong

2014-07-01

112

Performance enhancements and muscular adaptations of a 16-week recreational football intervention for untrained women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the performance effects and physiological adaptations over 16 weeks of recreational football training and continuous running for healthy untrained premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group [Football group (FG): n=21; running group (RG): n=18; CO: n=14]. Two weekly 1-h training sessions were performed in FG and RG. After 4 and 16 weeks of training VO(2max) was elevated (PYo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 performance was 33% and 19% better (P<0.05) for FG and 29% and 21% better (P<0.05) for RG than after 4 and 0 weeks, respectively. Peak sprinting speed was 12% higher (21.0 +/- 0.6 vs 18.8 +/- 0.7 km/h; P<0.05) for FG after the training period, whereas no difference was observed for RG. After 4 weeks citrate synthase (CS) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity was 9% and 8%, respectively, higher (P<0.05) than before training in FG with no further changes during the last 12 weeks. In RG, CS increased (P<0.05) by 12% after 4 weeks and no significant increase was observed for HAD. In FG, the number of capillaries per fiber was 18% higher (P<0.05) after 16 weeks (2.44 +/- 0.15 vs 2.07 +/- 0.05 cap/fiber), with no significant difference for RG. No differences were observed between 0 and 16 weeks for CO. In conclusion, recreational women's football leads to significant increases in VO(2max), performance and muscular adaptations throughout a 16-week training period. Thus, football can be used as an activity to elevate the physical capacity of untrained women. PMID:19954496

Bangsbo, J; Nielsen, J J; Mohr, M; Randers, M B; Krustrup, B R; Brito, J; Nybo, L; Krustrup, P

2010-04-01

113

Resolution of an important discrepancy between remote and in-situ measurements of tropospheric BrO during Antarctic enhancements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tropospheric BrO was measured by a ground-based remote-sensing spectrometer at Halley in Antarctica, and BrO was measured by remote-sensing spectrometers in space using similar spectral regions and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS analyses. Near-surface BrO was simultaneously measured at Halley by Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (CIMS, and in an earlier year near-surface BrO was measured at Halley over a long path by a DOAS spectrometer. During enhancement episodes, total amounts of tropospheric BrO from the ground-based remote-sensor were similar to those from space, but if we assume that the BrO was confined to the boundary layer they were very much larger than values measured by either near-surface technique. This large apparent discrepancy can be resolved if substantial amounts of BrO were in the free troposphere during most enhancement episodes. Amounts observed by the ground-based remote sensor at different elevation angles, and their formal inversions to vertical profiles, also show that much of the BrO was often in the free troposphere. This is consistent with the ~5 day lifetime of Bry, from the enhanced BrO observed during some Antarctic blizzards, and from aircraft measurements of BrO well above the surface in the Arctic.

H. K. Roscoe

2012-08-01

114

In-situ characterization of trapped charges in amorphous semiconductor films during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subband-gap absorption current in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon film has been measured during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The current is probed by a near-infrared laser while photoexcited carriers are generated under visible laser illumination. The trapped charge density is determined from the magnitude of current under the assumption of carrier generation and recombination kinetics. The result indicates that trapped charges are distributed uniformly in the film during growth, and they are reduced after the growth. The trapped charge density is minimized at a growth temperature of ? 473 K.

S. Nunomura

2014-09-01

115

In-situ characterization of trapped charges in amorphous semiconductor films during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Science.gov (United States)

The subband-gap absorption current in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon film has been measured during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The current is probed by a near-infrared laser while photoexcited carriers are generated under visible laser illumination. The trapped charge density is determined from the magnitude of current under the assumption of carrier generation and recombination kinetics. The result indicates that trapped charges are distributed uniformly in the film during growth, and they are reduced after the growth. The trapped charge density is minimized at a growth temperature of ? 473 K.

Nunomura, S.; Sakata, I.

2014-09-01

116

In Situ Growth of Hollow Gold-Silver Nanoshells within Porous Silica Offers Tunable Plasmonic Extinctions and Enhanced Colloidal Stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Porous silica-coated hollow gold-silver nanoshells were successfully synthesized utilizing a procedure where the porous silica shell was produced prior to the transformation of the metallic core, providing enhanced control over the structure/composition of the bimetallic hollow core. By varying the reaction time and the precise amount of gold salt solution added to a porous silica-coated silver-core template solution, composite nanoparticles were tailored to reveal a readily tunable surface plasmon resonance that could be centered across the visible and near-IR spectral regions (?445-800 nm). Characterization by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the synthetic methodology afforded particles having uniform composition, size, and shape. The optical properties were evaluated by absorption/extinction spectroscopy. The stability of colloidal solutions of our composite nanoparticles as a function of pH was also investigated, revealing that the nanoshells remain intact over a wide range of conditions (i.e., pH 2-10). The facile tunability, enhanced stability, and relatively small diameter of these composite particles (?110 nm) makes them promising candidates for use in tumor ablation or as photothermal drug-delivery agents. PMID:25321928

Li, Chien-Hung; Jamison, Andrew C; Rittikulsittichai, Supparesk; Lee, Tai-Chou; Lee, T Randall

2014-11-26

117

In situ nanoscale refinement by highly controllable etching of the (111) silicon crystal plane and its influence on the enhanced electrical property of a silicon nanowire  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanoscale refinement on a (100) oriented silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer was introduced by using tetra-methyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH, 25 wt%) anisotropic silicon etchant, with temperature kept at 50 °C to achieve precise etching of the (111) crystal plane. Specifically for a silicon nanowire (SiNW) with oxide sidewall protection, the in situ TMAH process enabled effective size reduction in both lateral (2.3 nm/min) and vertical (1.7 nm/min) dimensions. A sub-50 nm SiNW with a length of microns with uniform triangular cross-section was achieved accordingly, yielding enhanced field effect transistor (FET) characteristics in comparison with its 100 nm-wide pre-refining counterpart, which demonstrated the feasibility of this highly controllable refinement process. Detailed examination revealed that the high surface quality of the (111) plane, as well as the bulk depletion property should be the causes of this electrical enhancement, which implies the great potential of the as-made cost-effective SiNW FET device in many fields. (semiconductor materials)

118

In situ evaluation of orthodontic elastomeric chains.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypothesis tested in this study was that intraoral exposure of elastomeric chains alters their tensile strength. For such purpose, it was evaluated the in situ behavior of different elastomeric chains stretched for 3 weeks. Three kinds of elastomeric chains, Plastic chain (PC), Memory chain (MC) and Super slick chain (SSC), were randomly placed in 3 quadrants of 13 patient in a fixed distance of 16 mm and mean initial force of 180 g. Tensile testing was performed in an universal testing machine at different intervals: initial, 1 h, 24 h, 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks. A two-way ANOVA test was performed to identify the influence of both material and time on the force decrease. A subsequent one-way ANOVAtest with the Tukey's post hoc test was used to identify statistically significant intragroup and intergroup remaining force (g and %) differences at 5% significance level. The effect of both the material and the time factors were significant. All groups showed significant force decrease after the 1-h period (23% for PC and 14% for MC and SSC). At the end of the 3-week period, the remaining force was 57% (96 g), 67% (129 g) and 71% (125 g) for PC, MC and SSC, respectively. In conclusion, intraoral exposure of elastomeric chains altered their tensile strength. In general, the greater force decrease occurred within the first hour. The remaining force of the enhanced chains measured at each time interval was greater than the conventional one (PC). After 3 weeks, only the enhanced chains maintained the force applied over 100 g. PMID:23207855

Baratieri, Carolina; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; Alves, Matheus; Lau, Thiago Chon Leon; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; de Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes; Araujo, Monica Tirre; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

2012-01-01

119

In situ evaluation of orthodontic elastomeric chains  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A hipótese testada foi que a exposição dos elásticos em cadeia ao meio bucal altera sua força de tensão. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o comportamento, in situ, de diferentes cadeias elastoméricas quando tensionadas durante 3 semanas. Três tipos de elásticos em cadeia Plastic Chain ( [...] PC), Memory Chain (MC) e Super Slick Chain (SSC) foram inseridos aleatoriamente em 3 dos quadrantes de 13 pacientes com distância fixa de 16 mm e força inicial de 180 g. Foi realizado ensaio de tração em uma máquina de ensaio universal EMIC nos seguintes intervalos: inicial, 1 h, 24 h, 1 semana, 2 semanas e 3 semanas. O teste ANOVA a dois critérios foi aplicado para verificar a influência do material e do tempo na degradação da força. Subsequentemente, foi utilizado o teste ANOVA a um critério e pós-teste de Tukey para identificar diferenças estatísticas (p Abstract in english The hypothesis tested in this study was that intraoral exposure of elastomeric chains alters their tensile strength. For such purpose, it was evaluated the in situ behavior of different elastomeric chains stretched for 3 weeks. Three kinds of elastomeric chains, Plastic chain (PC), Memory chain (MC) [...] and Super slick chain (SSC), were randomly placed in 3 quadrants of 13 patient in a fixed distance of 16 mm and mean initial force of 180 g. Tensile testing was performed in an universal testing machine at different intervals: initial, 1 h, 24 h, 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks. A two-way ANOVA test was performed to identify the influence of both material and time on the force decrease. A subsequent one-way ANOVAtest with the Tukey's post hoc test was used to identify statistically significant intragroup and intergroup remaining force (g and %) differences at 5% significance level. The effect of both the material and the time factors were significant. All groups showed significant force decrease after the 1-h period (23% for PC and 14% for MC and SSC). At the end of the 3-week period, the remaining force was 57% (96 g), 67% (129 g) and 71% (125 g) for PC, MC and SSC, respectively. In conclusion, intraoral exposure of elastomeric chains altered their tensile strength. In general, the greater force decrease occurred within the first hour. The remaining force of the enhanced chains measured at each time interval was greater than the conventional one (PC). After 3 weeks, only the enhanced chains maintained the force applied over 100 g.

Carolina, Baratieri; Cláudia Trindade, Mattos; Matheus, Alves Jr; Thiago Chon Leon, Lau; Lincoln Issamu, Nojima; Margareth Maria Gomes de, Souza; Monica Tirre, Araujo; Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves, Nojima.

120

In-situ treatment of a mixed hydrocarbon plume through a permeable reactive barrier and enhanced bio-remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater is frequently polluted with mixtures of contaminants that are amenable to different types of remediation. One example is the combination of petroleum hydrocarbons (mostly BTEX) and chlorinated solvents (chlorinated ethenes and propanes), as it occurs in the groundwater beneath the industrial site that is the objective of the present case study. The site is located in Italy near a main river (Arno), which is supposed to be the final recipient of the contamination and where a possible exposure might take place. The aim of the treatment is the plume containment within the site boundaries in order to avoid further migration of the contaminants towards the river. The design of the remediation system was based on an extensive site characterization that included - but was not limited to - the following information: geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with analytical data (i.e. contaminant concentrations). Pilot tests were also implemented in order to collect the necessary parameters for the full-scale treatment design and calibration. The site was contaminated by a mixed plume of more than 30 different contaminants, ranging from BTEX, to MTBE, to PAH, to chlorinated solvents. The concentration peaks were in the order of 1-100 mg/l for each contaminant. Petroleum hydrocarbons are quickly degradable through oxidative mechanisms (especially aerobic biodegradation), whereas fully-chlorinated compounds are only degradable via reductive pathways. A mixed plume of both types of contaminants therefore requires a combined approach with the application of different treatment technologies. The remediation strategy elaborated combines a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) in a funnel and gate configuration for the down-gradient plume containment, with the enhanced bio-remediation of the contaminants for the control of the plume boundaries and for the abatement of the concentration peaks. Pilot tests were carried out in order to assess the efficiency and feasibility of such technologies in the site of interest. The article describes the tests that have been carried out and the results achieved, together with the selected treatment train, its design and dimensioning. (authors)

 
 
 
 
121

Stability-enhanced indium hexacyanoferrate electrodes: Morphological characterization, in situ EQCM analysis in nonaqueous electrolytes and application to a WO3 electrochromic device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a promising transparent counterelectrode system for a WO3 electrochromic device (ECD) on the basis of a stability-enhanced indium hexacyanoferrate (InHCF) electrode and a NaClO4/propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte. Through SEM characterization it was found that clusters of granular InHCF nanoparticles (ca. 80-140 nm) were deposited on ITO substrates in HCl and KCl-stabilized plating solutions, and uniform micrometer thick films with high charge capacity could be obtained. From in situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study, it was discovered that Na+ would enter or move out from the InHCF film in the 'desolvated' form during the redox process in a PC electrolyte. Besides, NaClO4/PC resulted in higher electrochemical activity and reversibility than LiClO4/PC. With these discoveries, a durable WO3-InHCF ECD featuring blue-to-colorless electrochromism was fabricated successfully. The device remained 73.6 and 88.7% of its initial ?T values at 600 and 800 nm after 40,000 rapid and successive coloring/bleaching cycles, respectively. Moreover, the cycling-induced loss of electrochromic performance almost completely restored after 1-month rest and kept unchanged for another month. Thus, the applicability of this nonaqueous InHCF counterelectrode system to ECDs was verified

122

High sensitivity in situ monitoring of NO3 in an atmospheric simulation chamber using incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the application of incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) for the in situ detection of atmospheric trace gases and radicals (NO3, NO2, O3, H2O) in an atmospheric simulation chamber under realistic atmospheric conditions. The length of the optical cavity across the reaction chamber is 4.5 m, which is significantly longer than in previous studies that use high finesse optical cavities to achieve high absorption sensitivity. Using a straightforward spectrometer configuration, we show that detection limits corresponding to typical atmospheric concentrations can be achieved with a measurement time of seconds to a few minutes. In particular, with only moderate reflectivity mirrors, we report a measured sensitivity of 4 pptv to NO3 in a 1 min acquisition time. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the IBBCEAS method and its pptv sensitivity to NO3 makes it useful in laboratory studies of atmospheric processes as well as having obvious potential for field measurements. PMID:17144307

Venables, Dean S; Gherman, Titus; Orphal, Johannes; Wenger, John C; Ruth, Albert A

2006-11-01

123

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU STEAM EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ steam extraction removes volatile and semivolatile hazardous contaminants from soil and groundwater without excavation of the hazardous waste. Waste constituents are removed in situ by the technology and are not actually treated. The use of steam enhances the stripping of...

124

Long-term population dynamics and in situ physiology in activated sludge systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal operated with and without nitrogen removal  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the combination of FISH with microautoradiography (MAR) were used in order to study the long-term population dynamics (2.5 years) and the in situ physiology in two parallel activated sludge pilot systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The two systems received the same influent wastewater, but were differently operated (with and without nitrogen removal, respectively). Both systems showed a significant P removal that increased when different substrates (phosphorus (P), acetate and glucose, respectively) were added to the influent wastewater. Rhodocyclus-related bacteria were present in both systems in significant numbers (ranging from 4 to 28%) throughout the whole period. This supports the hypothesis that these bacteria occur in significant numbers in different types of well-operating EBPR activated sludge processes. However, we observed a lower correlation (0.9). The Actinobacteria were the only additional group of bacteria whichshowed a similar degree of correlation to the P content in activated sludge as the Rhodocyclus-related bacteria - but only for the system without nitrogen removal. Significant amounts (less than or equal to12%) of glycogen-accumulating bacteria (GAOs) were detected in the system with nitrogen removal (but not in the other system), but had no, in contrast to previous observations, apparent negative effect on the overall EBPR performance. FISH-MAR indicated that a significant part of the Betaproteobacteria (part of them identified as Rhodocyclus-related bacteria) as well as the Actinobacteria were able to take up P-33(i), [H-3]-acetate and [H-3]-glucose under anaerobic-aerobic conditions. The contribution of anoxic P-33(i) uptake under alternating anaerobic-anoxic conditions was significantly lower. Interestingly, not all Rhodocyclus-related bacteria showed uptake of these three radioactive substrates. This may be due to differences in metabolic state, physiological potential or genotype, not detectable by thepresent probe set for Rhodocyclus-related bacteria. Comparison of the P-33(i), [H-3]-acetate and [H-3]-glucose uptake by activated sludge after different fixation and incubation procedures showed that a part of the observed P-33(i), uptake may have been caused by a combination of a biological and chemical or biologically induced chemical P adsorption.

Henze, Mogens

2003-01-01

125

Electrochemical and in-situ Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic (SERS) study of passive films formed on low-carbon steel in highly alkaline environments  

Science.gov (United States)

In reinforced concrete, a passive layer forms because of the alkaline conditions in the pores of the cement paste, where large concentrations of hydroxides create a solution with pH typically between 12 and 14. The corrosion resistance of the material depends on the characteristics and integrity of the passive film; however, currently very limited information is available about the passive films formed on carbon steel under such conditions. This work presents an electrochemical and in-situ Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic (SERS) study of passive films formed on low-carbon steel in highly alkaline environments. More specifically, the study focuses on the characterization of the films formed on ASTM A36 steel reinforcing bar exposed to aqueous solutions that aim to reproduce the chemistry of the environment typically found within the cement paste. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves, galvanostatic cathodic polarization and linear polarization resistance were employed, in addition to in-situ Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). The experimental setup was built in a way that SERS experiments could be performed simultaneously with potentiodynamic polarization curves, enabling a detailed analysis of the formation and reduction of the surface films as a function of applied potential. Three solutions with different pH levels were used for the polarization and SERS experiments, namely 0.55M KOH + 0.16M NaOH ([OH-]=0.71), 0.08M KOH + 0.02M NaOH ([OH-]=0.10) and 0.008M KOH + 0.002M NaOH ([OH-]=0.01). Additional NaOH solutions in which the pH was varied from 13 to 9 and the ionic strength from 10 -5 to 10-1 were prepared for a pilot study using linear polarization resistance. Results show that the features observed in the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves correlated well with the potential arrests observed in the GCP plots as well as with the changes observed in the SERS spectra, providing valuable information about the formation of passive films on carbon steel in each of the environments studied in this research. Although there are key differences among the films formed in the different solutions tested---particularly regarding their thickness and protectiveness---once the film-formation processes had been completed, generally the films were characterized by an inner layer of Fe(II) and an outer layer of Fe(III). A Fe(OH)2-like species appears consistently as dominating the inner Fe(II) layer, while the outer typically composed mostly by gamma-Fe2O3 and/or gamma-FeOOH. Film thickness varied from about 22 nm to 266 nm depending on the pH of the solution, and decreased as pH was reduced.

Mancio, Mauricio

126

In situ assembly of well-dispersed Au nanoparticles on TiO2/ZnO nanofibers: A three-way synergistic heterostructure with enhanced photocatalytic activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: We describe a route to synthesize TiO2/ZnO/Au three-way synergistic heterostructure nanofibers with high efficiency photocatalysts. Highlights: ? Synthesis of tri-component TiO2/ZnO/Au nanofibers. ? TiO2/ZnO/Au nanofibers showed excellent photocatalytic activity. ? Easy photocatalyst separation and reuse. - Abstract: The TiO2/ZnO nanofibers embedded by Au nanoparticles (TiO2/ZnO/Au NFs) were fabricated by combining the electrospinning technique (for TiO2/ZnO nanofibers) and an in situ reduction approach (for Au nanoparticles). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electronmicroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, were used to characterize the as-synthesized nanofibers. The results showed that small Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) were well dispersed on the TiO2/ZnO nanofibers (TiO2/ZnO NFs). And, the TiO2/ZnO/Au nanofibers showed high charge separation efficiency under ultraviolet excitation, as evidenced by photoluminescence spectra. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the TiO2/ZnO/Au NFs exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of photodegradation of Methyl orange (MO) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) compared with the pure TiO2 nanofibers, ZnO nanofibers and TiO2/ZnO NFs uners and TiO2/ZnO NFs under ultraviolet excitation, which might be attributed to the high separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs based on the photosynergistic effect among the three components of TiO2, ZnO and Au. And, the TiO2/ZnO/Au NFs could be easily separated and recycled due to their one-dimensional nanostructural property.

127

Mechanism of Enhanced Electrochemical Oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid with in situ Microwave Activated Boron-doped Diamond and Platinum Anodes  

Science.gov (United States)

Remarkable enhancement in degradation effect is achieved at in situ activated boron-doped diamond (BDD) and Pt anodes with different extent through electrochemical oxidation (EC) of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with microwave (MW) radiation in a flow system. Results show that when EC is activated with MW radiation, the complete mineralization time of 2,4-D at the BDD is reduced quickly from 10 to 4 h while Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal at Pt is increased from 37.7 to 58.3% at 10 h; the initial current efficiency is both improved about 1.5 times while the pseudo-first-order rate constant is increased by 153 and 119% at the BDD and Pt, respectively. To gain insight into the higher efficiency in microwave activated EC, the mechanism has therefore been systematically evaluated from the essence of electrochemical reaction and the accumulated hydroxyl radical concentration. 2,4-Dichlorophenol, catechol, benquinone, and maleic and oxalic acids are the main intermediates on the Pt anode measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the intermediates on the BDD electrode include 2,4-dichlorophenol, hydroquinone, and maleic and oxalic acids. The reaction pathway with microwave radiation is the same as that in a conventional electrochemical oxidation on both electrodes. While less and lower aromatic intermediates produce at the BDD with MW, which suggests the higher ring-open ratio and the faster oxidation of carboxylic acids. With microwave radiation, the ring-open ratio at the BDD is increased to 98.8% from 85.6%; the value at Pt is increased to 67.3% from 35.9%. So microwave radiation can activate the electrochemical oxidation, which leads to the higher efficiency. This promotion is mainly due to the higher accumulated hydroxyl radical concentration and the effects by microwave radiation. All the results prove that the BDD electrode presents much better mineralization performance with MW. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time the systematic analysis of the mechanism of microwave activated EC has been reported.

Gao, Junxia; Zhao, Guohua; Liu, Meichuan; Li, Dongming

2009-09-01

128

An 8-Week Web-Based Weight Loss Challenge With Celebrity Endorsement and Enhanced Social Support: Observational Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Initial engagement and weight loss within Web-based weight loss programs may predict long-term success. The integration of persuasive Web-based features may boost engagement and therefore weight loss. Objective To determine whether an 8-week challenge within a commercial Web-based weight loss program influenced weight loss, website use, and attrition in the short term, when compared to the standard program. Methods De-identified data for participants (mean age 36.7±10.3 years; 86% female) who enrolled in the Biggest Loser Club (BLC) (n=952) and the BLC’s Shannan Ponton Fast Track Challenge (SC) for 8 weeks (n=381) were compared. The BLC program used standard evidence-based website features, with individualized calorie and exercise targets to facilitate a weight loss of 0.5-1 kg per week (–500kcal/day less than estimated energy expenditure). SC used the same website features but in addition promoted greater initial weight loss using a 1200 kcal/day energy intake target and physical activity energy expenditure of 600 kcal/day. SC used persuasive features to facilitate greater user engagement, including offering additional opportunities for social support (eg, webinar meetings with a celebrity personal trainer and social networking) endorsed by a celebrity personal trainer. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 8 weeks. A primary analysis was undertaken using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with all available weight records for all participants included. Dropout (participants who cancelled their subscription) and nonusage (participants who stopped using the Web-based features) attrition rates at 8 weeks were calculated. The number of participants who accessed each website feature and the total number of days each feature was used were calculated. The difference between attrition rates and website use for the two programs were tested using chi-square and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests, respectively. Results Using GLMM, including weight data for all participants, there was significantly greater (P=.03) 8-week weight loss in SC (–5.1 kg [–5.5 to –4.6 kg] or –6.0%) compared to BLC participants (–4.5 kg [–4.8, –4.2] or –5.0%). Dropout rates were low and consistent across groups (BLC: 17 (1.8%) vs SC: 2 (0.5%), P=.08) and 48.7% (456/936) of BLC and 51.2% (184/379) of SC participants accessed the website at 8 weeks, with no difference between programs (P=.48). SC participants accessed the discussion forums, menu plans, exercise plans, and educational materials significantly more than BLC participants (Pendorsement by a celebrity personal trainer, as well as a greater energy balance deficit, within a commercial Web-based weight loss program may facilitate greater initial weight loss and engagement with some program components. The results support the need for a more rigorous and prospective evaluation of Web-based weight loss programs that incorporate additional strategies to enhance initial weight loss and engagement, such as a short-term challenge. PMID:23827796

Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

2013-01-01

129

Metallographic in situ hybridization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metallographic methods, in which a target is visualized using a probe or antibody that deposits metal selectively at its binding site, offers many advantages for bright-field in situ hybridization (ISH) detection as well as for other labeling and detection methods. Autometallographically enhanced gold labeling procedures have demonstrated higher sensitivity than conventional enzyme chromogens. Enzyme metallography, a novel procedure in which an enzymatic probe is used to deposit metal directly from solution, has been used to develop bright-field ISH methods for HER2 gene determination in breast cancer and other biopsy specimens. It provides the highest level of sensitivity and resolution, both for visualizing endogenous gene copies in nonamplified tissues and for resolving multiple gene copies to allow copy enumeration in amplified tissues without the need for oil immersion or fluorescence optics. An automated enzyme metallography procedure, silver ISH, has been developed for use in slide-staining instruments. Metallographic staining also provides excellent results for immunohistochemistry and may be combined with other staining procedures for the simultaneous detection of more than one gene or combinations of genes and proteins. PMID:17640553

Powell, Richard D; Pettay, James D; Powell, William C; Roche, Patrick C; Grogan, Thomas M; Hainfeld, James F; Tubbs, Raymond R

2007-08-01

130

Two Weeks of Metformin Treatment Enhances Mitochondrial Respiration in Skeletal Muscle of AMPK Kinase Dead but Not Wild Type Mice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Metformin is used as an anti-diabetic drug. Metformin ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity in liver and skeletal muscle. Reduced mitochondrial content has been reported in type 2 diabetic muscles and it may contribute to decreased insulin sensitivity characteristic for diabetic muscles. The molecular mechanism behind the effect of metformin is not fully clarified but inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and also activation of the 5'AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported in muscle. Furthermore, both AMPK activation and metformin treatment have been associated with stimulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. However, a causal relationship in skeletal muscle has not been investigated. We hypothesized that potential effects of in vivo metformin treatment on mitochondrial function and protein expressions in skeletal muscle are dependent upon AMPK signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead alpha(2) (KD) AMPK mice and wild type (WT) littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice. We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems to be unrelated to AMPK, and does not involve changes in key mitochondrial proteins.

Kristensen, J. M.; Larsen, S.

2013-01-01

131

Two weeks of metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of AMPK kinase dead but not wild type mice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Metformin is used as an anti-diabetic drug. Metformin ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity in liver and skeletal muscle. Reduced mitochondrial content has been reported in type 2 diabetic muscles and it may contribute to decreased insulin sensitivity characteristic for diabetic muscles. The molecular mechanism behind the effect of metformin is not fully clarified but inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and also activation of the 5'AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported in muscle. Furthermore, both AMPK activation and metformin treatment have been associated with stimulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. However, a causal relationship in skeletal muscle has not been investigated. We hypothesized that potential effects of in vivo metformin treatment on mitochondrial function and protein expressions in skeletal muscle are dependent upon AMPK signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead a(2) (KD) AMPK mice and wild type (WT) littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice.We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems to be unrelated to AMPK, and does not involve changes in key mitochondrial proteins.

Kristensen, Jonas MØller; Larsen, Steen

2013-01-01

132

Enhancement of electrical characteristics and reliability in crystallized ZrO2 gate dielectrics treated with in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystallized ZrO2 high-K gate dielectrics treated with in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen using remote N2 and NH3 plasma were investigated, to suppress the capacitance equivalent thickness (CET), leakage current density (Jg), and interfacial state density (Dit). The stress-induced leakage current (SILC) was reduced significantly as well. The tetragonal/cubic phase of ZrO2 was formed by post metallization annealing at a low temperature of 450 °C to offer a high dielectric constant of the gate oxide. The in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen using the remote NH3 plasma contributes to the deactivation of the oxygen vacancies and the well passivation of Dit. Accordingly, a suppressed Jg of 4.79 × 10-5 A cm-2 and Dit of 3.96 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1 were realized in the crystallized ZrO2 gate oxide with a low CET of 1.35 nm. The gate dielectrics were also optically examined by the photoluminescence from the high-K/Si interface, indicating that the Dit is highly correlated with the hydrogen passivation originating from the remote NH3 plasma. The results indicate that in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen is an applicable and effective technique to improve the electrical properties of crystallized gate dielectrics in the advanced metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

Huang, Jhih-Jie; Huang, Li-Tien; Tsai, Meng-Chen; Lee, Min-Hung; Chen, Miin-Jang

2014-06-01

133

Analysis of the Plasticity-Enhancing Mechanisms in 12 pctMn Austeno-ferritic Steel by In Situ Neutron Diffraction  

Science.gov (United States)

The tensile behavior of ductile ultra-high strength Fe-12 pctMn-0.3 pctC-2 pctAl austeno-ferritic steel was studied by in situ neutron diffraction measurement of the elastic lattice strains, dislocation density, stacking fault probability, and strain-induced transformation kinetics. Micro-yielding was observed in austenite, and the plastic deformation of ferrite remained very limited throughout the deformation. The analysis identified three contributions to the strain hardening: twinning-induced plasticity, transformation-induced plasticity, and the accumulation of a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations accommodating the strain mismatch at the phase boundaries.

Lee, Sangwon; Woo, Wanchuck; De Cooman, Bruno C.

2014-12-01

134

Cyclosporine A enhances gluconeogenesis while sirolimus impairs insulin signaling in peripheral tissues after 3 weeks of treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyclosporine A (CsA) and sirolimus (SRL) are immunosuppressive agents (IA) associated with new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). This study aims to evaluate the effects of 3-weeks of treatment with either CsA (5 mg/kg BW/day) or SRL (1 mg/kg BW/day) on insulin signaling and expression of markers involved in glucose metabolism in insulin-sensitive tissues, in Wistar rats. Although no differences were observed in fasting glucose, insulin or C-peptide levels, both treated groups displayed an impaired glucose excursion during both glucose and insulin tolerance tests. These results suggest glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. An increase in glucose-6-phosphatase protein levels (68%, p hand, glucokinase protein levels were decreased in the SRL group (35%, p < 0.05) compared to vehicle, suggesting a decrease in glucose disposal. SRL treatment also reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1 alpha protein expression in muscle (~50%, p < 0.05), while no further protein alterations were observed in muscle and perirenal adipose tissue nor with the CsA treatment. Moreover, the phosphorylation of key proteins of the insulin signaling cascade was suppressed in the SRL group, but was unchanged by the CsA treatment. Taken together, these data suggest that CsA treatment enhances gluconeogenic factors in liver, while SRL treatment impairs insulin signaling in peripheral tissues, which can contribute to the development of insulin resistance and NODAT associated with immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:24960264

Lopes, P C; Fuhrmann, A; Carvalho, F; Sereno, J; Santos, M R; Pereira, M J; Eriksson, J W; Reis, F; Carvalho, E

2014-09-01

135

In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation

136

In situ groundwater bioremediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

Hazen, Terry C.

2009-02-01

137

In situ synthesis of Zn2GeO4 hollow spheres and their enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of antibiotic metronidazole.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, Zn2GeO4 hollow spheres were successfully fabricated by a template-engaged approach using zinc hydroxide carbonate (Zn4CO3(OH)6·H2O, ZHC) spheres as the template. During the hydrothermal process, Zn(2+) dissolved from the surface of the ZHC spheres could rapidly react with the HGeO3(-) in solution and the Zn2GeO4 outer shell was formed in situ. Moreover, the building units of the Zn2GeO4 hollow spheres could gradually transform from the nanoparticles into nanobundles with the increase of the reaction time. The photocatalytic degradation results indicate that the Zn2GeO4 hollow spheres exhibited high photocatalytic activity and excellent stability for the degradation of antibiotic metronidazole in solution. Finally, the radical species involved in the degradation process have been investigated by using the scavenger experiments. PMID:23400012

Liu, Jin; Zhang, Gaoke; Yu, Jimmy C; Guo, Yadan

2013-04-14

138

Enhancement of growth and structure properties of YBa2Cu3O7-? thin layers by in situ incorporation of gold nano-clusters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For most hetero-epitactic growth techniques, structural defects due to the lattice misfit, namely tilts, precipitates or holes, turn out to be limiting factors for the successful fabrication of multilayer systems. A new approach of an in situ growth technique dealing with this problem by incorporation of gold nano-clusters is examined. Therefore, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of a high-TC YBa2Cu3O7-? (YBCO) layer onto a strontium titanate (STO) template with a temporary interlayer of gold with a well-defined film thickness is investigated. Within this process, the gold interlayer shows nano-clustering behavior. Effects on the properties of structure like crystallographic or surface features of the ablated YBCO layer by variation of the film thickness of the gold and YBCO layers are presented. Moreover, distribution and clustering behavior of the crystallized gold nano-particles as well as the basic superconducting properties of the layer system are analyzed.

139

A verification of the high density after contrast enhancement in the 2nd week in cerebroischemic lesion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the indication, it is necessary to make clear the relation among the Stage (time and course), the Strength, the Pathogenesis, and the Effects of the operation in these diseases (SSPE relation). In this report, we focused on the High Density of CT after the contrast enhancement in the cases of ischemic lesions (the High Density was named ''Ribbon H. D.''). Seventeen cases of Ribbon H. D. in fresh infarctions were verified concerning the time of the appearance of the H. D., the features of its location and nature, and the histological findings. The results were as follows: The Ribbon H. D. appeared in the early stage of infarctions, and had its peak density at the end of the 2nd week after the onset. The Ribbon H. D. was mostly located along the cortical line, showing a ribbon-like band. The Ribbon H. D. did not appear in the sharply demarcated coagulation necrosis in the early stage or in the defined Low Density (L. D.) in the late stage of infarctions. Although the Ribbon H. D. shows the extravasation of contrast media, it does not necessarily show the existence of the hemorrhagic infarction. Some part of the Ribbon H. D. changes to a well-defined L. D. and the rest of the part becomes relative isodensity in the late stage. This change corresponds to the change in the incomplete necrosis which is afterwards divided into a resolution with a cystic cavity and the glial replacement in the late stage. In conclusion, it is possible to understand that the Ribbot is possible to understand that the Ribbon H. D. corresponds to the lesion of an incomplete necrosis, with neovascularization, in the early stage of infarctions. Therefore, in addition to the present indication of a by-pass operation (TIA, RIND), this incomplete necrosis (Ribbon H. D.), its surrounding area and just before the appearance of the Ribbon H. D. might be another indication of the operation. (author)

140

Uranium in situ leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the depressed situation that has affected the uranium industry during the past years, the second Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium In Situ Leaching, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and held in Vienna from 5 to 8 October 1992, has attracted a relatively large number of participants. A notable development since the first meeting was that the majority of the contributions came from the actual operators of in situ leaching uranium production. At the present meeting, presentations on operations in the USA were balanced by those of the eastern European and Asian countries. Contributions from Bulgaria, China, Czechoslovakia, Germany (from the operation in the former German Democratic Republic), the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan represent new information not commonly available. In situ leach mining is defined in one of the paper presented as a ''mining method where the ore mineral is preferentially leached from the host rock in place, or in situ, by the use of leach solutions, and the mineral value is recovered. Refs, figs and tabs

 
 
 
 
141

Melanotan-associated melanoma in situ.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injectable synthetic melanotropic peptides (often called melanotan) to enhance tanning are available over the Internet despite being unlicensed compounds with an unproven safety record. There have been reports of dysplastic naevi and melanoma associated with the use of melanotropic peptides. We report a case of melanotan-associated melanoma in situ. PMID:22724573

Ong, Suyin; Bowling, Jonathan

2012-11-01

142

The enhanced Jc and Birr of in situ MgB2 wires and tapes alloyed with C4H6O5 (malic acid) after cold high pressure densification  

Science.gov (United States)

Cold high pressure densification, a method recently introduced at GAP in Geneva, was applied for improving the transport critical current density, Jc, and the irreversibility field, Birr, of monofilamentary in situ MgB2 wires and tapes alloyed with 10 wt% C4H6O5 (malic acid). Tapes densified at 1.48 GPa exhibited after reaction an enhancement of Jc from 2 to 4 × 104 A cm-2 at 4.2 K/10 T and from 0.5 to 4 × 104 A cm-2 at 20 K/5 T, while the Birr was enhanced from 19.3 to 22 T at 4.2 K and from 7.5 to 10.0 T at 20 K. Cold densification also caused a strong enhancement of B(104), the field at which Jc takes the value 1 × 104 A cm-2. For tapes subjected to 1.48 GPa, B(10^{4})^{\\parallel } and B(10^{4})^{ \\perp } at 4.2 K were found to increase from 11.8 and 10.5 T to 13.2 and 12.2 T, respectively. Almost isotropic conditions were obtained for rectangular wires with aspect ratios a/b<2 subjected to 2.0 GPa, where B(10^{4})^{\\parallel }=12.7 and B(10^{4})^{ \\perp }=12.5 T were obtained. At 20 K, the wires exhibited an almost isotropic behavior, with B(10^{4})^{\\parallel }=5.9 T and B(10^{4})^{ \\perp }=5.75 T, Birr(20 K) being ~10 T. These values are equal to or higher than the highest values reported so far for isotropic in situ wires with SiC or other carbon based additives. Further improvements are expected on optimizing the cold high pressure densification process, which has the potential for fabrication of MgB2 wires of industrial lengths.

Hossain, M. S. A.; Senatore, C.; Flükiger, R.; Rindfleisch, M. A.; Tomsic, M. J.; Kim, J. H.; Dou, S. X.

2009-09-01

143

The enhanced Jc and Birr of in situ MgB2 wires and tapes alloyed with C4H6O5 (malic acid) after cold high pressure densification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cold high pressure densification, a method recently introduced at GAP in Geneva, was applied for improving the transport critical current density, Jc, and the irreversibility field, Birr, of monofilamentary in situ MgB2 wires and tapes alloyed with 10 wt% C4H6O5 (malic acid). Tapes densified at 1.48 GPa exhibited after reaction an enhancement of Jc from 2 to 4 x 104 A cm-2 at 4.2 K/10 T and from 0.5 to 4 x 104 A cm-2 at 20 K/5 T, while the Birr was enhanced from 19.3 to 22 T at 4.2 K and from 7.5 to 10.0 T at 20 K. Cold densification also caused a strong enhancement of B(104), the field at which Jc takes the value 1 x 104 A cm-2. For tapes subjected to 1.48 GPa, B(104)|| and B(104)perpendicular at 4.2 K were found to increase from 11.8 and 10.5 T to 13.2 and 12.2 T, respectively. Almost isotropic conditions were obtained for rectangular wires with aspect ratios a/b4)||=12.7 and B(104)perpendicular=12.5 T were obtained. At 20 K, the wires exhibited an almost isotropic behavior, with B(104)||=5.9 T and B(104)perpendicular=5.75 T, Birr(20 K) being ?10 T. These values are equal to or higher than the highest values reported so far for isotropic in situ wires with SiC or other carbon based additives. Further improvements are expected on optimizing the cold high pressure densification process, which has the potential for fabrication of MgB2 wires of industrial lengths.

144

The in-situ decontamination of sand and gravel aquifers by chemically enhanced solubilization of multiple-component DNAPLS with surfactant solutions. Topical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory, numerical simulation, and field studies have been conducted to assess the potential use of micellar-surfactant solutions to solubilize chlorinated solvents contaminating sand and gravel aquifers. Laboratory studies were conducted at the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY) while numerical simulation and field work were undertaken by INTERA Inc. in collaboration with Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc. at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Kentucky. Ninety-nine surfactants were screened for their ability to solubilize trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride (CTET). Ten of these were capable of solubilizing TCE to concentrations greater than 15,000 mg/L, compared to its aqueous solubility of 1,100 mg/L. Four surfactants were identified as good solubilizers of all three chlorinated solvents. Of these, a secondary alcohol ethoxylate was the first choice for in situ testing because of its excellent solubilizing ability and its low propensity to sorb. However, this surfactant did not meet the Commonwealth of Kentucky`s acceptance criteria. Consequently, it was decided to use a surfactant approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration as a food-grade additive. As a 1% micellar-surfactant solution, this sorbitan monooleate has a solubilization capacity of 16,000 mg TCE/L, but has a higher propensity to sorb to clays than has the alcohol ethoxylate.

NONE

1995-01-01

145

In situ laccase treatment enhances the fermentability of steam-exploded wheat straw in SSCF processes at high dry matter consistencies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work evaluates the in situ detoxification of inhibitory lignocellulosic broths by laccases to facilitate their fermentation by the xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae F12. Treatment of wheat straw slurries with laccases prior to SSCF processes decreased the total phenolic content by 50-80%, reducing the lag phase and increasing the cell viability. After laccase treatment, a negative impact on enzymatic hydrolysis was observed. This effect, together with the low enzymatic hydrolysis yields when increasing consistency, resulted in a decrease in final ethanol yields. Furthermore, when using high substrate loading (20% DM (w/v)), high concentration of inhibitors prevailed in broths and the absence of an extra nitrogen source led to a total cell growth inhibition within the first 24h in non-treated samples. This inhibition of growth at 20% DM (w/v) was overcome by laccase treatment with no addition of nitrogen, allowing S. cerevisiae F12 to produce more than 22 g/L of ethanol. PMID:23811522

Moreno, Antonio D; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Ibarra, David; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Olsson, Lisbeth

2013-09-01

146

An In Situ SEM-FIB-Based Method for Contrast Enhancement and Tomographic Reconstruction for Structural Quantification of Porous Carbon Electrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new in situ Scanning Electron Microscope-Focused Ion Beam-based method to study porous carbon electrodes involving Pt filling of pores from gaseous precursors has been demonstrated to show drastically improved image contrast between the carbon and porous phases when compared with the Si-resin vacuum-impregnation method. Whereas, the latter method offered up to 20% contrast, the new method offers remarkably higher contrast (42%), which enabled fast semi-automated demarcation of carbon boundaries and subsequent binarization of the images with very high fidelity. Tomographic reconstruction of the porous carbon electrode was then obtained from which several morphological parameters were quantified. The porosity was found to be 72±2%. The axial and radial tortuosites were 1.45±0.04 and 1.43±0.04, respectively. Pore size, which is defined to be the distance from the medial axis of the pore to the nearest solid boundary, was quantified. Average pore size determined from the pore size distribution was 90 nm and the corresponding 1 sigma ranges from 45 to 134 nm. Surface-to-volume ratio of the carbon phase was 46.5 µm-1. The ratio of total surface area to the total volume of electrode including pores (i.e., specific surface area) was 13 µm-1. PMID:25088604

Eswara-Moorthy, Santhana K; Balasubramanian, Prasanth; van Mierlo, Willem; Bernhard, Jörg; Marinaro, Mario; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret; Jörissen, Ludwig; Kaiser, Ute

2014-10-01

147

In-situ abortion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Application of in situ recovery methods has only been revealed in the literature up to a point. This study goes beyond that point. High energy input, irregular propagation of heat, costs of maintaining a heat gradient, effects of insulation, costs of myriads of wells, absence of an effective pressure differential, the need for costly well manipulation, problems of wildfire and internal problems such as aquifers and impervious layers are discussed. Problems of layout of wells, opportunity for scalping and high grading and the effect of the enclosing sands are reviewed. Recoveries of the total oil-in-place as low as 3% are indicated. The equivalent of 19 gal of gasoline will be destroyed in the ground to get one gallon out, at a pump price of $2.00 per gal or more. When underground mining is extended into an area of in situ, the desecration will be verified and exposed. Despite all of the evidence, the tragedy is that in situ recovery processes will be allowed.

Johns, R.W.

1977-01-01

148

Time-resolved in situ detection of CO in a shock tube using cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a quantum-cascade laser near 4.6µm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) using a mid-infrared DFB quantum-cascade laser is reported for sensitive time-resolved (10 ?s) in situ CO measurements in a shock tube. Off-axis alignment and fast scanning of the laser wavelength were used to minimize coupling noise in a low-finesse cavity. An absorption gain factor of 91 was demonstrated, which enabled sub-ppm detection sensitivity for gas temperatures of 1000-2100K in a 15 cm diameter shock tube. This substantial improvement in detection sensitivity compared to conventional single-pass absorption measurements, shows great potential for the study of reaction pathways of high-temperature combustion kinetics mechanisms in shock tubes. PMID:25322031

Sun, Kai; Wang, Shengkai; Sur, Ritobrata; Chao, Xing; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

2014-10-01

149

The use of high pressure CO2 -facilitated pH swings to enhance in situ product recovery of butyric acid in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Through the use of high partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2 ) to facilitate temporary pH reductions in two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs), improved pH dependent partitioning of butyric acid was observed which achieved in situ product recovery (ISPR), alleviating end-product inhibition (EPI) during the production of butyric acid by Clostridium tyrobutyricum (ATCC 25755). Through high pressure pCO2 studies, media buffering effects were shown to be substantially overcome at 60?bar pCO2 , resulting in effective extraction of the organic acid by the absorptive polymer Pebax® 2533, yielding a distribution coefficient (D) of 2.4?±?0.1 after 1?h of contact at this pressure. Importantly, it was also found that C. tyrobutyricum cultures were able to withstand 60?bar pCO2 for 1?h with no decrease in growth ability when returned to atmospheric pressure in batch reactors after several extraction cycles. A fed-batch reactor with cyclic high pCO2 polymer extraction recovered 92?g of butyric acid to produce a total of 213?g compared to 121?g generated in a control reactor. This recovery reduced EPI in the TPPB, resulting in both higher productivity (0.65 vs. 0.33?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) ) and yield (0.54 vs. 0.40). Fortuitously, it was also found that repeated high pCO2 -facilitated polymer extractions of butyric acid during batch growth of C. tyrobutyricum lessened the need for pH control, and reduced base requirements by approximately 50%. Thus, high pCO2 -mediated absorptive polymer extraction presents a novel method for improving process performance in butyric acid fermentation, and this technique could be applied to the bioproduction of other organic acids as well. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2183-2191. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24888558

Peterson, Eric C; Daugulis, Andrew J

2014-11-01

150

Solvothermal in situ synthesis of Fe3O4-multi-walled carbon nanotubes with enhanced heterogeneous Fenton-like activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: After purification, the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) act as seeds for Fe3O4 nanoparticles heterogeneous nucleation. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles with diameter range of 4.2–10.0 nm synthesized in situ on the MWCNTs under solvothermal condition. The formed nano Fe3O4-MWCNTs decolorized the Acid Orange II effectively via Fenton-like reaction. Highlights: ? The amount of water tunes size and size distribution of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FNs). ? FNs are homogeneously coated on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). ? FNs have diameters in the range of 4.2–10.0 nm, average grain size of 7.4 nm. ? Fe3O4-MWCNTs are used as a Fenton-like catalyst to decompose Acid Orange II. ? Fe3O4-MWCNTs displayed a higher activity than nanometer-size Fe3O4. -- Abstract: Fe3O4-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Fe3O4-MWCNTs) hybrid materials were synthesized by a solvothermal process using acid treated MWCNTs and iron acetylacetonate in a mixed solution of ethylene glycol and ultrapure water. The materials were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results showed that a small amount of water in the synthesis system played a role in controlling crystal phase formation, size of Fe3O4, and the homogeneous distribution of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles deposited on the MWCNTs. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles had diameters in the range of 4.2–10.0 nm. They displayed good superparamagnetism at room temperature and their magnetization was influenced by the reaction conditions. They were used as a Fenton-like catalyst to decompose Acid Orange II and displayed a higher activity than nanometer-size Fe3O4.

151

In situ measurements of plasma drift velocity and enhanced NO(+) in the auroral electroject by the Bennett spectrometer on AE-C  

Science.gov (United States)

Simultaneous measurements of ion composition and plasma drift velocity by the Bennett mass spectrometer on the Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite reveal a direct correlation between enhancements in NO(+) concentration and ion drift velocity in the southern auroral oval. Low altitude (137 to 250 km) nighttime data reveal a region of westward plasma flow at velocities up to 1.3 km/s between 62 deg and 68 deg invariant latitude, with corresponding NO(+) enhancements of up to a factor of 25. A narrow region of reverse flow at approximately 0.9 km/s was also measured. These drift observations are consistent with convective flow patterns derived from electric field measurements, and their correlation with NO(+) appears to support the suggestion that NO(+) enhancements would be expected in regions of drift owing to the dependence on ion energy of the reaction O(+) + N2 yields NO(+) + N.

Brinton, H. C.

1974-01-01

152

In situ measurements of plasma drift velocity and enhanced NO/+/ in the auroral electrojet by the Bennett spectrometer on AE-C. [Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite  

Science.gov (United States)

Simultaneous measurements of ion composition and plasma drift velocity by the Bennett mass spectrometer on the Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite reveal a direct correlation between enhancements in NO(+) concentration and ion drift velocity in the southern auroral oval. Low altitude (137 to 250 km) data obtained between 1700 and 2400 hr magnetic local time on October 22, 1974, reveal a region of westward plasma flow at velocities up to 1.3 km/s between 62 and 68 deg invariant latitude, with corresponding NO(+) enhancements of up to a factor of 20. A narrow region of reverse flow at about 0.9 km/s was also measured. These drift observations are consistent with convective flow patterns derived from electric field measurements, and their correlation with NO(+) appears to support the suggestion that NO(+) enhancements would be expected in regions of drift owing to the dependence on ion energy of the reaction O(+) + N2 yields NO(+) + N.

Brinton, H. C.

1975-01-01

153

A NEW METHOD FOR IN-SITU CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTANT ACTINIDES AND TECHNETIUM COMPOUNDS VIA FIBEROPTIC SURFACE ENHANCED RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY (SERS)  

Science.gov (United States)

This project serves to fill information gap through the development of a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to selectively and sensitively monitor and characterize the chemical speciation of radionuclides at trace levels. The SERS technique permits both o...

154

Solvothermal in situ synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-multi-walled carbon nanotubes with enhanced heterogeneous Fenton-like activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: After purification, the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) act as seeds for Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles heterogeneous nucleation. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with diameter range of 4.2–10.0 nm synthesized in situ on the MWCNTs under solvothermal condition. The formed nano Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs decolorized the Acid Orange II effectively via Fenton-like reaction. Highlights: ? The amount of water tunes size and size distribution of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (FNs). ? FNs are homogeneously coated on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). ? FNs have diameters in the range of 4.2–10.0 nm, average grain size of 7.4 nm. ? Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs are used as a Fenton-like catalyst to decompose Acid Orange II. ? Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs displayed a higher activity than nanometer-size Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. -- Abstract: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs) hybrid materials were synthesized by a solvothermal process using acid treated MWCNTs and iron acetylacetonate in a mixed solution of ethylene glycol and ultrapure water. The materials were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results showed that a small amount of water in the synthesis system played a role in controlling crystal phase formation, size of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and the homogeneous distribution of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles deposited on the MWCNTs. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles had diameters in the range of 4.2–10.0 nm. They displayed good superparamagnetism at room temperature and their magnetization was influenced by the reaction conditions. They were used as a Fenton-like catalyst to decompose Acid Orange II and displayed a higher activity than nanometer-size Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}.

Deng, Jingheng [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wen, Xianghua, E-mail: xhwen@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Qinian [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China)

2012-11-15

155

In Situ Fabrication Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

A manufacturing system is described that is internal to controlled cabin environments which will produce functional parts to net shape with sufficient tolerance, strength and integrity to meet application specific needs such as CEV ECLS components, robotic arm or rover components, EVA suit items, unforeseen tools, conformal repair patches, and habitat fittings among others. Except for start-up and shut-down, fabrication will be automatic without crew intervention under nominal scenarios. Off-nominal scenarios may require crew and/or Earth control intervention. System will have the ability to fabricate using both provisioned feedstock materials and feedstock refined from in situ regolith.

Rolin, Terry D.; Hammond, Monica

2005-01-01

156

Gold Nano-Popcorn Based Targeted Diagonosis, Nanotherapy Treatment and In-Situ Monitoring of Photothermal Therapy Response of Prostate Cancer Cells Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death among the American male population and the cost of treating prostate cancer patients is about $10 billion/year in the US. Current treatments are mostly ineffective against advanced stage prostate cancer disease and are often associated with severe side effects. Driven by the need, in this manuscript, we report multifunctional nanotechnology-driven gold nano-popcorn based surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assay for targ...

Lu, Wentong; Singh, Anant Kumar; Khan, Sadia Afrin; Senapati, Dulal; Yu, Hongtao; Ray, Paresh Chandra

2010-01-01

157

In situ decoration of plasmonic Ag nanocrystals on the surface of (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres for enhanced visible light photocatalysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel plasmonic 0D Ag nanocrystal decorated 3D (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres were fabricated with a one-pot hydrothermal method. The as-prepared samples were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra, ns-level time-resolved fluorescence spectra, photocurrent generation and EIS measurement. The results indicated that the 0D Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of 3D (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical microspheres. The deposited Ag nanoparticles were reduced from Ag(+) by the citrate ions from bismuth citrate. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples was evaluated towards the degradation of NO at ppb-level under visible light irradiation. The intermediate NO2 was monitored on-line during the photocatalytic reaction. The pure (BiO)2CO3 microspheres exhibited decent visible light photocatalytic activity because of the surface scattering and reflecting (SSR effect) resulting from the special 3D hierarchical architecture. The Ag-decorated (BiO)2CO3 microspheres (Ag/BOC) exhibited greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity, photocurrent generation and promoted NO2 oxidation compared to the pure (BiO)2CO3 microspheres. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and photocurrent generation of Ag/BOC was ascribed to the cooperative contribution of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR effect), efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and prolonged lifetime of charge carriers induced by Ag nanoparticles. The photocatalytic performance of Ag/BOC was dependent on the content of Ag loading. When the amount of Ag is controlled at 5%, the highest photocatalytic performance can be achieved. Further increasing the Ag loading content promotes aggregation of the Ag particles and transforms the uniform microspheres into non-uniform microspheres, which is not beneficial to improving the activity. Importantly, the as-prepared Ag/BOC composites exhibited high photochemical stability after multiple reaction runs. The concepts of enhancing the activity through the SSR and SPR effects provide a new avenue for the development of efficient noble metal/bismuth-based plasmonic photocatalysts with attractive nano/micro architectures for efficient visible light photocatalytic activity. PMID:24824403

Dong, Fan; Li, Qiuyan; Zhou, Ying; Sun, Yanjun; Zhang, Haidong; Wu, Zhongbiao

2014-07-01

158

A New Method for In-situ Characterization of Important Actinides and Technetium Compounds via Fiberoptic Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project serves to fill information gap through the development of a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to selectively and sensitively monitor and characterize the chemical speciation of radionuclides at trace levels. The SERS technique permits both of these measurements to be made simultaneously, and results in significant improvement over current methods in reducing time of analysis, cost, and sample manipulation. Our overall goal is (a) to develop a scientific basis for this new methodology to detect radionuclides via SERS and (b) to rationally synthesize and evaluate novel sol-gel based SERS substrates tailored to sensitively detect and characterize inorganic radionuclides such as TcO4 -, actinyl ions (e.g. UO2 2+, NpO2 +, and PuO2 2+) and other chemical compounds of interest.

Dai Sheng; Gu, B.

2005-09-28

159

A New Method for In-situ Characterization of Important Actinides and Technetium Compounds via Fiberoptic Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project serves to fill information gap through the development of a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to selectively and sensitively monitor and characterize the chemical speciation of radionuclides at trace levels. The SERS technique permits both of these measurements to be made simultaneously, and results in significant improvement over current methods in reducing time of analysis, cost, and sample manipulation. Our overall goal is (a) to develop a scientific basis for this new methodology to detect radionuclides via SERS and (b) to rationally synthesize and evaluate novel sol-gel based SERS substrates tailored to sensitively detect and characterize inorganic radionuclides such as TcO4 -, actinyl ions (e.g. UO2 2+, NpO2 +, and PuO2 2+) and other chemical compounds of interest

160

Initial bone preparation followed by a 2-week delay before implant placement enhances the clinical and radiographic outcome: a randomized controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Initial bone preparation followed by a 2-week delay before implant placement enhances the biological activity at the osteotomy site, which may improve the treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of initial bone preparation and a 2-week delay in implant placement with the conventional method. Subjects were outpatients selected from a department of periodontology and oral implantology. The implant sites were randomly allocated to a test group and a control group (n=7 each). Test sites were treated with initial bone preparation followed by implant placement after a 2-week delay; control sites were treated with the conventional protocol. All sites were assessed over 12 months for the keratinized mucosa index, probing depth, implant mobility, and radiographic peri-implant crestal bone levels. A total of 14 implants were placed in 12 subjects (five males and seven females, mean age 31.5 years, range 18-45 years). The results showed a statistically significant reduction in peri-implant probing depth and crestal bone levels in the test group (P<0.01). This randomized controlled trial demonstrated better clinical and radiographic outcomes for initial bone preparation followed by a 2-week delay in implant placement; this may be an alternative to the conventional protocol. PMID:24842062

Bansal, J; Suresh, D K; Bansal, A

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

In situ growth of vanadia-titania nano/micro-porous layers with enhanced photocatalytic performance by micro-arc oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Micro-arc oxidation process was used to synthesize V2O5-TiO2 porous layers for the first time. Surface morphology and topography of the layers were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were also employed to evaluate phase structure and chemical composition of the layers. It was found that the V2O5-TiO2 layers consisted of anatase, rutile, and vanadium pentoxide phases fraction of which varied with the applied voltage and the electrolyte concentration. It was also revealed that pore size and surface roughness increased with the applied voltage and the electrolyte concentration. Optical properties of the layers were studied by a UV-vis spectrophotometer, and the band gap energies of the MAO-grown pure TiO2 and V2O5-TiO2 layers were respectively calculated as 3.21 and 2.56 eV. Furthermore, the composite layers exhibited a significantly enhanced photo-activity when compared to pure TiO2 layers. The photocatalytic reaction rate constants of degradation of methylene blue on the surface of the V2O5-TiO2 layers under ultraviolet and visible irradiations were measured as 0.0228 and 0.0117 min-1, respectively. As a consequence, micro-arc oxidation was deduced to be an appropriate and efficies deduced to be an appropriate and efficient method for synthesis of V2O5-TiO2 porous layers.

162

Correlation between Active Center Structure and Enhanced Dioxygen Binding in Co(salen) Nanoparticles: Characterization by In Situ Infrared, Raman, and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structure and ligand environment of Co(salen) nanoparticles and unprocessed Co(salen) have been determined by the combined application of infrared, Raman, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments before and during interaction with O2. The Co(salen) nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation with compressed antisolvent (PCA) technique using commercially obtained Co(salen) [denoted as unprocessed Co(salen)] as the parent compound. The unprocessed Co(salen) particles exist as dimer species with a square-pyramidal coordination geometry that display no measurable O2 binding at room temperature. In sharp contrast, the Co(salen) nanoparticles show near-stoichiometric O2 adsorption, as demonstrated by microbalance gas binding experiments. The spectroscopy results indicate the presence of CoII centers with distorted tetrahedral geometry in the Co(salen) nanoparticles with no evidence of metallic Co clusters, confirmed by the lack of Co-Co contributions at bonding distances in the EXAFS spectra and the presence of characteristic features of CoII in the XANES spectra. The EXAFS data also indicate that there are on average two Co-N and two Co-O bonds with a distance of 1.81 {+-} 0.02 and 1.90 {+-} 0.02 Angstroms, respectively, consistent with typical metal salen structures. Upon O2 binding on the Co(salen) nanoparticles, the XANES results indicate oxidation of the CoII to CoIII, consistent with the vibrational data showing new bands associated with oxygen species bonded to Co centers and the increase in the oxygen coordination number from 1.8 to 2.9 in the EXAFS data. The results indicate that the enhanced O2 binding properties of Co(salen) nanoparticles are related to the unique distorted tetrahedral geometry, which is not observed in the unprocessed samples that contain mainly dimers with square planar geometry. The results presented here provide a fundamental relationship between active center structure and properties of novel molecule-based nanomaterials.

Johnson,C.; Long, B.; Nguyen, J.; Day, V.; Borovik, A.; Subramaniam, B.; Guzman, J.

2008-01-01

163

AN ENHANCED POSTNATAL AUTOIMMUNE PROFILE IN 24 WEEK-OLD C57BL/6 MICE DEVELOPMENTALLY EXPOSED TO TCDD  

Science.gov (United States)

Developmental exposure of mice to the environmental contaminant and AhR agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), causes persistent postnatal suppression of T cell-mediated immune responses. The extent to which prenatal TCDD may induce or exacerbate postnatal autoimmune disease remains unknown. In the present study, time-pregnant high affinity AhR C57BL/6 mice received a single oral administration of 0, 2.5, or 5 µg/kg TCDD on gestation day (gd) 12. Offspring of these mice (n=5/gender/treatment) were evaluated at 24 weeks-of-age and showed considerable immune dysregulation that was often gender-specific. Decreased thymic weight and percentages of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, and increased CD4+CD8? thymocytes, were present in the female but not male offspring. Males but not females showed decreased CD4?CD8+ T cells, and increased V?3+ and V?17a+ T cells, in the spleen. Males but not females also showed increased percentages of bone marrow CD24?B220+ B cell progenitors. Antibody titers to dsDNA, ssDNA and cardiolipin displayed increasing trends in both male and female mice, reaching significance for anti-dsDNA in both genders and for ssDNA in males at 5 µg/kg TCDD. Immunofluorescent staining of IgG and C3 deposition in kidney glomeruli increased in both genders of prenatal TCDD-exposed mice, suggestive of early stages of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Collectively, these results show that exposure to TCDD during immune system development causes persistent humoral immune dysregulation as well as altered cell mediated responses, and induces an adult profile of changes suggestive of increased risk for autoimmune disease. PMID:18534654

Mustafa, A.; Holladay, S. D.; Goff, M.; Witonsky, S.G.; Kerr, R.; Reilly, C.M.; Sponenberg, D.P.; Gogal, R.M.

2008-01-01

164

Publication bias in situ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Publication bias, as typically defined, refers to the decreased likelihood of studies' results being published when they are near the null, not statistically significant, or otherwise "less interesting." But choices about how to analyze the data and which results to report create a publication bias within the published results, a bias I label "publication bias in situ" (PBIS. Discussion PBIS may create much greater bias in the literature than traditionally defined publication bias (the failure to publish any result from a study. The causes of PBIS are well known, consisting of various decisions about reporting that are influenced by the data. But its impact is not generally appreciated, and very little attention is devoted to it. What attention there is consists largely of rules for statistical analysis that are impractical and do not actually reduce the bias in reported estimates. PBIS cannot be reduced by statistical tools because it is not fundamentally a problem of statistics, but rather of non-statistical choices and plain language interpretations. PBIS should be recognized as a phenomenon worthy of study – it is extremely common and probably has a huge impact on results reported in the literature – and there should be greater systematic efforts to identify and reduce it. The paper presents examples, including results of a recent HIV vaccine trial, that show how easily PBIS can have a large impact on reported results, as well as how there can be no simple answer to it. Summary PBIS is a major problem, worthy of substantially more attention than it receives. There are ways to reduce the bias, but they are very seldom employed because they are largely unrecognized.

Phillips Carl V

2004-08-01

165

Tensile properties of in-situ precipitated polydimethylsiloxane networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tensile propertiesof polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) networks filled with in-situ precipitated silica were investigated. Experimental results showed that increasing the swelling time of cured rubber sheets in tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) solution or elevating the humidity and temperature of precipitation reaction atmosphere can render to a positive reinforcing effect. Moreover the in-situ precipitation method can be used to further enhance the tensile properties of fumed silica filled PDMS networks. ...

Zhang, Z.; Y-l, Yue; Zhang, C.; Zhang, H.; D-h, Zhang; Chen, X.; Y-f, Chen

2013-01-01

166

Nickel Weeklies  

Science.gov (United States)

A century or so, a nickel could buy a lot of entertainment. One such form of entertainment was the nickel weekly, which featured tales of detectives, Wild West characters, and evil villains. Bowling Green State University has created this thoroughly delightful digital collection of nickel weeklies for consumption by the general public. This collection includes 221 nickel weeklies, and visitors can browse these offerings by title, date, or author. Visitors can zoom in on the cover page of each weekly, or they may also download each title and view them at another more convenient moment. Users looking for a place to start might do well to look over "Adventures of Buffalo Bill from boyhood to manhood" by Colonel Prentiss Ingraham or "California Claude, the love bandit" by Captain Howard Holmes.

167

FISH - (Fluoresence In Situ Hybridization)  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a process which vividly paints chromosomes or portions of chromosomes with fluorescent molecules. This technique is useful for identifying chromosomal abnormalities and gene mapping.

Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)

2005-04-04

168

In situ leaching of uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process is described for the in-situ leaching of uranium-containing ores employing an acidic leach liquor containing peroxymonosulphuric acid. Preferably, additionally, sulphuric acid is present in the leach liquor. (author)

169

Architecture Week  

Science.gov (United States)

Based in Eugene, Oregon, Architecture Week is a magazine that is intended for design and building professionals, and their work includes profiles of new building techniques, historic preservation issues, and architectural practice. Visitors can view the current issues online here, and they will also want to look through their "And More" area. Here they will find sections like "Blog Center", "New Products", "Jobs" and "Conferences". Also, visitors can subscribe to their "ArchitectureWeek Notes", which is a weekly email newsletter. Recent articles on the site have included a piece on historic sites in the United States that are at risk of being demolished and another piece on the importance of listening to clients before starting a major architectural project.

170

In situ assembly of well-dispersed Au nanoparticles on TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanofibers: A three-way synergistic heterostructure with enhanced photocatalytic activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: We describe a route to synthesize TiO{sub 2}/ZnO/Au three-way synergistic heterostructure nanofibers with high efficiency photocatalysts. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of tri-component TiO{sub 2}/ZnO/Au nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}/ZnO/Au nanofibers showed excellent photocatalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Easy photocatalyst separation and reuse. - Abstract: The TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanofibers embedded by Au nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2}/ZnO/Au NFs) were fabricated by combining the electrospinning technique (for TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanofibers) and an in situ reduction approach (for Au nanoparticles). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electronmicroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, were used to characterize the as-synthesized nanofibers. The results showed that small Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) were well dispersed on the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanofibers (TiO{sub 2}/ZnO NFs). And, the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO/Au nanofibers showed high charge separation efficiency under ultraviolet excitation, as evidenced by photoluminescence spectra. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO/Au NFs exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of photodegradation of Methyl orange (MO) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) compared with the pure TiO{sub 2} nanofibers, ZnO nanofibers and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO NFs under ultraviolet excitation, which might be attributed to the high separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs based on the photosynergistic effect among the three components of TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Au. And, the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO/Au NFs could be easily separated and recycled due to their one-dimensional nanostructural property.

Zhang, Peng [Center for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research and Key Laboratory of UV Light-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, 5268 Renmin Street, Changchun 130024 (China); Shao, Changlu, E-mail: clshao@nenu.edu.cn [Center for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research and Key Laboratory of UV Light-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, 5268 Renmin Street, Changchun 130024 (China); Li, Xinghua, E-mail: lixh781@nenu.edu.cn [Center for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research and Key Laboratory of UV Light-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, 5268 Renmin Street, Changchun 130024 (China); Zhang, Mingyi; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Yangyang; Liu, Yichun [Center for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research and Key Laboratory of UV Light-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, 5268 Renmin Street, Changchun 130024 (China)

2012-10-30

171

Triplex in-situ hybridization  

Science.gov (United States)

Disclosed are methods for detecting in situ the presence of a target sequence in a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment, which comprises: a) contacting in situ under conditions suitable for hybridization a substantially double-stranded nucleic acid segment with a detectable third strand, said third strand being capable of hybridizing to at least a portion of the target sequence to form a triple-stranded structure, if said target sequence is present; and b) detecting whether hybridization between the third strand and the target sequence has occured.

Fresco, Jacques R. (Princeton, NJ); Johnson, Marion D. (East Windsor, NJ)

2002-01-01

172

In situ uranium stabilization by microbial metabolites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial melanin production by autochthonous bacteria was explored in this study as a means to increase U immobilization in U contaminated soil. This article demonstrates the application of bacterial physiology and soil ecology for enhanced U immobilization in order to develop an in situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE), Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >10{sup 6} cells per g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U complexing and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in a field test demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments.

Turick, Charles E. [Environmental Science and Biotechnology, Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 999W, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)], E-mail: Charles.Turick@srnl.doe.gov; Knox, Anna S. [Environmental Science and Biotechnology, Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 999W, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Leverette, Chad L.; Kritzas, Yianne G. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of South Carolina Aiken, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States)

2008-06-15

173

Integrated in-situ remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents an integrated approach to ex-situ and in-situ remediation. A sequence of processes, used successfully in their own right, but used synergistically in this approach, have achieved short-term, economic remediation. In addition the range of contaminants that can be treated is extended. The Process uses ozone, compressed oxygen, water vapor, heat, bioaugmentation and vapor extraction to remediate lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

Fustos, V. [Remedial Technologies Inc., Hermitage, PA (United States); Lieberman, P. [National Technical Systems, Fullerton, CA (United States)

1996-01-01

174

Work hardening mechanism in high nitrogen austenitic steel studied by in situ neutron diffraction and in situ electron backscattering diffraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With a focus on microstructural hierarchy, work hardening behaviour in high nitrogen-bearing austenitic steel (HNS) was investigated mainly by a combined technique of in situ neutron diffraction and in situ electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). Stress partitioning due to difference in deformability among grains is enhanced in HNS. The larger stress partitioning among [h k l]-oriented family grains seems to realize high work hardening at a small strain. At a larger strain, dislocation density is higher in HNS than in low nitrogen austenitic steel (LNS), which is a possible reason for high work hardening after straining proceeds, resulting in large uniform elongation.

Ojima, M., E-mail: 07nd602g@hcs.ibaraki.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawa, 316-8511 Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Adachi, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Tomota, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawa, 316-8511 Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, K. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Hikari, Kashima, Ibaraki 314-0014 (Japan); Kamiyama, T. [Institute of Material Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Katada, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

2009-12-15

175

Work hardening mechanism in high nitrogen austenitic steel studied by in situ neutron diffraction and in situ electron backscattering diffraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With a focus on microstructural hierarchy, work hardening behaviour in high nitrogen-bearing austenitic steel (HNS) was investigated mainly by a combined technique of in situ neutron diffraction and in situ electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). Stress partitioning due to difference in deformability among grains is enhanced in HNS. The larger stress partitioning among [h k l]-oriented family grains seems to realize high work hardening at a small strain. At a larger strain, dislocation density is higher in HNS than in low nitrogen austenitic steel (LNS), which is a possible reason for high work hardening after straining proceeds, resulting in large uniform elongation.

176

Tensile properties of in-situ precipitated polydimethylsiloxane networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tensile propertiesof polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS networks filled with in-situ precipitated silica were investigated. Experimental results showed that increasing the swelling time of cured rubber sheets in tetraethoxysilane (TEOS solution or elevating the humidity and temperature of precipitation reaction atmosphere can render to a positive reinforcing effect. Moreover the in-situ precipitation method can be used to further enhance the tensile properties of fumed silica filled PDMS networks. The reinforcement introduced by the in-situ precipitated silica gel particles can probably be attributed to the adsorption of polymer chains onto silica surface, the pinning effect of polymer chains within gel particles, and the fillerfiller gel structure among gel particles.

Z. Zhang

2013-10-01

177

IN SITU URANIUM STABILIZATION BY MICROBIAL METABOLITES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil contaminated with U was the focus of this study in order to develop in-situ, U bio-immobilization technology. We have demonstrated microbial production of a metal chelating biopolymer, pyomelanin, in U contaminated soil from the Tims Branch area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of tyrosine amendments. Bacterial densities of pyomelanin producers were >106 cells/g wet soil. Pyomelanin demonstrated U chelating and mineral binding capacities at pH 4 and 7. In laboratory studies, in the presence of goethite or illite, pyomelanin enhanced U sequestration by these minerals. Tyrosine amended soils in field tests demonstrated increased U sequestration capacity following pyomelanin production up to 13 months after tyrosine treatments.

Turick, C; Anna Knox, A; Chad L Leverette,C; Yianne Kritzas, Y

2006-11-29

178

Autofluorescence correction for fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optimal sensitivity of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) requires bright signals and low background fluorescence. Use of locus-specific probes is especially dependent on high sensitivity. Some tissue preparations show high autofluorescence, masking small or dim signals. We have developed a new method for subtracting autofluorescence from digital images on a pixel-by-pixel basis. It is based on the observation that fluorescent labels for FISH have narrower excitation and emission spectra than the chemical components responsible for autofluorescence. Our new approach uses calculation of the ratio of autofluorescence between multiple color images for correction of autofluorescence in each individual image. By subtracting autofluorescence components, we were able to enhance centromeric signals and make previously indistiguishable cosmid signals clearly visible. This image-processing approach to autofluorescence correction may widen the applicability of gene-specific probes in FISH analysis of tumor material. 15 refs., 3 fig., 1 tab.

Szoelloesi, J.; Balazs, M.; Waldman, F.C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01

179

In Situ Mosaic Brightness Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ missions typically have pointable, mast-mounted cameras, which are capable of taking panoramic mosaics comprised of many individual frames. These frames are mosaicked together. While the mosaic software applies radiometric correction to the images, in many cases brightness/contrast seams still exist between frames. This is largely due to errors in the radiometric correction, and the absence of correction for photometric effects in the mosaic processing chain. The software analyzes the overlaps between adjacent frames in the mosaic and determines correction factors for each image in an attempt to reduce or eliminate these brightness seams.

Deen, Robert G.; Lorre, Jean J.

2012-01-01

180

In situ trace element microanalysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of particle-track-radiography and X-ray- fluorescence techniques in the in situ measurement of trace (less than 1000 ppm) elements in single mineral phases of polished sections is surveyed, and examples of their application to ordinary, carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites are provided. Radiographic methods surveyed include fission-track radiography (for U, Th, and Pu-244), alpha radiography using nuclear reactions (for Li and B), alpha autoradiography (for Bi and Pb), and beta autoradiography (for several elements in synthetic or biological samples). Two X-ray-fluorescence methods are compared: (1) photon-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and (2) the potential use of synchrotron radiation. The latter is shown to allow much greater sensitivity than current PIXE technology and a much broader range of elements than particle-track radiography: the ppm analysis of 10-micron grains for all elements heavier than Na. These advantages are seen as balancing the high cost of accelerator use.

Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

In situ measurements of neutron multiplying systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historical and recent examples of the application of in situ measurements to provide knowledge for specific operations and general criticality safety guidance are reviewed. The importance of the American National Standard, Safety in Conducting Subcritical Neutron-Multiplication Measurements In Situ, ANSI/ANS-8.6, 1988 is discussed. Examples of possible future applications of in-situ measurements are provided. 4 refs., 4 figs

182

In situ remediation integrated program: Development of containment technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) is supporting the development of subsurface containment barrier technology for use in site restoration applications at contaminated sites throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The types of subsurface barriers being developed include impermeable barriers and sorbent barriers. The specific containment technology projects described in this paper include frozen soil barriers, flowable grout techniques, hydraulic and diffusion barriers, horizontal grout barriers, chemically enhanced barriers, and viscous liquid barriers

183

In-situ flushing of petroleum contaminated soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In-situ soil flushing is a technique that lowers the costs associated with in-situ treatment. It requires minimal interruption of activities at the site, and yields treatment rates that are generally slower than those achieved by ex-situ treatment. Lignosulfonates, a by-product of the pulp and paper industry, were investigated as prospective flushing agents. A bench-scale study was conducted to evaluate commercially available lignosulfonates as flushing agents in in-situ treatment of petroleum contaminated soils. The four phases of the experimental set-up were described. The test results were presented in graph form, indicating: the effect of lignosulfonate concentration on the solubility of petroleum hydrocarbons; the results of slurry leaching on diesel fuel, heavy oils; the results of column leaching on total petroleum hydrocarbons; and, the results of leachate treatment. A table comparing removal by conventional process and by lignin derivatives was displayed. It was concluded that lignosulfonates enhance the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil in in-situ flushing, with the most effective agent being ammonium lignosulfonate. Membrane filtration can be used to concentrate leachate. Heavy metal removal was also observed along with the stabilization of hexavalent chromium in the soil. It was recommended that a pilot-scale trial be conducted. refs., tabs., figs.

Volchek, K.; Wong, W.P.; Velicogna, D. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brown, C.E. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2003-07-01

184

Other in situ bioremediation techniques; literature study in the framework of the project "In Situ Bioremediation" in Asten  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In developing in situ remediation most of the focus used to be on techniques using infiltration water to supply oxygen to the location. Later, techniques were developed in which soil was flushed with air to enhance the oxygen availability to microorganisms. The aim of the study reported here was to examine the results of remediation where soil is flushed with air, as reported in the literature, and to examine the costs of such systems. In the study these techniques were com...

Aj, Scheuter

2007-01-01

185

Enhancement of growth and structure properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin layers by in situ incorporation of gold nano-clusters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For most hetero-epitactic growth techniques, structural defects due to the lattice misfit, namely tilts, precipitates or holes, turn out to be limiting factors for the successful fabrication of multilayer systems. A new approach of an in situ growth technique dealing with this problem by incorporation of gold nano-clusters is examined. Therefore, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of a high-T{sub C} YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) layer onto a strontium titanate (STO) template with a temporary interlayer of gold with a well-defined film thickness is investigated. Within this process, the gold interlayer shows nano-clustering behavior. Effects on the properties of structure like crystallographic or surface features of the ablated YBCO layer by variation of the film thickness of the gold and YBCO layers are presented. Moreover, distribution and clustering behavior of the crystallized gold nano-particles as well as the basic superconducting properties of the layer system are analyzed.

Erlebach, Ralf; Huebner, Michael; Christke, Sandra; Grosse, Veit; Schmidl, Frank; Seidel, Paul [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Kraeusslich, Juergen [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Rettenmayr, Markus [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Loebdergraben 32, 07743 Jena (Germany)

2011-07-01

186

In-situ zeolite drying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of warm, dry air is a viable method by which SDS liner zeolites may be dried. The method is simple, easily adaptable to storage pool use, and may be used without insulation between the liner and the pool water. It is signficant that only very small amounts of hydrogen are apparently generated during irradiation of dried zeolites (approx. 3.3 wt. % H2O) in a 60Co source with a dose of 8 x 106 rad, an order of magnitude higher than the average flux calculated for a high-activity SDS liner (approx. 60,000 Ci of Cs and Sr). Irradiation with 60Co gamma does not entirely duplicate the exposure of dried zeolite loaded with radioactive Cs and Sr, but only small differences in gas yields would be expected. An upper limit to the hydrogen produced may be calculated using reported radiolysis hydrogen yields. Using a G/sub H2/ value of 0.015 for zeolite loaded to 60,000 Ci of Cs and Sr and 3 wt. % water, calculations indicate the total H2 generation in an unvented liner after 14 days (maximum shipping time from TMI to PNL) would be approx. 13 L. Based on these data, the system described for the in-situ drying of the zeolite contained in SDS liners is an acceptable method to prepare the zeolite for shipment under existing regulations. 4 figures, 4 tables

187

In situ vitrification: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in situ vitrification process (ISV) converts contaminated soils and sludges to a glass and crystalline product. The process appears to be ideally suited for on site treatment of both wet and dry wastes. Basically, the system requires four molybdenum electrodes, an electrical power system for vitrifying the soil, a hood to trap gaseous effluents, an off-gas treatment system, an off-gas cooling system, and a process control station. Mounted in three transportable trailers, the ISV process can be moved from site to site. The process has the potential for treating contaminated soils at most 13 m deep. The ISV project has won a number of outstanding achievement awards. The process has also been patented with exclusive worldwide rights being granted to Battelle Memorial Institute for nonradioactive applications. While federal applications still belong to the Department of Energy, Battelle transferred the rights of ISV for non-federal government, chemical hazardous wastes to a separate corporation in 1989 called Geosafe. This report gives a review of the process including current operational behavior and applications

188

In situ atomic force microscope imaging of supported lipid bilayers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In situ AFM images of phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) hydrolysis of mica-supported one- and two-component lipid bilayers are presented. For one-component DPPC bilayers an enhanced enzymatic activity is observed towards preexisting defects in the bilayer. Phase separation is observed in two-component DMPC-DSPC bilayers and a remarkable enhanced hydrolytic activity of the PLA/sub 2/-enzyme for the DMPC-rich phase is seen. Furthermore, in a supported double bilayer system a characteristic ripple structure, most likely related to the formation of the P/sub beta /-ripple phase is observed.

Kaasgaard, Thomas; Leidy, Chad

2001-01-01

189

Application of a quantum cascade laser for time-resolved, in situ probing of CH4/H2 and C2H2/H2 gas mixtures during microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of diamond.  

Science.gov (United States)

First illustrations of the utility of pulsed quantum cascade lasers for in situ probing of the chemistry prevailing in microwave plasma activated hydrocarbon/Ar/H2 gas mixtures used for diamond thin film growth are reported. CH4 and C2H2 molecules, and their interconversion, have been monitored by line-of-sight single pass absorption methods, as a function of process conditions (e.g., choice of input hydrocarbon (CH4 or C2H2), hydrocarbon mole fraction, total gas pressure, and applied microwave power). The observed trends can be rationalized, qualitatively, within the framework of the previously reported modeling of the gas-phase chemistry prevailing in hot filament activated hydrocarbon/H2 gas mixtures (Ashfold et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2001, 3, 3471). Column densities of vibrationally excited C2H2(v5=1) molecules at low input carbon fractions are shown to be far higher than expected on the basis of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The presence of vibrationally excited C2H2 molecules (C2H2(double dagger)) can be attributed to the exothermicity of the C2H3 + H C2H2 + H2 elementary reaction within the overall multistep CH4 --> C2H2 conversion. Diagnostic methods that sample just C2H2(v=0) molecules thus run the risk of underestimating total C2H2 column densities in hydrocarbon/H2 mixtures operated under conditions where the production rate of C2H2(double dagger) molecules exceeds their vibrational relaxation (and thermal equilibration) rates. PMID:16494395

Cheesman, A; Smith, J A; Ashfold, M N R; Langford, N; Wright, S; Duxbury, G

2006-03-01

190

Concomitant Detection of HER2 Protein and Gene Alterations by Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Silver Enhanced In Situ Hybridization (SISH) Identifies HER2 Positive Breast Cancer with and without Gene Amplification  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction HER2 status assessment became a mandatory test assay in breast cancer, giving prognostic and predictive information including eligibility for adjuvant anti-HER2 therapy. Precise and reliable assessment of HER2 status is therefore of utmost importance. In this study we analyzed breast cancer samples by a novel technology for concomitant detection of the HER2 protein and gene copy number. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 589 invasive breast cancer samples were analyzed with a double immunohistochemistry (IHC) and silver labeled in situ hybridization (SISH) assay simultaneously detecting HER2 protein and gene copy number in the same tumor cells. This bright-field assay was analyzed using scores according to the modified ASCO guidelines and the results were correlated with patient prognosis. Results Overall concordance rate between protein expression and the presence of gene amplification was 98%. Fifty-seven of 60 tumors (95%) with IHC score 3+, 6 of 10 tumors with IHC score 2+ (60%) and only 3 of 519 tumors (0.6%) with IHC score 0/1+ were amplified by SISH. Patients with gene amplification despite IHC score 0/1+ had a tendency for worse overall survival (p?=?0.088, reaching nearly statistical significance) compared to IHC score 0/1+ without amplification. In contrast, there was no difference in overall survival in IHC score 3+/2+ tumors with and without gene amplification. Conclusions The novel double IHC and SISH assay for HER2 is efficient in the identification of breast cancer with discordant HER2 protein and HER2 gene status, especially for the prognostically relevant groups of HER2 protein negative tumors with HER2 amplification and HER2 protein positive tumors without HER2 amplification. Breast cancer without HER2 amplification among IHC score 2+/3+ tumors (10% in our cohort) suggests that other mechanisms than gene amplification contribute to protein overexpression in these cells. PMID:25153153

Varga, Zsuzsanna; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Moch, Holger

2014-01-01

191

In situ dehydration of yugawaralite  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The structural response of the natural zeolite yugawaralite (CaAl2Si6O16. 4H(2)O) upon thermally induced dehydration has been studied by Rietveld analysis of temperature-resolved powder diffraction data collected in situ in the temperature range 315-791 K using synchrotron radiation. The room-temperature monoclinic structure [Pc, a = 6.73200(9), b = 14.0157(2), c = 10.0607(1) Angstrom, beta = 111.189(1) degrees, Z = 2, at 315 K] has the Ca cations in the channels coordinated to four framework O atoms and to four water molecules, with two of the water sites (OW1 and OW4) showing positional disorder progressively disappearing as the dehydration proceeds. The yugawaralite structure reacts to the release of water molecules with small changes in the Ca-O bond distances and minor distortions of the tetrahedral framework up to about 695 K. Above this temperature the Ca coordination falls below 7 (four framework O atoms and three water molecules) and a major rearrangement in the cation coordination takes place, causing a first order phase transition involving both a large decrease in the cell volume and the change in the space group symmetry. A satisfactory structure model for the high-temperature phase stable in the range 695-791 K could not be obtained because of the complexity of the structure. A model approximately describing the average structure [Pn, a = 12.703(1), b = 13.067(1), c = 9.839(1) Angstrom, beta = 110.894(9), Z = 4, at 749 K] has been used to follow the temperature evolution of the cell parameters in the measured temperature range. This model involves a sixfold coordination of the Ca cations (five framework O atoms and one water molecule). There is no indication of significant structure changes before collapse, likely occurring when the last water molecule is expelled from the structure and the cation coordination drops below 6, as observed in other Ca-rich zeolites (i.e., laumontite, scolecite, mesolite).

Ståhl, Kenny

2001-01-01

192

In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne aske og reducere logistikomkostningerne ville gøre denne alternative energikilde betydelig mere attraktiv. Disse mål kan nås med in situ flash pyrolyse, hvor halm bliver omdanne...

Bech, Niels; Dam-johansen, Kim; Jensen, Peter Arendt

2008-01-01

193

'Closed' in Situ Vein Infrainguinal Bypass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The autologous greater saphenous vein is considered to be the best bypass material for below knee femoropopliteal and femorocnual arterial reconstructions . . The history of the greater saphenous vein arterial bypass in humans started in 1949, with its first introduction by Kunlin. Upto 1959, when Rob performed the first in situ saphenous vein bypass, the reversed saphenous vein technique of Kunlin was the standard procedure. The first publication about the in situ bypass wa...

Dijk, L. C.

1996-01-01

194

In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts  

CERN Document Server

Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

2013-01-01

195

The enhanced J{sub c} and B{sub irr} of in situ MgB{sub 2} wires and tapes alloyed with C{sub 4}H{sub 6}O{sub 5} (malic acid) after cold high pressure densification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cold high pressure densification, a method recently introduced at GAP in Geneva, was applied for improving the transport critical current density, J{sub c}, and the irreversibility field, B{sub irr}, of monofilamentary in situ MgB{sub 2} wires and tapes alloyed with 10 wt% C{sub 4}H{sub 6}O{sub 5} (malic acid). Tapes densified at 1.48 GPa exhibited after reaction an enhancement of J{sub c} from 2 to 4 x 10{sup 4} A cm{sup -2} at 4.2 K/10 T and from 0.5 to 4 x 10{sup 4} A cm{sup -2} at 20 K/5 T, while the B{sub irr} was enhanced from 19.3 to 22 T at 4.2 K and from 7.5 to 10.0 T at 20 K. Cold densification also caused a strong enhancement of B(10{sup 4}), the field at which J{sub c} takes the value 1 x 10{sup 4} A cm{sup -2}. For tapes subjected to 1.48 GPa, B(10{sup 4}){sup ||} and B(10{sup 4}){sup perpendicular} at 4.2 K were found to increase from 11.8 and 10.5 T to 13.2 and 12.2 T, respectively. Almost isotropic conditions were obtained for rectangular wires with aspect ratios a/b<2 subjected to 2.0 GPa, where B(10{sup 4}){sup ||}=12.7 and B(10{sup 4}){sup perpendicular}=12.5 T were obtained. At 20 K, the wires exhibited an almost isotropic behavior, with B(10{sup 4}){sup ||}=5.9 T and B(10{sup 4}){sup perpendicular}=5.75 T, B{sub irr}(20 K) being {approx}10 T. These values are equal to or higher than the highest values reported so far for isotropic in situ wires with SiC or other carbon based additives. Further improvements are expected on optimizing the cold high pressure densification process, which has the potential for fabrication of MgB{sub 2} wires of industrial lengths.

Hossain, M S A; Fluekiger, R [Group of Applied Physics (GAP), University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Senatore, C [Department of Condensed Matter Physics (DPMC), University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Rindfleisch, M A; Tomsic, M J [Hyper Tech Research Incorporated, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Kim, J H; Dou, S X, E-mail: Rene.Flukiger@unige.c [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

2009-09-15

196

Detection of in-situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes by atomic force microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection of in situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes provides important information about gene mappings and about analysis of chromosomal disorders. We applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to the detection of in situ hybridization to get better resolution as compared to light microscopy. Chromosomes were spread over a glass substrate and hybridized with DNA probes labeled with biotin or digoxigenin. The hybridized probes were reacted with streptavidin or anti-digoxigenin antibody, both of which were conjugated with 5-nm gold colloidal particles. We missed direct detection of the conjugated gold colloidal particles by micro-meter scale AFM scanning , but obtained clear topographic difference between the site of hybridization and the chromosome arm with the help of silver enhancement. We thus clearly detected the in situ hybridization using chromosome painting probes, alpha satellite probes, and locus specific gene probes by AFM. The in situ hybridization to DNA fiber was also detected by AFM. The detection of in situ hybridization by AFM has advantages over fluorescence in situ hybridization: no reduction of signal intensity under light irradiation. Application of AFM to the detection of in situ hybridization will be a useful method to analyze chromosomes.

Okamoto, Naoaki; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

2000-04-01

197

IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF TRITIUM PERMEATION THROUGH STAINLESS STEEL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a 4He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T2) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292° and 330°C. In-situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He-Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. An irradiation enhancement factor (IEF) was determined by comparing in-situ permeation data with a correlation for ex-reactor hydrogen permeation through austenitic stainless steel developed from literature data and reported by Le Claire. Nominal values for the IEF ranged between 3 and 5 for 316 SS. In-situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of 3He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a 4He carrier gas mixed with 3He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330°C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from 3He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen R.

2013-06-01

198

In Situ Measurement of Tritium Permeation Through Stainless Steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a 4He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T2) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292° and 330°C. In-situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He-Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. An irradiation enhancement factor (IEF) was determined by comparing in-situ permeation data with a correlation for ex-reactor hydrogen permeation through austenitic stainless steel developed from literature data and reported by Le Claire. Nominal values for the IEF ranged between 3 and 5 for 316 SS. In-situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of 3He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a 4He carrier gas mixed with 3He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330°C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from 3He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen

2013-06-01

199

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M

2013-01-01

200

Aquifer restoration at uranium in situ leach sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ mining of uranium involves injection of a leaching solution (lixiviant) into an ore-bearing aquifer. Frequently, the ground water in the mined aquifer is a domestic or livestock water supply. As the lixiviant migrates through the ore body, uranium and various associated elements such as arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, vanadium and radium-226 are mobilized in the ground water. Aquifer restoration after in situ mining is not fully understood. Several methods have been developed to restore mined aquifers to pre-mining (baseline) quality. Commonly used methods include ground water sweeping, clean water injection, and treatment by ion exchange and reverse osmosis technologies. Ammonium carbonate lixiviant was used at one RandD in situ mine. Attempts were made to restore the aquifer using a variety of methods. Efforts were successful in reducing concentrations of the majority of contaminants to baseline levels. Concentrations of certain parameters, however, remained at levels above baseline six months after restoration ceased. Relatively large quantities of ground water were processed in the restoration attempt considering the small size of the project (1.25 acre). More thorough characterization of the hydrogeology of the site may have enhanced the effectiveness of restoration and reduced potential environmental impacts associated with the project. This paper presents some of the findings of a research project conducted by the Mineral Resources Waste Management Team e Mineral Resources Waste Management Team at the University of Idaho in Moscow, Idaho. Views contained herein do not reflect U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy

 
 
 
 
201

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contibuting to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more benefical technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

LisaGieg

2013-06-01

202

Aquifer restoration at uranium in situ leach sites  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ mining of uranium involves injection of a leaching solution (lixiviant) into an ore-bearing aquifer. Frequently, the ground water in the mined aquifer is a domestic or livestock water supply. As the lixiviant migrates through the ore body, uranium and various associated elements such as arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, vanadium and radium-226 are mobilized in the ground water. Aquifer restoration after in situ mining is not fully understood. Several methods have been developed to restore mined aquifers to pre-mining (baseline) quality. Commonly used methods include ground water sweeping, clean water injection, and treatment by ion exchange and reverse osmosis technologies. Ammonium carbonate lixiviant was used at one R&D in situ mine. Attempts were made to restore the aquifer using a variety of methods. Efforts were successful in reducing concentrations of the majority of contaminants to baseline levels. Concentrations of certain parameters, however, remained at levels above baseline six months after restoration ceased. Relatively large quantitites of ground water were processed in the restoration attempt considering the small size of the project (1.25 acre). More thorough characterization of the hydrogeology of the site may have enhanced the effectiveness of restoration and reduced potential environmental impacts associated with the project. This paper presents some of the findings of a research project conducted by the Mineral Resources Waste Management Team at the University of Idaho in Moscow, Idaho. Views contained herein do not reflect U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy.

Anastasi, Frank S.; Williams, Roy E.

1984-12-01

203

Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the '70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid '80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern

204

Amplification methods to increase the sensitivity of in situ hybridization: play card(s).  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ hybridization (ISH) has proved to be an invaluable molecular tool in research and diagnosis to visualize nucleic acids in their cellular environment. However, its applicability can be limited by its restricted detection sensitivity. During the past 10 years, several strategies have been developed to improve the threshold levels of nucleic acid detection in situ by amplification of either target nucleic acid sequences before ISH (e.g., in situ PCR) or the detection signals after the hybridization procedures. Here we outline the principles of tyramide signal amplification using the catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD) technique, present practical suggestions to efficiently enhance the sensitivity of ISH with CARD, and discuss some applications and possible future directions of in situ nucleic acid detection using such an amplification strategy. PMID:10026231

Speel, E J; Hopman, A H; Komminoth, P

1999-03-01

205

Lifetime fluorescence spectroscopy for in situ investigation of osteogenic differentiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) represents a potential tool for the in-situ characterization of bioengineered tissues. In this study, we evaluate the application of TR-LIFS to non-intrusive monitoring of matrix composition during osteogenetic differentiation. Human adipose-derived stem cells, harvested from 3 patients, were induced in osteogenic media for 3, 5, and 7 weeks. Samples were subsequently collected and probed for time-resolved fluorescence emission with a pulsed nitrogen laser. Fluorescence parameters, derived from both spectral- and time-domain, were used for sample characterization. The samples were further analyzed using Western blot analysis and computer-based densitometry. A significant change in the fluorescence parameters was detected for samples beyond 3 weeks of osteogenic differentiation. The spectroscopic observations: 1) show increase of collagen I when contrasted against the time-resolved fluorescence spectra of commercially available collagens; and 2) are in agreement with Western blot analysis that demonstrated significant increase in collagen I content between 3- vs. 5-weeks and 3- vs. 7-weeks and no changes for collagens III, IV, and V. Our results suggest that TR-LIFS can be used as a non-invasive means for the detection of specific collagens in maturing connective tissues.

Marcu, Laura; Elbarbary, Amir; Zuk, Patricia; De Ugarte, Daniel A.; Benhaim, Prosper; Kurt, Hamza; Hedrick, Marc H.; Ashjian, Peter

2003-07-01

206

In situ ALD experiments with synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this contribution, we describe some features of atomic layer deposition (ALD) investigated by means of synchrotron radiation photoelemission spectroscopy (SR-PES). In particular, we show how the surface sensitivity of SR-PES combined with the in situ nature of our investigations can point out interactions between the substrate and ALD precursors. We observed changes on all substrates investigated, included Si, GaAs, Ru and their surface oxides. These interactions are extremely important during the first ALD cycles and induce modifications in the substrate, which might lead to its functionality enhancement. (paper)

207

Dry eye after laser in-situ keratomileusis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is one of the most commonly performed refractive procedures with excellent visual outcomes. Dry eye syndrome is one of the most frequently seen complications after LASIK, with most patients developing at least some mild dry eye symptoms postoperatively. To achieve improved visual outcomes and greater patient satisfaction, it is essential to identify patients prone to dry eyes preoperatively, and initiate treatment early in the course. Enhanced understanding of the pathophysiology of post-LASIK dry eye will help advance our approach to its management. PMID:25325861

Raoof, Duna; Pineda, Roberto

2014-11-01

208

in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization Yoshiko Fujita (Yoshiko.fujita@inl.gov) (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Robert W. Smith (University of Idaho-Idaho Falls, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Subsurface radionuclide and trace metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE’s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide strontium-90, is co-precipitation in calcite. Calcite, a common mineral in the arid western U.S., can form solid solutions with trace metals. The rate of trace metal incorporation is susceptible to manipulation using either abiotic or biotic means. We have previously demonstrated that increasing the calcite precipitation rate by stimulating the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms can result in significantly enhanced Sr uptake. Urea hydrolysis causes the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity, and also by liberating the reactive cations from the aquifer matrix via exchange reactions involving the ammonium ion derived from urea: H2NCONH2 + 3H2O ? 2NH4+ + HCO3- + OH- urea hydrolysis >X:2Ca + 2NH4+ ? 2>X:NH4 + Ca2+ ion exchange Ca2+ + HCO3- + OH- ? CaCO3(s) + H2O calcite precipitation where >X: is a cation exchange site on the aquifer matrix. This contaminant immobilization approach has several attractive features. Urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which is produced by many indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Addition of foreign microbes is unnecessary. In turn the involvement of the native microbes and the consequent in situ generation of reactive components in the aqueous phase (e.g., carbonate and Ca or Sr) can allow dissemination of the reaction over a larger volume and/or farther away from an amendment injection point, as compared to direct addition of the reactants at a well (which can lead to clogging). A final particularly attractive characteristic of this approach is its long-term sustainability; the remediation scheme is geared toward environments that are already saturated with respect to calcite, and in such systems the bulk of any newly precipitated calcite will remain stable once engineered manipulations cease. This means that the co-precipitated contaminants will be effectively sequestered over the long term. We are currently conducting integrated field, laboratory, and computational research to evaluate a) the relationships between urea hydrolysis rate, calcite precipitation rate, and trace metal partitioning under environmentally relevant conditions; and b) the coupling between flow/flux manipulations and calcite precipitate distribution and metal uptake. We are also assessing the application of geophysical and molecular biological tools to monitor the relevant chemical and physical processes. The primary emphasis is on field-scale processes, with the laboratory and modeling activities designed specifically to support the field studies. Field experiments are being conducted in perched water (vadose zone) at the Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP) at the Idaho National Laboratory; the VZRP provides an uncontaminated setting that is an analog of the 90Sr-contaminated vadose zone at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. A summary of results to date will be presented.

Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith

2009-08-01

209

Carcinoma epidermóide "in situ" em divertículo de Zenker Epidermoid carcinoma "in situ" in a Zenker's diverticulum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The epidermoid carcinoma "in situ" in a Zenker's diverticulum is a rare disease. The goal of this work is to report one case of epidermoid carcinoma "in situ" in a Zenker's diverticulum of long lasting symptomatology, treated by conservative surgery. In ambulatorial attendance, this patient showed a good evolution and favorable prognosis.

José Luís Braga de Aquino

2005-04-01

210

ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES FOR ISCO METHODS IN-SITU FENTON OXIDATION IN-SITU PERMANGANATE OXIDATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The advantages and disadvantages of in-situ Fenton oxidation and in-situ permanganate oxidation will be presented. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each technology and a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Included in the ...

211

In situ Micrometeorological Measurements during RxCADRE  

Science.gov (United States)

The Prescribed Fire Combustion and Atmospheric Dynamics Research Experiment (RxCADRE) was a collaborative research project designed to fully instrument prescribed fires in the Southeastern United States. Data were collected on pre-burn fuel loads, post burn consumption, ambient weather, in situ atmospheric dynamics, plume dynamics, radiant heat release (both from in-situ and remote sensors), in-situ fire behavior, and select fire effects. The sampling was conducted at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, and the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center in Newton, Georgia, from February 29 to March 6, 2008. Data were collected on 5 prescribed burns, totaling 4458 acres. The largest aerial ignition totaled 2,290 acres and the smallest ground ignition totaled 104 acres. Quantifying fire-atmospheric interactions is critical for understanding wildland fire dynamics and enhancing modeling of smoke plumes. During Rx-CADRE, atmospheric soundings using radiosondes were made at each burn prior to ignition. In situ micrometeorological measurements were made within each burn unit using five portable, 10-m towers equipped with sonic and prop anemometers, fine-wire thermocouples, and a carbon dioxide probes. The towers were arranged within the burn units to capture the wind and temperature fields as the fire front and plume passed the towers. Due to the interaction of fire lines following ignition, several of the fire fronts that passed the towers were backing fires and thus less intense. Preliminary results indicate that the average vertical velocities associated with the fire front passage were on the order of 3-5 m s-1 and average plume temperatures were on the order of 30-50 °C above ambient. During two of the experimental burns, radiosondes were released into the fire plumes to determine the vertical structure of the plume temperature, humidity, and winds. A radiosonde released into the plume during the burn conducted on 3 March 2008 indicated a definite plume boundary in the potential temperature and dew point temperature structure. The plume height immediately downwind of the fire front was approximately 150 m AGL and heating within this layer was on the order of 3 K. One interesting feature of the plume was the enhanced wind velocity at the top of the plume. Winds increased by 2 m s-1 in a shallow layer at the very top of the plume boundary indicating enhanced acceleration due to the increase in buoyancy. This experience highlights the dynamism of interacting fire lines within prescribed burns as well as the difficulty of measuring fire-atmospheric interactions on large prescribed fire ignitions.

Clements, C. B.; Hiers, J. K.; Strenfel, S. J.

2009-12-01

212

In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams. PMID:22525757

Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L; Aishima, Jun; Foadi, James; Morgan, Ann W; Robinson, James I; Nettleship, Joanne E; Owens, Raymond J; Moraes, Isabel; Fry, Elizabeth E; Grimes, Jonathan M; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S; Stuart, David I; Evans, Gwyndaf

2012-05-01

213

Oil companies push in-situ recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possibly, a third Athabaska tar-sand plant using surface mining will be built in the 1980's, but future development beyond that point will probably depend on in-situ recovery. The discussion of in-situ recovery focusses on the effect it will have on the Canadian chemical industry, for example, the market for sodium hydroxide. To obtain the highest yields of oil from bitumen, an external source of hydrogen is necessary; for example Syncrude imports natural gas to make hydrogen for desulphurization. Gasification of coal is a possible source of hydrogen. Research on hydrocracking is progressing. Use of a prototype CANDU OCR reactor to raise the hot steam necessary for in-situ recovery has been suggested. Venezuela is interested in Canadian upgrading technology. (N.D.H.)

214

In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Buried Waste Program was established in October, 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a recommended long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Feasibility Study format to identify methods for the long-term management of the mixed waste buried. This In Situ Vitrification Treatability Study Work Plan gives a brief description of the site, work breakdown structure, and project organization: the in situ vitrification technology; the purpose of the tests and demonstrations; and the equipment and materials required for the tests and demonstration. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Charboneau, B.L.; Landon, J.L.

1989-03-01

215

In-situ vitrification of waste materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for the in-situ vitrification of waste materials in a disposable can that includes an inner container and an outer container is disclosed. The method includes the steps of adding frit and waste materials to the inner container, removing any excess water, heating the inner container such that the frit and waste materials melt and vitrify after cooling, while maintaining the outer container at a significantly lower temperature than the inner container. The disposable can is then cooled to ambient temperatures and stored. A device for the in-situ vitrification of waste material in a disposable can is also disclosed. 7 figs

216

In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive 137Cs and 60Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of 137Cs and 60Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented

217

In-situ vitrification of waste materials  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for the in-situ vitrification of waste materials in a disposable can that includes an inner container and an outer container is disclosed. The method includes the steps of adding frit and waste materials to the inner container, removing any excess water, heating the inner container such that the frit and waste materials melt and vitrify after cooling, while maintaining the outer container at a significantly lower temperature than the inner container. The disposable can is then cooled to ambient temperatures and stored. A device for the in-situ vitrification of waste material in a disposable can is also disclosed.

Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY); Reich, Morris (Kew Gardens Hills, NY); Barletta, Robert (Wading River, NY)

1997-11-14

218

In situ bioremediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated water by a resting-cell methanotrophic microbial filter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is testing and developing an in situ microbial filter technology for remediating migrating subsurface plumes contaminated with low concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE). Their current focus is the establishment of a replenishable bioactive zone (catalytic filter) along expanding plume boundaries by the Injection of a representative methanotrophic bacterium, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. We have successfully demonstrated this microbial filter strategy using emplaced, attached resting cells (no methane additions) in a 1.1-m flow-through test bed loaded with water-saturated sand. Two separate 24 h pulses of TCE (109 ppb and 85 ppb), one week apart, were pumped through the system at a flow velocity of 1.5 cm/h; no TCE (<0.5 ppb) was detected on the downstream side of the microbial filter. Subsequent excavation of the wet sand confirmed the existence of a TCE-bioactive zone 19 days after it had been created. An enhanced longevity of the cellular, soluble-form methane monooxygenase produced by this methanotroph Is a result of our laboratory bioreactor culturing conditions. Additional experiments with cells in sealed vials and emplaced in the 1.1-m test bed yielded a high resting-cell finite TCE biotransformation capacity of ? 0.25 mg per mg of bacteria; this is suitable for a planned sand-filled trench field demonstration at a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site

219

Reversible in situ catalyst formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acid catalysts play a vital role in the industrial synthesis and production of a plethora of organic chemicals. But, their subsequent neutralization and disposal is also a giant source of waste. For example, for a Friedel-Crafts acylation with AlCl 3, a kilogram of product yields up to 20 kg of (contaminated) waste salt. Other processes are even worse, and this waste is both an environmental and economic shortcoming. Here we address this issue by showing a series of acid catalysts where the neutralization is "built in" to the system and thus eliminates waste. Clearly these will not replace all organic and mineral acid catalysts, but they can replace many. Further, we show how these self-neutralizing catalysts can often eliminate unwanted byproducts, improve selectivity, or elimination of mass transfer limitations by changing from heterogeneous to homogeneous systems. They readily facilitate separations and promote recycling, to promote both green chemistry and good economics. First is near-critical water, or liquid water under pressure, where the K W for dissociation goes up 3-4 decades between 0 degrees C and 250 degrees C, thus facilitating both acid and base catalysis. Moreover, as the exothermic hydrogen bonding diminishes, the dielectric constant goes down to the point at which both salts and organics are soluble in this very hot water. For example, toluene and water are completely miscible at 305 degrees C. This eliminates mass transfer limitations for the reactions, and postreaction cooling not only lowers the K W to neutralize the ions without waste but also results in facile separations from simple liquid-liquid immiscibility. Further, we show the formation of catalysts with alkylcarbonic acids from alcohols and CO2, analogous to carbonic acid from water and CO2. We show a number of applications for these self-neutralizing catalysts, including the formation of ketals, the formation of diazonium intermediates to couple with electron-rich aromatics to produce dye molecules, and the hydration of beta-pinene. Here also these systems often enhance phase behavior to cut mass transfer resistance. In an analogous application we show that peroxide and CO2 gives peroxycarbonic acid, also reversible upon the removal of the CO2, and we show application to epoxidation reactions. The bottom line is that these catalysts afford profound advantages for both green chemistry and improved economics. The methods outlined here have potential for abundant applications, and we hope that this work will motivate such opportunities. PMID:18251512

Hallett, Jason P; Pollet, Pamela; Liotta, Charles L; Eckert, Charles A

2008-03-01

220

In situ Investigation of the Silver-CTAB system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research has shown that biologically inspired approaches to materials synthesis and self-assembly, hold promise of unprecedented atomic level control of structure and interfaces. In particular, the use of organic molecules to control the production of inorganic technological materials has the potential for controlling grain structure to enhance material strength; controlling facet expression for enhanced catalytic activity; and controlling the shape of nanostructured materials to optimize optical, electrical and magnetic properties. In this work, we use organic molecules to modify silver crystal shapes towards understanding the metal-organic interactions that lead to nanoparticle shape control. Using in situ electrochemical AFM (EC-AFM) as an in situ probe, we study the influence of a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylamminobromide (CTAB) on Ag growth during electrochemical deposition on Ag(100). The results show that the organic surfactant promotes the growth of steps on the (100) surface and changes the surface evolution from island nucleation to step flow growth. Overall, this leads to a smoother, faster growing (100) surface, which may promote plate-formation

 
 
 
 
221

In situ simulation: Taking reported critical incidents and adverse events back to the clinic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction In situ simulation offers a novel approach to training in the healthcare setting. It models clinical processes in a real clinical environment and provides the opportunity to correct errors and adjust team interactions without endangering patients. Training in the simulation laboratory does not tap into situational resources, e.g. individual, team, and organisational characteristics such as routines, personal relations, distributed skill-levels etc. Therefore, it fails to fully mimic real clinical team processes. Alternatively, in situ simulation offers a unique opportunity to explore and improve team processes in the clinical environment. Though research on in situ simulation in healthcare is in its infancy, literature is abundant on patient safety, medical simulation, team training and human factors1. Patient safety reporting systems that identify risks to patients can improve patient safety if coupled with training and organisational support2. Insight into the nature of reported critical incidents and adverse events can be used in writing in situ simulation scenarios and thus lead to interventions that enhance patient safety. The patient safety literature emphasises well-developed non-technical skills in preventing medical errors3. Furthermore, critical incidents and adverse events reporting systems comprise a knowledgebase to gain in-depth insights into patient safety issues. This study explores the use of critical incidents and adverse events reports to inform in situ simulation to improve patient safety. Design and purpose The study uses a case study design of in situ simulation training tailored to two emergency departments in the Central Denmark Region. We aim to: - Develop a model that integrates critical incidents and adverse events, a contextual needs analysis and short-term observations in the design of in situ simulation. - Deliver and evaluate the usability of in situ simulation training to interprofessional emergency teams. Methods The project has a triple strategy: 1) Patient safety data analysis and literature review, 2) Video observational study on interprofessional emergency teams, and 3) In situ simulation intervention study with evaluation of training. Reported critical incidents and adverse events will be collected from the Danish Patient Safety Database in the Central Denmark Region and analysed using the qualitative software programme NVivo 10 for content analysis4 and thematic analysis5. Medical experts and simulation faculty will design scenarios for in situ simulation training based on the analysis. Short-term observations using time logs will be performed along with interviews with key informants at the departments. Video data will be collected and used for debriefing6 focusing on team communication and team adaptation7 after in situ simulation training. Perspective and relevance First, this study might help taking reported critical incidents and adverse events back to the clinic. Second, reported critical incidents and adverse events coupled with a contextual needs analysis and short-term observations might aid in scenario design for in situ simulation. This will shed light on how to develop specific learning goals for in situ simulation based on clinical challenges in acute healthcare settings. Third, in situ simulation offers a unique way to study team interactions associated with effective interprofessional teamwork. In particular, team non-technical skills and team adaptation, and their interplay will be scrutinised. In summary, this study offers in situ simulation faculty with a model for integrating reported critical incidents and adverse events with contextual needs analysis and short-term observations. This study generates system knowledge that might lead to changes on the individual, team, and organisational level, and thus enhancing patient safety. References (1) Rosen MA, Hunt EA, Pronovost PJ, Federowicz MA, Weaver SJ. In situ simulation in continuing medical education for the health care professions: A systematic review. J Contin Educ Health Prof 2012; 32(4):243-254.

juul, jonas; Paltved, Charlotte

222

Design Games for In-Situ Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The mobile culture has spawned a host of context-based products, like location-based and tag-based applications. This presents a new challenge for the designer. There is a need of design methods that acknowledge the context and allows it to influence the design ideas. This article focuses on a design problem where an in-situ design practice may further the early design process: the case of designing a pervasive game. Pervasive games are computer games, played using the city as a game board and often using mobile phones with GPS. Some contextual design methods exist, but the author proposes an approach that calls for the designer to conceptualise and perform ideas in-situ, that is on the site, where the game is supposed to be played. The problem was to design a creativity method that incorporated in-situ design work and which generated game concepts for pervasive games. The proposed design method, called sitestorming, is based on a game using Situationistic individual exploration of the site and different types of game cards, followed by a joint evaluation of the generated ideas. A series of evaluations showed that the designers found the method enjoyable to use, that the method motivated idea generation, and that using in-situ design influenced their design ideas.

Kristiansen, Erik

2013-01-01

223

IN SITU SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is designed to physically remove volatile compounds, generally from the vadose or unsaturated zone. t is an in situ process employing vapor extraction wells alone or in combination with air injection wells. acuum blowers supply the motive force, induci...

224

Fabrication Capabilities Utilizing In Situ Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a Space Exploration Policy that lays out a plan that far exceeds the earlier Apollo goals where landing on the moon and taking those first historic steps fulfilled the mission. The policy states that we will set roots on the moon by establishing an outpost. This outpost will be used as a test bed for residing in more distant locales, such as Mars. In order to become self-sufficient, the occupants must have the capability to fabricate component parts in situ. Additionally, in situ materials must be used to minimize valuable mission upmass and to be as efficient as possible. In situ materials can be found from various sources such as raw lunar regolith whereby specific constituents can be extracted from the regolith (such as aluminum, titanium, or iron), and existing hardware already residing on the moon from past Apollo missions. The Electron Beam Melting (EBM) process lends itself well to fabricating parts, tools, and other necessary items using in situ materials and will be discussed further in this paper.

McLemore, Carole A.; Fikes, John C.; Darby, Charles A.; Good, James E.; Gilley, Scott D.

2008-01-01

225

In-situ Vane Shear Test  

Science.gov (United States)

This article briefly describes the in-situ shear vane test, including images and typical results. This procedure tests the undrained shear strength of soil. Procedures of the test are not outlined, but a general overview is given. The site contains photos, charts, diagrams and instructional test to help guide the user.

2008-09-24

226

In Situ Test for Soil Creep.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Iowa bore-hole shear apparatus, modified to monitor time deformational behavior in soils, produced both primary and tertiary type creep curves from in-situ tests on soils. Laboratory simple shear tests produced comparable results. An examination of th...

R. A. Lohnes, A. Millan, T. Demirel, R. L. Handy

1971-01-01

227

IN SITU LEAD IMMOBILIZATION BY APATITE  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead contamination is of environmental concern due to its effect on human health. he purpose of this study was to develop a technology to immobilize Pb in situ in contaminated soils and wastes using apatite. ydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2]was reacted with aqueous Pb, resinexchang...

228

Optimized Autonomous Space In-situ Sensorweb  

Science.gov (United States)

A multidisciplinary team of computer scientists (WSU), earth (USGS) and space (JPL) scientists are collaborating to develop a sensor web system optimized for rapid deployment at restless volcanoes. The primary goals of this Optimized Autonomous Space In-situ Sensorweb (OASIS) are: 1) integrate complementary space and in-situ (ground-based) elements into an interactive, autonomous sensorweb; 2) advance sensorweb power and communication resource management technology; and 3) enable scalability for seamless infusion of future space and in-situ assets into the sensorweb. This three year project started with a rigorous multi-disciplinary interchange that resulted in a system requirements document aimed to guide the design of OASIS and future networks and to achieve the project stated goals. Based on those guidelines, we have developed fully self-contained in-situ nodes that integrate GPS, seismic, infrasonic and ash detection sensors. The nodes in the wireless sensor network are linked to the ground control center through a highly optimized mesh network for remote geophysical monitoring operation. OASIS also features an autonomous bidirectional interaction between ground nodes and instruments on the EO-1 space platform through a database with alarming capabilities at the command and control center. We have successfully completed two field deployments in the crater of Mount St. Helens, Washington on October 14, 2008 and July 14th, 2009 respectively, and demonstrated that sensor web technology provides unprecedented fine-scale real-time continuous data acquisition and interaction for earth science community.

Song, W.; Shirazi, B. A.; Lahusen, R.; Kedar, S.; Chien, S.; Webb, F.

2009-12-01

229

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: IN SITU VITRIFICATION TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ vitrification (ISV) uses electrical power to heat and melt soil, sludge, mine tailings, buried wastes, and sediments contaminated with organic, inorganic, and metal-bearing hazardous wastes. The molten material cools to form a hard, monolithic, chemically inert, stable...

230

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU VITRIFICATION - GEOSAFE CORPORATION  

Science.gov (United States)

in Situ Vitrification (ISV) is designed to treat soils, sludges, sediments, and mine tailings contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds. The process uses electrical current to heat (mett) and vitrify the soil in place. Organic contaminants are decomposed by the extreme h...

231

In Situ Cleanable Alternative HEPA Filter Media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, is currently testing two types of filter media for possible deployment as in situ regenerable/cleanable High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. The filters are being investigated to replace conventional, disposable, glass-fiber, HEPA filters that require frequent removal, replacement, and disposal. This is not only costly and subjects site personnel to radiation exposure, but adds to the ever-growing waste disposal problem. The types of filter media being tested, as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory procurement, are sintered nickel metal and ceramic monolith membrane. These media were subjected to a hostile environment to simulate conditions that challenge the high-level waste tank ventilation systems. The environment promoted rapid filter plugging to maximize the number of filter loading/cleaning cycles that would occur in a specified period of time. The filters were challenged using nonradioactive simulated high-level waste materials and atmospheric dust; materials that cause filter pluggage in the field. The filters are cleaned in situ using an aqueous solution. The study found that both filter media were insensitive to high humidity or moisture conditions and were easily cleaned in situ. The filters regenerated to approximately clean filter status even after numerous plugging and in situ cleaning cycles. Air Techniques International is conduces. Air Techniques International is conducting particle retention testing on the filter media at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. The filters are challenged using 0.3-mm di-octyl phthalate particles. Both the ceramic and sintered media have a particle retention efficiency > 99.97%. The sintered metal and ceramic filters not only can be cleaned in situ, but also hold great potential as a long life alternative to conventional HEPA filters. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Technical Report, ''HEPA Filters Used in the Department of Energy's Hazardous Facilities'', found that conventional glass fiber HEPA filters are structurally weak and easily damaged by water or fire. The structurally stronger sintered metal and ceramic filters would reduce the potential of a catastrophic HEPA filter failure due to filter media breakthrough in the process ventilation system. An in situ regenerable system may also find application in recovering nuclear materials, such as plutonium, collected on glove box exhaust HEPA filters. This innovative approach of the in situ regenerative filtration system may be a significant improvement upon the shortfalls of conventional disposable HEPA filters

232

In situ and simulated in situ primary production in the Gulf of Gdañsk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The method discussed in this article allows the simulated in situ primary production in the southern Baltic to be evaluated. To estimate the daily primary production at a~given field station, the following parameters have to be measured: the coefficients AN and Es (constants from the photosynthesis-light curve for phytoplankton, and the scalar irradiance attenuation coefficient (k, chlorophyll a concentration (Chl and daily irradiation just below the sea surface (PAR. The results of simulated in situ primary production are in good agreement with the in situ measurements.

Henryk Renk

2000-06-01

233

In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed

234

In Vivo Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Embryoid Bodies in an Injectable in Situ-Forming Hydrogel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we examined the in vivo osteogenic differentiation of human embryoid bodies (hEBs by using an injectable in situ-forming hydrogel. A solution containing MPEG-b-(polycaprolactone-ran-polylactide (MCL and hEBs was easily prepared at room temperature. The MCL solution with hEBs and osteogenic factors was injected into nude mice and developed into in situ-forming hydrogels at the injection sites; these hydrogels maintained their shape even after 12 weeks in vivo, thereby indicating that the in situ-forming MCL hydrogel was a suitable scaffold for hEBs. The in vivo osteogenic differentiation was observed only in the in situ gel-forming MCL hydrogel in the presence of hEBs and osteogenic factors. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests that hEBs and osteogenic factors embedded in an in situ-forming MCL hydrogel may provide numerous benefits as a noninvasive alternative for allogeneic tissue engineering applications.

Moon Suk Kim

2013-07-01

235

Characterizing In Situ Uranium and Groundwater Flux  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this project is to develop a new sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of uranium and groundwater fluxes. The sensor uses two sorbents and resident tracers to measure uranium flux and specific discharge directly; but, sensor principles and design should also apply to fluxes of other radionuclides. Flux measurements will assist with obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) and further advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. Project efforts will expand our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in uranium fluxes and those for salient electron donor/acceptors, and groundwater are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The new sensor uses an anion exchange resin to measure uranium fluxes and activated carbon with resident tracers to measure water fluxes. Several anion-exchange resins including Dowex 21K and 21K XLT, Purolite A500, and Lewatit S6328 were tested as sorbents for capturing uranium on the sensor and Lewatit S6328 was determined to be the most effective over the widest pH range. Four branched alcohols proved useful as resident tracers for measuring groundwater flows using activated carbon for both laboratory and field conditions. The flux sensor was redesigned to prevent the discharge of tracers to the environment, and the new design was tested in laboratory box aquifers and the field. Geochemical modeling of equilibrium speciation using Visual Minteq and an up-to-date thermodynamic data base suggested Ca-tricarbonato-uranyl complexes predominate under field conditions, while calculated uranyl ion activities were sensitive to changes in pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkaline earth metals. Initial field tests at the Rifle IFRC site were conducted to assess ambient groundwater and uranium fluxes, monitor microbial growth on the sensor during field deployment, and further resolve any unforeseen problems evolving from field deployment. Ten flux sensors were deployed in five wells for three weeks from mid-November to early December 2009. Observed water fluxes varied from 1.2 - 5.3 cm/d while uranium fluxes ranged from 0.01 - 2.2 ug/cm2d. Uranium and water flux variations corresponded closely with changes in lithology. Uranium fluxes were typically observed to increase with depth. Stochastic simulations were conducted to estimate the magnitude of uranium discharge over a 10.5 m2 transect. The mean discharge was approximately 52 mg/d with a narrow 90% confidence interval of ± 11%.

Cho, J.; Newman, M. A.; Stucker, V.; Peacock, A.; Ranville, J.; Cabaniss, S.; Hatfield, K.; Annable, M. D.; Klammler, H.; Perminova, I. V.

2010-12-01

236

The determination of the in situ structure by nuclear spin contrast variation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polarized neutron scattering from polarized nuclear spins in hydrogenous substances opens a new way of contrast variation. The enhanced contrast due to proton spin polarization was used for the in situ structure determination of tRNA of the functional complex of the E.coli ribosome.

Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS Forschungszentrum, Geesthacht (Germany); Nierhaus, K.H. [Max-Planch-Institut fuer Molekulare Genetik, Berlin (Germany)

1994-12-31

237

The determination of the in situ structure by nuclear spin contrast variation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polarized neutron scattering from polarized nuclear spins in hydrogenous substances opens a new way of contrast variation. The enhanced contrast due to proton spin polarization was used for the in situ structure determination of tRNA of the functional complex of the E.coli ribosome

238

The use of hydraulic fracturing to enhance in situ bioremediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioremediation was determined to be a viable method of degrading the hydrocarbon contaminants at a fuel distribution and storage facility in Dayton, Ohio. Laboratory tests done by the on-site contractor indicated that percolating water containing oxygen and nutrients through the soil would result in biodegradation of the contaminants. The site is underlain by silty clay till of relatively low hydraulic conductivity, so conventional methods of delivery were expected to result in either slow rates of percolation, and thus slow rates of remediation, or excessive drilling costs. Therefore, the site was selected as a candidate for hydraulic fracturing, a technique of creating high permeability channel ways in tight soils. 1 fig

239

Enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons in-situ via bioventing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This case study discusses the remediation of soils beneath a former service station impacted with volatile and semi-volatile petroleum compounds. Subsurface investigation revealed hydrocarbon contamination representative of weathered gasoline and diesel fuel in a stratified soil profile consisting of sand and silts. Only unsaturated soils were contaminated with no impact to ground water. A bioventing corrective action approach was selected which included excavation of 6,100 cubic yards of impacted soils with soil mixing to add inorganic nutrients and eliminate soil heterogeneities. Soils were then returned to the excavation after forced-air ventilation lateral lines were installed at the floor of the excavation. Soil vapor concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX) rapidly declined within the first three months of system operation to nondetectable levels

240

Polymer thin films embedded with in situ grown metal nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metal nanoparticle-polymer composites are versatile materials which not only combine the unique characteristics of the components, but also manifest mutualistic effects between the two. Embedding inside polymer thin films facilitates immobilization and organization of the metal nanoparticles and tuning of their electronic and optical responses by the dielectric environment. The embedded metal nanoparticles in turn can impact upon the various material attributes of the polymer matrix. Some of the most convenient and attractive routes to the fabrication of metal nanoparticle-embedded polymer thin films involve in situ generation of the nanoparticles through reduction or decomposition of appropriate precursors inside the solid film. In this tutorial review we present an overview of the different methodologies developed using this general concept and describe the environment-friendly protocol we have optimized for the fabrication of noble metal nanostructures inside polymer thin films, using aqueous media for the synthesis and deploying the polymer itself as the reducing as well as stabilizing agent. A variety of techniques that have been exploited to characterize the precursor to product transformation inside the polymer film are discussed. The unique control provided by the in situ fabrication route on the size, shape and distribution of the nanostructures, and application of the polymer thin films with the in situ generated metal nanoparticles in areas such as nonlinear optics, surface enhanced Raman scattering, e-beam lithography, microwave absorption, non-volatile memory devices and random lasers, illustrate the versatility of these materials. A brief appraisal of the avenues for future developments in this area is presented. PMID:19690744

Ramesh, G V; Porel, S; Radhakrishnan, T P

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

New in situ crosslinking chemistries for hydrogelation  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last half century, hydrogels have found immense value as biomaterials in a vast number of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. One subset of hydrogels receiving increased attention is in situ forming gels. Gelling by either bioresponsive self-assembly or mixing of binary crosslinking systems, these technologies are useful in minimally invasive applications as well as drug delivery systems in which the sol-to-gel transition aids the formulation's performance. Thus far, the field of in situ crosslinking hydrogels has received limited attention in the development of new crosslinking chemistries. Moreover, not only does the chemical nature of the crosslinking moieties allow these systems to perform in situ, but they contribute dramatically to the mechanical properties of the hydrogel networks. For example, reversible crosslinks with finite lifetimes generate dynamic viscoelastic gels with time-dependent properties, whereas irreversible crosslinks form highly elastic networks. The aim of this dissertation is to explore two new covalent chemistries for their ability to crosslink hydrogels in situ under physiological conditions. First, reversible phenylboronate-salicylhydroxamate crosslinking was implemented in a binary, multivalent polymeric system. These gels formed rapidly and generated hydrogel networks with frequency-dependent dynamic rheological properties. Analysis of the composition-structure-property relationships of these hydrogels---specifically considering the effects of pH, degree of polymer functionality, charge of the polymer backbone and polymer concentration on dynamic theological properties---was performed. These gels demonstrate diverse mechanical properties, due to adjustments in the binding equilibrium of the pH-sensitive crosslinks, and thus have the potential to perform in a range of dynamic or bioresponsive applications. Second, irreversible catalyst-free "click" chemistry was employed in the hydrogelation of multivalent azide-functionalized polymers with divalent electron-deficient alkyne crosslinkers. Elastic hydrogels formed at physiological temperature; however the gelation kinetics was found to be too slow for effective performance in most in situ crosslinking hydrogel applications. Therefore, a small molecule kinetics study using model crosslinking moieties was performed to evaluate the ability to expedite gelation via compositional changes in the alkyne dipolarophile. With further synthetic development, this crosslinking chemistry is likely to be useful in a number of applications requiring the formation of permanent, elastic networks in situ.

Roberts, Meredith Colleen

242

Impregnation of ?-tricalcium phosphate robocast scaffolds by in situ polymerization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (?-CL) and L-lactide (LLA) was performed to impregnate ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting. Concentrated colloidal inks prepared from ?-TCP commercial powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a 3D mesh of interpenetrating rods. ?-CL and LLA were in situ polymerized within the ceramic structure by using a lipase and stannous octanoate, respectively, as catalysts. The results show that both the macropores inside the ceramic mesh and the micropores within the ceramic rods are full of polymer in either case. The mechanical properties of scaffolds impregnated by in situ polymerization (ISP) are significantly increased over those of the bare structures, exhibiting similar values than those obtained by other, more aggressive, impregnation methods such as melt-immersion (MI). ISP using enzymatic catalysts requires a reduced processing temperature which could facilitate the incorporation of growth factors and other drugs into the polymer composition, thus enhancing the bioactivity of the composite scaffold. The implications of these results for the optimization of the mechanical and biological performance of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications are discussed. PMID:23526780

Martínez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Perera, Fidel H; van der Meulen, Inge; Heise, Andreas; Pajares, Antonia; Miranda, Pedro

2013-11-01

243

Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyazomethine nanocomposites via in situ interlayer polymerization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Nanocomposites of polyazomethine with the organoclay C{sub 12}-MMT were synthesized by using the in situ interlayer polymerization method. {yields} The thermal properties of the polyazomethine hybrids increase with the addition of the organoclay up to a critical content and then decrease with further organoclay loading. {yields} Liquid crystalline compositions with 0-9 wt% organoclay have threaded Schlieren nematic textures. - Abstract: Nanocomposites of polyazomethine (PAM) with the organoclay C{sub 12}-MMT were synthesized by using the in situ interlayer polymerization method. The variations with organoclay content of the thermal properties, morphology, and liquid crystalline mesophases of the hybrids were determined for concentrations from 0 to 9 wt% C{sub 12}-MMT. The thermal properties and the morphologies of the PAM nanocomposites were examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), wide angle X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). The XRD analysis and TEM micrographs show that the levels of nanosize dispersion can be controlled by varying the C{sub 12}-MMT content. The clay particles are better dispersed in the matrix polymer at low clay contents than at high clay contents. With the exception of the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), the maximum enhancement in the thermal properties was found to arise at an organoclay content of 1 wt%. Further, the PAM hybrids were shown to exhibit a nematic liquid crystalline phase for organoclay contents in the range 0-9 wt%.

Min, Ungki [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi 730-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jin-Hae, E-mail: changjinhae@hanmail.net [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi 730-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-09-15

244

Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyazomethine nanocomposites via in situ interlayer polymerization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Nanocomposites of polyazomethine with the organoclay C12-MMT were synthesized by using the in situ interlayer polymerization method. ? The thermal properties of the polyazomethine hybrids increase with the addition of the organoclay up to a critical content and then decrease with further organoclay loading. ? Liquid crystalline compositions with 0-9 wt% organoclay have threaded Schlieren nematic textures. - Abstract: Nanocomposites of polyazomethine (PAM) with the organoclay C12-MMT were synthesized by using the in situ interlayer polymerization method. The variations with organoclay content of the thermal properties, morphology, and liquid crystalline mesophases of the hybrids were determined for concentrations from 0 to 9 wt% C12-MMT. The thermal properties and the morphologies of the PAM nanocomposites were examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), wide angle X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). The XRD analysis and TEM micrographs show that the levels of nanosize dispersion can be controlled by varying the C12-MMT content. The clay particles are better dispersed in the matrix polymer at low clay contents than at high clay contents. With the exception of the glass transition temperature (Tg), the maximum enhancement in the thermal properties was found to arise at an organoclay content of 1 wt%. Further, the PAM hybrids were shown to exhibit a nematic liquid crystalline phase for organoclay contents in the range 0-9 wt%.

245

In situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl4, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on going effort to develop effective in situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations

246

BEATRIX-II: In situ tritium test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The BEATRIX-II irradiation experiment is an in-situ tritium release experiment being carried out in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor to evaluate the tritium release characteristics of fusion solid breeder materials. A sophisticated tritium gas handling system has been developed to continuously monitor the tritium recovery from the specimens and facilitate tritium removal from the experiment's sweep gas flow stream. The in-situ recovery experiment accommodates two different in-reactor specimen canisters with individual gas streams and temperature monitoring/control. Ionization chambers have been specifically designed to respond to the rapid changes in the tritium release rate at the anticipated tritium concentrations. Two ceramic electrolysis cells have proved effective in reducing the moisture in the gas streams to hydrogen/tritium. A tritium getter system, capable of reducing the tritium level by a factor greater than 4000, is used to reduce the tritium in the sweep gas to a level acceptable for release

247

In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

248

In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment - various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field preliminary results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

249

In situ indentation testing of elastomers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the contact is crucial in indentation testing, yet only limited knowledge exists on the true contact size for compliant materials. In this investigation the contact evolution and the deformation behavior of polydimethylsiloxane was studied during indentation in situ inside a scanning electron microscope and by observation in a light microscope. Since detailed information on the true contact area and the amount of sink-in can be acquired from finite element analysis, simulations on the indentation process have been performed in order to complement the in situ testing. Comparison of results revealed that the contact areas calculated according to the standard Oliver-Pharr procedure deviated from the real contact size by approximately 10% for the elastomeric PDMS material

250

In-situ microcosms, a tool for assessment of pesticide impacts on oyster spat (Crassostrea gigas)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effects of the herbicide Basamais (bentazon) and the fungicide Opus (epoxiconazole) on oyster spat (Crassostrea gigas) were assessed using in-situ microcosms in a field experiment lasting 13 days. Six-week-old hatchery spat (mean size 1.1 mm), previously collected on PVC plates, was immersed in glass bottles filled with 200 mu m filtered seawater. Bottles were maintained underwater at 6 m depth and their water content changed every other day. Growth, measured as shell area index increase, was...

Stachowski Haberkorn, S.; Quiniou, Francoise; Nedelec, M.; Robert, Rene; Limon, G.; La Broise, D.

2008-01-01

251

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugiyama, Asami

1997-12-31

252

Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

253

In situ health monitoring of piezoelectric sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

An in situ health monitoring apparatus may include an exciter circuit that applies a pulse to a piezoelectric transducer and a data processing system that determines the piezoelectric transducer's dynamic response to the first pulse. The dynamic response can be used to evaluate the operating range, health, and as-mounted resonance frequency of the transducer, as well as the strength of a coupling between the transducer and a structure and the health of the structure.

Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

254

Oculocardiac reflex in laser in situ keratomileusis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate variations in heart rate and to determine the occurrence of oculocardiac reflex (OCR) during laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). METHODS: This descriptive, prospective study was designed to observe the effect of suction ring and ablation stages during LASIK procedure on the heart rate. The ECG was taken before and during LASIK operation on the first eye in 61 patients. These patients were selected randomly among cases that presented to A...

Alireza Ashtari; Ali Akbar Mortazavi

2006-01-01

255

In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals ha...

Axford, D.; Owen, Rl; Aishima, J.; Foadi, J.; Morgan, Aw; Robinson, Ji; Nettleship, Je; Owens, Rj; Moraes, I.; Fry, Ee; Grimes, JM; Harlos, K.; Kotecha, A.; Ren, J.; Sutton, G.

2012-01-01

256

Excursion control at in situ uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes excursions (uncontrolled movement of lixiviant beyond the ore zone) based on case histories of 8 in situ uranium mines (7 in Wyoming and 1 in Texas). These case histories were compiled from data provided by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, and the Texas Department of Water Resources. Most of these data were provided to the above agencies by mining companies in response to regulatory requirements pertaining to licensing actions

257

Synthesis and Characterization of Encapsulated Nanosilica Particles with an Acrylic Copolymer by in Situ Emulsion Polymerization Using Thermoresponsive Nonionic Surfactant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nanocomposites of encapsulated silica nanoparticles were prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization of acrylate monomers. The synthesized material showed good uniformity and dispersion of the inorganic components in the base polymer, which enhances the properties of the nanocomposite material. A nonionic surfactant with lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was used to encapsulate the silica nanoparticles in the acrylic copolymer matrix. This in situ method combined the surface modifica...

Daryoosh Vashaee; Lobat Tayebi; Babak Fathi; Elaheh Motamedi; Tannaz Pourvala; Mostafa Yazdimamaghani

2013-01-01

258

In situ-investigations in salt formations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Republic of Germany and the Netherlands continued their in situ-investigations for radioactive waste disposal in salt formations during the second CEC program in the Asse salt mine. The central test of the German program, Temperature Test Field 5, showed that crystal water from the hydrated salt mineral polyhalite is liberated only at 2350C. The quantities of water liberated from rock salt and from polyhalite are negligible from a safety point of view. In the same test it was proved that rock salt creeps drastically at elevated temperatures and that no micro-cracks are formed which could increase the permeability of rock salt. Additional geophysical measurements confirm these results. Valuable data could be achieved by in situ-investigations for the scenario ''water or brine intrusion'' within safety analyses. The Dutch in situ-test program concentrated on convergence and pressure measurements at normal and elevated temperatures in a 300 m deep borehole which was drilled in the Asse salt mine. Construction and testing of large diameter roller-bit body was started which will allow the dry drilling of boreholes up to 1 m in diameter. Both countries decided to continue their successful cooperation during the forthcoming third R and D-program of the CEC

259

High accuracy in situ radiometric mapping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ and airborne gamma ray spectrometry have been shown to provide rapid and spatially representative estimates of environmental radioactivity across a range of landscapes. However, one of the principal limitations of this technique has been the influence of changes in the vertical distribution of the source (e.g. 137Cs) on the observed photon fluence resulting in a significant reduction in the accuracy of the in situ activity measurement. A flexible approach for single gamma photon emitting radionuclides is presented, which relies on the quantification of forward scattering (or valley region between the full energy peak and Compton edge) within the gamma ray spectrum to compensate for changes in the 137Cs vertical activity distribution. This novel in situ method lends itself to the mapping of activity concentrations in environments that exhibit systematic changes in the vertical activity distribution. The robustness of this approach has been demonstrated in a salt marsh environment on the Solway coast, SW Scotland, with both a 7.6 cmx7.6 cm NaI(Tl) detector and a 35% n-type HPGe detector. Application to ploughed field environments has also been demonstrated using HPGe detector, including its application to the estimation of field moist bulk density and soil erosion measurement. Ongoing research work is also outlined

260

High accuracy in situ radiometric mapping.  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ and airborne gamma ray spectrometry have been shown to provide rapid and spatially representative estimates of environmental radioactivity across a range of landscapes. However, one of the principal limitations of this technique has been the influence of changes in the vertical distribution of the source (e.g. 137Cs) on the observed photon fluence resulting in a significant reduction in the accuracy of the in situ activity measurement. A flexible approach for single gamma photon emitting radionuclides is presented, which relies on the quantification of forward scattering (or valley region between the full energy peak and Compton edge) within the gamma ray spectrum to compensate for changes in the 137Cs vertical activity distribution. This novel in situ method lends itself to the mapping of activity concentrations in environments that exhibit systematic changes in the vertical activity distribution. The robustness of this approach has been demonstrated in a salt marsh environment on the Solway coast, SW Scotland, with both a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm NaI(Tl) detector and a 35% n-type HPGe detector. Application to ploughed field environments has also been demonstrated using HPGe detector, including its application to the estimation of field moist bulk density and soil erosion measurement. Ongoing research work is also outlined. PMID:15162872

Tyler, Andrew N

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Practical application of in situ aerosol measurement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of in situ, real-time measurement techniques permits the characterization of airborne droplets and particles under conditions where traditional sampling methods can fail. For example, sampling method rely on the ability to sample and transport particles without biasing the properties of interest, and often are not applicable in harsh environment. Although in situ methods offer unique opportunities in these cases, these techniques introduce new concerns and must be used carefully if accurate measurement are to be made. Several in situ measurement techniques are reviewed here. As the field is rapidly evolving, the discussion is limited to those techniques which: (1) are commercially available, (2) provide real-time output, (3) measure the aerosol size distribution. Discussion is divided between single particle counters (which provide a flux-based or temporal measurement) and ensemble techniques (which provide a concentration-based or spatial measurement). Specific techniques discussed include phase Doppler, Mie scattering, and Fraunhofer diffraction, and commercial instruments based on these techniques.

O`Hern, T.J.; Rader, D.J.

1993-09-01

262

In situ remediation: Developing containment technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was established by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to advance the state-of-the art of innovative in situ remediation technologies to the point of demonstration, and to broaden the applicability of these technologies to the widely varying site remediation requirements throughout the DOE complex. This program complements ongoing demonstration programs being conducted at several DOE sites. The ISR-IP has been conducting baseline assessments of in situ technologies to support program planning. One of the assessments has focused on evaluating subsurface containment barrier technologies to identify the current state-of-the-art and determine R and D requirements to enable the deployment of these technologies. DOE`s needs are mostly driven by issues concerning the large number of sites requiring remediation, the wide variation among the sites themselves, and the broad range of contaminants at these sites. Many of the sites contain a mixture of organic and inorganic hazardous waste and radioactive waste in a variety of media. Current remedial action strategies for hazardous waste sites are considering containment mostly as an interim action to prevent migration of contaminants from the site until a Record of Decision is made. In some cases, containment is also considered as a remedial action alternative where it is determined to be the best compromise between cost and effectiveness over a relatively short period of time (about 30 years).

Peterson, M.

1994-08-01

263

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION SYSTEM - SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES  

Science.gov (United States)

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed an in situ soil remediation system that uses electrokinetic principles to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated unsaturated or partially saturated soils. The technology involves the in situ application of direct current to the...

264

IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes REV 02. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in REV 02 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what conditions, the tests were conducted. The descriptions and analyses provide data useful for refining and confirming the understanding of flow, drift seepage, and transport processes in the UZ. The UZ testing activities included measurement of permeability distribution, quantification of the seepage of water into the drifts, evaluation of fracture-matrix interaction, study of flow along faults, testing of flow and transport between drifts, characterization of hydrologic heterogeneity along drifts, estimation of drying effects on the rock surrounding the drifts due to ventilation, monitoring of moisture conditions in open and sealed drifts, and determination of the degree of minimum construction water migration below drift. These field tests were conducted in two underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) drift, and the cross-drift for Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB), as described in Section 1.2. Samples collected in boreholes and underground drifts have been used for additional hydrochemical and isotopic analyses for additional understanding of the UZ setting. The UZ transport tests conducted at the nearby Busted Butte site (see Figure 1-4) are also described in this scientific analysis report.

J.S.Y. YANG

2004-11-08

265

IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes2. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in2 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what conditions, the tests were conducted. The descriptions and analyses provide data useful for refining and confirming the understanding of flow, drift seepage, and transport processes in the UZ. The UZ testing activities included measurement of permeability distribution, quantification of the seepage of water into the drifts, evaluation of fracture-matrix interaction, study of flow along faults, testing of flow and transport between drifts, characterization of hydrologic heterogeneity along drifts, estimation of drying effects on the rock surrounding the drifts due to ventilation, monitoring of moisture conditions in open and sealed drifts, and determination of the degree of minimum construction water migration below drift. These field tests were conducted in two underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) drift, and the cross-drift for Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB), as described in Section 1.2. Samples collected in boreholes and underground drifts have been used for additional hydrochemical and isotopic analyses for additional understanding of the UZ setting. The UZ transport tests conducted at the nearby Busted Butte site (see Figure 1-4) are also described in this scientific analysis report

266

Development of Spectroelectrochemical Cells for in situ Neutron Reflectometry  

Science.gov (United States)

A new spectroelectrochemical cell for in situ neutron reflectometry was developed. Electrochemical reactions were determined using this in situ cell with a LiMn2O4/SrRuO3 multi layer thin film. Changes in interfacial structures on the surface of the thin film are also observed by in situ neutron reflectivity measurements. The performances of this in situ cell were expected the determination of changes on the interface between the electrodes and electrolytes.

Yonemura, M.; Hirayama, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kanno, R.; Torikai, N.; Yamada, N. L.

2014-04-01

267

In situ synthesis studies of silicon clathrates  

Science.gov (United States)

Solid state clathrates have shown considerable potential as a new class of materials over the past 30 years. Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that precise tuning and synthetic control of these materials, may lead to desirable properties. Very little is known about the mechanism of formation of the clathrates and so the desire to have accurate synthetic control was, until now, unrealistic. This thesis address the problem using in situ synchrotron x-ray techniques. In this study, experiments were designed to utilise time-resolved in situ diffraction techniques and high temperature 23Na NMR, in efforts to understand the mechanism of formation for this class of expanded framework materials. A complex high vacuum capillary synthesis cell was designed for loading under inert conditions and operation under high vacuum at station 6.2 of the SRS Daresbury. The cell was designed to operate in conjunction with a custom made furnace capable of temperatures in excess of 1000 C, as well as a vacuum system capable of 10"5 bar. The clathrate system was studied in situ, using rapid data collection to elucidate the mechanism of formation. The data were analysed using Rietveld methods and showed a structural link between the monoclinic, C2/c, Zintl precursors and the cubic, Pm3n, clathrate I phase. The phases were found to be linked by relation of the sodium planes in the silicide and the sodium atoms resident at cages centres in the clathrate system. This evidence suggests the guest species is instrumental in formation of the clathrate structure by templating the formation of the cages in the structure. Solid state 23Na NMR was utilised to complete specially design experiments, similar to those complete in situ using synchrotron x-ray techniques. The experiments showed increased spherical symmetry of the alkali metal sites and suggested increased mobility of the guest atoms during heating. In addition, cyclic heating experiments using in situ diffraction showed reversible reintroduction of the guest species on heating and cooling, during formation and subsequent dissipation of the clathrate structure. The realisation of the synthesis of a guest free type II clathrate and the theoretical prediction of negative thermal expansion behaviour at low temperature prompted the use of laboratory x-ray diffraction and a liquid helium cryostat to test the prediction. Careful study of the region from 20 to 200 K showed a region of zero or negative thermal expansion in the predicted region the effect observed showed good agreement with theory.

Hutchins, Peter Thomas

268

Development on device for lifting submersible pump in production well of in-situ leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aimed at the feature of pumping lixivium with submersible pump in in-situ leaching mine, the electro vehicle carried device for lifting submersible pump is developed. The device is simple in structure, easy to operation, stable in performance and reliable in safety. It is applied with perfect results in the field test of in-situ leaching of uranium in Xinjiang. In the practical application, compared with the ways of lifting submersible pump of manhandling and hoister, the device can greatly enhance operating efficiency, facilitates field multi-well operation (because it can come along car removing). The problem difficult of lifting submersible pump in the production well of in-situ leaching mine is solved

269

Detection of microRNAs in plants by in situ hybridisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, about 21 nucleotides in length, non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules representing a new layer in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation. Spatial and temporal analysis of miRNA accumulation by in situ analyses is the prerequisite of understanding the precise biological functions of miRNAs. Since miRNAs are very short molecules, their in situ analysis is technically demanding. Our method is based on the usage of highly sensitive LNA-modified oligonucleotide probes. LNA modification significantly enhances the sensitivity and specificity of miRNA detecting probes and provides relatively easy in situ miRNA detection. Here, we describe a protocol for this challenging technique step by step, in order to help every user to achieve success. PMID:21431702

Várallyay, Eva; Havelda, Zoltán

2011-01-01

270

Spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy causing tubal rupture in a patient with intrauterine device in-situ  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy (HP is a rare but life threatening condition. A case of 27 years old patient who admitted to our emergency gynecology clinic for acute abdominal pain is presented. The transvaginal ultrasound revealed two embryos with cardiac activity; one intrauterine (8 week and 3 day , and the other one in the left adnexa (7 week and 3 day and an intrauterine device (IUD in situ. The patient had left salpingectomy with laparotomy and after the fifth hour of operation she had spontaneous abortion of intrauterine pregnancy. We reported a case of heterotopic pregnancy and relation with IUD and a brief review of the literature.

Serpil Telci

2014-01-01

271

Sustained ophthalmic delivery of gatifloxacin from In situ gelling system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional ophthalmic solutions due to rapid precorneal elimination of drug may be overcome by the use of in situ gel-forming systems that are instilled as drops into the eye and undergo a sol-gel transition in the cul-de-sac. The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of an ophthalmic delivery system of an antibacterial agent, gatifloxacin, based on the concept of ion-activated systems. Sodium alginate was used as the gelling agent in combination with hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (Methocel E50LV, which acted as a viscosity enhancing agent. The developed formulations were therapeutically efficacious, stable, non-irritant and provided sustained release of the drug over an eight hour period. The developed system is thus a viable alternative to conventional eye drops.

Doijad R

2006-01-01

272

Air-coupled acoustic thermography for in-situ evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Acoustic thermography uses a housing configured for thermal, acoustic and infrared radiation shielding. For in-situ applications, the housing has an open side adapted to be sealingly coupled to a surface region of a structure such that an enclosed chamber filled with air is defined. One or more acoustic sources are positioned to direct acoustic waves through the air in the enclosed chamber and towards the surface region. To activate and control each acoustic source, a pulsed signal is applied thereto. An infrared imager focused on the surface region detects a thermal image of the surface region. A data capture device records the thermal image in synchronicity with each pulse of the pulsed signal such that a time series of thermal images is generated. For enhanced sensitivity and/or repeatability, sound and/or vibrations at the surface region can be used in feedback control of the pulsed signal applied to the acoustic sources.

Zalameda, Joseph N. (Inventor); Winfree, William P. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

273

In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell

2005-12-27

274

In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laser delivery probes using multimode fiber optic delivery and bulk focusing optics have been constructed and used for performing materials processing experiments within scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam instruments. Controlling the current driving a 915-nm semiconductor diode laser module enables continuous or pulsed operation down to sub-microsecond durations, and with spot sizes on the order of 50 ?m diameter, achieving irradiances at a sample surface exceeding 1 MW/cm2. Localized laser heating has been used to demonstrate laser chemical vapor deposition of Pt, surface melting of silicon, enhanced purity, and resistivity via laser annealing of Au deposits formed by electron beam induced deposition, and in situ secondary electron imaging of laser induced dewetting of Au metal films on SiOx.

275

In-situ stress measurement at a candidate repository horizon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The state of in-situ stress under the Hanford Site has attracted attention in recent years because of the core disking phenomenon observed during exploration drilling, an indicator of likely high horizontal stress. Efforts made to elucidate this phenomenon by core analysis and numerical modeling studies have enhanced the understanding of the rock failure mechanism and served to delineate approximate conditions for which disking might occur. The hydraulic fracturing stress measurements conducted in the Umtanum flow in fiscal year 1982 provided, for the first time, direct and quantitative information on the stress state of a candidate repository horizon in basalt. This paper summarizes the measurement method employed, the test results, and future Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) plans. 4 figures

276

Next generation in-situ optical Raman sensor for seawater investigations  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce the next generation of optical sensors based on a combination of surfaced enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) suited for investigations of tiny concentrations of pollutions in the seawater. First field measurements were carried out in the Arctic area which is of global interest since it is more affected by global warming caused climatic changes than any other areas of our planet and it is a recipient for many toxic organic pollutants. A significant long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants to Svalbard is mainly originated from industrialized countries in Europe and North America during the last decades. Therefore, the main interest is to investigate the Arctic water column and also the sediments. Standard chemical methods for water/sediment analysis are extremely accurate but complex and time-consuming. The primary objective of our study was to develop a fast response in-situ optical sensor for easy to use and quick analysis. The system comprises several components: a handheld measurement head containing a 671 nm microsystem diode laser and the Raman optical bench, a laser driver electronics board, a custom-designed miniature spectrometer with an optical resolution of 8 cm-1 and a netbook to control the spectrometer as well as for data evaluation. We introduced for the first time the portable Raman sensor system on an Artic sea-trial during a three week cruise on board of the James Clark Ross research vessel in August 2011. Numerous Raman and SERS measurements followed by SERDS evaluations were taken around locations 78° N and 9° E. Different SERS substrates developed for SERS measurements in sea-water were tested for their capability to detect different substances (PAHs) in the water down to very small (nmol/l) concentrations. Stability tests of the substrates were carried out also for the applicability of our system e.g. on a mooring. Details of the in-situ Raman sensor were presented together with the measurements results from the Arctic area.

Kolomijeca, A.; Kwon, Y.-H.; Ahmad, H.; Kronfeldt, H.-D.

2012-04-01

277

At Least 39 Weeks  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 39 weeks Description | Related videos | Most played video E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

278

At Least 39 Weeks  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ready for pregnancy Trying to get pregnant Folic acid During your pregnancy Your pregnant body Prenatal care ... 30 At least 39 weeks 3:36 Folic acid 3:23 Newborn care: Diaper 1:51 Dr. ...

279

High resolution measurements of carbon monoxide along a late Holocene Greenland ice core: evidence for in-situ production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present high-resolution measurements of carbon monoxide (CO concentrations from continuous analysis of a shallow ice core from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling project (NEEM-2011-S1. An Optical Feedback – Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer (OF-CEAS was coupled to a continuous melter system during a 4-week laboratory-based measurement campaign. This analytical setup generates highly stable measurements of CO concentrations with an external precision of 7.8 ppbv (1 sigma based on a comparison of replicate cores. The NEEM-2011-S1 CO record spans 1800 yr and exhibits highly variable concentrations at the scale of annual layers, ranging from 75 to 1327 ppbv. The most recent section of this record (i.e. since 1700 AD agrees with existing discrete CO measurements from the Eurocore ice core and the deep NEEM firn. However, it is difficult to interpret in terms of atmospheric CO variation due to high frequency, high amplitude spikes in the data. 68% of the elevated CO spikes are observed in ice layers enriched with pyrogenic aerosols. Such aerosols, originating from boreal biomass burning emissions, contain organic compounds, which can be oxidized or photodissociated to produce CO in-situ. We suggest that elevated CO concentration features could present a new integrative proxy for past biomass burning history. Furthermore, the NEEM-2011-S1 record reveals an increase in baseline CO level prior to 1700 AD (129 m depth, with the concentration remaining high even for ice layers depleted in dissolved organic carbon (DOC. Overall, the processes driving in-situ production of CO within the NEEM ice are complex and may involve multiple chemical pathways.

X. Faïn

2013-05-01

280

Challenges in subsurface in situ remediation of chlorinated solvents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chlorinated solvent source zones in the subsurface pose a continuous threat to groundwater quality at many sites worldwide. In situ remediation of these sites is particularly challenging in heterogeneous fractured media and where the solvents are present as DNAPL. In situ remediation by chemical as well as biological degradation of chlorinated solvents is a contact sport and requires direct contact between the contaminant and the reactants and/or degrading microorganisms. In fractured geologic media, where contaminants have spread to the low permeability matrix by diffusion, the contact between contaminant and reactant is limited by slow back diffusion of contaminant and in-diffusion of reactant if the only access for the reactant is via the high permeability fractures/conduits. Where DNAPL is present the mass distribution is very heterogeneous and the reactive degradation is often limited by dissolution of the DNAPL. Most recent research has been aimed at overcoming these challenges by enhanced and targeted reactant delivery methods. These include a wide range of very diverse technologies such as: enhanced injection methods, including fracturing; electrokinetic enhancement of delivery; ZVI-clay mixing for contact; hydrophobic and/or mobile nano-reactants targeting DNAPL. The complexity of the technologies varies greatly and the current level of implementation ranges from multiple full scale applications to bench scale testing. However, the basic degradation reaction involved is usually well established. Enhanced injection with fracturing increases the access to contaminants in clay/clayey media matrixes by shortening the diffusive distance and with ZVI-clay technology by physically mixing the reactant with the contaminated clay/clayey media. The efficiency of the injection technologies has been very variable and rather unpredictable in heterogeneous geologic media, hence, further developments are needed. The novel techniques involving electrokinetics induce migration of primarily ionic species/reactants independent of hydraulic permeability differences, hence transporting the reactant into the contaminated matrix and may be applicable for limestone/bedrock as well as clayey media. Only laboratory studies of electrokinetic enhancement have yet been published, and there is a need for thorough pilot scale studies and supporting laboratory studies. Injectable nano-particles with an affinity for DNAPL surfaces (or phases) may overcome dissolution limitations and provide direct contact with contaminant, limiting reactions with other reactive sites in the subsurface. Challenges lie in obtaining stability and mobility in water, affinity for DNAPL and at the same time maintain reactivity with contaminants. Upscaling to production for pilot studies without loss of efficiency is not trivial. In conclusion there continues to be a need for research and development and in particular for well documented pilot/full scale field studies.

Broholm, Mette Martina; FjordbØge, Annika Sidelmann

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Irradiation-related amorphization and crystallization: In situ transmission electron microscope studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interfacing an ion accelerator to a transmission electron microscope (TEM) allows the analytical functions of TEM imaging and diffraction to be employed during ion-irradiation effects studies. At present there are twelve such installations in Japan, one in France and one in the US. This paper treats several aspects of in situ studies involving electron and ion beam induced and enhanced phase transformations and presents results of several in situ experiments to illustrate the dynamics of this approach in the materials science of irradiation effects. The paper describes the ion- and electron-induced amorphization of CuTi; the ion-irradiation-enhanced transformation of TiCr2; and the ion- and electron-irradiation-enhanced crystallization of CoSi2

282

Voltammetric, in-situ spectroelectrochemical and in-situ electrocolorimetric characterization of phthalocyanines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, electrochemical, and in-situ spectroelectrochemical characterization of the metallophthalocyanines bearing tetra-(1,1-(dicarbethoxy)-2-(2-methylbenzyl))-ethyl 3,10,17,24-tetra chloro groups were performed. Voltammetric and in-situ spectroelectrochemical measurements show that while cobalt phthalocyanine complex gives both metal-based and ring-based redox processes, zinc and copper phthalocyanines show only ring-based reduction and oxidation processes. The redox processes are generally diffusion-controlled, reversible and one-electron transfer processes. Differently lead phthalocyanine demetallized during second oxidation reaction while it was stable during reduction processes. An in-situ electrocolorimetric method, based on the 1931 CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) system of colorimetry, has been applied to investigate the color of the electro-generated anionic and cationic forms of the complexes for the first time in this study

283

Voltammetric, in-situ spectroelectrochemical and in-situ electrocolorimetric characterization of phthalocyanines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, electrochemical, and in-situ spectroelectrochemical characterization of the metallophthalocyanines bearing tetra-(1,1-(dicarbethoxy)-2-(2-methylbenzyl))-ethyl 3,10,17,24-tetra chloro groups were performed. Voltammetric and in-situ spectroelectrochemical measurements show that while cobalt phthalocyanine complex gives both metal-based and ring-based redox processes, zinc and copper phthalocyanines show only ring-based reduction and oxidation processes. The redox processes are generally diffusion-controlled, reversible and one-electron transfer processes. Differently lead phthalocyanine demetallized during second oxidation reaction while it was stable during reduction processes. An in-situ electrocolorimetric method, based on the 1931 CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) system of colorimetry, has been applied to investigate the color of the electro-generated anionic and cationic forms of the complexes for the first time in this study.

Koca, Atif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Marmara University, Goeztepe, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: akoca@eng.marmara.edu.tr; Bayar, Serife; Dincer, Hatice A. [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Gonca, Erguen [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, TR34500 B.Cekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)

2009-04-01

284

In-situ combustion simulation with dynamic grid; Simulacao de combustao in-situ com grades dinamicas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, we study the effects of the introduction of 3D dynamics grids on in-situ combustion simulation results as means of describing the most realistically possible the dynamics of these processes, in particular of the combustion front. The dynamic refinement of grid blocks is important because in thesis it enhances the precision in the calculations once that more grid blocks are considered in the grid, especially within the narrow region of high temperature of the combustion front. We have performed dry combustion simulation (only water injection) and wet combustion simulation (air + water injection) for forward combustion in a variety of well configurations. Our initial results have shown changes in oil, water and gas productions when we use dynamics grids in the simulations, making clear the relevance of its usage in the understanding of the dynamics of these processes. (author)

Ferraz, C.H.A.; Almeida, M.P.; Vasconcelos, H.H.M.; Oliveira, C.L.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

2008-07-01

285

In-situ thermal testing program strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past year the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has implemented a new Program Approach to the licensing process. The Program Approach suggests a step-wise approach to licensing in which the early phases will require less site information than previously planned and necessitate a lesser degree of confidence in the longer-term performance of the repository. Under the Program Approach, the thermal test program is divided into two principal phases: (1) short-term in situ tests (in the 1996 to 2000 time period) and laboratory thermal tests to obtain preclosure information, parameters, and data along with bounding information for postclosure performance; and (2) longer-term in situ tests to obtain additional data regarding postclosure performance. This effort necessitates a rethinking of the testing program because the amount of information needed for the initial licensing phase is less than previously planned. This document proposes a revised and consolidated in situ thermal test program (including supporting laboratory tests) that is structured to meet the needs of the Program Approach. A customer-supplier model is used to define the Project data needs. These data needs, along with other requirements, were then used to define a set of conceptual experiments that will provide the required data within the constraints of the Program Approach schedule. The conceptual thermal tests presented in this document represent a consolidation and update of previously defined tests that should result in a more efficient use of Project resources. This document focuses on defining the requirements and tests needed to satisfy the goal of a successful license application in 2001, should the site be found suitable.

NONE

1995-06-01

286

In-situ burning: NIST studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In-situ burning of spilled oil has distinct advantages over other countermeasures. It offers the potential to convert rapidly large quantities of oil into its primary combustion products, carbon dioxide and water, with a small percentage of other unburned and residue byproducts. Because the oil is converted to gaseous products of combustion by burning, the need for physical collection, storage, and transport of recovered fluids is reduced to the few percent of the original spill volume that remains as residue after burning. Burning oil spills produces a visible smoke plume containing smoke particulate and other products of combustion which may persist for many kilometers from the burn. This fact gives rise to public health concerns, related to the chemical content of the smoke plume and the downwind deposition of particulate, which need to be answered. In 1985, a joint Minerals Management Service (MMS) and Environment Canada (EC) in-situ burning research program was begun at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This research program was designed to study the burning of large crude oil spills on water and how this burning would affect air quality by quantifying the products of combustion and developing methods to predict the downwind smoke particulate deposition. To understand the important features of in-situ burning, it is necessary to perform both laboratory and mesoscale experiments. Finally, actual burns of spilled oil at sea will be necessary to evaluate the method at the anticipated scale of actual response operations. In this research program there is a continuing interaction between findings from measurements on small fire experiments performed in the controlled laboratory environments of NIST and the Fire Research Institute (FRI) in Japan, and large fire experiments at facilities like the USCG Fire Safety and Test Detachment in Mobile, Alabama where outdoor liquid fuel burns in large pans are possible

287

The treatment of in situ breast cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carcinoma in situ is the earliest histologically recognisable form of malignancy and as such provides an opportunity to treat the disease in a curative way. The two major variants, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) will be considered separately as the two conditions have divergent natural histories. DCIS is increasing in incidence since microcalcification may be detected radiologically in the screening of asymptomatic women. The extent of microcalcification may not indicate the extent of disease. It has yet to be determined whether there is a difference in behaviour of the tumour forming and the asymptomatic types of DCIS. After a biopsy has shown DCIS there will be residual DCIS at the biopsy site in one-third of patients, and multifocal DCIS in another third. A coexistent infiltrating carcinoma may be present in up to 16%. Due to sampling problems areas of invasion may be missed. Axillary nodal metastases are found in only 1% of patients with histological DCIS. Radical surgery by total or modified mastectomy is almost curative, but 3% of patients will die of metastases. Taking results of uncontrolled trials, local relapse rates are as follows: excision alone 50%, wide excision 30%, wide excision plus radiotherapy 20%. Two prospective trials are underway run by the EORTC and NSABP in which patients with DCIS are treated by wide excision with or without external radiotherapy. LCIS is usually an incidental finding with a bilateral predisposition to subsequent infiltrating carcinomas. Curative procedures such as bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction may represent overtreatment. A systemic rather than local approach would seem appropriate and a trial is now underway run by the EORTC in which patients with histologically confirmed LCIS are randomised to observation alone or to receive tamoxifen 20 mg daily for 5 years. (orig./MG).

Fentiman, I.S. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK). Clinical Oncology Unit)

1989-01-01

288

The treatment of in situ breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carcinoma in situ is the earliest histologically recognisable form of malignancy and as such provides an opportunity to treat the disease in a curative way. The two major variants, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) will be considered separately as the two conditions have divergent natural histories. DCIS is increasing in incidence since microcalcification may be detected radiologically in the screening of asymptomatic women. The extent of microcalcification may not indicate the extent of disease. It has yet to be determined whether there is a difference in behaviour of the tumour forming and the asymptomatic types of DCIS. After a biopsy has shown DCIS there will be residual DCIS at the biopsy site in one-third of patients, and multifocal DCIS in another third. A coexistent infiltrating carcinoma may be present in up to 16%. Due to sampling problems areas of invasion may be missed. Axillary nodal metastases are found in only 1% of patients with histological DCIS. Radical surgery by total or modified mastectomy is almost curative, but 3% of patients will die of metastases. Taking results of uncontrolled trials, local relapse rates are as follows: excision alone 50%, wide excision 30%, wide excision plus radiotherapy 20%. Two prospective trials are underway run by the EORTC and NSABP in which patients with DCIS are treated by wide excision with or without external radiotherapy. LCIS is usually an incidental finding with a bilateral predisposition to subsequent infiltrating carcinomas. Curative procedures such as bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction may represent overtreatment. A systemic rather than local approach would seem appropriate and a trial is now underway run by the EORTC in which patients with histologically confirmed LCIS are randomised to observation alone or to receive tamoxifen 20 mg daily for 5 years. (orig./MG)

289

New horizons of genomic in situ hybridization.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review summarizes conventional and recent applications of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). GISH is a well recognized technique, but its modifications and applications have not been widely used. Here, we show how modifications to the GISH technique can be used as tools to 'paint' plant chromosomes. In addition, we describe novel applications, e.g. how GISH banding could be used for karyotyping plant chromosomes. We further discuss recent phylogenetic applications of GISH that allow a semiquantitative signal analysis and the possibility of comparing and combining this cytogenetic technique with DNA sequence-based phylogenetic trees. PMID:20110676

Markova, M; Vyskot, B

2009-01-01

290

In-situ fracture stiffness determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In-situ experiments to determine the hydrologic and mechanical characteristics of large naturally occurring fractures have been conducted at the NAGRA test site in Grimsel, Switzerland. In addition to seismic measurements across a fracture resulting from pressurization of the zone was also measured. The deformation is modeled in three different ways: as a mathematical crack employing linear elastic fracture mechanics; as a mathematical crack with an additional restraining stiffness between the faces of the crack, and as a row of coplanar two-dimensional cracks. 6 refs., 6 figs

291

Development of in-situ monitoring system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of in-situ monitoring system using an optical fiber to measure the real time temperature variation of subsurface water for the evaluation of flow characteristics. We describe the feasibility of developing a fiber-optic temperature sensor using a thermochromic material. A sensor-tip is fabricated by mixing of a thermochromic material powder. The relationships between the temperatures and the output voltages of detectors are determined to measure the temperature of water. It is expected that the fiber-optic temperature monitoring sensor using thermochromic material can be used to measure the real time temperature variation of subsurface water

Lee, Bong Soo; Cho, Dong Hyun; Yoo, Wook Jae; Heo, Ji Yeon [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-03-15

292

Reasonable assurance and in-situ testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy is currently preparing site characterization plans for sites being considered for the first geologic repository. The site investigations described in these plans will be aimed at providing ''reasonable assurance'' to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission that the performance objectives and criteria specified in 10 CFR Part 60 will be met. The in-situ testing being planned by the DOE for site characterization, and the subsequent testing conducted as part of performance confirmation, reflects how the basis for ''reasonable assurance'' will change through the licensing process

293

In situ viscometry by optical trapping interferometry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We demonstrate quantitative in situ viscosity measurements by tracking the thermal fluctuations of an optically trapped microsphere subjected to a small oscillatory flow. The measured power spectral density of the sphere's positions displays a characteristic peak at the driving frequency of the flow, which is simply proportional to the viscosity, when measured in units of the thermal power spectral density at the same frequency. Measurements are validated on different water-glycerol mixtures, as well as in a glycerol gradient, where no a priori knowledge of the solution is used to determine the glycerol concentration.

Flyvbjerg, Henrik

2008-01-01

294

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF pH-TRIGGERED IN SITU GELLING SYSTEM OF CIPROFLOXACIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present work was formulation and evaluation of in situ gelling system of ciprofloxacin. The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional ophthalmic solutions due to rapid precorneal elimination of the drug may be overcome by the use of in situ gel-forming systems that are instilled as drops into the eye and undergo a sol–gel transition in the cul-de-sac. Hence, the purpose of the present work was to formulate pH-triggered, temperature triggered & ion activated in situ Gelling system of ciprofloxacin to provide sustained release of drug based on polymeric carriers that undergo sol-to-gel transition upon change in pH. The ciprofloxacin in situ gelling system formulated by using poly acrylic acid (Carbopol 934 in combination with hydroxyl propylmethyl cellulose (HPMC which acted as viscosity enhancing agent. The developed formulation was efficacious, stable, non-irritant and provided sustained release over 8-hour period and it is a viable alternative to conventional eye drops by virtue of its ability to enhance bioavailability through its longer precorneal residence time & ability to produced sustained drug release.

Lokhande Umesh Ramchandra

2012-05-01

295

In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert's interest

296

GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In Task 1, Blade Path Aerodynamics, design options were evaluated using CFD in terms of burnout, increase of power output, and possible hot streaking. It was concluded that Vane 1 injection in a conventional 4-stage turbine was preferred. Vane 2 injection after vane 1 injection was possible, but of marginal benefit. In Task 2, Combustion and Emissions, detailed chemical kinetics modeling, validated by Task 3, Sub-Scale Testing, experiments, resulted in the same conclusions, with the added conclusion that some increase in emissions was expected. In Task 4, Conceptual Design and Development Plan, Siemens Westinghouse power cycle analysis software was used to evaluate alternative in situ reheat design options. Only single stage reheat, via vane 1, was found to have merit, consistent with prior Tasks. Unifying the results of all the tasks, a conceptual design for single stage reheat utilizing 24 holes, 1.8 mm diameter, at the trailing edge of vane 1 is presented. A development plan is presented.

D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert; R.A. Newby P.G.A. Cizmas

2004-05-17

297

Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and co fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

298

Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presenteweight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

299

Molecular cytogenetics using fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific probes enables several new areas of cytogenetic investigation by allowing visual determination of the presence and normality of specific genetic sequences in single metaphase or interphase cells. in this approach, termed molecular cytogenetics, the genetic loci to be analyzed are made microscopically visible in single cells using in situ hybridization with nucleic acid probes specific to these loci. To accomplish this, the DNA in the target cells is made single stranded by thermal denaturation and incubated with single-stranded, chemically modified probe under conditions where the probe will anneal only with DNA sequences to which it has high DNA sequence homology. The bound probe is then made visible by treatment with a fluorescent reagent such as fluorescein that binds to the chemical modification carried by the probe. The DNA to which the probe does not bind is made visible by staining with a dye such as propidium iodide that fluoresces at a wavelength different from that of the reagent used for probe visualization. We show in this report that probes are now available that make this technique useful for biological dosimetry, prenatal diagnosis and cancer biology. 31 refs., 3 figs.

Gray, J.W.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lucas, J.; Pinkel, D.; Weier, H-U.; Yu, Loh-Chung.

1990-12-07

300

Oculocardiac reflex in laser in situ keratomileusis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate variations in heart rate and to determine the occurrence of oculocardiac reflex (OCR during laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK. METHODS: This descriptive, prospective study was designed to observe the effect of suction ring and ablation stages during LASIK procedure on the heart rate. The ECG was taken before and during LASIK operation on the first eye in 61 patients. These patients were selected randomly among cases that presented to Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran for LASIK surgery in summer 2001. All patients were healthy without history of cardiovascular disease and no systemic medication. The ECG prior to the procedure was considered as baseline. Decrease in the heart rate of 10% or more of baseline was considered as oculocardiac reflex. RESULTS: In 12 patients (20% the heart rate decreased more than 10% during the suction ring stage. In 19 patients (31% the heart rate increased more than 20% of baseline. In 15 patients (25% the heart rate increased 10%-20% more than baseline during the preparation and ablation stages. In the remaining 15 patients (25% the heart rate did not change during the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study confirm that oculocardiac reflex may occur during the LASIK procedure especially in the suction ring stage. Because the oculocardiac reflex may cause heart rate changes during LASIK, the patients should be closely monitored during the procedure. KEY WORDS: Laser in situ keratomileusis, oculocardiac reflex, suction ring.

Alireza Ashtari

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Dimensional characterisation of collagen constructs in situ  

Science.gov (United States)

We present results of a non contacting instrument based on the confocal scanning technique for assessing the thickness and structure of collagen substrates and tissue constructs. There is an unmet need in the creation of tissue constructs to quantitatively evaluate their dimensional characteristics during manufacture. With this knowledge more effective structures can be produced. The measurement is complicated by the need to make these measurements in situ. For many processes, including the plastic compression of collagen gels for generating 3D structures, the constructs are situated in a liquid solution contained in a well plate or similar container. It is therefore necessary to perform the measurements through an interfering medium and this confounds many measurement techniques. A system has therefore been developed that utilizes a scanning confocal arrangement to accurately measure the dimensional characteristics of these constructs in situ. A fiber based optical arrangement using compact, proven components from the telecommunications industry has been integrated into a dedicated system architecture so that the constructs can be measured whilst in production. This architecture is particularly important due to the "wet" nature of the samples. The meter can measure constructs with thicknesses from a few tens of micrometers up to 0.9 millimeters with sub-micrometer resolution. Results are presented that show how the meter has been used to evaluate changes in these collagen constructs whilst in production. This was little understood prior to these measurements and the greater understanding of how the materials behave has allowed the process to be greatly improved.

Taylor, R.; Reynolds, J.; Chikkanna, B.; Daly, D.; Brown, R. A.; Tan, N. S.

2014-02-01

302

Conductor For The Week  

Science.gov (United States)

Now that you are enrolled in seminary, it\\'s time to learn how to lead music! You\\'re assignment for the next trimester is to lead the music for one week. You will receive a handout designating which week. Imagine you have been selected by the Boston Pops orchestra to be the guest conductor for one song at the performance tomorrow night. They arent sure which song theyll have you conduct. You must prepare yourself to lead by becoming familiar with the time signature, the beat and ...

Iii, Professor E.

2005-11-28

303

The effect of chewing gum use on in situ enamel lesion remineralization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two independent cross-over studies investigated the possibility of enhanced early enamel lesion remineralization with the use of chewing gum. The first study involved a sorbitol-containing chewing gum, and the second, which had an identical protocol, tested a sucrose-containing chewing gum. In each study, 12 volunteers wore in situ appliances on which were mounted enamel sections containing artificial caries lesions. Subjects brushed twice daily for two min with a 1100-ppm-F (NaF) dentifrice (control and test) and in the test phase chewed five sticks of gum per day for 20 min after meals and snacks. Microradiographs of the enamel lesions were made at baseline and at the end of the seven-week experimental period. In the sugar-free gum study, the weighted mean total mineral loss (delta z) difference [(wk7-wk0) x (-1)] was 788 vol.% min. x micron for the gum, corresponding to remineralization of 18.2%, vs. the control value of 526 vol.% min. x micron, 12.1% remineralization (p = 0.07). There were no significant differences for the surface-zone (p = 0.20) and lesion-body (p = 0.28) values. In the sucrose-containing gum study, the delta z difference was 743 vol.% min. x micron for the gum, corresponding to a remineralization of 18.3%, vs. the control value of 438 vol.% min. x micron, 10.8% remineralization (p = 0.08). The surface-zone values were not significantly different (p = 0.55). For the lesion body, however, the sucrose-containing gum value of 6.11 vol.% min. was significantly different (p = 0.01) from that of the control (2.81 vol.% min.). PMID:1452890

Creanor, S L; Strang, R; Gilmour, W H; Foye, R H; Brown, J; Geddes, D A; Hall, A F

1992-12-01

304

Large Volume In-Situ Filtration During Sofex: an Overview of Preliminary Results  

Science.gov (United States)

We deployed the Multiple Unit Large Volume in-situ Filtration System (MULVFS) during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) in Jan/Feb 2002 from the R/V Revelle. The MULVFS collected samples over 4 hours of pumping at depths between the surface and 1000m from 3 flow channels: size-fractionated particles (>51?m, 1-51?m, and nominally 0.4?m and >0.7?m particles from up to 25L. Samples were shared with several groups in SOFeX. Profiles from the North Patch (55S 172W; hereafter "55S") were collected on Julian Day 12 before the first Fe infusion, and "in the patch" on JD 19 and 40. Five profiles were collected in the South Patch (66S, 172W; hereafter "66S"): two "out of the patch" profiles on JD 24 and 34, and three "in the patch" profiles on JD 28, 31, and 35. We observed the following in the (>51?m) size fraction: 55S was initially characterized by a predominance of small particles in the mixed layer, with very little captured on the >51?m filters. Four weeks after the first Fe addition, the >51?m samples from 35m were heavily loaded. There was a clear increase in large sized organic matter in the mixed layer, but there was no visible evidence of enhanced deep particle export at this point in the experiment. Samples collected over a shorter (12 day) period at 66S showed a concurrent natural bloom outside of the patch, obscuring detection of biomass differences inside the patch. We have calculated POC in our samples using gravimetric techniques in the >51?m fraction (polyester filter) and measured directly in the 1-51 ?m and "<1?m" fractions (quartz fiber filters). We will also present preliminary results of bulk chemical analyses for CaCO3, Si, and acid leacheable bioactive trace metals, with an emphasis on iron.

Lam, P. J.; Wood, T. J.; Bishop, J. K.

2002-12-01

305

A Week in Creativity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author recounts a week in October, describing her teaching, writing, thinking, mail, and other activities that relate to her professional and personal work on creativity. This personal creative nonfiction piece also contains poetry and references to her books and lectures. The author chose this form in order to emphasize the autobiographical nature of work in the area of creativity.

Jane Piirto

2012-12-01

306

The Weekly Defense Monitor  

Science.gov (United States)

This new free electronic publication by the Center for Defense Information will bring readers a few short articles on various military and foreign affairs issues each week. Recent topics included an arms trade code of conduct introduced in the Senate, US base closures and the military force structure, and the cost of defending Western Europe.

1997-01-01

307

In situ vitrification large-scale operational acceptance test analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A thermal treatment process is currently under study to provide possible enhancement of in-place stabilization of transuranic and chemically contaminated soil sites. The process is known as in situ vitrification (ISV). In situ vitrification is a remedial action process that destroys solid and liquid organic contaminants and incorporates radionuclides into a glass-like material that renders contaminants substantially less mobile and less likely to impact the environment. A large-scale operational acceptance test (LSOAT) was recently completed in which more than 180 t of vitrified soil were produced in each of three adjacent settings. The LSOAT demonstrated that the process conforms to the functional design criteria necessary for the large-scale radioactive test (LSRT) to be conducted following verification of the performance capabilities of the process. The energy requirements and vitrified block size, shape, and mass are sufficiently equivalent to those predicted by the ISV mathematical model to confirm its usefulness as a predictive tool. The LSOAT demonstrated an electrode replacement technique, which can be used if an electrode fails, and techniques have been identified to minimize air oxidation, thereby extending electrode life. A statistical analysis was employed during the LSOAT to identify graphite collars and an insulative surface as successful cold cap subsidence techniques. The LSOAT also showed that even under worst-case conditions, the off-gas system exceeds the flow requirements necessary to maintain a negative pressure on the hood covering the area being vitrified. The retention of simulated radionuclides and chemicals in the soil and off-gas system exceeds requirements so that projected emissions are one to two orders of magnitude below the maximum permissible concentrations of contaminants at the stack

308

Studies on the intercalation of naproxen into layered double hydroxide and its thermal decomposition by in situ FT-IR and in situ HT-XRD  

Science.gov (United States)

Layered double hydroxides, novel anionic clay, meet the first requirement as inorganic matrices for encapsulating functional drugs or biomolecules with negative charge in aqueous media. In this study, naproxen has been intercalated into Mg-Al layered double hydroxide by the methods of ion exchange. The structure and composition of the intercalated material have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. A schematic model has been proposed. Furthermore, in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, in situ high-temperature XRD, and thermogravimetry (TG) have been used to characterize the thermal decomposition of the hybrid material. It has been found that the thermal stability of the intercalated naproxen is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation, which suggests that this drug-inorganic layered material may have prospective application as the basis of a novel drug delivery system.

Wei, Min; Shi, Shuxian; Wang, Ji; Li, Yong; Duan, Xue

2004-07-01

309

Studies on the intercalation of naproxen into layered double hydroxide and its thermal decomposition by in situ FT-IR and in situ HT-XRD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Layered double hydroxides, novel anionic clay, meet the first requirement as inorganic matrices for encapsulating functional drugs or biomolecules with negative charge in aqueous media. In this study, naproxen has been intercalated into Mg-Al layered double hydroxide by the methods of ion exchange. The structure and composition of the intercalated material have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. A schematic model has been proposed. Furthermore, in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, in situ high-temperature XRD, and thermogravimetry (TG) have been used to characterize the thermal decomposition of the hybrid material. It has been found that the thermal stability of the intercalated naproxen is significantly enhanced compared with the pure form before intercalation, which suggests that this drug-inorganic layered material may have prospective application as the basis of a novel drug delivery system

310

In situ beamline analysis and correction of active optics.  

Science.gov (United States)

At the Diamond Light Source, pencil-beam measurements have enabled long-wavelength slope errors on X-ray mirror surfaces to be examined under ultra-high vacuum and beamline mounting without the need to remove the mirror from the beamline. For an active mirror an automated procedure has been implemented to calculate the actuator settings that optimize its figure. More recently, this in situ pencil-beam method has been applied to additional uses for which ex situ measurements would be inconvenient or simply impossible. First, it has been used to check the stability of the slope errors of several bimorph mirrors at intervals of several weeks or months. Then, it also proved useful for the adjustment of bender and sag compensation actuators on mechanically bent mirrors. Fits to the bending of ideal beams have been performed on the slope errors of a mechanically bent mirror in order to distinguish curvatures introduced by the bending actuators from gravitational distortion. Application of the optimization procedure to another mechanically bent mirror led to an improvement of its sag compensation mechanism. PMID:23093756

Sutter, John; Alcock, Simon; Sawhney, Kawal

2012-11-01

311

The LISA1 experiment: In-situ tritium release investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LISA1 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium release. Conducted in the SILOE reactor at CEN Grenoble, the experiment uses the same facilities as the LILA1. The experiment has six capsules, four with Li2SiO3, one with Li4SiO4 and one with LiAlO2. Each capsule is separately purged. The tritium activity is determined by ionization chambers and scintillation counting. An important difference as compared to LILA1 is the use of zinc beds to reduce tritiated water and thereby prevent sorption of T2O on the lines. Irradiation began on October 25, 1985 and was continued for three 3-weeks-cycles. The testing included systematic variation of four parameters: temperature (450 to 7300C), neutron flux (0.8 to 2.7x1017 m-2 s-1), sweep gas flow rate (1.8 to 7.0 l/h), and sweep gas composition (He, He+0.1% H2, He+0.2% O2). Preliminary results are given. (orig.)

312

The LISA1 experiment: in-situ tritium release investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LISA1 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium release. Conducted in the SILOE reactor at CEN Grenoble, the experiment uses the same facilities as the LILA1. The experiment has six capsules, four with Li2SiO3, one with Li4SiO4 and one with LiA102. Each capsule is separately purged. The tritium activity is determined by ionization chambers and scintillation counting. An important difference as compared to LILA1 is the use of zinc beds to reduce tritiated water and thereby prevent sorption of T2O on the lines. Irradiation began on October 25, 1985 and was continued for three 3-week-cycles. The testing included systematic variation of four parameters: temperature (450 to 7300C), neutron flux (0.8 to 2.7 x 1013 1/cm2.s), sweep gas flow rate (1.8 to 7.0 L/h), and sweep gas composition (He,He+0.1% H2, He+0.2% O2). Preliminary results are given

313

Assessment of a multi-species in-situ FTIR for precise atmospheric greenhouse gas observations  

Science.gov (United States)

We thoroughly evaluate the performance of a multi-species, in-situ FTIR analyser with respect to high accuracy needs for greenhouse gas monitoring networks. The in-situ FTIR analyser measures CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O mole fractions continuously, all with better reproducibility than requested by the WMO-GAW inter-laboratory compatibility (ILC) goal. Simultaneously determined ?13CO2 reaches reproducibility as good as 0.03‰. This paper focuses on the quantification of residual dependencies between the measured components and the thermodynamic properties of the sample as well as the cross-sensitivities among the sample constituents. The instrument has proven to be linear for all components in the ambient range. The temporal stability of the instrument was investigated by 10 months of continuously collected quality control measures. Based on these measures we conclude that for moderately stable laboratory conditions weekly calibrations of the instrument are sufficient to reach WMO-GAW ILC goals.

Hammer, S.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Konrad, G.; Vardag, S.; Caldow, C.; Levin, I.

2012-05-01

314

In-situ partial sintering of gold-nanoparticle sheets for SERS applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new, versatile substrate design for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is introduced that provides better illumination and collection efficiency than other solid substrates. It uses sheets of 5 nm diameter gold nanoparticles that are draped by drying-mediated self-assembly onto 100 nm thick silicon nitride membranes. During laser illumination, partial in-situ sintering of the nanoparticles into larger structures with tiny gaps (?2 nm) greatly increases the SERS enhancement factor. The detection of 1 pM of p-mercaptoaniline and 1 fg of 2,4-dinitrotoluene is demonstrated. The use of self-assembled nanoparticle sheets furthermore makes it possible to perform SERS detection in situ on top of a probe solution droplet. PMID:22021074

He, Jinbo; Lin, Xiao-Min; Divan, Ralu; Jaeger, Heinrich M

2011-12-16

315

Reverse osmosis membrane allows in situ regeneration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of mineral membranes on metallic supports has provided a novel solution to the problem of filtration by the reverse osmosis process. A new reverse osmosis membrane is described which is capable of resisting high operational temperatures (1200C), fluctuations in pH(3 to 12) and high pressure (100 bar), as well as significant chlorine concentrations. In addition, the membrane can be regenerated in-situ on the same porous metal support. Numerous membranes can thus be used over the multi-year life of the porous support. Moreover, accidental damage to the membrane is of no great consequence as the membrane itself can be easily replaced. The life of the installation can thus be extended and the overall cost of filtration reduced. The membrane's various applications include water and effluent treatment in the nuclear power industry. (author)

316

In-situ measurement of soil properties  

Science.gov (United States)

An Iowa borehole shear device, a vane shear device, a standard penetrometer, Dutch cone penetrometer and a Cambridge self boring pressuremeter were field tested in downtown Sacramento, Rio Vista, and Mare Island in northern California. The in situ tests were conducted in silty sand, silty clay, San Francisco bay mud (recent), peat, and peaty clay. Maximum depth tested was 50 feet. Laboratory tests were conducted on undisturbed samples. The various soil parameters derived from laboratory tests were compared with those from the field tests. The effects of soil disturbance are discussed. A separate report appendix intended for limited distribution (upon request) contains information on modification of probes, adaptation of drill rigs, calibration, testing procedures, boring profiles, and a bibliography.

John, S. B. P.; Prysock, R. H.

1980-05-01

317

In situ erosion of cohesive sediment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There has been increasing interest in tidal power schemes and the effect of a tidal energy barrage on the environment. A large man-made environmental change, such as a barrage, would be expected to have significant effects on the sediment distribution and stability of an estuary and these effects need to be assessed when considering a tidal barrage project. This report describes the development of apparatus for in-situ measurements of cohesive sediment erosion on inter-tidal mudflats. Development of the prototype field erosion bell and field testing was commissioned on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry by the Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU). This later work commenced in August 1991 and was completed in September 1992. (Author)

318

PREPARATION OF NANOCOMPOSITES BY IN SITU POLIMERIZATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polyethylene nanocomposites were obtained by in situ polymerization using both montmorillonite (natural clay and montmorillonite organically modified with octadecylamine (O-Clo. In this proposed methodology the clays were added directly in the reactor together with the catalytic system (metallocene catalyst and methylaluminoxane and ethylene. The nanocomposites were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and by tensile stress-strain tests. It was found that the catalytic activity increased around 20% when natural clay was used compared with the standard polymer. But when modified clay was used the catalytic activity did not show important changes. On the other hand, XRD and TEM showed that the clays are in a disordered state and well dispersed in the polyethylene matrix. Finally, the nanocomposites showed an increase of about 30% in Young's modulus compared with the standard polymer

PAULA ZAPATA

2008-03-01

319

PREPARATION OF NANOCOMPOSITES BY IN SITU POLIMERIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Polyethylene nanocomposites were obtained by in situ polymerization using both montmorillonite (natural clay) and montmorillonite organically modified with octadecylamine (O-Clo). In this proposed methodology the clays were added directly in the reactor together with the catalytic system (metallocen [...] e catalyst and methylaluminoxane) and ethylene. The nanocomposites were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and by tensile stress-strain tests. It was found that the catalytic activity increased around 20% when natural clay was used compared with the standard polymer. But when modified clay was used the catalytic activity did not show important changes. On the other hand, XRD and TEM showed that the clays are in a disordered state and well dispersed in the polyethylene matrix. Finally, the nanocomposites showed an increase of about 30% in Young's modulus compared with the standard polymer

PAULA, ZAPATA; RAÚL, QUIJADA; JAIME, RETUER; EDWIN, MONCADA.

1359-13-01

320

Support Routines for In Situ Image Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

This software consists of a set of application programs that support ground-based image processing for in situ missions. These programs represent a collection of utility routines that perform miscellaneous functions in the context of the ground data system. Each one fulfills some specific need as determined via operational experience. The most unique aspect to these programs is that they are integrated into the large, in situ image processing system via the PIG (Planetary Image Geometry) library. They work directly with space in situ data, understanding the appropriate image meta-data fields and updating them properly. The programs themselves are completely multimission; all mission dependencies are handled by PIG. This suite of programs consists of: (1)marscahv: Generates a linearized, epi-polar aligned image given a stereo pair of images. These images are optimized for 1-D stereo correlations, (2) marscheckcm: Compares the camera model in an image label with one derived via kinematics modeling on the ground, (3) marschkovl: Checks the overlaps between a list of images in order to determine which might be stereo pairs. This is useful for non-traditional stereo images like long-baseline or those from an articulating arm camera, (4) marscoordtrans: Translates mosaic coordinates from one form into another, (5) marsdispcompare: Checks a Left Right stereo disparity image against a Right Left disparity image to ensure they are consistent with each other, (6) marsdispwarp: Takes one image of a stereo pair and warps it through a disparity map to create a synthetic opposite- eye image. For example, a right eye image could be transformed to look like it was taken from the left eye via this program, (7) marsfidfinder: Finds fiducial markers in an image by projecting their approximate location and then using correlation to locate the markers to subpixel accuracy. These fiducial markets are small targets attached to the spacecraft surface. This helps verify, or improve, the pointing of in situ cameras, (8) marsinvrange: Inverse of marsrange . given a range file, re-computes an XYZ file that closely matches the original. . marsproj: Projects an XYZ coordinate through the camera model, and reports the line/sample coordinates of the point in the image, (9) marsprojfid: Given the output of marsfidfinder, projects the XYZ locations and compares them to the found locations, creating a report showing the fiducial errors in each image. marsrad: Radiometrically corrects an image, (10) marsrelabel: Updates coordinate system or camera model labels in an image, (11) marstiexyz: Given a stereo pair, allows the user to interactively pick a point in each image and reports the XYZ value corresponding to that pair of locations. marsunmosaic: Extracts a single frame from a mosaic, which will be created such that it could have been an input to the original mosaic. Useful for creating simulated input frames using different camera models than the original mosaic used, and (12) merinverter: Uses an inverse lookup table to convert 8-bit telemetered data to its 12-bit original form. Can be used in other missions despite the name.

Deen, Robert G.; Pariser, Oleg; Yeates, Matthew C.; Lee, Hyun H.; Lorre, Jean

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

In-situ continuous water monitoring system  

Science.gov (United States)

An in-situ continuous liquid monitoring system for continuously analyzing volatile components contained in a water source comprises: a carrier gas supply, an extraction container and a mass spectrometer. The carrier gas supply continuously supplies the carrier gas to the extraction container and is mixed with a water sample that is continuously drawn into the extraction container by the flow of carrier gas into the liquid directing device. The carrier gas continuously extracts the volatile components out of the water sample. The water sample is returned to the water source after the volatile components are extracted from it. The extracted volatile components and the carrier gas are delivered continuously to the mass spectrometer and the volatile components are continuously analyzed by the mass spectrometer.

Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN); Wise, Marcus B. (Kingston, TN)

1998-01-01

322

In-situ continuous water analyzing module  

Science.gov (United States)

An in-situ continuous liquid analyzing system for continuously analyzing volatile components contained in a water source comprises: a carrier gas supply, an extraction container and a mass spectrometer. The carrier gas supply continuously supplies the carrier gas to the extraction container and is mixed with a water sample that is continuously drawn into the extraction container. The carrier gas continuously extracts the volatile components out of the water sample. The water sample is returned to the water source after the volatile components are extracted from it. The extracted volatile components and the carrier gas are delivered continuously to the mass spectometer and the volatile components are continuously analyzed by the mass spectrometer.

Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN); Wise, Marcus B. (Kingston, TN)

1998-01-01

323

In situ corrosion monitoring of steam generators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ac electrochemical technique which meets the basic requirements for an in situ localized corrosion monitor within the secondary coolant of PWR steam generators has been investigated. The technique uses two electrodes to measure the electrochemical impedance of a surface in an occluded region with high heat flux. The impedance is related to the kinetics of corrosion. Marked decreases indicate the onset of a high corrosion rate. Experiments have demonstrated the ability of the technique to determine the onset of corrosion under conditions of high solution resistance and solution agitation due to local boiling. Experiments have shown the technique operates similarly in pressurized 3000C water, 1,400 ppM in Na2SO4

324

In situ vitrification applications to hazardous wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Situ Vitrification is a new hazardous waste remediation alternative that should be considered for contaminated soil matrices. According to the authors the advantages of using ISV include: technology demonstrated at field scale; applicable to a wide variety of soils and contaminants; pyrolyzer organics and encapsulates inorganics; product durable over geologic time period; no threat of harm to the public from exposure; and applications available for barrier walls and structural support. The use of ISV on a large scale basis has thus far been limited to the nuclear industry but has tremendous potential for widespread applications to the hazardous waste field. With the ever changing regulations for the disposal of hazardous waste in landfills, and the increasing positive analytical data of ISV, the process will become a powerful source for on-site treatment and hazardous waste management needs in the very near future

325

In situ studies of fracture in solids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron microscope studies were made of the propagation of microcracks during in situ tensile deformation of stainless steel, molybdenum and magnesium oxide representing ductile, semi-brittle and brittle solids. As the stress is applied, the cracks are initiated at the edge of holes in the thinned foils. The extent of plastic activity around the cracks is measured in terms of the density and the distribution of dislocations and is sensitive to the ductile/brittle nature of the solid. The slip systems of the dislocations are determined by contrast analysis and stereoscopic observation. In stainless steel and magnesium oxide, the dislocations are relatively straight and they lie nearly perpendicular to the direction of the crack propagation, whereas in molybdenum the dislocations are in the form of irregular tangles which are stretched along the direction of the crack propagation. These observations are discussed in terms of the model of Dugdale concerning the formation of plastic zones under uniaxial loading in plane stress conditions

326

In-situ Resources In Space  

Science.gov (United States)

This tutorial is a primer on the motivational and materials science basis for utilizing space resources to lower the cost and increase the safety and reliability of human systems beyond Earth's orbit. Past research in materials processing in orbit will be briefly reviewed to emphasize the challenges and advantages inherent in processing materials in space. Data on resource availability from human Lunar and robotic/sensor missions beyond the Moon will be overviewed for resource relevance to human exploration and development of space. Specific scenarios such as propellant production on the Moon and Mars, and lunar photovoltaic power production from in-situ materials will be discussed in relation to exploration and commercialization of space. A conclusion will cover some of the visionary proposals for the use of space resources to extend human society and prosperity beyond Earth.

Curreri, Peter A.

2005-01-01

327

In situ permeability testing of rock salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in bedded salt formations requires a knowledge of the in situ permeability of SENM rock salt. Since assumptions for safety assessments have been made in which these wastes could generate gas pressures on the order of the lithostatic pressure over geologic time scales, the permeability of the surrounding formation becomes an important parameter for determining the manner in which the gases will be contained or dispersed. This report describes the series of tests conducted in the AEC-7 borehole, located near the WIPP site, to determine the in situ gas flow characteristics of the bedded salt. In these tests, compressed air was injected into the borehole and flow into the surrounding formation measured. These measured flow rates were interpreted in terms of formation permeabilities and porosities which were, in turn, used as modeling parameters for the repository response analysis. Two series of field tests were performed. The first series consisted of a number of whole-hole flow tests conducted to provide preliminary design information required for future operation of a guarded straddle packer system capable of measuring permeabilities > or = 0.1 ?darcy. The second series of tests were conducted using the Systems, Science and Software (S-Cubed) designed guarded straddle packer system. In these interval permeability tests, 100-foot lengths of borehole were isolated and the flow characteristics of the surrounding formation examined. In f the surrounding formation examined. In this report, a complete description of the test procedures, instrumentation, and measurement techniques is first given. The analytical/numerical methods used for data interpretation are then presented, followed by results of the interval and permeability tests. (The whole-hole tests are summarized in Appendix A.) Conclusions are presented in the final section

328

PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring.

N.T. Raczka

2000-05-23

329

PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION IN-SITU INSTRUMENTATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this document is to identify and analyze the types of in-situ instruments and methods that could be used in support of the data acquisition portion of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The PC program will require geomechanical , geophysical, thermal, and hydrologic instrumentation of several kinds. This analysis is being prepared to document the technical issues associated with each type of measurement during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) as its starting point. The scope of this analysis is primarily on the period after the start of waste package emplacement and before permanent closure of the repository, a period lasting between 15 and 300 years after last package emplacement (Stroupe 2000, Attachment 1, p. 1). The primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the design criteria as presented in the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a). The scope of this analysis will be limited to the instrumentation related to parameters that require continuous monitoring of the conditions underground. (2) Preliminary identification and listing of the data requirements and parameters as related to the current repository layout in support of PC monitoring. (3) Preliminary identification of methods and instrumentation for the acquisition of the required data. Although the ''Performance Confirmation Input Criteria'' (CRWMS M andO 1999a) defines a broad range of data that must be obtained from a variety of methods, the focus of this analysis is on instrumentation related to the performance of the rock mass and the formation of water in the repository environment, that is obtainable from in-situ observation, testing, and monitoring

330

A novel in situ trigger combination method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and system performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding of the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, that were combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a W boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. We compare the inclusion and novel in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF WH search. This new combination method, by virtue of its scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and insensitivity to correlations between triggers, will benefit future long-running collider experiments, including those currently operating on the Large Hadron Collider

331

In Situ Field Testing of Processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

J. Wang

2001-12-14

332

In situ SAXS and WAXS of zeolite microwave synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) studies were carried out during microwave and conventional synthesis of zeolites using a custom waveguide reactor. In situ SAXS studies showed that the crystallization of NaY zeolite was preceded by a reorganization of nano-sized particles in their precursor solutions or gels. In situ WAXS was used to observe the rate of formation of crystalline zeolite products.

Tompsett, Geoffrey A.; Panzarella, Bernard A.; Conner, W. Curtis; Bennett, Steven; Jones, Keith W.

2007-08-01

333

In-situ gelling polymers for biomedical applications  

CERN Document Server

This book presents the research involving in situ gelling polymers and can be used as a guidebook for academics, industrialists and postgraduates interested in this area. This work summaries the academic contributions from the top authorities in the field and explore the fundamental principles of in situ gelling polymeric networks, along with examples of their major applications. This book aims to provide an up-to-date resource of in situ gelling polymer research.

2015-01-01

334

Week Calendar 7  

Science.gov (United States)

The Week Calendar is a great app that allows visitors to create a dynamic and collaborative calendar, allowing the user to elaborate on meetings, planning sessions, or busy activity schedules. One remarkable features is Travel Time which smartly acquires the time it will take to travel between calendar events with locations. The site contains a great FAQ area along with several tutorials. This version is compatible with iPhones running iOS 7.

2013-12-12

335

Osteogenic potential of in situ TiO2 nanowire surfaces formed by thermal oxidation of titanium alloy substrate  

Science.gov (United States)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire surface structures were fabricated in situ by a thermal oxidation process, and their ability to enhance the osteogenic potential of primary osteoblasts was investigated. Human osteoblasts were isolated from nasal bone and cultured on a TiO2 nanowires coated substrate to assess its in vitro cellular interaction. Bare featureless Ti-6Al-4V substrate was used as a control surface. Initial cell adhesion, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell mineralization, and osteogenic related gene expression were examined on the TiO2 nanowire surfaces as compared to the control surfaces after 2 weeks of culturing. Cell adhesion and cell proliferation were assayed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Alamar Blue reduction assay, respectively. The nanowire surfaces promoted better cell adhesion and spreading than the control surface, as well as leading to higher cell proliferation. Our results showed that osteoblasts grown onto the TiO2 nanowire surfaces displayed significantly higher production levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), extracellular (ECM) mineralization and genes expression of runt-related transcription factor (Runx2), bone sialoprotein (BSP), ostoepontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) compared to the control surfaces. This suggests the potential use of such surface modification on Ti-6Al-4V substrates as a promising means to improve the osteointegration of titanium based implants.

Tan, A. W.; Ismail, R.; Chua, K. H.; Ahmad, R.; Akbar, S. A.; Pingguan-Murphy, B.

2014-11-01

336

Power dependence of NF3 plasma stability for in situ chamber cleaning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the stability of NF3 plasmas for in situ chamber cleaning in a production plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor. An rf power threshold, normalized by NF3 molar number (Pnn) and NF3 flow rate (Pnf), is observed to be PnnPnf=39 (W/? mol)(W/sccm) for stable plasmas with high NF3 destruction efficiency. This is rationalized by the energy required to maintain sufficient electron-ion pair creation in an electronegative discharge

337

In situ polymerization of highly dispersed polypyrrole on reduced graphite oxide for dopamine detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A composite consisting of reduced graphite oxide and highly dispersed polypyrrole nanospheres was synthesized by a straightforward technique, by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization. The novel polypyrrole nanospheres can prevent the aggregation of reduced graphite oxide sheets by electrostatic repulsive interaction, and enhance their electrochemical properties in the nano-molar measurement of dopamine in biological systems with a linear range of 1-8000 nM and a detection limit as low as 0.3 nM. PMID:23850782

Qian, Tao; Yu, Chenfei; Wu, Shishan; Shen, Jian

2013-12-15

338

Towards in situ detection of PAH trace in sea-water using SERS-active sensors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports the development of a sensor based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for analyses in sea-water. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are targeted by these sensors and their detection in situ summons up chemical synthesis and optical development. Firstly, a relevant synthesis of SERS active substrates based on gold nanostructures is presented. Different kinds of substrates have been synthesized under variable experimental conditions to modify some parameters such...

Peron, Olivier; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Lehaitre, Michel; Colas, Florent; Compere, Chantal

2009-01-01

339

Automated Aqueous Sample Concentration Methods for in situ Astrobiological Instrumentation  

Science.gov (United States)

The era of wet chemical experiments for in situ planetary science investigations is upon us, as evidenced by recent results from the surface of Mars by Phoenix’s microscopy, electrochemistry, and conductivity analyzer, MECA [1]. Studies suggest that traditional thermal volatilization methods for planetary science in situ investigations induce organic degradation during sample processing [2], an effect that is enhanced in the presence of oxidants [3]. Recent developments have trended towards adaptation of non-destructive aqueous extraction and analytical methods for future astrobiological instrumentation. Wet chemical extraction techniques under investigation include subcritical water extraction, SCWE [4], aqueous microwave assisted extraction, MAE, and organic solvent extraction [5]. Similarly, development of miniaturized analytical space flight instruments that require aqueous extracts include microfluidic capillary electrophoresis chips, ?CE [6], liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometrometers, LC-MS [7], and life marker chips, LMC [8]. If organics are present on the surface of Mars, they are expected to be present at extremely low concentrations (parts-per-billion), orders of magnitude below the sensitivities of most flight instrument technologies. Therefore, it becomes necessary to develop and integrate concentration mechanisms for in situ sample processing before delivery to analytical flight instrumentation. We present preliminary results of automated solid-phase-extraction (SPE) sample purification and concentration methods for the treatment of highly saline aqueous soil extracts. These methods take advantage of the affinity of low molecular weight organic compounds with natural and synthetic scavenger materials. These interactions allow for the separation of target organic analytes from unfavorable background species (i.e. salts) during inline treatment, and a clever method for selective desorption is utilized to obtain concentrated solutions on the order of 100?L from 1-10 mL of aqueous sample extract. The selective desorption process involves the derivatization of target analytes in the liquid state which acts to sequester these compounds by reducing their affinity towards the scavenger material. These processes show potential for a single step protocol for the purification of aqueous soil extracts and offer concentration factors of 10-100. These inline processing methods will help address problems of insufficient detection limits for organic detection on Mars and allow for integration as a module within future aqueous in situ flight instruments. REFERENCES: [1] Hecht, M., et al., Science 325, 64-67, 2009. [2] Navarro-González, R., et al., Geophys. Res. Abs., 11, 1549, 2009. [3] Ming, D.W., et al., 40th LPSC Conference, #2241, 2009. [4] Amashukeli, X., et al., J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04S16, 2007. [5] Buch, A., et al., J. Chromatogr. A, 999, 165, 2003. [6] Skelley, A.M., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 104, 1041-1046, 2005. [7] Liu, D.-L., L.W. Beegle, L.W. and I. Kanik, Astrobiology, 8, 229-241, 2008. [8] Sims, M., et al., AbSciCon, #2-16-P, 2008.

Aubrey, A. D.; Grunthaner, F. J.

2009-12-01

340

Melanoma "in situ" tratado con Imiquimod / Melanoma in situ treated with Imiquimod  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Comunicamos un caso con dos melanomas "in situ", en un varón de 86 años, localizados en ambos lados de la cara con alto riesgo quirúrgico, quien fuera tratado con imiquimod al 5% una vez al día durante dos meses; los resultados hasta el momento, clínicos e histológicos han sido satisfactorios. [...] Abstract in english A 86 years-old man with two melanomas "in situ" at both sides of his face, treated with imiquimod 5% are presented. The patient has a cardiovascular high risk due to isquemic heart disease, for that reason we start the treatment with imiquimod once a day for two months. The clinical and histological [...] response was good and a follow up will be as long as we can.

RE, Achenbach; M, Dutto; S, Dupuy; CA, Maggi; C, Grecco; A, Acevedo; GF, Sánchez.

2012-12-30

 
 
 
 
341

Melanoma "in situ" tratado con Imiquimod Melanoma in situ treated with Imiquimod  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comunicamos un caso con dos melanomas "in situ", en un varón de 86 años, localizados en ambos lados de la cara con alto riesgo quirúrgico, quien fuera tratado con imiquimod al 5% una vez al día durante dos meses; los resultados hasta el momento, clínicos e histológicos han sido satisfactorios.A 86 years-old man with two melanomas "in situ" at both sides of his face, treated with imiquimod 5% are presented. The patient has a cardiovascular high risk due to isquemic heart disease, for that reason we start the treatment with imiquimod once a day for two months. The clinical and histological response was good and a follow up will be as long as we can.

RE Achenbach

342

In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) Technologies; New Challenges for Exploration  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's human exploration initiative poses great opportunity and great risk for manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Engineers and Scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are continuing to evaluate current technologies for in situ resource-based exploration fabrication and repair applications. Several technologies to be addressed in this paper have technology readiness levels (TRLs) that are currently mature enough to pursue for exploration purposes. However, while many technologies offer promising applications, these technologies must be pulled along by the demands and applications of this great initiative. The In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) Element will supply and push state of the art technologies for applications such as habitat structure development, in situ resource utilization for tool and part fabrication, and repair and non-destructive evaluation W E ) of common life support elements. As an overview of the ISFR Element, this paper will address rapid prototyping technologies, their applications, challenges, and near term advancements. This paper will also discuss the anticipated need to utilize in situ resources to produce replacement parts and fabricate repairs to vehicles, habitats, life support and quality of life elements. Overcoming the challenges of ISFR development will provide the Exploration initiative with state of the art technologies that reduce risk, and enhance supportability.

Bassler, Julie A.; Bodiford, Melanie P.; Hammond, Monica S.; King, Ron; Mclemore, Carole A.; Hall, Nancy R.; Fiske, Michael R.; Ray, Julie A.

2006-01-01

343

Emerging issues after the recognition of in situ follicular lymphoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews knowledge derived from the introduction of the concept of in situ follicular lymphoma (FL). The following questions are addressed: (1) How should in situ lymphomas be defined and diagnosed? (2) Is in situ lymphoma an early step of lymphomagenesis? (3) Is the concept of early neoplasia applicable to the lymphoma setting? (4) How should patients with in situ lymphoma be managed? The commonly used term of in situ FL, also called FL in situ (FLIS), has been adopted to define a B-cell lymphoid neoplasia with an intrafollicular growth pattern. The neoplastic B cells are localized within the germinal center, without invasion of surrounding structures. Pathological diagnosis requires recognizing strong immunostaining of BCL2 and CD10 by neoplastic B cells inside the affected follicles. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for t(14;18) is mandatory in doubtful cases in which immunohistochemistry data are ambiguous. In situ FL is probably the earliest stage of development of FL, while the concept of "early" lymphoma is applicable when minimal disease extends beyond the boundaries of the follicular compartment. From a clinical point of view, in situ FL has an uncertain clinical behavior and unknown risk to progression to overt lymphoma. How to approach and monitor patients with in situ FL is currently uncertain. An asymptomatic patient with stage 1 in situ FL requires the same treatment plan as an asymptomatic patient with stage 1 conventional FL. For patients with concomitant overt malignancy, therapy must be applied according to the malignant counterpart. PMID:23713483

Carbone, Antonino; Gloghini, Annunziata

2014-03-01

344

IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype design for construction and test. Significant improvements must be made in fluor-doped fiber performance in order to use the method for in situ monitoring to verify compliance with current EPA drinking water standards. Additional Phase 1 fiber development work should be performed to increase the fluor dopant concentration above 2% until the self-absorption limit is observed. Continued fiber optimization work is expected to improve the sensitivity limits, and will enable application of the detector to verify compliance with the US EPA drinking water standard of 20,000 pico Curies per liter. However, if the need for monitoring higher levels of tritium in water at concentrations greater than 200,000 pico Curies per liter is justified, then prototype development and testing could proceed either as a Phase 2 stand-alone effort or in parallel with continued Phase 1 development work

345

Outcomes of pregnancies in women with hysteroscopically placed micro-inserts in situ.  

Science.gov (United States)

This was a retrospective review of all pregnancies reported after Essure in situ in the Netherlands. Pregnancies included those that were unintentional (resulting from lack of protocol adherence and/or misread confirmation tests) and those that were intentional (resulting from off-label use of Essure micro-inserts for hydrosalpinx closure before in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection with embryo transfer or in vitro fertilization with embryo transfer after regret of sterilization). The outcomes of 50 pregnancies in women with 1 or 2 micro-inserts in situ were evaluated. Eight unintended pregnancies and 18 intended pregnancies resulted in birth of a full-term healthy baby. Seven infants were delivered via cesarean-section. Two women delivered prematurely by C-section, (singleton after 34 weeks 1 day, twins after 35 weeks 3 days). All babies are healthy and without any congenital anomalies. There were 2 stillbirths after 20 weeks; however, it is unlikely that this was related to the presence of the micro-inserts. In conclusion, it is unlikely that the presence of intratubal micro-inserts interferes with implantation and the developing amniotic sac and fetus. PMID:24184075

Veersema, Sebastiaan; Mijatovic, Velja; Dreyer, Kim; Schouten, Helga; Schoot, Dick; Emanuel, Mark Hans; Hompes, Peter; Brölmann, Hans

2014-01-01

346

In-situ heat transfer experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Systems are being developed to measure the in-situ thermal conductivity of deep ocean sediment. The initial experiment plan was to implant a 400 watt isotope heat source into the sediment at MPG-I and monitor the thermal field around it at distances of up to 2 m for one year. The temperature data were to be recorded on a seabed platform along with photographs and vane shear values. Upon command, digital data in storage would be sent to the surface acoustically. At the end of the year, corers would be driven in by the platform to take samples of heat affected sediment. These were to be recovered along with the platform for laboratory analysis. Work was progressing well on the design of the various systems until mid-1980 when higher sediment shear strengths were estimated for in-situ MPG-I and more experiments for the platform were added. This report covers the major work performed by APL during 1980 for the ISHTE. The expanded scope of ISHTE has not affected the work performed on the designs discussed. Design of the platform and the control system will be affected the most; they have been delayed until next year, when more details on the add-on experiments will be available. The locational accuracy of the thermal probes and the predicted higher sediment shear strength have affected the development of the probes and their implantment mechanisms. This has prolonged the completion of their manufacture. The two major systems developed this year for ISHTE have been the acouped this year for ISHTE have been the acoustic tracking and data telemetry system and the hydrostatic sediment corer. Both systems are highly successful and are described in detail in this report. Another addition to the ISHTE program this year is an ISHTE simulation (ISIMU) to be performed in the Ocean Environment Chamber at NSRDC in Annapolis, Maryland, during October and November 1981. The purpose of this test is to look for unexpected phenomena in the heat affected sediment

347

Autonomous In-Situ Resources Prospector  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation will describe the concept of an autonomous, intelligent, rover-based rapid surveying system to identify and map several key lunar resources to optimize their ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilization) extraction potential. Prior to an extraction phase for any target resource, ground-based surveys are needed to provide confirmation of remote observation, to quantify and map their 3-D distribution, and to locate optimal extraction sites (e.g. ore bodies) with precision to maximize their economic benefit. The system will search for and quantify optimal minerals for oxygen production feedstock, water ice, and high glass-content regolith that can be used for building materials. These are targeted because of their utility and because they are, or are likely to be, variable in quantity over spatial scales accessible to a rover (i.e., few km). Oxygen has benefits for life support systems and as an oxidizer for propellants. Water is a key resource for sustainable exploration, with utility for life support, propellants, and other industrial processes. High glass-content regolith has utility as a feedstock for building materials as it readily sinters upon heating into a cohesive matrix more readily than other regolith materials or crystalline basalts. Lunar glasses are also a potential feedstock for oxygen production, as many are rich in iron and titanium oxides that are optimal for oxygen extraction. To accomplish this task, a system of sensors and decision-making algorithms for an autonomous prospecting rover is described. One set of sensors will be located in the wheel tread of the robotic search vehicle providing contact sensor data on regolith composition. Another set of instruments will be housed on the platform of the rover, including VIS-NIR imagers and spectrometers, both for far-field context and near-field characterization of the regolith in the immediate vicinity of the rover. Also included in the sensor suite are a neutron spectrometer, ground-penetrating radar, and an instrumented cone penetrometer for subsurface assessment. Output from these sensors will be evaluated autonomously in real-time by decision-making software to evaluate if any of the targeted resources has been detected, and if so, to quantify their abundance. Algorithms for optimizing the mapping strategy based on target resource abundance and distribution are also included in the autonomous software. This approach emphasizes on-the-fly survey measurements to enable efficient and rapid prospecting of large areas, which will improve the economics of ISRU system approaches. The mature technology will enable autonomous rovers to create in-situ resource maps of lunar or other planetary surfaces, which will facilitate human and robotic exploration.

Dissly, R. W.; Buehler, M. G.; Schaap, M. G.; Nicks, D.; Taylor, G. J.; Castano, R.; Suarez, D.

2004-01-01

348

ATLAS overview week highlights  

CERN Multimedia

A warm and early October afternoon saw the beginning of the 2005 ATLAS overview week, which took place Rue de La Montagne Sainte-Geneviève in the heart of the Quartier Latin in Paris. All visitors had been warned many times by the ATLAS management and the organisers that the premises would be the subject of strict security clearance because of the "plan Vigipirate", which remains at some level of alert in all public buildings across France. The public building in question is now part of the Ministère de La Recherche, but used to host one of the so-called French "Grandes Ecoles", called l'Ecole Polytechnique (in France there is only one Ecole Polytechnique, whereas there are two in Switzerland) until the end of the seventies, a little while after it opened its doors also to women. In fact, the setting chosen for this ATLAS overview week by our hosts from LPNHE Paris has turned out to be ideal and the security was never an ordeal. For those seeing Paris for the first time, there we...

D. Froidevaux

2005-01-01

349

Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration  

Science.gov (United States)

Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

2000-07-01

350

78 FR 47427 - AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ  

Science.gov (United States)

...040-09092; NRC-2013-0164] AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery...Application Request To Construct and Operate the Reno Creek ISR Project AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...authorization to construct and operate its proposed Reno Creek, In Situ Leach Uranium...

2013-08-05

351

An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified

352

Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technology assessment was initiated in March 1979 of the in-situ uranium mining technology. This report explores the impediments to development and deployment of this technology and evaluates the environmental impacts of a generic in-situ facility. The report is divided into the following sections: introduction, technology description, physical environment, institutional and socioeconomic environment, impact assessment, impediments, and conclusions

353

The mining of uranium by in situ leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Guidelines prepared to assist in the implementation of the Code are published in loose-leaf format. They are revised when appropriate. The guideline titled 'mining of uranium by in-situ leaching' covers general requirements of the Code, application for an in-situ leaching operation, operation, groundwater monitoring, excursions, solid wastes, liquid wastes, restoration and records

354

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF IN SITU GASIFICATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE  

Science.gov (United States)

A general survey of the environmental effects of the in-situ gasification of Texas lignite was undertaken. The survey emphasized the following subjects: Identification of location, quality and quantity of resources; Assessment of applicable in-situ gasification technologies; Dete...

355

Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technology assessment was initiated in March 1979 of the in-situ uranium mining technology. This report explores the impediments to development and deployment of this technology and evaluates the environmental impacts of a generic in-situ facility. The report is divided into the following sections: introduction, technology description, physical environment, institutional and socioeconomic environment, impact assessment, impediments, and conclusions. (DLC)

Cowan, C.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Cole, R.J.; Keller, D.; Mellinger, P.J.; Wallace, R.W.

1980-09-01

356

In situ readable ultrasonic seal system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in situ readable ultrasonic seal system (IRUSS) provides the IAEA with a comprehensive system for safeguarding nuclear materials using underwater ultrasonic seals. IRUSS enables the IAEA to both maintain and manage a central database containing the inventory of nuclear material under safeguards and all associated sealing information, and to produce the necessary pre- and post-inspection reports and data files. Another component of IRUSS provides IAEA inspectors at spent fuel storage facilities with a convenient tool for acquiring seal signatures of newly installed ultrasonic seals and for reverifying previously installed seals. IRUSS currently meets the requirements of the AECL random coil seals used in CANDU facilities, and of MK4-R sealing bolts, developed by Euratom, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy, which are presently used for sealing multi-element bottles used in European facilities. The paper describes major features of IRUSS and presents benefits of this comprehensive instrument for supporting nuclear safeguards through the application of underwater ultrasonic seals. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

357

In situ observations of Io torus plasma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The physical properties of the Io plasma formation deduced from in situ observations are described. The torus plasma is characterized by spatially distinct regions with steep gradients in plasma parameters between them. The innermost region has a cool plasma which collapses toward the centrifugal equator and gives rise to a distinctive localized concentration of plasma well inside of Io's orbit. The next region has a warm plasma which includes the L-shell of Io and is the presumed injection region of the plasma. Other regions, known as the plasma ledge and ramp, are described. The changes in plasma characteristics are accounted for by centrifugally driven flux tube interchange diffusion to provide radial mass transport. The ramp is shown to result from impoundment of the plasma by the inner edge of the energetic particle population. It is also shown how the power required to excite the ultraviolet emissions of the torus and the Jovian aurora determines the rate at which new plasma is fed into the torus

358

DNA fragmentation in microorganisms assessed in situ.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromosomal DNA fragmentation may be a direct or indirect outcome of cell death. Unlike DNA fragmentation in higher eukaryotic cells, DNA fragmentation in microorganisms is rarely studied. We report an adaptation of a diffusion-based assay, developed as a kit, which allows for simple and rapid discrimination of bacteria with fragmented DNA. Intact cells were embedded in an agarose microgel on a slide, incubated in a lysis buffer to partially remove the cell walls, membranes, and proteins, and then stained with a DNA fluorochrome, SYBR Gold. Identifying cells with fragmented DNA uses peripheral diffusion of DNA fragments. Cells without DNA fragmentation show only limited spreading of DNA fiber loops. These results have been seen in several gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, as well as in yeasts. Detection of DNA fragmentation was confirmed by fluoroquinolone treatment and by DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization. Proteus mirabilis with spontaneously fragmented DNA during exponential and stationary growth or Escherichia coli with DNA damaged after exposure to hydrogen peroxide or antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin or ampicillin, was clearly detected. Similarly, fragmented DNA was detected in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after amphotericin B treatment. Our assay may be useful for the simple and rapid evaluation of DNA damage and repair as well as cell death, either spontaneous or induced by exogenous stimuli, including antimicrobial agents or environmental conditions. PMID:18689511

Fernández, José Luis; Cartelle, Mónica; Muriel, Lourdes; Santiso, Rebeca; Tamayo, María; Goyanes, Vicente; Gosálvez, Jaime; Bou, Germán

2008-10-01

359

Innovative technologies for in-situ remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LLNL is developing several innovative remediation technologies as long-term improvements to the current pump and treat approaches to cleaning up contaminated soils and groundwater. These technologies include dynamic underground stripping, in-situ microbial filters, and remediation using bremsstrahlung radiation. Concentrated underground organic contaminant plumes are one of the most prevalent groundwater contamination sources. The solvent or fuel can percolate deep into the earth, often into water-bearing regions. Collecting as a separate, liquid organic phase called dense non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), or light NAPLs (LNAPLs), these contaminants provide a source term that continuously compromises surrounding groundwater. This type of spill is one of the most difficult environmental problems to remediate. Attempts to remove such material requires a huge amount of water which must be washed through the system to clean it, requiring decades. Traditional pump and treat approaches have not been successful. LLNL has developed several innovative technologies to clean up NAPL contamination. Detailed descriptions of these technologies are given

360

Maxey Flats in situ waste grouting demonstration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Maxey Flats Disposal Site located in Fleming County, Kentucky was added to the US EPA National Priority List in 1986 and is currently being evaluated for remediation and closure under the CERCLA/Superfund program. The Commonwealth of Kentucky has cosponsored a program with the US DOE Low Level Waste Management Program to demonstrate various remedial technologies which may be applied to source containment at the Maxey Flats site. This paper describes the field demonstration of in-situ waste grouting using a particulate (cement) grout. This demonstration is a follow-on to a similar demonstration using a solution grout. Both programs were designed to develop injection techniques, to assess the ability of the grout to fill the accessible voids within the waste/backfill matrix, to measure the reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of the waste/backfill matrix, and to determine the operational difficulties in implementing a site-wide grouting program. The paper concludes with lessons-learned during the project and estimated costs for full scale implementation

 
 
 
 
361

In situ electrochemical measurements in BWRs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrochemical potential (ECP) is a measure of the environmental driving force for stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Measuring the ECP at its point of origin, in situ, rather than at a remote location is the optimum approach. Others have already pointed out that the film history on the metal, water chemistry, perhaps grounding and the presence of copper can all affect the ECP of the autoclave and the stainless steel electrode which monitors conditions in the reactor. Accordingly, the electrodes must be calibrated occasionally to be sure they are functioning properly (providing the correct reference potential). Available experimental evidence indicate that the -230 mV potential (SHE) required to protect piping from SCC may be little different than the value that would be predicted to protect materials in the core. A constant extension rate test (CERT) in HWC on highly irradiated material found no cracking at Dresden-2. Although the ECP of the stainless steel was not measured, it was approximated at -250 mV (SHE). In the Vallecitos hot cell, comparable CERT tests of T-304 SS specimens from control blade handles at Pilgrim showed cracking at 200, 75 and 35 ppb of oxygen (estimated potential about 0 mV vs SHE). There was no cracking at about -450 mV. Silver/silver chloride and platinum electrodes were used to measure ECPs in the core bypass system at the Nine Mile Point-1 BWR

362

In situ biodenitrification of nitrate surface water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy's Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project has successfully operated a full-scale in situ biodenitrification system to treat water with elevated nitrate levels in abandoned raffinate pits. Bench- and pilot-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the process and to support its full-scale design and application. Bench testing evaluated variables that would influence development of an active denitrifying biological culture. The variables were carbon source, phosphate source, presence and absence of raffinate sludge, addition of a commercially available denitrifying microbial culture, and the use of a microbial growth medium. Nitrate levels were reduced from 750 mg/L NO3-N to below 10 mg/L NO3-N within 17 days. Pilot testing simulated the full-scale process to determine if nitrate levels could be reduced to less than 10 mg/L NO3-N when high levels are present below the sludge surface. Four separate test systems were examined along with two control systems. Nitrates were reduced from 1,200 mg/L NO3-N to below 2 mg/L NO3-N within 21 days. Full-scale operation has been initiated to denitrify 900,000-gal batches alternating between two 1-acre ponds. The process used commercially available calcium acetate solution and monosodium/disodium phosphate solution as a nutrient source for indigenous microorganisms to convert nitrates to molecular nitrogen and waterecular nitrogen and water

363

In situ dissolution testing using potentiometric sensors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potentiometric sensors can be used to determine the amount of API dissolved in the dissolution medium in function of time by measuring directly in the dissolution vessel of a Paddle (USP type 2) and Basket (USP type 1) apparatus. The prototype potentiometric sensor instrumentation showed very promising results for a selection of APIs with different physico-chemical properties. The applicability, benefits and limitations of the prototype were explored. The applicability of the measurement technique strongly depends on the log(P) of the API. Here, it is shown that measurements can easily be performed for APIs with a log(P)>4. Electrode performance however decreases with decreasing logP of the APIs due to decreased drug selectivity in comparison to the excipients and ionic strength of the applied dissolution medium. The potentiometric sensors are shown to be insensitive towards undissolved particles and air bubbles as opposed to UV spectrometric measurement where these can lead to severe light scattering. For the tested APIs, the obtained dissolution profiles are very reproducible and show a low variation compared to the measurements using manual sampling and UV or HPLC analysis. The measurements demonstrate that potentiometric sensors are a very promising technology that can become a standard for in situ dissolution measurements. PMID:18539443

Peeters, Karl; De Maesschalck, Roy; Bohets, Hugo; Vanhoutte, Koen; Nagels, Luc

2008-08-01

364

In situ recovery of mineral values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mineral values, particularly uranium, are recovered ''in situ'' from a subsurface earth formation by completing at least one well in the mineralized formation adjacent either the top or the bottom of the mineralized formation, completing at least one second well in the mineralized formation adjacent the opposite of the top and the bottom of the mineralized formation, forming a horizontally-oriented fracture in the mineralized formation adjacent at least one of the top and the bottom of the mineralized formation, each of which fractures is in open communication with that well which has been completed at a corresponding vertical level, injecting a leach solution, adapted to solvate the mineral values, into the first or the second well, which thus becomes an injection well, and thence into that fracture which is in communication with the injection well and producing the leach solution, containing solvated mineral values, from the other of the first and second wells, which thus becomes the production well, whereby the leach solution flows from the injection well generally horizontally through the fracture in communication with the injection well, thence generally vertically through the mineralized formation and thence generally horizontally to the production well

365

In situ containment and stabilization of buried waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the project was to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced grouting materials for the in-situ installation of impermeable, durable subsurface barriers and caps around waste sites and for the in-situ stabilization of contaminated soils. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste (CWL) and Mixed Waste Landfills (MWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). This report documents this project, which was conducted in two subtasks. These were (1) Capping and Barrier Grouts, and (2) In-situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. Subtask 1 examined materials and placement methods for in-situ containment of contaminated sites by subsurface barriers and surface caps. In Subtask 2 materials and techniques were evaluated for in-situ chemical stabilization of chromium in soil.

Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.; Heiser, J.H.

1992-11-01

366

Multimodal confocal mosaics enable high sensitivity and specificity in screening of in situ squamous cell carcinoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening cancer in excision margins with confocal microscopy may potentially save time and cost over the gold standard histopathology (H and E). However, diagnostic accuracy requires sufficient contrast and resolution to reveal pathological traits in a growing set of tumor types. Reflectance mode images structural details due to microscopic refractive index variation. Nuclear contrast with acridine orange fluorescence provides enhanced diagnostic value, but fails for in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), where the cytoplasm is important to visualize. Combination of three modes [eosin (Eo) fluorescence, reflectance (R) and acridine orange (AO) fluorescence] enable imaging of cytoplasm, collagen and nuclei respectively. Toward rapid intra-operative pathological margin assessment to guide staged cancer excisions, multimodal confocal mosaics can image wide surgical margins (~1cm) with sub-cellular resolution and mimic the appearance of conventional H and E. Absorption contrast is achieved by alternating the excitation wavelength: 488nm (AO fluorescence) and 532nm (Eo fluorescence). Superposition and false-coloring of these modes mimics H and E, enabling detection of the carcinoma in situ in the epidermal layer The sum mosaic Eo+R is false-colored pink to mimic eosins' appearance in H and E, while the AO mosaic is false-colored purple to mimic hematoxylins' appearance in H and E. In this study, mosaics of 10 Mohs surgical excisions containing SCC in situ and 5 containing only normal tissue were subdivided for digital presentation equivalent to 4X histology. Of the total 16 SCC in situ multimodal mosaics and 16 normal cases presented, two reviewers made 1 and 2 (respectively) type-2 errors (false positives) but otherwise scored perfectly when using the confocal images to screen for the presence of SCC in situ as compared to the gold standard histopathology. Limitations to precisely mimic H and E included occasional elastin staining by AO. These results suggest that confocal mosaics may effectively guide staged SCC excisions in skin and other tissues.

Grados Luyando, Maria del Carmen; Bar, Anna; Snavely, Nicholas; Jacques, Steven; Gareau, Daniel S.

2014-02-01

367

Reinforcement of nitrile rubber by in situ formed zinc disorbate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zinc disorbate (ZDS was in situ formed by the reaction between sorbic acid (SA and zinc oxide (ZnO in nitrile rubber (NBR. The effects of SA amount on the curing characteristics, crosslink density and mechanical properties of peroxide- cured NBR were studied. The results showed that ZDS was generated mainly during the rubber vulcanization, rather than the open mill compounding phase. The results from the crosslink density determinations showed that the formation of ZDS significantly increased the ionic bond content in the vulcanizates. In addition, the formation of ZDS greatly enhanced the mechanical properties of NBR vulcanizates. The modulus, tensile strength, tear strength and hardness were found to be increased with the loading of ZDS. Preheating the compounds before compression moulding was beneficial to the formation of ZDS, and consequently the increases in mechanical properties. At 40 parts per hundred rubber (phr of SA and 16 phr ZnO, five to six folds of tensile strength and tear strength of the neat NBR vulcanizate were achieved. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM results confirmed the nano-dispersion structure of the polymerized ZDS in the NBR matrix.

2010-09-01

368

In situ synthesis of silver nano-particles in polymethylmethacrylate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One-step in situ preparation of silver nano-particles in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) as a medium has been performed successfully. The radical polymerization of methaycrylic acid (MMA), in presence of benzoyl peroxide followed by reaction of silver source has been successfully employed to synthesize Ag/PMMA nano-composite. A light yellow solution in its UV-Vis absorption spectrum showed surface plasmon resonance absorption bands between 410 and 425 nm in solutions and at about 452 nm in a transparent film. The Ag/PMMA nano-composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD showed the fcc crystal structure of the bulk Ag with particles of less than 25 nm in size similar to that is observed by TEM. SEM indicated uniform distribution of particles in the film. TGA confirmed enhanced thermal stability of the polymer

369

In situ synthesis of silver nano-particles in polymethylmethacrylate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One-step in situ preparation of silver nano-particles in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) as a medium has been performed successfully. The radical polymerization of methaycrylic acid (MMA), in presence of benzoyl peroxide followed by reaction of silver source has been successfully employed to synthesize Ag/PMMA nano-composite. A light yellow solution in its UV-Vis absorption spectrum showed surface plasmon resonance absorption bands between 410 and 425 nm in solutions and at about 452 nm in a transparent film. The Ag/PMMA nano-composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD showed the fcc crystal structure of the bulk Ag with particles of less than 25 nm in size similar to that is observed by TEM. SEM indicated uniform distribution of particles in the film. TGA confirmed enhanced thermal stability of the polymer.

Singh, Narendra [Nanoscience Group, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Off Dr. Bhabha Road, Panchawati, Pune 411 008 (India); Khanna, P.K. [Nanoscience Group, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Off Dr. Bhabha Road, Panchawati, Pune 411 008 (India)], E-mail: pkkhanna@cmet.gov.in

2007-08-15

370

In situ vadose zone remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses a pilot-scale system treating vadose zone soils contaminated with petroleum products constructed and operated at a former petroleum bulk storage terminal in New England. A site investigation following decommissioning activities identified more than 100,000 yds of soil at the site contaminated by both No. 2 fuel oil and gasoline. Soil cleanup criteria of 50 ppm TPH and 0.25 ppm BTEX were established. A pilot-scale treatment unit with dimensions of 125 ft x 125 ft x 6 ft was constructed to evaluate the potential for in situ treatment of vadose zone soils. Contaminant levels in pilot cell soils ranged from 0 to 5,250 ppm TPH and 0.0 to 4.2 ppm BTEX. Two soil treatment methods n the pilot system were implemented; venting to treat the lighter petroleum fractions and bioremediation to treat the nonvolatile petroleum constituents. Seven soil gas probes were installed to monitor pressure and soil gas vapor concentrations in the subsurface. Changes in soil gas oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were used as an indirect measure of enhanced bioremediation of pilot cell soils. After operating the system for a period of 2.5 months, soil BTEX concentrations were reduced to concentrations below the remediation criteria for the site

371

In situ treatment of VOCs by recirculation technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project described herein was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify processes and technologies developed in Germany that appeared to have near-term potential for enhancing the cleanup of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soil and groundwater at DOE sites. Members of the ORNL research team identified and evaluated selected German technologies developed at or in association with the University of Karlsruhe (UoK) for in situ treatment of VOC contaminated soils and groundwater. Project activities included contacts with researchers within three departments of the UoK (i.e., Applied Geology, Hydromechanics, and Soil and Foundation Engineering) during fall 1991 and subsequent visits to UoK and private industry collaborators during February 1992. Subsequent analyses consisted of engineering computations, groundwater flow modeling, and treatment process modeling. As a result of these project efforts, two processes were identified as having near-term potential for DOE: (1) the vacuum vaporizer well/groundwater recirculation well and (2) the porous pipe/horizontal well. This document was prepared to summarize the methods and results of the assessment activities completed during the initial year of the project. The project is still ongoing, so not all facets of the effort are completely described in this document. Recommendations for laboratory and field experiments are provided