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1

Socioeconomic status and the Rorschach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

People from lower socioeconomic status are making increasing use of mental health facilities. Surveys have indicated that the Rorschach is still one of the more frequently used instruments by psychologists in such facilities, but research has also shown that clinicians tend to misinterpret Rorschachs of people from the lower socioeconomic group as reflecting greater psychopathology than the same Rorschachs identified as being given by people from the middle class. Research has also shown that growing up in conditions of poverty significantly affects how people perform on tests of abstract thinking, tests of intelligence, and tests of academic achievement; the question was raised as to whether this extends to the Rorschach. The lack of sufficient research on the effect of socioeconomic status on responsiveness to the Rorschach precluded that question being answered. The kind of research still needed was discussed.

Frank G

1994-02-01

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Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Leukemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionConnection of socioeconomic status measures (such as income and education and parental addiction) to childhood leukemia are likely to vary with place and time. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between socioeconomic status and childhood leukemia.Materials and Methodsa case- control study conducted on 86 case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia age 0-14 years in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd and matched on age and sex to 188 healthy controls. Data was collected by interview using a questionnaire.Data analyzed by chi-square test. Odds ratio (Ors) and 95% confidence intervals were used to measure the risk of childhood A.L.L associated with parental smoking, alcohol drinking & addiction.ResultsThere was a significant difference in parental education level (P-value=0, P-value=0.001), income status (P-value =0.001), father's job (0.002) between two groups. The risk of childhood A.L.L was associated with paternal smoking (P-value =0.001, OR=2.6, CI 95%, 1.5-4.5), alcohol drinking (P-value=0.003, OR=3.33, CI 95%, 2.7-3.9), addiction (P-value =0, OR=42.7, CI95%, 5.56-328.34).ConclusionThe results suggest that socioeconomic factors and paternal smoking and alcohol drinking are related to risk of childhood leukemia. It should be considered for planning support.

Dehghani Kh; Poormovahed Z; Dehghani H

3

[Socioeconomic status and survival in multiple myeloma  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to investigate the relationship between socioeconomic status and survival in multiple myeloma, a group of 121 patients, followed from first diagnosis to their demise, was subdivided into three social classes: high, medium, and low. Social class subdivision was performed taking into account the degree of education, occupation, and income. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) exist regarding mean survivals, survival curves, clinical stages, and responses to therapy between the three considered classes. A low socioeconomic status is associated with shorter survival, higher frequence in poor clinical stage, and less percentage of positive responses to chemotherapy. In conclusion, the socioeconomic status is an important prognostic factor in patients with multiple myeloma, to be considered with other clinical and laboratory data.

Pasqualetti P; Colantonio D; Collacciani A; Casale R

1990-10-01

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[Socioeconomic status and risk of congenital malformations].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: to analyse the relationship between socioeconomic factors and the prevalence at birth of a selected group of congenital malformations (CM): neural tube defects (NTD), orofacial clefts (OFC), Down syndrome (DS). DESIGN: matched case-control study. The aim of the study was to compare the parental socioeconomic status of 485 children affected by one of the selected congenital malformations with an appropriate control group, using both a synthetic index, as well as comparing each socioeconomic characteristic. Socioeconomic measures included maternal and paternal education and employment. SETTING: Delivery certificate database from 18 Italian regions, years 2002-2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: odds ratio (OR) measuring the association between the presence at birth of specific CMs and socioeconomic factors, estimated through logistic regression models. RESULTS: the study showed a higher risk for NTD (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.36-5.50) and OFC (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.05-1.33)for parents in a low social class. As well, the estimated risk of DS is slightly higher, though not statistically significant (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.98-1.19). Among the socioeconomic variables taken into consideration, the mother's education level represented a significant risk factor associated with OFC occurrence. CONCLUSION: the results suggested that the socioeconomic level may represent a selective risk factor for specific CMs, confirming the role that social inequalities have on health, in particular on reproductive health. Such evidences should be considered when programming specific actions aimed at preventing congenital malformations.

Rosano A; Del Bufalo E; Burgio A

2008-01-01

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Subjective socioeconomic status and health: relationships reconsidered.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subjective status, an individual's perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status. PMID:23453318

Nobles, Jenna; Weintraub, Miranda Ritterman; Adler, Nancy E

2013-01-31

6

Subjective socioeconomic status and health: relationships reconsidered.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Subjective status, an individual's perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general health. These relationships persist in the presence of controls for unobserved traits, such as difficult-to-measure aspects of family background and persistent aspects of personality. However, we find evidence that these links likely represent bi-directional effects. Declines in health that accompany aging are robust predictors of declines in perceived socioeconomic status, net of observed changes to the economic profile of respondents. The results thus underscore the social value afforded good health status.

Nobles J; Weintraub MR; Adler NE

2013-04-01

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Associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade Socioeconomic status and obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os estudos nacionais indicam comportamento epidêmico da obesidade, e ênfase tem sido dada sobre os determinantes sociais do excesso de peso. O status socioeconômico tem sido avaliado por ocupação, educação e renda. Vários fatores relacionados à obesidade, como atividade física, consumo alimentar e hábitos familiares sofrem também influência do status socioeconômico. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre a associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade e também foram apresentados dados de uma pesquisa de base populacional sobre obesidade em mulheres do município do Rio de Janeiro. A ocorrência da obesidade entre os diferentes níveis de status socioeconômico é influenciada pelo sexo e idade, e são discutidos fatores ambientais que determinam a possibilidade de acesso aos alimentos saudáveis e a oportunidade de prática de atividade física. Por fim, é discutido como os hábitos familiares influenciam nas escolhas dos alimentos e como o status socioeconômico pode modificar esse efeito, bem como a disponibilidade de alimentos e o preço destes, levando a um maior consumo de alimentos de alta densidade energética, fator de risco dietético para obesidade.An epidemic of obesity has been revealed by Brazilian nationwide surveys, and emphasis is being given to socioeconomic status as one of the main determinants of weight gain. Other factors also associated to obesity are influenced by socioeconomic status, such as physical activity, food consumption, and family habits. Socioeconomic status has been evaluated based on occupation, education, and income. A review of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity has been conducted, and data from a population-based survey regarding obesity among women in the city of Rio de Janeiro were also included. The occurrence of obesity among different levels of socioeconomic status as influenced by sex and age, and environmental factors that determine the possibility of access to healthy foods and to opportunities of practicing physical activity are also discussed. Finally, we discussed how family habits influence the choices of food, and how socioeconomic status can modify this effect, along with availability of foods and their prices, leading to a greater consumption of foods with high density of energy, a dietary risk factor for obesity.

Ana CarolinaReiff e Vieira; Rosely Sichieri

2008-01-01

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Childhood dental trauma and socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

DATA SOURCES: Brazilian Bibliography of Dentistry (BBO), Scientific Electronic Library online (SciELO), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS), The Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Knowledge, International Database for Medical Literature (MEDLINE) and PubMed Central. The database of the Brazilian Coordination of Higher Education Personnel Improvement (CAPES) was searched as well as reference lists from included articles. STUDY SELECTION: Articles providing information on the correlation between traumatic injuries in permanent teeth and socioeconomic indicators were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by two reviewers and disagreements resolved through discussion and a qualitative synthesis conducted. RESULTS: Nine studies were included (1 cohort, 8 cross-sectional). Seven of the surveys were carried out in Brazil and two in Thailand. The age of children was 9-14 years. Statistically significant associations between permanent tooth injuries and high economic status were found in four studies. CONCLUSIONS: There were few studies correlating traumatic injuries in permanent teeth and socioeconomic indicators and the majority found no such association. It is suggested that the association between traumatic dental injuries and socioeconomic factors may be related to the indicators used, considering differences in their individual components. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of the methodologies hinders the comparison of the studies.

Wright G

2010-01-01

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Socioeconomic Status and Coronary Heart Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Iran has undergone a remarkable demographic transition over the last threedecades. Socioeconomic status (SES) indicators including education, income, and occupationare associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Theaim of the present study was to describe demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, theirassociation to the diseases, and to explore the predictive risk of CHD in Tabriz, the fourthlargest city in Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to explore and analyze thecurrent SES status of CHD patients. The study was conducted in Tabriz and all patients(n=189) refereed to the Central Referral Hospital for cardiac patients (Shahid Madani Hospital)from 2009 to 2010 were considered. A researcher structured questionnaire with 15 questionswas used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the basic SES featuresof the CHD patients and data analysis was done using SPSS ver. 16.Results: Less educated participants were more susceptible to CHD. Regarding to occupationalstatus, housewives and retired men were in higher risk of CHD than the rest of the people.Studied patients also reported to be mostly from urban areas that were living in apartmentcomplexes.Conclusion: In line with some international research evidence the study results suggested thatpeople from lower/middle social classes were in greater CHD risk than higher social classes.This epidemic might be halted through the promotion of healthier lifestyles and the support ofenvironmental and policy changes.

Ali Janati; Hossein Matlabi; Hamid Allahverdipour; Masumeh Gholizadeh; Leila Abdollahi

2011-01-01

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Socioeconomic status and adolescent mental disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Although previous research has shown that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with mental illness, it is unclear which aspects of SES are most important. We investigated this issue by examining associations between 5 aspects of SES and adolescent mental disorders. METHODS: Data came from a national survey of US adolescents (n = 6483). Associations among absolute SES (parental income and education), relative SES (relative deprivation, subjective social status), and community level income variation (Gini coefficient) with past-year mental disorders were examined. RESULTS: Subjective social status (mean 0, variance 1) was most consistently associated with mental disorder. Odds ratios with mood, anxiety, substance, and behavior disorders after controlling for other SES indicators were all statistically significant and in the range of 0.7 to 0.8. Associations were strongest for White adolescents. Parent education was associated with low risk for anxiety disorder, relative deprivation with high risk for mood disorder, and the other 2 indicators were associated with none of the disorders considered. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between SES and adolescent mental disorders are most directly the result of perceived social status, an aspect of SES that might be more amenable to interventions than objective aspects of SES.

McLaughlin KA; Costello EJ; Leblanc W; Sampson NA; Kessler RC

2012-09-01

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Socioeconomic Status, Family Processes, and Individual Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research during the past decade shows that social class or socioeconomic status (SES) is related to satisfaction and stability in romantic unions, the quality of parent-child relationships, and a range of developmental outcomes for adults and children. This review focuses on evidence regarding potential mechanisms proposed to account for these associations. Research findings reported during the past decade demonstrate support for an interactionist model of the relationship between SES and family life, which incorporates assumptions from both the social causation and social selection perspectives. The review concludes with recommendations for future research on SES, family processes and individual development in terms of important theoretical and methodological issues yet to be addressed. PMID:20676350

Conger, Rand D; Conger, Katherine J; Martin, Monica J

2010-06-01

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SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, INTELLIGENCE, AND THE ATTAINMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION.  

Science.gov (United States)

|IN THIS STUDY OF A RANDOM SELECTION OF WISCONSIN HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS (4,386 MALES AND 4,621 FEMALES), THE RELATIVE INFLUENCES OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND MEASURED INTELLIGENCE ARE EXAMINED AT SUCCESSIVE STAGES IN HIGHER EDUCATION BY CROSS-TABULAR ANALYSIS, EFFECT PARAMETERS, AND PATH ANALYSIS. BOTH SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND INTELLIGENCE HAVE…

SEWELL, WILLIAM H.; SHAH, VIMAL P.

13

Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure.

Boryczka, M.K.

1983-01-01

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Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure

1983-01-01

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Health, Health Practices, and Socioeconomic Status: The Role of Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The research explores the extent to which parents' socioeconomic status, income, and education affect various health habits and morbidity and mortality indicators. To the extent health is affected how can this be explained by differential health practices...

L. M. Manheim

1975-01-01

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Socioeconomic deprivation independent of ethnicity increases status epilepticus risk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A higher incidence of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) has been reported in nonwhite compared to white populations. Socioeconomic factors can be intricately involved in observed ethnic "effects," and the importance of socioeconomic status on health conditions is widely recognized. Understanding the effect of socioeconomic factors on CSE would provide insights into etiology and management, leading to the development of novel prevention strategies. METHODS: From a population-based UK study on childhood CSE, we tested the hypothesis that socioeconomic deprivation independent of ethnicity increases the risk of childhood CSE. Home postal codes were used to measure the socioeconomic status of the neighborhood in which patients lived relative to that of the borough in which the neighborhood was located. The child's ethnicity was reported by parent(s). Relationships between socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and incidence were investigated using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 176 children were enrolled. The incidence of CSE in nonwhite children [18.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.7-23.3/100,000/year] was 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.4) times greater than for white children (10.5, 95% CI 7.9-13.1/100,000/year) (p < 0.0005). Socioeconomic deprivation and Asian ethnicity were independently associated with increased incidence. For each point increase in Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2004, there was a 1.03 cumulative increased relative risk (95% CI 1.01-1.06, p = 0.007). Asian children were 5.7 times (95% CI 1.7-18.9) more likely than white children to have a first-ever episode of CSE (p = 0.004). Socioeconomic and ethnicity effects were related to etiology of CSE. INTERPRETATION: Ethnic and socioeconomic factors independently affect risk for prolonged febrile seizures and acute symptomatic CSE, but not for other types of childhood CSE.

Chin RF; Neville BG; Peckham C; Wade A; Bedford H; Scott RC

2009-05-01

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Socioeconomic Status of Patients Receiving Electroconvulsive Therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study describes the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) prescription and outcomes. Two research questions are addressed in this study: (1) Does the rate of ECT prescription increase with deprivation? and (2) Does deprivation influence ECT outcomes? Electroconvulsive therapy outcomes, of consecutive patients from Aberdeen, were compared across socioeconomic groups determined by the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) quintiles. A primary care sample, invited to complete the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), was used for comparison. The proportion of patients in the most affluent quintile (32%) was greater than that in the least affluent (9%): this reflects the distribution of the local population, unlike the prevalence of depressive disorder, as demonstrated in our primary care group. Severity of depressive symptoms in patients receiving ECT was no different across the socioeconomic groups: before ECT (? = 8.056; df = 4; P = 0.09), after ECT (? = 6.035; df = 4; P = 0.197); nor was the total change in score (? = 4.367; df = 4; P = 0.359). There were no differences among the SIMD quintiles for the number of ECT treatments administered (? = 6.076; df = 4; P = 0.194) or the number of courses of ECT each patient had during contact with the service (? = 6.505; df = 4; P = 0.164).Socioeconomic deprivation has no effect on the rate of ECT prescription or treatment outcomes despite a higher proportion of patients with severe depressive symptoms in the least affluent groups in a local community sample.

Bennett DM; Cameron IM; Currie J; Perrin JS; Reid IC

2013-07-01

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Socioeconomic Status and Other Characteristics in Childhood Leukemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackground Leukemia is the most prevalent childhood cancer, and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) constitutes 75% of all cases. Some epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and some childhood cancers. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess socioeconomical status in a case-control study.Materials and MethodsIn 2010, a case-control study was conducted on 100 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged 1 to14 years in Department of Pediatric Oncology of Dr.Sheikh Hospital in Mashhad – Iran and matched age and sex with 400 healthy controls. Data was collected by interview using a questionnaire. Ninety five percent confidence intervals were used to measure the relationship between childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and parental education, income status, father's job (Socioeconomic status), number of children, birth score and paternal smoking. ResultsThere was a significant difference in parental education level, income status, and number of children, birth score, father's job and paternal smoking between two groups. Regression analysis showed that the risk of childhood ALL associated with paternal smoking, and father's high risk job. Fifty percent cases and thirty five percent of control groups located in upper lower and lower middle class of socioeconomic status, respectively. There is a meaningful different between socioeconomic status in two groups. But the risk of childhood ALL did not associate with socioeconomic status.ConclusionThe results suggest that paternal smoking and father’s high risk job are related to risk of childhood leukemia. It should be considered for planning support.

Hashemizadeh H MSc; Boroumand H MSc; Noori R MSc; Darabian M MD

2013-01-01

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Socioeconomic Status, a Forgotten Variable in Lateralization Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Socioeconomic status (SES), a variable combining income, education, and occupation, is correlated with a variety of social health outcomes including school dropout rates, early parenthood, delinquency, and mental illness. Several studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s largely failed to report a relationship between SES and hemispheric asymmetry…

Boles, David B.

2011-01-01

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Adolescent expectations of early death predict young adult socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among adolescents, expectations of early death have been linked to future risk behaviors. These expectations may also reduce personal investment in education and training, thereby lowering adult socioeconomic status attainment. The importance of socioeconomic status is highlighted by pervasive health inequities and dramatic differences in life expectancy among education and income groups. The objectives of this study were to investigate patterns of change in perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations; PSE), predictors of PSE, and associations between PSE and future socioeconomic status attainment. We utilized the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-1995 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-2002 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). At Wave I, 14% reported ?50% chance of living to age 35 and older adolescents reported lower PSE than younger adolescents. At Wave III, PSE were similar across age. Changes in PSE from Wave I to III were moderate, with 89% of respondents reporting no change (56%), one level higher (22%) or one level lower (10%) in a 5-level PSE variable. Higher block group poverty rate, perceptions that the neighborhood is unsafe, and less time in the U.S. (among the foreign-born) were related to low PSE at Waves I and III. Low PSE at Waves I and III predicted lower education attainment and personal earnings at Wave IV in multinomial logistic regression models controlling for confounding factors such as previous family socioeconomic status, individual demographic characteristics, and depressive symptoms. Anticipation of an early death is prevalent among adolescents and predictive of lower future socioeconomic status. Low PSE reported early in life may be a marker for worse health trajectories.

Nguyen QC; Hussey JM; Halpern CT; Villaveces A; Marshall SW; Siddiqi A; Poole C

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Adolescent expectations of early death predict young adult socioeconomic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among adolescents, expectations of early death have been linked to future risk behaviors. These expectations may also reduce personal investment in education and training, thereby lowering adult socioeconomic status attainment. The importance of socioeconomic status is highlighted by pervasive health inequities and dramatic differences in life expectancy among education and income groups. The objectives of this study were to investigate patterns of change in perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations; PSE), predictors of PSE, and associations between PSE and future socioeconomic status attainment. We utilized the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-1995 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-2002 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). At Wave I, 14% reported ?50% chance of living to age 35 and older adolescents reported lower PSE than younger adolescents. At Wave III, PSE were similar across age. Changes in PSE from Wave I to III were moderate, with 89% of respondents reporting no change (56%), one level higher (22%) or one level lower (10%) in a 5-level PSE variable. Higher block group poverty rate, perceptions that the neighborhood is unsafe, and less time in the U.S. (among the foreign-born) were related to low PSE at Waves I and III. Low PSE at Waves I and III predicted lower education attainment and personal earnings at Wave IV in multinomial logistic regression models controlling for confounding factors such as previous family socioeconomic status, individual demographic characteristics, and depressive symptoms. Anticipation of an early death is prevalent among adolescents and predictive of lower future socioeconomic status. Low PSE reported early in life may be a marker for worse health trajectories. PMID:22405687

Nguyen, Quynh C; Hussey, Jon M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Poole, Charles

2012-02-21

22

Socioeconomic status and injury in a cohort of Saskatchewan farmers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To estimate the strength of relationships between socioeconomic status and injury in a large Canadian farm population. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 4,769 people from 2,043 farms in Saskatchewan, Canada. Participants reported socioeconomic exposures in 2007 and were followed for the occurrence of injury through 2009 (27 months). The relative hazards of time to first injury according to baseline socioeconomic status were estimated via Cox proportional hazards models. FINDINGS: Risks for injury were not consistent with inverse socioeconomic gradients (adjusted HR 1.07; 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.51 for high vs low economic worry; adjusted HR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.23 to 2.42 for completed university education vs less than high school). Strong increases in the relative hazard for time to first injury were identified for longer work hours on the farm. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic factors have been cited as important risk factors for injury on farms. However, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at the prevention of farm injury are better focused on operational factors that increase risk, rather than economic factors per se.

Pickett W; Day AG; Hagel L; Sun X; Day L; Marlenga B; Brison RJ; Pahwa P; Crowe T; Voaklander DC; Dosman J

2011-01-01

23

Socioeconomic status and patterns of care in lung cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This retrospective study aims to explore any associations between socioeconomic factors and lung cancer management and outcome in the Australian setting. The study population consisted of patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer in 1996 who were living in the Northern Sydney Area Health Service (NSAHS) or South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS). These two Area Health Services differ in socioeconomic profiles based on socioeconomic indexes for areas (SEIFA), median income, education level and unemployment rate. Data on patient demographics, tumour characteristics, management details, recurrence and survival were collected, and the patterns of care were analysed. Socioeconomic status indicators of the two Area Health Services were imputed from the Australian Bureau of Statistics data. There were 270 and 256 new cases of lung cancer identified in NSAHS and SWSAHS respectively. Patients in NSAHS were slightly older (median age 73 versus 68 years) and there was less male predominance. The stage distributions and performance status of the two cohorts were similar. There were no significant differences in the utilisation rates of different treatment modalities between the two areas: radiotherapy (54% in NSAHS and 55% in SWSAHS), chemotherapy (34% and 25%), surgery (26% and 21%) and no treatment (22% and 25%). The 5-year overall survival was slightly in favour of NSAHS (10.5% and 7.4%), but did not reach statistical significance. Despite differences in socioeconomic profiles between the two area health services, patients with lung cancer had similar patterns of care and survival

2003-01-01

24

Socioeconomic Status and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Thai Adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on objective measures of physical activity (PA) in adolescence is poorly understood. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between SES and objectively measured PA in Thai adolescents. METHODS: PA was objectively measured every 30 seconds for 7 consecutive days using ActiGraph GT1M uniaxial accelerometers in 177 secondary-school adolescents aged 13-18 years that were classified into 3 SES groups (low, middle and high). The associations between SES and adolescents' PA were examined using 1-way ANOVA with multiple comparisons and Chi-square test. RESULTS: Adolescents of low-SES accumulated more minutes of PA and less of sedentary behavior than those of high-SES, Additionally, low-SES adolescents tended to meet the daily PA guidelines more than other groups, particularly in girls (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study evidences an inverse relationship between SES and PA levels, and shows the importance of targeting high SES adolescents in intervention programs to enhance health behaviors. Based on these findings, we also suggest that SES must be considered as an important determinant in promoting regular PA and in increasing proportions of adolescents meeting current health-related PA guidelines.

Konharn K; Santos MP; Ribeiro JC

2013-03-01

25

Socioeconomic Status and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Thai Adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: The impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on objective measures of physical activity (PA) in adolescence is poorly understood. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between SES and objectively measured PA in Thai adolescents. METHODS: PA was objectively measured every 30 seconds for 7 consecutive days using ActiGraph GT1M uniaxial accelerometers in 177 secondary-school adolescents aged 13-18 years that were classified into 3 SES groups (low, middle and high). The associations between SES and adolescents' PA were examined using 1-way ANOVA with multiple comparisons and Chi-square test. RESULTS: Adolescents of low-SES accumulated more minutes of PA and less of sedentary behavior than those of high-SES, Additionally, low-SES adolescents tended to meet the daily PA guidelines more than other groups, particularly in girls (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study evidences an inverse relationship between SES and PA levels, and shows the importance of targeting high SES adolescents in intervention programs to enhance health behaviors. Based on these findings, we also suggest that SES must be considered as an important determinant in promoting regular PA and in increasing proportions of adolescents meeting current health-related PA guidelines. PMID:23493236

Konharn, Kurusart; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, José Carlos

2013-03-14

26

The Socioeconomic Status of 100 Renal Transplant Recipients in Shiraz  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data regarding the socioeconomic status in Iranian kidney transplant (KT) recipients is lacking. In this cross sectional descriptive study we evaluated the socio-economic status of 100 KT recipients in Shiraz organ transplantation center. In a cross-sectional design, we randomly selected and interviewed 100 RT recipients (50 males and 50 females). Data regarding age, gender, martial status, occupation, level of education, number of children, type of insurance, monthly household income, place of residence, ownership of a personal transportation device, duration and frequency of pre-transplant dialysis, family history of CRF (Chronic renal failure), and etiology of renal disease were obtained. There were 50 (50%) patients aged between 16 and 35 years, 55 had a family history of CRF, 60 had been on dialysis for more than a year, 61 were married, 47 did not have any children, 41 had more than 3 children, and 65 were unemployed due to physical and emotional impairment as a result of their disease. The majority (73%) did not have a high school diploma, 15% were illiterate, 85% were below the poverty line, 52% were from rural areas, and 98% were covered by insurance. We conclude that patients with CKD in our study had acquired this condition possibly due to negligence and lack of basic health care in the lower socioeconomic class. In addition, KT is an available therapeutic modality to lower socio-economic level in Iran.

Roozbeh Jamshid; Jalaeian Hamed; Banihashemi Mohammad; Rais-Jalali Ghanbar; Sagheb Mohammad; Salehipour Mehdi; Faghihi Hajar; Malek-Hosseini Seyed

2008-01-01

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WAITING TIMES AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS. EVIDENCE FROM NORWAY.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigate whether socioeconomic status, measured by income and education, affects waiting time when controls for severity and hospital-specific conditions are included. We also examine which aspects of the hospital supply (attachment to local hospital, traveling time, or choice of hospital) matter most for unequal treatment of different socioeconomic groups. The study uses administrative data from all elective inpatient and outpatient stays in somatic hospitals in Norway. The main results are that we find very little indication of discrimination with regard to income and education when both severity and aspects of hospital supply are controlled for. This result holds for both men and women. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Kaarboe O; Carlsen F

2013-01-01

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Physical activity, sex, and socioeconomic status: A population based study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to investigate physical activity by socioeconomic status (SES) and sex in an Iranian adult population. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 6622 adults, who participated in the Isfahan Healthy Heart program (IHHP) surveys in 2004 and 2005 and were living in urban areas, were studied. Daily leisure time, household, occupational, and transportation physical activity, and total physical activity were calculated and compared in 3 socioeconomic status groups classified by the two-step cluster analysis procedure. RESULTS: Statistically significant variations were found in all physical activity levels, except transportation, by sex. Men were more active than women in all fields, except household physical activity. Leisure time physical activity of men and women were significantly higher in higher SES levels. There was an opposite correlation between SES and total physical activity in men. CONCLUSION: Considering the importance of physical activity as a component of a healthy lifestyle, differences among varying socioeconomic status and sex must be considered while planning for healthy lifestyle programs. Women with low SES, in particular, may need more attention.

Talaei M; Rabiei K; Talaei Z; Amiri N; Zolfaghari B; Kabiri P; Sarrafzadegan N

2013-01-01

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Socioeconomic status and incidence of sudden cardiac arrest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status is associated with poor cardiovascular health. We evaluated the association between socioeconomic status and the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest, a condition that accounts for a substantial proportion of cardiovascular-related deaths, in seven large North American urban populations. METHODS: Using a population-based registry, we collected data on out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrests occurring at home or at a residential institution from Apr. 1, 2006, to Mar. 31, 2007. We limited the analysis to cardiac arrests in seven metropolitan areas in the United States (Dallas, Texas; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle-King County, Washington) and Canada (Ottawa and Toronto, Ontario; and Vancouver, British Columbia). Each incident was linked to a census tract; tracts were classified into quartiles of median household income. RESULTS: A total of 9235 sudden cardiac arrests were included in the analysis. For all sites combined, the incidence of sudden cardiac arrestin the lowest socioeconomic quartile was nearly double that in the highest quartile (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-2.0). This disparity was greater among people less than 65 years old (IRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.5-3.0) than among those 65 or older (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). After adjustment for study site and for population age structure of each census tract, the disparity across socioeconomic quartiles for all ages combined was greater in the United States (IRR 2.0, 95% CI 1.9-2.2) than in Canada (IRR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-2.0) (p<0.001 for interaction). INTERPRETATION: The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest at home or at a residential institution was higher in poorer neighbourhoods of the US and Canadian sites studied, although the association was attenuated in Canada. The disparity across socioeconomic quartiles was greatest among people younger than 65. The association between socioeconomic status and incidence of sudden cardiac arrest merits consideration in the development of strategies to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest, and possibly to identify opportunities for prevention.

Reinier K; Thomas E; Andrusiek DL; Aufderheide TP; Brooks SC; Callaway CW; Pepe PE; Rea TD; Schmicker RH; Vaillancourt C; Chugh SS

2011-10-01

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Socioeconomic patterning of childhood overweight status in Europe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is growing evidence of social disparities in overweight among European children. This paper examines whether there is an association between socioeconomic inequality and prevalence of child overweight in European countries, and if socioeconomic disparities in child overweight are increasing. We analyse cross-country comparisons of household inequality and child overweight prevalence in Europe and review within-country variations over time of childhood overweight by social grouping, drawn from a review of the literature. Data from 22 European countries suggest that greater inequality in household income is positively associated with both self-reported and measured child overweight prevalence. Moreover, seven studies from four countries reported on the influence of socioeconomic factors on the distribution of child overweight over time. Four out of seven reported widening social disparities in childhood overweight, a fifth found statistically significant disparities only in a small sub-group, one found non-statistically significant disparities, and a lack of social gradient was reported in the last study. Where there is evidence of a widening social gradient in child overweight, it is likely that the changes in lifestyles and dietary habits involved in the increase in the prevalence of overweight have had a less favourable impact in low socio-economic status groups than in the rest of the population. More profound structural changes, based on population-wide social and environmental interventions are needed to halt the increasing social gradient in child overweight in current and future generations.

Knai C; Lobstein T; Darmon N; Rutter H; McKee M

2012-04-01

31

Socioeconomic Patterning of Childhood Overweight Status in Europe  

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Full Text Available There is growing evidence of social disparities in overweight among European children. This paper examines whether there is an association between socioeconomic inequality and prevalence of child overweight in European countries, and if socioeconomic disparities in child overweight are increasing. We analyse cross-country comparisons of household inequality and child overweight prevalence in Europe and review within-country variations over time of childhood overweight by social grouping, drawn from a review of the literature. Data from 22 European countries suggest that greater inequality in household income is positively associated with both self-reported and measured child overweight prevalence. Moreover, seven studies from four countries reported on the influence of socioeconomic factors on the distribution of child overweight over time. Four out of seven reported widening social disparities in childhood overweight, a fifth found statistically significant disparities only in a small sub-group, one found non-statistically significant disparities, and a lack of social gradient was reported in the last study. Where there is evidence of a widening social gradient in child overweight, it is likely that the changes in lifestyles and dietary habits involved in the increase in the prevalence of overweight have had a less favourable impact in low socio-economic status groups than in the rest of the population. More profound structural changes, based on population-wide social and environmental interventions are needed to halt the increasing social gradient in child overweight in current and future generations.

Cécile Knai; Tim Lobstein; Nicole Darmon; Harry Rutter; Martin McKee

2012-01-01

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Socioeconomic status and functional brain development - associations in early infancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject comparisons of infants from low- and high-income families revealed significantly lower frontal gamma power in infants from low-income homes. Similar power differences were found when comparing infants according to maternal occupation, with lower occupational status groups yielding lower power. Infant sleep, maternal education, length of gestation, and birth weight, as well as smoke exposure and bilingualism, did not explain these differences. Our results show that the effects of socioeconomic disparities on brain activity can already be detected in early infancy, potentially pointing to very early risk for language and attention difficulties. This is the first study to reveal region-selective differences in functional brain development associated with early infancy in low-income families. PMID:24033573

Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H; Kushnerenko, Elena

2013-08-07

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Socioeconomic status and functional brain development - associations in early infancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject comparisons of infants from low- and high-income families revealed significantly lower frontal gamma power in infants from low-income homes. Similar power differences were found when comparing infants according to maternal occupation, with lower occupational status groups yielding lower power. Infant sleep, maternal education, length of gestation, and birth weight, as well as smoke exposure and bilingualism, did not explain these differences. Our results show that the effects of socioeconomic disparities on brain activity can already be detected in early infancy, potentially pointing to very early risk for language and attention difficulties. This is the first study to reveal region-selective differences in functional brain development associated with early infancy in low-income families.

Tomalski P; Moore DG; Ribeiro H; Axelsson EL; Murphy E; Karmiloff-Smith A; Johnson MH; Kushnerenko E

2013-09-01

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The Effect of Socio-Economic Status on Authoritarianism  

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Full Text Available IntroductionScientific review of the authoritarian personality began in 1950 with the pioneering work of Adorno and his colleagues. Following their attempt, extensive studies were carried out in social psychology, political science, and sociology in this field. Despite the extensive amount of research on authoritarianism in Western societies, few have been conducted in developing countries. The dimensions of this phenomenon in Third World countries can be extensive. The importance of the study of Authoritarianism in Iranian society goes to the Constitutional Revolution (August 1906), when this issue has been in Iranian intellectual discourse. But since the origin of authoritarianism has always been searched in political elite, little attention has been paid to the roots of this phenomenon in the context of social and interpersonal interactions between individuals. Studies show that authoritarian attitudes have adverse social consequences for society in addition to their political consequences. Thus, the scientific study of this phenomenon and its social roots seems necessary. Authoritarian personality has European roots. These studies are influenced by Marx and Freud's theories from theoretical perspective and they are rooted in studies carried out on workers in France and Germany from empirical perspective (Roiser & Willing, 1995:77-97). A study conducted in the Institute of Social Research in Frankfurt in the late 1920s included a wide set of cultural, social and political attitudes among white collar and blue collar workers in Weimar Germany. These studies reported a minority who has authoritarian attitudes. In another study carried out by Horkheimer, Fromm and Marcuse in 1936, family roots of authoritarian personality were explored. Material and MethodsAccording to the theory proposed, in this study we intend to test the integrated model; in that based on Lipstadt's theory of authoritarianism in the lower class, we identify the mechanisms that in the socioeconomic class lead to authoritarian character. For this purpose, we move from three paths toward authoritarianism- in the first path which combines Lipstadt and Adorno's theory we expect that the class influences authoritarianism from parental authoritarian control. In the second path, we expect that the class influences authoritarianism from parental authoritarian and self-esteem control. This path combines Lipstadt, Adorno and Cohen's theory. In the third path, we expect that the class influences authoritarianism through feeling of anomie. This path combines Lipstadt, Merton, Ferum and Arendt's theory. The model is depicted in the following schema. Here, we examine each of the paths. Figure 1: Theoretical model of the study The population of this study was students of Shahid Chamran University. Based on Krejcie and Morgan table, a sample of 377 individuals is representative of a population of 20000 individuals. In this study, 420 were selected through systematic random sampling. In that the list of student names was taken from each faculty and then students' names were randomly selected and they were asked to refer to a class and complete the devised questionnaire. 13 incomplete questionnaires were excluded and 407 remained for final analysis. In our sample, 191 were males and 216 females. Respondents' age was 21.84 with a standard deviation of 2.34. Ethnic composition of the sample was as follows: 33 Turks, 51 Arabs, 84 Kord, 103 Lor and 136 were Fars. Authoritarianism Scale items were composed of 9 items derived from well-known scales measuring these variables. In this study, instead of using an objective socioeconomic base approach, the mental approach was applied. In this way, instead of assessing respondent's status based on achieved data with regard to their income and education and ranking them in three levels, the respondent self-assesses his economic status. To measure parental authoritarian control variable, we used 10 items which were derived from Daniel Shek's (2006) scale and have been used in various studies by different research

Nasrollah Pour Afkari; Behzad Hakiminya; Arash Heydari; Shahrooz Foroutankia

2013-01-01

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Income inequality, parental socioeconomic status, and birth outcomes in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of income inequality and parental socioeconomic status on several birth outcomes in Japan. Data were collected on birth outcomes and parental socioeconomic status by questionnaire from Japanese parents nationwide (n = 41,499) and then linked to Gini coefficients at the prefectural level in 2001. In multilevel analysis, z scores of birth weight for gestational age decreased by 0.018 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.029, -0.006) per 1-standard-deviation (0.018-unit) increase in the Gini coefficient, while gestational age at delivery was not associated with the Gini coefficient. For dichotomous outcomes, mothers living in prefectures with middle and high Gini coefficients were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48) times more likely, respectively, to deliver a small-for-gestational-age infant than mothers living in more egalitarian prefectures (low Gini coefficients), although preterm births were not significantly associated with income distribution. Parental educational level, but not household income, was significantly associated with the z score of birth weight for gestational age and small-for-gestational-age status. Higher income inequality at the prefectural level and parental educational level, rather than household income, were associated with intrauterine growth but not with shorter gestational age at delivery. PMID:23576676

Fujiwara, Takeo; Ito, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro

2013-04-10

36

Income inequality, parental socioeconomic status, and birth outcomes in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of income inequality and parental socioeconomic status on several birth outcomes in Japan. Data were collected on birth outcomes and parental socioeconomic status by questionnaire from Japanese parents nationwide (n = 41,499) and then linked to Gini coefficients at the prefectural level in 2001. In multilevel analysis, z scores of birth weight for gestational age decreased by 0.018 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.029, -0.006) per 1-standard-deviation (0.018-unit) increase in the Gini coefficient, while gestational age at delivery was not associated with the Gini coefficient. For dichotomous outcomes, mothers living in prefectures with middle and high Gini coefficients were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48) times more likely, respectively, to deliver a small-for-gestational-age infant than mothers living in more egalitarian prefectures (low Gini coefficients), although preterm births were not significantly associated with income distribution. Parental educational level, but not household income, was significantly associated with the z score of birth weight for gestational age and small-for-gestational-age status. Higher income inequality at the prefectural level and parental educational level, rather than household income, were associated with intrauterine growth but not with shorter gestational age at delivery.

Fujiwara T; Ito J; Kawachi I

2013-05-01

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Childhood circumstances and the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A large literature has documented the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status (SES). However, the mechanisms by which SES transmits across generations are still little understood. This article investigates whether characteristics determined in childhood play an important role in the intergenerational transmission. Using data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, I document the extent to which childhood human capital accounts for the intergenerational SES correlation. My results imply that childhood health and nutrition, cognitive and noncognitive abilities, and early schooling account for between one-third and one-half of the relationship between parents' SES and their offspring's SES.

Carvalho L

2012-08-01

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The Effect of Socioeconomic Status and Anomie on Illegal Behavior  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES), feeling of anomie, and law-breaking behavior or illegality. A sample of 480 students has been randomly selected from Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in Iran. The results revealed that SES had significant negative correlation with anomie and non-significant correlation with illegality. Anomie had positive correlation with illegal behavior and the fetishism of money dimension had the greatest effect on illegality. The result is discussed with regard to the socio-cultural sphere of Iran as well as with regard to the previous anomie theories including Merton, and Messner and Rosenfeld theories.

Arash Heydari; Ali Teymoori; Behrang Mohamadi; Sajad Sarhadi

2013-01-01

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Neural correlates of socioeconomic status in the developing human brain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Socioeconomic disparities in childhood are associated with remarkable differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development during a time when dramatic changes are occurring in the brain. Yet, the neurobiological pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) shapes development remain poorly understood. Behavioral evidence suggests that language, memory, social-emotional processing, and cognitive control exhibit relatively large differences across SES. Here we investigated whether volumetric differences could be observed across SES in several neural regions that support these skills. In a sample of 60 socioeconomically diverse children, highly significant SES differences in regional brain volume were observed in the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, SES × age interactions were observed in the left superior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting increasing SES differences with age in these regions. These results were not explained by differences in gender, race or IQ. Likely mechanisms include differences in the home linguistic environment and exposure to stress, which may serve as targets for intervention at a time of high neural plasticity.

Noble KG; Houston SM; Kan E; Sowell ER

2012-07-01

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Pathways between Socioeconomic Status and Modifiable Risk Factors Among African American Smokers  

Science.gov (United States)

Although socioeconomic status is a major contributing factor to health disparities, the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status influences health remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an a priori conceptual model of the pathways between socioeconomic status and modifiable health risk factors in a sample of 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment. A latent variable modeling approach was utilized to characterize the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect/perceived stress, and three specific modifiable risk factors (i.e., overweight/obesity, insufficient physical activity, at-risk drinking). Findings indicated that neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect/perceived stress function as pathways linking socioeconomic status and modifiable risk factors among African American smokers, and negative affect/perceived stress appears to play a key mediating role. Policy, community, and individual-level interventions may attenuate the impact of socioeconomic status on health by targeting intermediate psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral pathways.

Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Costello, Tracy J.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Wetter, David W.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Interference of detection rate of lumbar disc herniation by socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. PURPOSE: The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the detection rate of lumbar disc herniation and socioeconomic status. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Income is one important determinant of public health. Yet, there are no reports about the relationship between socioeconomic status and the detective rate of disc herniation. METHODS: In this study, 443 cases were checked for lumbar computed tomography for lumbar disc herniation, and they reviewed questionnaires about their socioeconomic status, the presence of back pain or radiating pain and the presence of a medical certificate (to check the medical or surgical treatment for the pain) during the Korean conscription. RESULTS: Without the consideration for the presence of a medical certificate, there was no difference in spinal physical grade according to socioeconomic status (p=0.290). But, with the consideration of the presence of a medical certificate, the significant statistical differences were observed according to socioeconomic status in 249 cases in the presence of a medical certificate (p=0.028). There was a lower detection rate in low economic status individuals than those in the high economic class. The common reason for not submitting a medical certificate is that it is neither necessary for the people of lower socioeconomic status nor is it financially affordable. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of lumbar disc herniation is not different according to socioeconomic status, but the detective rate was affected by socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status is an important factor for detecting lumbar disc herniation.

Ji GY; Oh CH; Jung NY; An SD; Choi WS; Kim JH

2013-03-01

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Emergency presentation and socioeconomic status in colon cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Emergency presentation affects up to every fourth patient with colon cancer, and is associated with worse outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate any association between socioeconomic status (SES) and mode of presentation in colon cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Individually attained data on civil status, education and income were linked to quality registries for colon cancer in two large Swedish regions 1997-2006 (n = 12 293) and analyzed by logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, stage, region and socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: The frequency of emergency presentation was 23%; 27.8% among patients above the age of 80, and 20.0% among patients aged 70-79 (p < 0.001). There was no difference between men and women (22.6% vs. 23.8%; p = 0.1). Among patients with stage IV colon cancer, 34.6% presented as emergencies. Odds ratio for an emergency presentation in unmarried patients was 1.24 (96% CI 1.04-1.48), and for unmarried patients above the age of 80, OR was 1.45 (95% CI 0.98-2.13). Among patients below the age of 70 with compulsory education only, OR was 1.22 (95% CI 0.98-1.48). For patients within the lowest income quartile (Q1), OR was 1.24 (95% CI 1.04-1.49). This was most pronounced in men (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.40-1.72), in patients below the age of 70 (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.02-1.82), and above the age of 80 (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.00-1.98). CONCLUSION: Emergency presentation of colon cancer is consistently associated with socioeconomic factors, and this must be considered in efforts aimed at reducing the overall frequency of emergency cases.

Gunnarsson H; Ekholm A; Olsson LI

2013-08-01

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Race, socioeconomic status and survival in three female cancers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Although many studies have reported that socioeconomic status (SES) and race affect cancer survival, researchers have not established whether SES and race affect survival independently. The research reported here addresses this question with special attention to cancers affecting large numbers of women in the US. METHODS: The authors analyzed data on survival among patients in the Centralized Cancer Patient Data System (CCPDS) with cancers of the breast (n = 6896), cervix (n = 2209) and uterine corpus (n = 1492). RESULTS: According to Cox proportional hazards models, race predicted survival in all three cancers, while socioeconomic status predicted survival for cancers of the breast and uterine corpus. Interaction effects between race and SES were generally not statistically significant. This study includes larger numbers of observations within specific forms of cancer and covers a broader patient population than most previous investigations. These features promote detectability of SES effects, comparability among disease sites, and generalizability to cancer patients throughout the US. CONCLUSIONS: Findings imply that SES and race affect cancer mortality risk independently of each other, and that the impact of SES and race may vary by malignancy. Survival disadvantages due to race-which may be more pronounced among women than men-should remain a continuing concern.

Greenwald HP; Polissar NL; Dayal HH

1996-03-01

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Socioeconomic Status and Women's Smoking Behavior: A Literature Review  

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Full Text Available Objectives: This paper presents a literature review that examines the relationship between socioeconomic statusand women’s smoking behavior in the United States.Methods: A literature search was conducted among national and international peer-reviewed literature in thefollowing databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Education Resource InformationCenter (ERIC), MEDLINE, and PsycARTICLES. A manual search was performed to obtain relevant articleswithin selected journals.Results: Of the 9 reviewed studies, 5 indicated that a low education level is a causal factor which has a significantrelationship with smoking behavior among women. 6 of the reviewed studies provided evidence that householdincome level plays an important role in women’s cigarette smoking. Finally, 2 of the reviewed studies indicatedthat women’s smoking behavior is influenced by their marital status.Conclusion: The findings from this literature review indicate that future smoking prevention efforts targetingwomen might benefit from incorporating education, household income, and marital situation intomulti-component programs that focus on the differences in socioeconomic status.

Yan Huang; Jing Ren

2011-01-01

45

Socio-economic status of individuals attend a Sleep Laboratory  

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Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether is an association between socioeconomic status, occupation and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS). Material & Method: A study was conducted in sleep disorders laboratory in Athens. A sable of 366 subjects was screened for OSAHS and the presence was defined after polysomnographic by apnea- hypopnea index (AHI). A questionnaire has been used for demographics and social characteristics (i.e. marital status, income, education, occupation). Results: The study population consisted of 270 males and 96 women with mean age 57.2±12.3 years and mean BMI 36.6±7.7Kg/m². Of those, 335 subjects (91.5%) were diagnosed as having OSAHS. The influence of age, body mass index (BMI) and social characteristics was examined by multinomial logistic regression analysis. The following factors remained independent risk factors for the presence of OSAHS:1. Gender: males (OR= 8,73, 95% CI:2.98-25.60, p<0.001) compared to females.2. Obesity: BMI (OR=1.17, 95% CI: 1.08-1.27, p<0.001).3. Occupational status: Machine Operatives (OR=14.62, 95% CI: 1.49-143.41, p=0.021) and Elementary Occupations (OR=7.36, 95% CI: 1.96-27.63, p=0.003) compared to professional occupations.Conclusions: In this study factors associated with the presence of OSAHS include gender (men), obesity (BMI) and occupation status.

Prapa P.M.; Nikolopoulos I.; Faki M.; Kostikas K.; Gourgoulianis K.

2010-01-01

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Socioeconomic status, infant feeding practices and early childhood obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. Children predominantly breastfed have a reduced risk of early childhood obesity. Yet, it is not known how feeding patterns mediate the relationship between social class and obesity. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Based on a nationally representative, longitudinal study of early childhood, this study finds that healthy infant feeding practices, including predominant breastfeeding, mediates the negative association between social class and obesity at 24 months. BACKGROUND: Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. As breastfeeding can protect against child obesity, disadvantaged infants are less likely to breastfeed relative to more advantaged children. Whether infant feeding patterns, as well as other maternal characteristics mediate the association between social class and obesity has not been established in available research. OBJECTIVES: Examine the impact of infant feeding practices on child obesity and identify the mechanisms that link socioeconomic status (SES) with child obesity. METHODS: Based on a nationally representative longitudinal survey (ECLS-B) of early childhood (n?=?8030), we examine how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods and putting an infant to bed with a bottle mediate the relationship between social class and early childhood obesity relative to the mediating influence of other maternal characteristics (BMI, age at birth, smoking, depression and daycare use). RESULTS: Infants predominantly fed formula for the first 6 months were about 2.5 times more likely to be obese at 24 months of age relative to infants predominantly fed breast milk. The early introduction of solid foods (< 4 months) and putting the child to bed with a bottle also increased the likelihood of obesity. Unhealthy infant feeding practices were the primary mechanism mediating the relationship between SES and early childhood obesity. Results are consistent across measures of child obesity although the effect size of infant feeding practices varies. CONCLUSIONS: The encouragement and support of breastfeeding and other healthy feeding practices are especially important for low socioeconomic children who are at increased risk of early childhood obesity. Targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for breastfeeding support and for infant-led feeding strategies may reduce the negative association between SES and child obesity. The implications are discussed in terms of policy and practice.

Gibbs BG; Forste R

2013-04-01

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Socioeconomic status and obesity in Abia State, South East Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye,1 Abali Chuku,2 Ikechi Gareth Okpechi,3 Ugochukwu Uchenna Onyeonoro,4 Okechukwu Ojoemelam Madukwe,5 Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka Okafor,6 Okechukwu Samuel Ogah5,71Division of Renal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 3Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, 5Ministry of Health, Nnamdi Azikiwe Secretariat, 6Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 7Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, NigeriaBackground and objectives: Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria.Material and method: This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity). Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance.Results: Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity in individuals with no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education was 6.3%, 14.9%, 10.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. Educational status was found to be significantly associated with obesity in women, but not in men, or in the combined group. However, level of income was observed to be significantly associated with obesity in men, women, and in the combined group.Conclusion: Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are important determinants of obesity in our study population, and therefore may be indirectly linked to the prevalence and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Nigeria.Keywords: obesity, body mass index, BMI, income, education, socioeconomic status, Naira (?)

Chukwuonye II; Chuku A; Okpechi IG; Onyeonoro UU; Madukwe OO; Okafor GOC; Ogah OS

2013-01-01

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Socioeconomic status does not affect the outcome of liver transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The outcome of liver transplantation is dependent on many factors. It was suggested that racial disparities in outcome may be related to differences in socioeconomic status (SES). In this retrospective study, we analyzed the effect of SES on graft and patient survival. Two hundred seventy-six adult patients who underwent liver transplantation at our institution from July 1988 to June 2001 were included in the analysis. Educational and occupation statuses were coded using established criteria (Hollingshead Index of Social Status [HI]). SES then was calculated using the HI formula: SES = education level x 3 + occupation x 5, and categorized into four groups: group 1, score less than 29 (n = 71); group 2, score of 29 to 42 (n = 82); group 3, score of 42 to 53 (n = 69); and group 4, score greater than 53 (n = 54). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used for graft and patient survival, and Cox regression analysis was used to determine the effect of confounding factors. Demographics of all four groups were similar. One-, 2-, and 5-year graft and patient survival did not differ significantly across groups by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression survival analysis. In conclusion, SES did not predict graft and patient survival after liver transplantation. PMID:12474152

Yoo, Hwan Y; Galabova, Violetta; Edwin, David; Thuluvath, Paul J

2002-12-01

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Socioeconomic status does not affect the outcome of liver transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The outcome of liver transplantation is dependent on many factors. It was suggested that racial disparities in outcome may be related to differences in socioeconomic status (SES). In this retrospective study, we analyzed the effect of SES on graft and patient survival. Two hundred seventy-six adult patients who underwent liver transplantation at our institution from July 1988 to June 2001 were included in the analysis. Educational and occupation statuses were coded using established criteria (Hollingshead Index of Social Status [HI]). SES then was calculated using the HI formula: SES = education level x 3 + occupation x 5, and categorized into four groups: group 1, score less than 29 (n = 71); group 2, score of 29 to 42 (n = 82); group 3, score of 42 to 53 (n = 69); and group 4, score greater than 53 (n = 54). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used for graft and patient survival, and Cox regression analysis was used to determine the effect of confounding factors. Demographics of all four groups were similar. One-, 2-, and 5-year graft and patient survival did not differ significantly across groups by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression survival analysis. In conclusion, SES did not predict graft and patient survival after liver transplantation.

Yoo HY; Galabova V; Edwin D; Thuluvath PJ

2002-12-01

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Socioeconomic status, a forgotten variable in lateralization development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Socioeconomic status (SES), a variable combining income, education, and occupation, is correlated with a variety of social health outcomes including school dropout rates, early parenthood, delinquency, and mental illness. Several studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s largely failed to report a relationship between SES and hemispheric asymmetry as measured by lateral differences in dichotic listening, tactile dot enumeration, and visual emotion and word recognition. However, none of the studies used asymmetry measures correcting for both ceiling and floor effects in accuracy, raising the question of whether lower and higher SES groups were comparable. Here the published data are reanalyzed using a laterality coefficient that corrects for such effects. The results are consistent across studies in revealing reduced lateralization in lower SES groups. Developmentally, this finding is consistent with either maturation delay or reduced functional specialization, or both. Suggestions are made for further research that include the use of behavioral asymmetry measures to screen tasks for structural and functional brain imaging.

Boles DB

2011-06-01

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Childhood Socioeconomic Status Amplifies Genetic Effects on Adult Intelligence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies of intelligence in children reveal significantly higher heritability among groups with high socioeconomic status (SES) than among groups with low SES. These interaction effects, however, have not been examined in adults, when between-families environmental effects are reduced. Using 1,702 adult twins (aged 24-84) for whom intelligence assessment data were available, we tested for interactions between childhood SES and genetic effects, between-families environmental effects, and unique environmental effects. Higher SES was associated with higher mean intelligence scores. Moreover, the magnitude of genetic influences on intelligence was proportional to SES. By contrast, environmental influences were constant. These results suggest that rather than setting lower and upper bounds on intelligence, genes multiply environmental inputs that support intellectual growth. This mechanism implies that increasing SES may raise average intelligence but also magnifies individual differences in intelligence.

Bates TC; Lewis GJ; Weiss A

2013-09-01

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Pathways linking socioeconomic status and postpartum smoking relapse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) exacerbates the high rate of smoking relapse in women following childbirth. PURPOSE: This study examined multiple models of potential mechanisms linking SES and postpartum smoking relapse among women who quit smoking due to pregnancy. METHODS: Participants were 251 women enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a new postpartum smoking relapse prevention intervention. Four models of the prepartum mechanisms linking SES and postpartum smoking relapse were evaluated using a latent variable modeling approach. RESULTS: Each of the hypothesized models were a good fit for the data. As hypothesized, SES indirectly influenced postpartum smoking relapse through increased prepartum negative affect/stress, reduced sense of agency, and increased craving for cigarettes. However, the model that included craving as the sole final pathway between SES and relapse demonstrated superior fit when compared with all other models. CONCLUSIONS: Findings have implications for future interventions that aim to reduce postpartum relapse.

Businelle MS; Kendzor DE; Reitzel LR; Vidrine JI; Castro Y; Mullen PD; Velasquez MM; Cofta-Woerpel L; Cinciripini PM; Greisinger AJ; Wetter DW

2013-04-01

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Functional performance of children with cerebral palsy from high and low socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of socioeconomic status on the functional performance of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Cross-sectional quantitative study of 49 children diagnosed with cerebral palsy from a convenience sample. Children of both genders aged three to seven and a half years were studied. They were classified according to the level of severity of cerebral palsy based on the Gross Motor Function Classification System. Participants were organized in two groups considering their high or low socioeconomic status, according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria. Functional performance was assessed by the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. The Student's t-test was applied for independent samples in order to compare means between groups. RESULTS: Socioeconomic status did not affect functional performance of children with mild cerebral palsy. Those with moderate cerebral palsy and low socioeconomic status presented lower social function scores (p=0.027) than those with high socioeconomic status. Children with severe cerebral palsy with low socioeconomic status presented worse performance in self-care skills (p=0.021) and mobility (p=0.005). These children were more dependent regarding mobility (p=0.015) than those with high socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status may influence the development process of children with cerebral palsy and must be considered as a risk factor in educational and health practices aimed at this population.

Assis-Madeira EA; Carvalho SG; Blascovi-Assis SM

2013-01-01

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ALLOSTATIC LOAD AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN POLISH ADULT MEN.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Summary This study considers the relationship between a cumulative index of biological dysregulation (allostatic load) and several dimensions of socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle in adult Polish males. The extent to which lifestyle variables can explain SES variation in allostatic load was also evaluated. Participants were 3887 occupationally active men aged 25-60 years living in cities and villages in the Silesia region of Poland. The allostatic load indicator included eleven markers: % fat (adverse nutritional intake), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (cardiovascular activity), FEV1 (lung function), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (inflammatory processes), glucose and total cholesterol (cardiovascular disease risk), total plasma protein (stress-haemoconcentration), bilirubin, creatinine clearance and alkaline phosphatase activity (hepatic and renal functions). A higher level of completed education, being married and residing in an urban area were associated with lower physiological dysregulation. The association between indicators of SES and allostatic load was not eliminated or attenuated when unhealthy lifestyle variables were included in the model. Smoking status and alcohol consumption played minimal roles in explaining the association between SES and allostatic load; physical activity, however, had a generally protective effect on allostatic load.

Lipowicz A; Szklarska A; Malina RM

2013-06-01

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Socioeconomic status and age at menarche in indigenous and non-indigenous Chilean adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous girls in the Araucanía Region of Chile, controlling for nutritional status and mother's age at menarche. A total of 8,624 randomly selected girls from 168 schools were screened, resulting in the selection of 207 indigenous and 200 non-indigenous girls who had recently experienced menarche. Age at menarche was 149.6 ± 10.7 months in the indigenous group and 146.6 ± 10.8 months in the non-indigenous group. Among the non-indigenous, the analysis showed no significant association between age at menarche and socioeconomic status. In the indigenous group, age at menarche among girls with low socioeconomic status was 5.4 months later than among those with higher socioeconomic status. There were no differences in nutritional status according to socioeconomic level. Obesity was associated with earlier menarche. Menarche occurred earlier than in previous generations. An inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche was seen in the indigenous group only; low socioeconomic status was associated with delayed menarche, regardless of nutritional status or mother's age at menarche. PMID:22641520

Amigo, Hugo; Vásquez, Sofía; Bustos, Patricia; Ortiz, Guillermo; Lara, Macarena

2012-05-01

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Socioeconomic status and age at menarche in indigenous and non-indigenous Chilean adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous girls in the Araucanía Region of Chile, controlling for nutritional status and mother's age at menarche. A total of 8,624 randomly selected girls from 168 schools were screened, resulting in the selection of 207 indigenous and 200 non-indigenous girls who had recently experienced menarche. Age at menarche was 149.6 ± 10.7 months in the indigenous group and 146.6 ± 10.8 months in the non-indigenous group. Among the non-indigenous, the analysis showed no significant association between age at menarche and socioeconomic status. In the indigenous group, age at menarche among girls with low socioeconomic status was 5.4 months later than among those with higher socioeconomic status. There were no differences in nutritional status according to socioeconomic level. Obesity was associated with earlier menarche. Menarche occurred earlier than in previous generations. An inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche was seen in the indigenous group only; low socioeconomic status was associated with delayed menarche, regardless of nutritional status or mother's age at menarche.

Amigo H; Vásquez S; Bustos P; Ortiz G; Lara M

2012-05-01

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The Maternal Socioeconomic Status and the Caries Experience Among 2-6 Years Old Preschool Children of Lucknow City, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the maternal socioeconomic status and the caries experience among 2-6 years old preschool children of Lucknow city, India. Material and Methods: A sample of 512 preschool going children were selected through a multistage cluster random sampling. Their mothers provided information regarding their demographic data. Their socioeconomic statuses were elicited by using the modified B.G.L. Prasad’s classification for the year 2010. Their mothers’ education, occupations and incomes were also recorded. The dental caries experience was recorded by using the dentition status and the treatment needs (WHO Basic Oral Health Survey 1997). The association between the socioeconomic status and the caries experience was obtained by using the Chi – square test. One way ANOVA was used for the multiple group comparisons. Results: The prevalence of nursing caries was 33.01%. The association between the presence of nursing caries and a lower status of the mother’s education and occupation and socioeconomic position proved to be statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Instilling positive attitudes in the parents, especially in the mothers, towards the prevention of nursing caries, would reduce its prevalence at this tender age of life.

Narang, Ridhi; Saha, Sabyasachi; G V, Jagannath; Kumari, Minti; Mohd, Shafaat; Saha, Sonali

2013-01-01

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Relationship between dental status and family, school and socioeconomic level.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the knowledge, attitudes, practices and formal schooling ofparents and the oral health status in schoolchildren enrolled in educational institutions of different socioeconomic levels, using dental caries as the tracer disease. A convenience sample of 300 school children aged 6-14 years old and living in Mar del Plata city, Argentina, was composed according to income characterization in three strata: low, middle and high income. The children were grouped according to age (6-8, 9-11 and 12-14 years old). A validated questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes and oral health practices was administered to parents. Children were examined for dental and gingival status. DMFS, dmfs, plaque and gingival bleeding indexes were determined. Mean and SEM and/or frequency distribution of each variable were determined and diferences assessed by ANOVA, chi-squared, Yates chi-squared and Scheffé tests (p < 0.05). Association among variables was tested by chi-squared test. The children from low income families showed significantly higher levels oforal disease in all the studied age groups. These families revealed significantly less healthy practices and attitudes along with lower formal schooling level. Dental indicators were inversely and significantly associated with parents' knowledge, attitudes and formal schooling and with plaque index. Bleeding on probing was inversely and significantly associated with plaque index, parents 'formal schooling and practices. Plaque index was found to be inversely associated with parents' knowledge, attitudes and formal schooling. Parents 'knowledge, formal schooling, attitudes and health practices are intervening variables on oral health status ofschool children and an intervention field with potential impactfor the oral component of health.

Ravera E; Sanchez GA; Squassi AF; Bordoni N

2012-01-01

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Socioeconomic status in Brazilian psychological research: II. socioeconomic status and parenting knowledge Status socioeconômico na pesquisa psicológica brasileira: II. status socioeconômico e conhecimento parental  

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Full Text Available Although studies of parenting cognitions and practices across cultures have increased systematically in the last years, research specifically on parents' knowledge of childrearing and child development remains very little frequent in non-U.S. settings. In Brazil this issue is still underresearched. This study addressed two main questions: What do Brazilian mothers know about childrearing and child development? How does this knowledge vary with their socioeconomic status and education in particular? A Brazilian version of the Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (KIDI) was administered to a sample of 64 primiparous mothers, and data about the family's socioeconomic status were collected. Relations of SES and some of its components to parents' knowledge about childrearing and child development were then analyzed. The mean total correct score obtained by the Brazilian mothers on the KIDI was lower than the mean score obtained by the American mothers. There were no differences between KIDI scores obtained by mothers of boys and mothers of girls. Mothers' education was the best predictor of the KIDI. This study gives support to the view that differences in parenting knowledge are ascribable primarily to variation in educational attainment, a principal indicator of SES, and has implications for the development of parental educational programs.Embora os estudos sobre cognições e práticas parentais em diferentes culturas venham aumentando sistematicamente nos últimos anos, pesquisas sobre o conhecimento do desenvolvimento infantil e práticas parentais raramente vêm sendo conduzidas fora dos Estados Unidos. No Brasil praticamente não há literatura nessa área. Este estudo buscou responder a duas perguntas básicas: O que as mães brasileiras sabem sobre desenvolvimento infantil e as práticas parentais? Como este conhecimento sobre o desenvolvimento infantil e práticas parentais varia com o status socioeconômico e, em particular, com a educação das mães? Estudos vêm ressaltando a relevância do status socioeconômico para a análise de vários processos e produtos psicológicos. Porém, a relevância do status socioeconômico para o entendimento da cognições e práticas parentais ainda está sendo discutida. Uma versão em português do Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (KIDI ) foi administrada em uma amostra de 64 mães primíparas, e dados sobre o status socioeconômico das família foram coletados. Foram analisadas as relações entre o status socioeconômico e alguns de seus componentes sobre o conhecimento do desenvolvimento infantil e de práticas parentais. Verificou-se que, em média, as mães brasileiras obtiveram um escore mais baixo no KIDI do que as mães norte-americanas. Não foram verificadas diferença entre mães de meninos e mães de meninas no KIDI. Todas as variáveis investigadas, exceto idade de mães e pais e status ocupacional das mães, mostraram correlação significativa com KIDI. A educação de mãe foi o melhor preditor dos escores no KIDI. Este estudo dá apoio à visão de que diferenças no conhecimento do desenvolvimento infantil e práticas parentais estão relacionadas principalmente ao nível educacional, um dos principais indicadores do status socioeconômico e têm implicações para o desenvolvimento de programas educacionais para os pais.

Rodolfo de Castro Ribas Jr; Maria Lucia Seidl de Moura; Marc H. Bornstein

2003-01-01

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Socioeconomic status accounts for rapidly increasing geographic variation in the incidence of poor fetal growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fetal growth is an important risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. In turn, socioeconomic status is a key predictor of fetal growth; however, other sociodemographic factors and environmental effects may also be important. This study modelled geographic variation in poor fetal growth after accounting for socioeconomic status, with a fixed effect for socioeconomic status and a combination of spatially-correlated and spatially-uncorrelated random effects. The dataset comprised 88,246 liveborn singletons, aggregated within suburbs in Perth, Western Australia. Low socioeconomic status was strongly associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth. An increase in geographic variation of poor fetal growth from 1999-2001 (interquartile odds ratio among suburbs = 1.20) to 2004-2006 (interquartile odds ratio = 1.40) indicated a widening risk disparity by socioeconomic status. Low levels of residual spatial patterns strengthen the case for targeting policies and practices in areas of low socioeconomic status for improved outcomes. This study indicates an alarming increase in geographic inequalities in poor fetal growth in Perth which warrants further research into the specific aspects of socioeconomic status that act as risk factors.

Ball SJ; Jacoby P; Zubrick SR

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Socio-economic status of workers of building construction industry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here.

Tiwary G; Gangopadhyay PK; Biswas S; Nayak K; Chatterjee MK; Chakraborty D; Mukherjee S

2012-05-01

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SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS & RESIDENTIAL CONDITIONS IN TWO AREAS OF PUNJAB  

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Full Text Available Many factors like genetics, immunology, climate and environment, affect the prevalence of various diseases in asociety or in an area. Social factors including personal hygiene, general cleanliness, housing conditions, availability ofclean and safe drinking water also affect. In order to see the prevalence of disease and effects of these factors in a mixedsocioeconomic group, a study was undertaken in urban and rural areas of Faisalabad and Sheikhupura.BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Three villages, which are located away from the urban areas and have notseen the ray of pollution as yet, were selected for survey. The urban areas include the colonies, which are well buildwith most of the basic residential facilities available to the residents. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: The study wasdesigned to find out the disease prevalence and social conditions in urban and rural areas of Faisalabad andSheikhupura. MATERIALS & METHODS: The field workers visited the areas with a precoded performa, whichincluded information on the, household number and name of the respondent, relationship of the respondent with thehead of the household, total number of persons in the household, education of the household and morbidity in the familyduring last month. RESULTS & DISCUSSION: Sixty-seven families with population size 265 were evaluated inthis survey. In this study the respondents were mainly the heads of families or their wives (28%). Mostly belonged tohigher socioeconomic status (44.7%). Majority of them were living in pacca houses (61.20%). A significant proportionhas reasonable number of rooms (59.86%). Sixty percent of the families enjoyed separate kitchen. Similarly highpercentage of families (63.2%) has flush system as far as toilet facility is concerned. However, high percentage wasdeprived of good drinking water (71.6%) and they depend on borehole water supply. Similarly significant proportionwas using old source of energy as fuel i.e. wood (44.8%). High number of people developed sickness including fever,abdominal disorders in the recent past of the survey. Maternal care was below satisfactory conditions. Most of thefamilies (73.10%) preferred to get delivered at home and (62%) had approach to a Dai of whom proper training wasdoubtful. CONCLUSION: Ailment in this population is due to its moderate socioeconomic group. Although theyhave good residential and sanitation conditions but approach to safe drinking water and good health facilitiesparticularly for maternal care were not satisfactory. The ailments, which have come into picture during survey, may bedue to these deprivations.

SALMA NAZ SINDHU

2002-01-01

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Expectancies, socioeconomic status, and self-rated health: use of the simplified TOMCATS Questionnaire.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Coping has traditionally been measured with inventories containing many items meant to identify specific coping strategies. An alternative is to develop a shorter inventory that focusses on coping expectancies which may determine the extent to which an individual attempts to cope actively. PURPOSE: This paper explores the usefulness and validity of a simplified seven-item questionnaire (Theoretically Originated Measure of the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress, TOMCATS) for response outcome expectancies defined either as positive ("coping"), negative ("hopelessness"), or none ("helplessness"). The definitions are based on the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS; Ursin and Eriksen, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(5):567–92, 2004). The questionnaire was tested in two different samples. First, the questionnaire was compared with a traditional test of coping and then tested for validity in relation to socioeconomic differences in self-reported health. METHODS: The first study was a comparison of the brief TOMCATS with a short version of the Utrecht Coping List (UCL; Eriksen et al., Scand J Psychol, 38(3):175–82, 1997). Both questionnaires were tested in a population of 1,704 Norwegian municipality workers. The second study was a cross-sectional analysis of TOMCATS, subjective and objective socioeconomic status, and health in a representative sample of the Swedish working population in 2003–2005 (N?=?11,441). RESULTS: In the first study, the coping item in the TOMCATS questionnaire showed an expected significant positive correlation with the UCL factors of instrumental mastery-oriented coping and negative correlations with passive and depressive scores. There were also the expected correlations for the helplessness and hopelessness scores, but there was no clear distinction between helplessness and hopelessness in the way they correlated with the UCL. In the second study, the coping item in TOMCATS and the three-item helplessness scores showed clear and monotonous gradients over a subjective socioeconomic status (SES) ladder. Positive response outcome expectancy ("coping") was related to high subjective SES and no expectancy ("helplessness") to low subjective SES. In a model including age and sex, TOMCATS scores explained more variance (r 2?=?0.16) in self-reported health than both subjective (r 2?=?0.08) and objective SES (r 2?=?0.02). CONCLUSION: The brief TOMCATS questionnaire showed acceptable and significant correlations with a traditional coping questionnaire and is sensitive enough to register systematic differences in response outcome expectancies across the socioeconomic ladder. The results furthermore confirm that psychological and learning factors contribute to the socioeconomic gradient in health.

Odéen M; Westerlund H; Theorell T; Leineweber C; Eriksen HR; Ursin H

2013-06-01

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Dimensions of socioeconomic status and clinical outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high mortality from coronary heart disease is well-known. However, the role of SES in relation to the clinical outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention remains poorly understood.

Jakobsen, Lars; Niemann, Troels

2012-01-01

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Race and self assessed health status: the role of socioeconomic factors in the USA.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate relative odds ratios and to ascertain the relative contribution of each socioeconomic covariate in explaining racial disparities in self assessed health status (for example, global health perceptions and functional limitations of daily activities). DESIGN: National repre...

Ren, X S; Amick, B C

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Postresection survival outcomes of pancreatic cancer according to demographic factors and socio-economic status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Aim Aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of demographic factors (DGF) and socio-economic status (SES) on survival after pancreatic cancer resection in a German setting. Methods Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and pancreaticoduodenectomy were id...

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Is there evidence for dual causation between malaria and socioeconomic status? Findings from rural Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria's relationship with socioeconomic status at the macroeconomic level has been established. This is the first study to explore this relationship at the microeconomic (household) level and estimate the direction of association. Malaria prevalence was measured by parasitemia, and household socioeconomic status was measured using an asset based index. Results from an instrumental variable probit model suggest that socioeconomic status is negatively associated with malaria parasitemia. Other variables that are significantly associated with parasitemia include age of the individual, use of a mosquito net on the night before interview, the number of people living in the household, whether the household was residing at their farm home at the time of interview, household wall construction, and the region of residence. Matching estimators indicate that malaria parasitemia is associated with reduced household socioeconomic status. PMID:18165515

Somi, Masha F; Butler, James R G; Vahid, Farshid; Njau, Joseph; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim

2007-12-01

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Association of socioeconomic status with iodine supply and thyroid disorders in northeast Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Studies on the potential association of socioeconomic status with iodine supply and the risk for thyroid disorders from developed countries are sparse. Socioeconomic status, however, may particularly impact the efficiency of iodine prophylaxis programs, which are based on the voluntary principle. This study aims to investigate whether the socioeconomic status is cross-sectionally and longitudinally related to low urinary excretion or thyroid disorders in the population of northeast Germany. METHODS: Data of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania were used. The study population comprised 4056 adults for cross-sectional and 2860 adults for longitudinal analyses. Assessment of socioeconomic status comprised different scales of education, income, employment, and occupation. Thyroid-related outcomes included urinary iodine excretion, serum thyrotropin, and sonographically defined goiter and nodules. Statistical analyses were adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Some of the socioeconomic variables were associated with thyroid-related characteristics in cross-sectional analyses. For example, there was an overall tendency for groups with higher education and higher income to have larger thyroid volumes and an increased risk of goiter. However, most of these associations did not attain statistical significance after correcting the target p-value for multiple testing. Longitudinal analyses did not demonstrate consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status neither substantially influences iodine supply nor does it have a major impact on the prevalence and incidence of thyroid deficiency-related disorders in the adult population of northeast Germany, indicating a good efficacy of the German iodine fortification program in all socioeconomic groups.

Völzke H; Craesmeyer C; Nauck M; Below H; Kramer A; John U; Baumeister S; Ittermann T

2013-03-01

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Socio-economic status and geographies of psychiatric inpatient service use. Places, provision, power and well-being.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This editorial briefly summarises some aspects of research on socio-economic status and use of mental health services that have particular relevance for the theme of this issue of Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale. This discussion takes a view from the perspective of health geography, which examines how the relationships between individuals and their social and physical environment result in variations in health and health care use. Three particular issues are considered here. First, the geographical distribution and organisation of psychiatric services may interact with social and economic factors in ways that are important for service use. Second, increasingly sophisticated ecological modelling strategies have elucidated the associations between socio-economic factors and service use at the population level. Third, more intensive, qualitative research complements these statistical analyses and encouraged reflection on the socio-economic processes, within psychiatric care settings, as well as in wider society, which influence service use.

Curtis S

2007-01-01

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Motives to quit smoking and reasons to relapse differ by socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status. METHODS: A population-based study, Inter99, Denmark. Two thousand six hundred twenty-one daily smokers with a previous quit attempt completed questionnaires at baseline. Cross-sectional baseline-data (1999-2001) were analysed in adjusted regression analyses. RESULTS: Consistent findings across the three indicators of socioeconomic status (employment, school education, higher education/vocational training): smokers with low socioeconomic status were significantly more likely than smokers with high socioeconomic status to report that they wanted to quit because smoking was too expensive (OR: 1.85 (1.4-2.4), for school education) or because they had health related problems (OR: 1.75 (1.4-2.2)). When looking at previous quit attempts, smokers with low socioeconomic status were significantly more likely to report that it had been a bad experience (OR: 1.41 (1.1-1.8)) and that they had relapsed because they were more nervous/restless/depressed (OR: 1.43 (1.1-1.8)). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that smokers with low socioeconomic status have other motives to quit and other reasons to relapse than smokers with high socioeconomic status. Future tobacco prevention efforts aimed at smokers with low socioeconomic status should maybe focus on current advantages of quitting smoking, using high cost of smoking and health advantages of quitting as motivating factors and by including components of mental health as relapse prevention.

Pisinger C; Aadahl M; Toft U; Jørgensen T

2011-01-01

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Pathways between socioeconomic status and modifiable risk factors among African American smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although socioeconomic status is a major contributing factor to health disparities, the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status influences health remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an a priori conceptual model of the pathways between socioeconomic status and modifiable health risk factors in a sample of 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment. A latent variable modeling approach was utilized to characterize the interrelationships among socioeconomic status, neighborhood disadvantage, social support, negative affect/perceived stress, and three specific modifiable risk factors (i.e., overweight/obesity, insufficient physical activity, at-risk drinking). Findings indicated that neighborhood disadvantage, social support, and negative affect/perceived stress function as pathways linking socioeconomic status and modifiable risk factors among African American smokers, and negative affect/perceived stress appears to play a key mediating role. Policy, community, and individual-level interventions may attenuate the impact of socioeconomic status on health by targeting intermediate psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral pathways. PMID:19757014

Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Costello, Tracy J; Cinciripini, Paul M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Wetter, David W

2009-09-16

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Social contact, socioeconomic status, and the health status of older Malaysians.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested the applicability of the stress buffering hypothesis in a developing country setting with data from the Senior Sample of the Malaysian Family Life Survey-2. Using ordered logistic regression methods, we examined whether having daily contact with adult children moderates the effect of low socioeconomic status (SES; conceptualized as a chronic stressor) on self-assessed health status. We found that low SES is associated with poorer health for all three ethnic groups--Malay, Chinese, and Indian. Further, for Malays and Chinese, we found that the negative effects of low SES on health tend to be stronger for older people with less frequent contact with adult children than for those who have daily contact. These results provide general support for the buffering model and suggest that, as found in developed countries, active intergenerational relationships in developing country settings may have protective effects on the health of older people experiencing chronic stressors. PMID:10820926

Wu, Z H; Rudkin, L

2000-04-01

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Social contact, socioeconomic status, and the health status of older Malaysians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We tested the applicability of the stress buffering hypothesis in a developing country setting with data from the Senior Sample of the Malaysian Family Life Survey-2. Using ordered logistic regression methods, we examined whether having daily contact with adult children moderates the effect of low socioeconomic status (SES; conceptualized as a chronic stressor) on self-assessed health status. We found that low SES is associated with poorer health for all three ethnic groups--Malay, Chinese, and Indian. Further, for Malays and Chinese, we found that the negative effects of low SES on health tend to be stronger for older people with less frequent contact with adult children than for those who have daily contact. These results provide general support for the buffering model and suggest that, as found in developed countries, active intergenerational relationships in developing country settings may have protective effects on the health of older people experiencing chronic stressors.

Wu ZH; Rudkin L

2000-04-01

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Investigation of the Association between Socioeconomic Indicators and Dormitory Resident Students Nutrition Status in Shiraz University of Medical Science  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Since nutrition is one of the important factors influencing health and well-being of people and it is also highly critical for students health this study investigates the impacts of socioeconomic determinants on nutrition status of the student who reside in Shiraz University of medical science dormitories. Methods: In this cross- sectional study 405 students were selected through multistage sampling procedure and their nutrition status was investigated via a questionnaire. STATA statistical software (version 9.1) was used to analyze the data through one-way ANOVA. Results: There was a significant relationship between receiving Carbohydrate Protein B6 & B12 vitamins Phosphate (P

Fouroz Nader; Ayat Ahmadi; Farnaz Faghih; Leila Zare; Hamideh Rashidian; Mehdi Ahmadi

2009-01-01

75

Psychosocial work environment and its association with socioeconomic status. A comparison of Spain and Denmark.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to describe psychosocial work environment inequalities among wage earners in Spain and Denmark. METHODS: Data came from the Spanish COPSOQ (ISTAS 21) and the Danish COPSOQ II surveys both performed in 2004-05 and based on national representative samples of employees with a 60% response rate. Study population was 3,359 Danish and 6,685 Spanish women and men. Only identical items from both surveys were included to construct 18 psychosocial scales. Socioeconomic status was categorized according to the European Socioeconomic Classification System. Analysis included ordinal logistic regression and multiple correspondence analysis after categorizing all scales. RESULTS: A relationship between socioeconomic status and psychosocial work environment in both Denmark and Spain was observed, with wider social inequalities in Spain for many scales, describing a strong interaction effect between socioeconomic status and country. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status is related to psychosocial work environment and some adverse psychosocial conditions tend to cluster in lower socioeconomic status groups in both Spain and Denmark. This effect could be modified by a country's characteristics, such as economic and labour market structures, normative regulations and industrial relations including work organization. Hence, preventive strategies to reduce social inequalities in working conditions should consider the combination of actions at the macro and micro levels.

Moncada S; Pejtersen JH; Navarro A; Llorens C; Burr H; Hasle P; Bjorner JB

2010-02-01

76

Influence of socioeconomic status on the relationship between locus of control and oral health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between Locus of Control (LoC) and oral health among a group of rural adolescent school children and to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between health, LoC and oral health status. A total of 318 children 15 years of age from a public and private school formed the study population. The children were administered following the Indian translation of the 18-item Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, and subsequently examined for caries and oral hygiene. T tests and correlation analyses showed a significant relationship between higher 'Internal' Locus of Control and dental caries. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on LoC and oral health using three interaction models which showed a statistically significant interaction between 'Internal' LoC and socioeconomic status on caries. Socioeconomic stratum-specific estimates of the relationship between the LoC and caries revealed a positive association between Internal LoC and caries in the middle socioeconomic group. The results demonstrated the relationship between Locus of Control and oral health, and the role of socioeconomic status having a strong bearing on this relationship.

Acharya S; Pentapati KC; Singh S

2011-01-01

77

The Association of Racial Status, Socioeconomic Status, and Measured Ability Upon Academic Performance in a Liberal Arts College.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to present some preliminary findings on the effects of racial status, socioeconomic status (SES), and measured ability (MA) upon academic performance of students in a liberal arts college. Preliminary analyses of academic performance (cumulative grade point averages and semester-by-semester grade point averages) among…

Ikeda, Kiyoshi; And Others

78

Neighborhood socioeconomic status and barriers to peritoneal dialysis: a mixed methods study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and barriers to peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This study was a mixed methods parallel design study using quantitative and qualitative data from a prospective clinical database of ESRD patients. The eligibility and choice cohorts were assembled from consecutive incident chronic dialysis patients entering one of five renal programs in the province of Ontario, Canada, between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2010. Socioeconomic status was measured as median household income and percentage of residents with at least a high school education using Statistics Canada dissemination area-level data. Multivariable models described the relationship between socioeconomic status and likelihood of peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice. Barriers to peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice were classified into qualitative categories using the thematic constant comparative approach. RESULTS: The peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice cohorts had 1314 and 857 patients, respectively; 65% of patients were deemed eligible for peritoneal dialysis, and 46% of eligible patients chose peritoneal dialysis. Socioeconomic status was not a significant predictor of peritoneal dialysis eligibility or choice in this study. Qualitative analyses identified 16 barriers to peritoneal dialysis choice. Patients in lower- versus higher-income Statistics Canada dissemination areas cited built environment or space barriers to peritoneal dialysis (4.6% versus 2.7%) and family or social support barriers (8.3% versus 3.5%) more frequently. CONCLUSIONS: Peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice were not associated with socioeconomic status. However, socioeconomic status may influence specific barriers to peritoneal dialysis choice. Additional studies to determine the effect of targeting interventions to specific barriers to peritoneal dialysis choice in low socioeconomic status patients on peritoneal dialysis use are needed.

Prakash S; Perzynski AT; Austin PC; Wu CF; Lawless ME; Paterson JM; Quinn RR; Sehgal AR; Oliver MJ

2013-10-01

79

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Barriers to Peritoneal Dialysis: A Mixed Methods Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and barriers to peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This study was a mixed methods parallel design study using quantitative and qualitative data from a prospective clinical database of ESRD patients. The eligibility and choice cohorts were assembled from consecutive incident chronic dialysis patients entering one of five renal programs in the province of Ontario, Canada, between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2010. Socioeconomic status was measured as median household income and percentage of residents with at least a high school education using Statistics Canada dissemination area-level data. Multivariable models described the relationship between socioeconomic status and likelihood of peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice. Barriers to peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice were classified into qualitative categories using the thematic constant comparative approach. RESULTS: The peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice cohorts had 1314 and 857 patients, respectively; 65% of patients were deemed eligible for peritoneal dialysis, and 46% of eligible patients chose peritoneal dialysis. Socioeconomic status was not a significant predictor of peritoneal dialysis eligibility or choice in this study. Qualitative analyses identified 16 barriers to peritoneal dialysis choice. Patients in lower- versus higher-income Statistics Canada dissemination areas cited built environment or space barriers to peritoneal dialysis (4.6% versus 2.7%) and family or social support barriers (8.3% versus 3.5%) more frequently. CONCLUSIONS: Peritoneal dialysis eligibility and choice were not associated with socioeconomic status. However, socioeconomic status may influence specific barriers to peritoneal dialysis choice. Additional studies to determine the effect of targeting interventions to specific barriers to peritoneal dialysis choice in low socioeconomic status patients on peritoneal dialysis use are needed.

Prakash S; Perzynski AT; Austin PC; Wu CF; Lawless ME; Paterson JM; Quinn RR; Sehgal AR; Oliver MJ

2013-08-01

80

Sociopolitical Development and Vocational Expectations among Lower Socioeconomic Status Adolescents of Color  

Science.gov (United States)

The well-documented aspiration-expectation gap refers to lower socioeconomic status (SES) adolescents of color expecting to attain occupations with lower pay and status than the occupations to which they aspire. Sociopolitical inequity, such as structural racism and asymmetrical access to resources, may explain this gap. This article examines the…

Diemer, Matthew A.; Hsieh, Chueh-an

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, and Health: A Test of Competing Theories of Cumulative Advantage  

Science.gov (United States)

Although both low socioeconomic status and cigarette smoking increase health problems and mortality, their possible combined or interactive influence is less clear. On one hand, the health of low status groups may be harmed least by unhealthy behavior such as smoking because, given the substantial health risks produced by limited resources, they…

Pampel, Fred C.; Rogers, Richard G.

2004-01-01

82

Socioeconomic Status and the Cerebellar Grey Matter Volume. Data from a Well-Characterised Population Sample.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cerebellum is highly sensitive to adverse environmental factors throughout the life span. Socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with greater inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk, and poor neurocognitive function. Given the increasing awareness of the association between early-life adversities on cerebellar structure, we aimed to explore the relationship between early life (ESES) and current socioeconomic status (CSES) and cerebellar volume. T1-weighted MRI was used to create models of cerebellar grey matter volumes in 42 adult neurologically healthy males selected from the Psychological, Social and Biological Determinants of Ill Health study. The relationship between potential risk factors, including ESES, CSES and cerebellar grey matter volumes were examined using multiple regression techniques. We also examined if greater multisystem physiological risk index-derived from inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk markers-mediated the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and cerebellar grey matter volume. Both ESES and CSES explained the greatest variance in cerebellar grey matter volume, with age and alcohol use as a covariate in the model. Low CSES explained additional significant variance to low ESES on grey matter decrease. The multisystem physiological risk index mediated the relationship between both early life and current SES and grey matter volume in cerebellum. In a randomly selected sample of neurologically healthy males, poorer socioeconomic status was associated with a smaller cerebellar volume. Early and current socioeconomic status and the multisystem physiological risk index also apparently influence cerebellar volume. These findings provide data on the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and a brain region highly sensitive to environmental factors.

Cavanagh J; Krishnadas R; Batty GD; Burns H; Deans KA; Ford I; McConnachie A; McGinty A; McLean JS; Millar K; Sattar N; Shiels PG; Tannahill C; Velupillai YN; Packard CJ; McLean J

2013-06-01

83

The relationship between low birthweight and socioeconomic status in Ireland  

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There is now fairly substantial evidence of a socioeconomic gradient in low birthweight for developed countries. The standard summary statistic for this gradient is the concentration index. Using data from the recently published Growing Up in Ireland survey, this paper calculates this index for low...

Madden, David (David Patrick)

84

Socioeconomic status, parental education, vocabulary and language skills of children who stutter.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this project was to investigate the possible relation between standardized measures of vocabulary/language, mother and father education, and a composite measure of socioeconomic status (SES) for children who do not stutter (CWNS) and children who stutter (CWS). METHODS: Participants were 138 CWNS and 159 CWS between the ages of 2;6 and 6;3 and their families. The Hollingshead Four Factor Index of Social Position (i.e., Family SES) was used to calculate SES based on a composite score consisting of weighted values for paternal and maternal education and occupation. Statistical regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relation between parental education and language and vocabulary scores for both the CWNS and CWS. Correlations were calculated between parent education, Family SES, and stuttering severity (e.g., SSI-3 score, % words stuttered). RESULTS: Results indicated that maternal education contributed the greatest amount of variance in vocabulary and language scores for the CWNS and for participants from both groups whose Family SES was in the lowest quartile of the distribution. However, paternal education generally contributed the greatest amount of variance in vocabulary and language scores for the CWS. Higher levels of maternal education were associated with more severe stuttering in the CWS. CONCLUSION: Results are generally consistent with existing literature on normal language development that indicates maternal education is a robust predictor of the vocabulary and language skills of preschool children. Thus, both father and mothers' education may impact the association between vocabulary/language skills and childhood stuttering, leading investigators who empirically study this association to possibly re-assess their participant selection (e.g., a priori control of parental education) and/or data analyses (e.g., post hoc covariation of parental education). Learning outcomes: The reader will be able to: (a) describe the influence of socioeconomic status on the development of vocabulary and language for children who do and do not stutter; (b) discuss the contribution of maternal education on vocabulary and language development; (c) describe possible reasons why paternal education contributes in unique ways to the vocabulary and language development of children who stutter as well as stuttering severity; and (d) explain possible reasons why socioeconomic status is an important variable for describing language related findings in young children.

Richels CG; Johnson KN; Walden TA; Conture EG

2013-07-01

85

Oral health status in relation to socioeconomic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To assess the prevalence of dental caries, periodontal diseases, oral pre-malignant and malignant lesions in relation to socioeconomic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was cross sectional in nature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the available employees (1187) during the study period were considered. World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment form (1997) and a preformed questionnaire were used to collect the required data. Modified Kuppuswamy scale with readjustment of the per capita income to suit the present levels was used for classifying the individuals into different socioeconomic status (SES) categories. Data were collected by a single, trained and calibrated examiner (dentist) using mouth mirror and community periodontal index (CPI) probe under natural daylight. Data analysis was done using SPSS windows version 10. Quantitative data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's post hoc test and qualitative data were analyzed using chi-square or contingency coefficient. RESULTS: The age range of the study population was 19-57 years (mean 40.74 years, standard deviation 9.17). The prevalence of dental caries in the upper SES category was lesser (43.3%) compared to that in lower SES category (78.6%). 16.4% of the subjects in the upper category had a CPI score of 0 (healthy periodontium) and none of the subjects in the lower middle, upper lower and lower SES category had this score. The prevalence of oral pre-malignant and malignant lesions was higher in lower SES category (17.9%) than in upper class (0%). CONCLUSION: There was an inverse relationship between oral health status and SES. The overall treatment need was more in the lower class people than in the upper class.

Chandra Shekar BR; Reddy C

2011-05-01

86

Relationships between phenylalanine levels, intelligence and socioeconomic status of patients with phenylketonuria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To assess intelligence and its relationship with blood phenylalanine concentrations and socioeconomic status in patients with phenylketonuria after 6 to 12 years of treatment. METHODS: Sixty-three children were classified according to phenylalanine levels and socioeconomic status and assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze phenylalanine; ANOVA was used to analyze intelligence quotients (IQ) and phenylalanine levels; and ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the likelihood of higher IQ. RESULTS: The overall IQ scores of 90.5% of the children were within a range from borderline intellectual deficiency to very high intelligence; for verbal IQ this proportion was 96.8% and 92.1% had performance IQ scores within this band. The categories from low to upper-medium socioeconomic status contained 98.4% of patients' families. The likelihood of having medium to high IQ was 4.29 times greater for children with good phenylalanine control and 4.03 greater for those from higher socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment prevented mental retardation in 90.5% of the patients. Control of phenylalanine levels and higher socioeconomic status were associated with higher IQ scores.

Castro IP; Borges JM; Chagas HA; Tibúrcio J; Starling AL; Aguiar MJ

2012-07-01

87

Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective  

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Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semistructured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.

Claudette D. Ncho; Susan C.D. Wright

2013-01-01

88

Socioeconomic status, job strain and common mental disorders—an ecological (occupational) approach  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study attempted to determine whether an ecological association exists between job strain and common mental disorders at the occupational level and whether the association is a confounding effect of socioeconomic status. METHODS: Male occupations from Belgium (N=184) and the United States (US) (N=120) were chosen from the BELSTRESS study (Belgian job-stress study) (1994–1998) and quality of employment surveys (1972–1977), respectively. Age, marital status, socioeconomic indicators, job control (skill discretion and decision authority), psychological demands, supervisory and coworker supports, physical demands, job insecurity, and symptom scales for mental disorders were all aggregated at the occupational level (detailed occupational codes). Job strain was defined as a ratio of psychological demands to job control. Simple correlations, graphic investigations, and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: While job strain was significantly correlated with socioeconomic indicators in the US sample, their covariance was less than 30% in both samples. In the graphic investigations, job strain was orthogonal to all of the socioeconomic indicators. Job strain (both samples), job control (US sample), skill discretion (Belgian sample), and psychological demands (Belgian sample) were associated with mental disorders, after control for the covariates (including socioeconomic indicators). The association of decision authority with mental disorders was relatively weak in both samples. Generally, the associations were stronger in the low or middle socioeconomic group than in the high socioeconomic group. CONCLUSIONS: Job strain is associated with common mental disorders at the occupational level, and it is not explained fully in the context of the association between socioeconomic status and mental disorders.

BongKyoo Choi; Els Clays; Dirk De Bacquer; Robert Karasek

2008-01-01

89

Socioeconomic Status and Health Inequalities for Cardiovascular Prevention Among Elderly Spaniards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Although it is known that social factors may introduce inequalities in cardiovascular health, data on the role of socioeconomic differences in the prescription of preventive treatment are scarce. We aimed to assess the relationship between the socioeconomic status of an elderly population at high cardiovascular risk and inequalities in receiving primary cardiovascular treatment, within the context of a universal health care system. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 7447 individuals with high cardiovascular risk (57.5% women, mean age 67 years) who participated in the PREDIMED study, a clinical trial of nutritional interventions for cardiovascular prevention. Educational attainment was used as the indicator of socioeconomic status to evaluate differences in pharmacological treatment received for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. RESULTS: Participants with the lowest socioeconomic status were more frequently women, older, overweight, sedentary, and less adherent to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. They were, however, less likely to smoke and drink alcohol. This socioeconomic subgroup had a higher proportion of coexisting cardiovascular risk factors. Multivariate analysis of the whole population found no differences between participants with middle and low levels of education in the drug treatment prescribed for 3 major cardiovascular risk factors (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]): hypertension (0.75 [0.56-1.00] vs 0.85 [0.65-1.10]); diabetic participants (0.86 [0.61-1.22] vs 0.90 [0.67-1.22]); and dyslipidemia (0.93 [0.75-1.15] vs 0.99 [0.82-1.19], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In our analysis, socioeconomic differences did not affect the treatment prescribed for primary cardiovascular prevention in elderly patients in Spain. Free, universal health care based on a primary care model can be effective in reducing health inequalities related to socioeconomic status. Full English text available from:www.revespcardiol.org/en.

Mejía-Lancheros C; Estruch R; Martínez-González MA; Salas-Salvadó J; Corella D; Gómez-Gracia E; Fiol M; Lapetra J; Covas MI; Arós F; Serra-Majem L; Pintó X; Basora J; Sorlí JV; Muñoz MA

2013-08-01

90

Review Article Socio-economic determinants of micronutrient intake and status in Europe: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To provide the evidence base for targeted nutrition policies to reduce the risk of micronutrient/diet-related diseases among disadvantaged populations in Europe, by focusing on: folate, vitamin B12, Fe, Zn and iodine for intake and status; and vitamin C, vitamin D, Ca, Se and Cu for intake. DESIGN: MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched to collect original studies that: (i) were published from 1990 to 2011; (ii) involved >100 subjects; (iii) had assessed dietary intake at the individual level; and/or (iv) included best practice biomarkers reflecting micronutrient status. We estimated relative differences in mean micronutrient intake and/or status between the lowest and highest socio-economic groups to: (i) evaluate variation in intake and status between socio-economic groups; and (ii) report on data availability. SETTING: Europe. SUBJECTS: Children, adults and elderly. RESULTS: Data from eighteen publications originating primarily from Western Europe showed that there is a positive association between indicators of socio-economic status and micronutrient intake and/or status. The largest differences were observed for intake of vitamin C in eleven out of twelve studies (5-47 %) and for vitamin D in total of four studies (4-31 %). CONCLUSIONS: The positive association observed between micronutrient intake and socio-economic status should complement existing evidence on socio-economic inequalities in diet-related diseases among disadvantaged populations in Europe. These findings could provide clues for further research and have implications for public health policy aimed at improving the intake of micronutrients and diet-related diseases.

Novakovi? R; Cavelaars A; Geelen A; Nikoli? M; Altaba II; Viñas BR; Ngo J; Golsorkhi M; Medina MW; Brzozowska A; Szczecinska A; de Cock D; Vansant G; Renkema M; Majem LS; Moreno LA; Glibeti? M; Gurinovi? M; Van't Veer P; de Groot LC

2013-06-01

91

Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on weight, heighting and BMI of school age children. Healthy six years old children who were screened before enter, to school were eligible for participating in our study between 6 June 2006 and 31 July. Weight and standing height were documented at birth and measured at 6 years old. Then, their BMI were calculated in childhood period. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. Result. Results show that some socio-economic variables and birth weight is associated with and, perhaps, influence the variation of growth in the children. The variables which show the most consistent and significant association were birth weight, sex, economic status and education of parents. Conclusion. In this paper, we found that birth weight, economic status and education parents of neonates have directly significant effect on growth childhood period. We recommended that paying attention to these criteria for improving growth of children in our society should be considered by authorities.

Mohammadzadeh, Ashraf; Farhat, Ahmadshah; Amiri, Rana; Esmaeeli, Habibollah

2010-01-01

92

Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran  

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Full Text Available Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on weight, heighting and BMI of school age children. Healthy six years old children who were screened before enter, to school were eligible for participating in our study between 6 June 2006 and 31 July. Weight and standing height were documented at birth and measured at 6 years old. Then, their BMI were calculated in childhood period. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. Result. Results show that some socio-economic variables and birth weight is associated with and, perhaps, influence the variation of growth in the children. The variables which show the most consistent and significant association were birth weight, sex, economic status and education of parents. Conclusion. In this paper, we found that birth weight, economic status and education parents of neonates have directly significant effect on growth childhood period. We recommended that paying attention to these criteria for improving growth of children in our society should be considered by authorities.

Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; Ahmadshah Farhat; Rana Amiri; Habibollah Esmaeeli

2010-01-01

93

Quality of life in lung cancer patients: does socioeconomic status matter?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of a prospective study on quality of life in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients an investigation was carried out to examine whether there were differences among patients' quality of life scores and their socioeconomic status. Methods Quality of life was measured at two points in time (baseline and three months after initial treatment) using three standard instruments; the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), the European Organization for Research and Cancer Treatment Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its lung cancer supplement (QLQ-LC13). Socioeconomic status for each individual patient was derived using Carstairs and Morris Deprivation Category ranging from 1 (least deprived) to 7 (most deprived) on the basis of the postcode sector of their address. Results In all, 129 lung cancer patients entered into the study. Of these data for 82 patients were complete (at baseline and follow-up). 57% of patients were of lower socioeconomic status and they had more health problems, less functioning, and more symptoms as compared to affluent patients. Of these, physical mobility (P = 0.05), energy (P = 0.01), role functioning (P = 0.04), physical functioning (P = 0.03), and breathlessness (P = 0.02) were significant at baseline. However, at follow-up assessment there was no significant difference between patient groups nor did any consistent pattern emerge. Conclusion At baseline assessment patients of lower socioeconomic status showed lower health related quality of life. Since there was no clear trend at follow-up assessment this suggests that patients from different socioeconomic status responded to treatment similarly. In general, the findings suggest that quality of life is not only the outcome of the disease and its treatment, but is also highly dependent on each patients' socioeconomic characteristics.

Montazeri Ali; Hole David J; Milroy Robert; McEwen James; Gillis Charles R

2003-01-01

94

Transplantation rates for living- but not deceased-donor kidneys vary with socioeconomic status in Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to reduced access to kidney transplantation. To understand and address potential barriers to transplantation, we used the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry and examined primary kidney-only transplantation among adult non-Indigenous patients who commenced chronic renal replacement therapy in Australia during 2000-2010. Socioeconomic status was derived from residential postcodes using standard indices. Among the 21,190 patients who commenced renal replacement therapy, 4105 received a kidney transplant (2058 from living donors (660 preemptive) or 2047 from deceased donors) by the end of 2010. Compared with the most socioeconomic disadvantaged quartile, patients from the most advantaged quartile were more likely to receive a preemptive transplant (relative rate 1.93), and more likely to receive a living-donor kidney (adjusted subhazard ratio 1.34) after commencing dialysis. Socioeconomic status was not associated with deceased-donor transplantation. Thus, the association between socioeconomic status and living- but not deceased-donor transplantation suggests that potential donors (rather than recipients) from disadvantaged areas may face barriers to donation. Although the deceased-donor organ allocation process appears essentially equitable, it differs between Australian states.

Grace BS; Clayton PA; Cass A; McDonald SP

2013-01-01

95

Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status in primary school children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI

2010-01-01

96

Contingency management is effective across cocaine-dependent outpatients with different socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy for treating cocaine dependence, but there is still some controversy with regard to its dissemination. Understanding how individual differences affect CM outcomes is important for detecting barriers to its dissemination. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of socioeconomic variables in cocaine-dependent outpatients on the effectiveness of CM in a community setting. Cocaine-dependent outpatients (N=118) were randomized to community reinforcement approach (CRA) treatment or a CRA plus vouchers program. The impact of baseline economic variables, alone and in combination with treatment conditions, on abstinence and retention outcomes after 6 months of treatment was assessed. Results showed that income had no effect on retention or abstinence outcomes after 6 months of treatment in either treatment condition. The addition of a CM component was beneficial for individuals with any socioeconomic status. These results support the generalizability of CM strategies with patients of different socioeconomic status in community settings.

Secades-Villa R; García-Fernández G; Peña-Suárez E; García-Rodríguez O; Sánchez-Hervás E; Fernández-Hermida JR

2013-03-01

97

Inequalities in maternal care in Italy: the role of socioeconomic and migrant status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Maternal care is affected by socioeconomic factors. This study analyses the effect of maternal education, employment and citizenship on some antenatal and postnatal care indicators in Italy. METHODS: Data are from two population-based follow-up surveys conducted to evaluate the quality of maternal care in 25 Italian Local Health Units in 2008/9 and 2010/1 (6942 women). Logistic models were applied and interactions among independent variables were explored. RESULTS: Education and employment status affect antenatal and postnatal care indicators and migrant women are less likely to make use of health opportunities. Low education status exacerbates the initial social disadvantage of migrants. Migrant women are also more affected by socioeconomic pressure to restart working early, with negative impact on postnatal care. CONCLUSION: Interventions focusing on women's empowerment may tackle inequalities in maternal care for those women, Italians or migrants, who have a worse initial maternal health literacy due to their lower socioeconomic conditions.

Lauria L; Bonciani M; Spinelli A; Grandolfo ME

2013-01-01

98

Socioeconomic status and the cerebellar grey matter volume. Data from a well-characterised population sample.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cerebellum is highly sensitive to adverse environmental factors throughout the life span. Socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with greater inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk, and poor neurocognitive function. Given the increasing awareness of the association between early-life adversities on cerebellar structure, we aimed to explore the relationship between early life (ESES) and current socioeconomic status (CSES) and cerebellar volume. T1-weighted MRI was used to create models of cerebellar grey matter volumes in 42 adult neurologically healthy males selected from the Psychological, Social and Biological Determinants of Ill Health study. The relationship between potential risk factors, including ESES, CSES and cerebellar grey matter volumes were examined using multiple regression techniques. We also examined if greater multisystem physiological risk index-derived from inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk markers-mediated the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and cerebellar grey matter volume. Both ESES and CSES explained the greatest variance in cerebellar grey matter volume, with age and alcohol use as a covariate in the model. Low CSES explained additional significant variance to low ESES on grey matter decrease. The multisystem physiological risk index mediated the relationship between both early life and current SES and grey matter volume in cerebellum. In a randomly selected sample of neurologically healthy males, poorer socioeconomic status was associated with a smaller cerebellar volume. Early and current socioeconomic status and the multisystem physiological risk index also apparently influence cerebellar volume. These findings provide data on the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and a brain region highly sensitive to environmental factors. PMID:23794136

Cavanagh, Jonathan; Krishnadas, Rajeev; Batty, G David; Burns, Harry; Deans, Kevin A; Ford, Ian; McConnachie, Alex; McGinty, Agnes; McLean, Jennifer S; Millar, Keith; Sattar, Naveed; Shiels, Paul G; Tannahill, Carol; Velupillai, Yoga N; Packard, Chris J; McLean, John

2013-12-01

99

Socioeconomic status and impact of treatment on families of children with congenital heart disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the socioeconomic status, treatment being offered and the impact of congenital heart disease treatment on families. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital / Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from first March to 31 August 2010. Methodology: All patients undergoing a cardiac surgical or angiographic intervention were enrolled. Socioeconomic status was assessed by Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale with income group modification. The impact was measured by the source of financing, effect on family financing source and schooling and health of siblings. Results: Of 211 patients undergoing treatment in the study period, surgery was the definitive treatment in 164 (77.7%) and angiographic intervention in 47 (22.3%) patients. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The mean age of the patient was 39.1 +- 3.2 months (range 01 day to 15 years). Majority of families belonged to middle (66.4%, n=140) and lower (27%, n=57) socioeconomic class. The mean cost of medicines and disposable was PKR 78378.2 +- 8845.9 (US$ 933.1 +- 105.3) in open heart surgery, PKR 12581 +- 7010.8 (US$ 149.8 +- 83.5) in closed heart surgery and PKR 69091 + 60906 in angiographic interventions. In 63.1% patients, families contributed towards these costs either completely (12.3%) or partly (50.8%) with significant contribution from the hospital. Adverse effect on families ranged from leave without pay to losing jobs or business (46%), and selling their assets (11.3%). It also affected schooling and health of siblings (22.7% and 26.1% respectively). Conclusion: Majority of children with congenital heart disease belonged to middle and lower socioeconomic status in this study. Main definitive treatment was surgery. The cost of health care facilities posed a marked socioeconomic burden on those families. (author)

2010-08-31

100

Linking Socioeconomic Status to Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors: A Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

|The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…

Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-eco...

Mohammadzadeh, Ashraf; Farhat, Ahmadshah; Amiri, Rana; Esmaeeli, Habibollah

102

Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

2007-01-01

103

Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research  

Science.gov (United States)

|This meta-analysis reviewed the literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and academic achievement in journal articles published between 1990 and 2000. The sample included 101,157 students, 6,871 schools, and 128 school districts gathered from 74 independent samples. The results showed a medium to strong SES-achievement relation. This relation,…

Sirin, Selcuk R.

2005-01-01

104

Type 2 diabetes, socioeconomic status and risk of cancer in Scotland 2001-2007.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The objective of this study was to use Scottish national data to assess the influence of type 2 diabetes on the risk of cancer at 16 different sites, while specifically investigating the role of confounding by socioeconomic status in the diabetes-cancer relationship. METHODS: All people in Scotland aged 55-79 years diagnosed with any of the cancers of interest during the period 2001-2007 were identified and classified by the presence/absence of co-morbid type 2 diabetes. The influence of diabetes on cancer risk for each site was assessed via Poisson regression, initially with adjustment for age only, then adjusted for both age and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: There were 4,285 incident cancers in people with type 2 diabetes. RR for any cancers (adjusted for age only) was 1.11 (95% CI 1.05, 1.17) for men and 1.33 (1.28, 1.40) for women. Corresponding values after additional adjustment for socioeconomic status were 1.10 (1.04, 1.15) and 1.31 (1.25, 1.38), respectively. RRs for individual cancer sites varied markedly. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Socioeconomic status was found to have little influence on the association between type 2 diabetes and cancer.

Walker JJ; Brewster DH; Colhoun HM; Fischbacher CM; Leese GP; Lindsay RS; McKnight JA; Philip S; Sattar N; Stockton DL; Wild SH

2013-08-01

105

A Coordinated Approach to Raising the Socio-Economic Status of Latinos in California.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This report presents a collection of papers that focuses on a coordinated approach to raising the socioeconomic status of Hispanic Americans living in California. After presenting "The Need for a Coordinated Approach," the papers are: "Preschool Access" (Theresa Garcia, Sandra Gutierrez, and Giovanna Stark); "K-12 Performance" (Patricia de Cos,…

Lopez, Elias, Ed.; Puddefoot, Ginny, Ed.; Gandara, Patricia, Ed.

106

Socioeconomic Status and Health: A Micro-Level Analysis of Exposure and Vulnerability to Daily Stressors  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the interconnections among education--as a proxy for socioeconomic status--stress, and physical and mental health by specifying differential exposure and vulnerability models using data from The National Study of Daily Experiences (N = 1,031). These daily diary data allowed assessment of the social distribution of a…

Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Almeida, David M.; Neupert, Shevaun D.; Ettner, Susan L.

2004-01-01

107

Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 ...

Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

108

Socioeconomic status and depression during and after pregnancy in the Franconian Maternal Health Evaluation Studies (FRAMES).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic factors define subgroups that have different depression scores during and after pregnancy. Partnership status appears to be one of the most important influencing factors and could be useful for identifying women who should be offered an intervention to prevent possible negative effects on the mother or child.

Hein A; Rauh C; Engel A; Häberle L; Dammer U; Voigt F; Fasching PA; Faschingbauer F; Burger P; Beckmann MW; Kornhuber J; Goecke TW

2013-10-01

109

The association between socioeconomic status and adult mortality in rural kwazulu-natal, South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between socio-economic status and adult mortality in a rural South African community. METHODS: Longitudinal data of adults aged 15-64 yrs residing within the Demographic Surveillance Area [DSA] on 1(st) January 2001 and followed up for seven years, was used. Out of the total 33,677 adults who met the inclusion criteria, 4,058 died during the seven years follow up period. Mortality rates were computed using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates expressed per 1000 person-year of observation (PYO). Household wealth index was constructed by the use of PCA, while the association was assessed using Cox proportional Hazard model controlling for potential confounders such as age, sex and marital status. RESULTS: The high group of the socioeconomic quintile had the highest mortality rate of 22.2 per 1000 PYO, 95% confidence interval (20.7 - 23.7). After adjusting for the potential confounders, the effect of socioeconomic status in the highest SES category was 0.10 times less likelihood of death compared to the lowest SES group (Hazard Ratio=0.90; p=0.042; 95% confidence interval [0.81 - 0.99]). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that adult socioeconomic status is not significantly associated with adult mortality. Reducing the gap between the rich and the poor, though a worthwhile effort; might not be the most effective means of reducing adult mortality.

Nikoi CA; Odimegwu C

2013-03-01

110

Still unequal at birth - birth weight, socioeconomic status and outcomes at age 9  

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Birth weight is an important aspect of public health which has been linked to increased risk of infant death, increased cost of care, and a range of later life outcomes. Using data from a new Irish cohort study, I document the relationship between birth weight and socioeconomic status. A strong asso...

McGovern, Mark

111

Socio-economic status of Dog owners in Nagpur city of Maharashtra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The survey was carried out to study socioeconomic status of 50 dog owners in Nagpur of Maharashtra.The result revealed the businessmen (38%) are more interested in dog keeping followed by government servants (16%) and student (12%). [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000): 229-229

A.D. Sawaimul; M.G. Sahare; S.Z. Ali; L.V. Patil; P.E. Taksande and S.S. Ghule

112

Low-socioeconomic-status enrollees in high-deductible plans reduced high-severity emergency care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One-third of US workers now have high-deductible health plans, and those numbers are expected to grow in 2014 as implementation of the Affordable Care Act continues. There is concern that high-deductible health plans might cause enrollees of low socioeconomic status to forgo emergency care as a result of burdensome out-of-pocket costs. We analyzed emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations over two years among enrollees insured in high-deductible plans through small employers in Massachusetts. We found that plan members of low socioeconomic status experienced 25-30 percent reductions in high-severity ED visits over both years, while hospitalizations declined by 23 percent in year 1 but rose again in year 2. Similar trends were not found among high-deductible plan members of high socioeconomic status. Our findings suggest that plan members of low socioeconomic status at small firms responded inappropriately to high-deductible plans and that initial reductions in high-severity ED visits might have increased the need for subsequent hospitalizations. Policy makers and employers should consider proactive strategies to educate high-deductible plan members about their benefit structures or identify members at higher risk of avoiding needed care. They should also consider implementing means-based deductibles.

Wharam JF; Zhang F; Landon BE; Soumerai SB; Ross-Degnan D

2013-08-01

113

Influence of socioeconomic status on distance traveled and care after stroke.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vital to maintaining an efficient delivery of services is an understanding of patient travel patterns during an acute ischemic stroke. Socioeconomic status may influence access to stroke care, including transportation and admission to different facility types. METHODS: We analyzed all acute ischemic stroke admissions between 2003 and 2007 through the Discharge Abstract Database, a national database containing patient-level sociodemographic, diagnostic, procedural, and administrative information across Canada. Socioeconomic status was defined in neighborhood quintiles according to Statistics Canada. Distances between patients and facilities were derived from postal codes. A principal diagnosis of ischemic stroke was identified using the International Classification of Diseases (versions 9 and 10). Analysis of variance and regression analyses were performed with adjustment for demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Admitted to acute care institutions were 243 410 patients with ischemic stroke. Mean patient age was 72.8 and 49.5% were male; 44.2% traveled beyond their closest center, amounting to an average 7.2 km additional distance traveled. Socioeconomic status quintile had minimal effect on travel patterns, with the lowest socioeconomic status accessing the closest center most frequently (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.16). Increased utilization of the closest hospital occurred with academic (odds ratio, 6.90; 95% CI, 6.69-7.11) or high-volume (odds ratio, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.88-1.98) facilities. Older patients (?=0.28; 95% CI, 0.27-0.28), expert destination facility (?=0.13; 95% CI, 0.12-0.14), and ambulance use increased travel beyond the closest center. CONCLUSIONS: Patients tend to choose care facilities based on hospital expertise; investment promoting improved regional facilities may be of greatest benefit to patients. Socioeconomic status has little bearing on travel patterns associated with stroke in Canada. These findings may assist in allocating funding to centers and improving patient care.

Ahuja C; Mamdani M; Saposnik G

2012-01-01

114

Socio-economic status and malaria-related outcomes in Mvomero District, Tanzania.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While policies often target malaria prevention and treatment - proximal causes of malaria and related health outcomes - too little attention has been given to the role of household- and individual-level socio-economic status (SES) as a fundamental cause of disease risk in developing countries. This paper presents a conceptual model outlining ways in which SES may influence malaria-related outcomes. Building on this conceptual model, we use household data from rural Mvomero, Tanzania, to examine empirical relationships among multiple measures of household and individual SES and demographics, on the one hand, and malaria prevention, illness, and diagnosis and treatment behaviours, on the other. We find that access to prevention and treatment is significantly associated with indicators of households' wealth; education-based disparities do not emerge in this context. Meanwhile, reported malaria illness shows a stronger association with demographic variables than with SES (controlling for prevention). Greater understanding of the mechanisms through which SES and malaria policies interact to influence disease risk can help to reduce health disparities and reduce the malaria burden in an equitable manner.

Dickinson KL; Randell HF; Kramer RA; Shayo EH

2012-01-01

115

Socioeconomic Status, Youth’s Eating Patterns and Meals Consumed away from Home  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was design to determine whether there is a difference in the number of meals consumed away from home (restaurant or fast food) between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high SES adolescents. Additionally, this study sought to determine if the nutrients and food group chosen differs among children who consume meals away from home versus those who do not. Eighty four adolescences (51 boys and 33 girls) ages 12-16 years and their parents from Shiraz, Iran completed the three 24 h diet recalls (one weekend and two week days). The demographics questionnaire was also completed from each participant. Data analyzed using SPSS and hypothesis tested using one way ANOVA. There was no significant difference in the number of meals consumed away from home in low SES adolescents compared to high SES (p = 0.464). However, those who consumed meals away from home reported a higher percentage of calories from fat (p = 0.007) and serving of fried vegetables (p = 0.010) compared to those who consumed no meals away from home. These findings suggest that intervention for adolescents eating patterns should provide information on choosing healthy meals away from home.

N. Hejazi; Z. Mazloom

2009-01-01

116

Substance use, gender, socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome among adults in Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study had two purposes: (1) To explore the mediating effects of substance use-as indicated by alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and betel-nut chewing-on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and metabolic syndrome; and (2) to examine the way gender moderates any mediating effects of substance use. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Secondary analyses were conducted on a cross-sectional national dataset. The data from 3,107 males and 3,081 females of Taiwanese were analyzed. MEASURES: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, education level, occupation, age, body weight, body height, and behaviors were collected. RESULTS: In male subjects, SES had no direct effect on metabolic syndrome; however, cigarette smoking and betel-nut chewing, but not alcohol consumption, were found to have mediating effects on SES and metabolic syndrome. In females, SES was found to have a direct effect on metabolic syndrome; however, substance use had no mediating effects on the relationship between SES and metabolic syndrome. These differences, in males and females indicated that the mediating effect of substance use on the relationship between SES and metabolic syndrome is moderated by gender. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that health care providers may need to provide gender-specific health promotion programs to prevent metabolic syndrome.

Ni LF; Dai YT; Su TC; Hu WY

2013-01-01

117

Effects of Family Socioeconomic Status on Parents’ Views Concerning the Integration of Computers into Preschool Classrooms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The rapid growth of ICT has led to an important increase in the use of computers in preschool age. However the benefits of this use are a debatable issue. Some focus on the positive effects of computers on learning and kids’ cognitive development while others believe that computers may negatively affect their social and motivational impact.Aim: The aim of this research was to study Greek parents’ views on preschools’ computer programs and how these views are influenced by the family’s socioeconomic level.Methodology: The survey involved 280 parents of children aged 3-5 years, of whom 140 were in the upper socioeconomic level and the other 140 in a lower one.Results: The upper socioeconomic level parents thought that the use of computers was appropriate for preschool children more than parents of lower socioeconomic status (P=0.01). and that its inclusion in the preschool center’s program would work in favor for children who have no computer at home (P=0.00). Parents with higher socioeconomic status felt more than the others that such a program can support the provision of knowledge (P=0.00), the development of mathematical (P=0.00) and linguistic skills (P=0.00) and entertain children (P=0.04). Furthermore, the upper socioeconomic level parents as opposed to the other group do not consider that the computer will remove preschool educator from their leading and teaching role (P=0.04) or reduce their communication with the preschoolers (P=0.00).Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that Greek parents, especially those of higher socioeconomic level, have a positive view on the integration of a computer program into the preschoolclassroom.

Triantafillia Natsiopoulou; Chrisoula Melissa-Halikiopoulou; Chrysanthi Lioliou

2013-01-01

118

The role of socioeconomic status in longitudinal trends of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh, 1993-2007.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There has been little evidence of a decline in the global burden of cholera in recent years as the number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to rise. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of socioeconomic development. Overall socioeconomic development is the ultimate solution for control of cholera as evidenced in developed countries. However, most research has focused on cross-county comparisons so that the role of individual- or small area-level socioeconomic status (SES) in cholera dynamics has not been carefully studied. Reported cases of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh have fluctuated greatly over time and epidemic outbreaks of cholera continue, most recently with the introduction of a new serotype into the region. The wealth of longitudinal data on the population of Matlab provides a unique opportunity to explore the impact of socioeconomic status and other demographic characteristics on the long-term temporal dynamics of cholera in the region. In this population-based study we examine which factors impact the initial number of cholera cases in a bari at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic and the factors impacting the number of cases over time. Cholera data were derived from the ICDDR,B health records and linked to socioeconomic and geographic data collected as part of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Longitudinal zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) multilevel regression models are used to examine the impact of environmental and socio-demographic factors on cholera counts across baris. Results indicate that baris with a high socioeconomic status had lower initial rates of cholera at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic (?(01)?=?-0.147, p?=?0.041) and a higher probability of reporting no cholera cases (?(01)?=?0.156, p?=?0.061). Populations in baris characterized by low SES are more likely to experience higher cholera morbidity at the beginning of an epidemic than populations in high SES baris.

Root ED; Rodd J; Yunus M; Emch M

2013-01-01

119

Parental Involvement at Home: Analyzing the Influence of Parents’ Socioeconomic Status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study focuses on the relationship between parent’s socioeconomic status and parental involvement in their child’s education at home. Eighty Indian students who were studying in one the best performance-based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. It comprised 20 students from Year Two, 20 students from Year Three, 20 students from Year Four and 20 students from Year Five. Of these 80 students, 40 low-achieving students and 40 high-achieving students were identified based on the previous final year school examination results. A questionnaire was used to obtain quantitative data related to the parent’s socio-economic background and their ¬involvement strategies in their children’s education at home from the students’ parents. The findings of this study indicated that most parents, regardless of their socioeconomic background showed a high degree of involvement in most of the involvement strategies at home to ensure their child’s educational success. However, the parent’s education level, employment status, and income among the parents from the lower socioeconomic class affect their understanding and knowledge on the actual values that need to be placed on their child’s education. This causes their children to experience deprivation. As a result, the higher the parent’s socioeconomic status, the greater the parent’s involvement in their child’s education. As a result, the parents inculcate good skills, behaviour and values of education in their children which are extremely important for their academic success.Keywords: Parental involvement; Socioeconomic; Education; National Type Tamil School

Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay

2012-01-01

120

Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Asthma in Urban Minority Youths: The GALA II & SAGE II Studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rationale: The burden of asthma is highest among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations; however, its impact is differentially distributed among racial/ethnic groups. Objectives: To assess the collective effect of maternal educational attainment, annual household income and insurance type on childhood asthma among minority, urban youth. Methods: We included Mexican American (n = 485), other Latino (n = 217), and African American (n = 1141) children (aged 8 to 21 years) with and without asthma from the San Francisco Bay Area. An index was derived from maternal educational attainment, annual household income and insurance type to assess the collective effect of socioeconomic status on predicting asthma. Logistic regression stratified by racial/ethnic group was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further examined whether acculturation explained the SES/asthma association in our Latino population. Measurements and Main Results: In the adjusted analyses, African American children had 23% greater odds of asthma with each decrease in the socioeconomic index (aOR:1.23, 95%CI: 1.09-1.38). Conversely, Mexican American children have 17% reduced odds of asthma with each decrease in the socioeconomic index (aOR: 0.83, 95%CI: 0.72-0.96) and this relationship was not fully explained by acculturation. This association was not observed in the other Latino group. Conclusions: Socioeconomic status plays an important role in predicting asthma, but has different effects depending on race and ethnicity. Further steps are necessary to better understand the risk factors through which socioeconomic status could operate in these populations to prevent asthma.

Thakur N; Oh SS; Nguyen EA; Martin M; Roth LA; Galanter J; Gignoux CR; Eng C; Davis A; Meade K; Lenoir MA; Avila PC; Farber HJ; Serebrisky D; Brigino-Buenaventura E; Rodriguez-Cintron W; Kumar R; Williams KL; Bibbins-Domingo K; Thyne S; Sen S; Rodriguez-Santana JR; Borrell LN; Burchard EG

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Association between socioeconomic status and ectopic pregnancy rate in the Republic of Korea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the ectopic pregnancy rate in the Republic of Korea and to identify whether socioeconomic factors contribute to the incidence of ectopic pregnancy. METHODS: Korean National Health Insurance data from January to December 2009 were analyzed to calculate the rate of ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS: Among the patient sample (n=599186), 59261 had diagnosis codes for ectopic pregnancies, abortions, or deliveries, and 1102 ectopic pregnancies were identified. The frequency of ectopic pregnancy treated by either surgery or methotrexate was 16.60 per 1000 pregnancies. Low socioeconomic status was a risk factor for ectopic pregnancy (odds ratio [OR], 1.718; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.065-2.772; P=0.03), as was older age (OR, 1.016; 95% CI, 0.998-1.033, P=0.07), although the association was not significant. Among women aged 25-44years, low socioeconomic status and age were associated with a high incidence of ectopic pregnancy (OR, 1.863; 95% CI, 1.074-3.233, P=0.03; and OR, 1.061; 95% CI, 1.041-1.081, P<0.01, respectively). Surgical and methotrexate treatment rates were 90.7% and 9.3%, respectively. The methotrexate failure rate was 30.7%. The recorded ectopic pregnancy sites were tubal or ovarian (90.2%), cornual (6.0%), cervical (2.8%), and abdominal (1.0%). CONCLUSION: Older age and low socioeconomic status were risk factors for ectopic pregnancy.

Yuk JS; Kim YJ; Hur JY; Shin JH

2013-08-01

122

Family size intentions and socioeconomic status in Singapore, 1974-1981.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Singapore has in recent years undergone a tremendous fertility decline that has affected couples at all socioeconomic levels. Using representative biographical sketches, this article presents the results of a panel study on family planning intentions and behavior among 45 young Chinese Singaporean couples. The couples, ranked as average or affluent working-class, or middle-class, were first interviewed in 1974-76 and were followed up in 1981. The study compares early childbearing intentions with actual childbearing behavior, examining the motivation for childbearing by socioeconomic group and highlighting the differences found. The follow-up interviews reveal that, on average, all couples in the sample bore 0.4 fewer children than originally intended. The motivation for changed childbearing intentions, however, differed according to socioeconomic status and the perceived role that children play in the family economy.

Salaff JW

1985-07-01

123

Socioeconomic status and cumulative disadvantage processes across the life course: implications for health outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Given the complexity surrounding various interactions among health determinants and the challenge of being able to adequately describe the dynamic processes through which health determinants have their effects, the purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual overview demonstrating the effects of socioeconomic status and cumulative disadvantage on producing health disparities across the life course. The idea underlying cumulative disadvantage is that socioeconomic-based health inequalities will increase across the life course, mostly because of differential exposure to risk factors and access to protective resources. The advantage of life course sociology is its consideration of early life experiences, and the social and historical context of their occurrences, as important contingencies in producing these systematic socioeconomic differences in health gradients.

Seabrook JA; Avison WR

2012-02-01

124

Effect of socio-economic status on quality of life in people affected with respiratory allergy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study we investigated the impact of respiratory allergy on quality of life in young people, and examined whether socio-economic status modifies the above dependence. The study was conducted in 458 female and 363 male university students, aged 18-25. Information on socio-economic status (SES) was collected using a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and specific allergens were medically diagnosed. Quality of life (QoL) was based on the Polish version of the SF-36 test. Respiratory allergy or respiratory and food allergy were declared by 19.2 % of women and 19.0 % of men. The prevalence of allergy was higher in students with high SES. The students suffering from allergy obtained lower scores in all domains of QoL, but the differences were statistically insignificant. However, the overall test result in allergic students was significantly lower than that in non-allergic students. Differences QoL were significantly associated with socio-economic variables. In persons with low SES, the differences in QoL between those suffering from allergy and those who did not have allergy were larger than in persons with high SES. The results indicate that the course of allergic diseases is highly dependent on socio-economic status. The prevalence of allergy among students of low status is lower than among those of high status. However, allergy to a greater extent impairs the quality of life of students with low than high SES.

Pawlinska-Chmara R; Wronka I; Marchewka J

2013-01-01

125

Race and self assessed health status: the role of socioeconomic factors in the USA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate relative odds ratios and to ascertain the relative contribution of each socioeconomic covariate in explaining racial disparities in self assessed health status (for example, global health perceptions and functional limitations of daily activities). DESIGN: National representative data from the 1987-88 national survey of families and households, a multistage, stratified probability sample of non-institutionalised American adults age 19 and older, were used. Logistic regression models enabled a multistage building strategy to be used in the analyses. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The study included three racial groups: whites (n = 9419), blacks (n = 2391), and Hispanics (n = 1004). While face to face interviews were carried out with each respondent, some portions of the interview were self administered to collect sensitive information. MAIN RESULTS: Compared with whites, blacks and Hispanics were more likely to assess health as poor and report having functional limitations of daily activities. Socioeconomic factors tended to play a different role in explaining racial disparities in self assessed health status. In global health, education tended to play a significant role in accounting for health disparities between whites and Hispanics. In functional limitations, none of the covariates explained racial differences for blacks, whereas for Hispanics, education and marital status explained racial differences. CONCLUSIONS: The debate over whether race is a proxy for socioeconomic conditions or race influences health independent of socioeconomic factors depends on the measure of health and racial group included in the study. Future studies should examine separately the differential impacts of various socioeconomic factors on varying domains of health.

Ren XS; Amick BC 3rd

1996-06-01

126

Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children. PMID:18086547

Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Roberts, Rebecca; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Salmon, Jo

2007-11-19

127

Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children.

Crawford D; Timperio A; Giles-Corti B; Ball K; Hume C; Roberts R; Andrianopoulos N; Salmon J

2008-12-01

128

The Effects of Human Socioeconomic Status and Cultural Characteristics on Urban Patterns of Biodiversity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present evidence that there can be substantial variation in species richness in residential areas differing in their socioeconomic and cultural characteristics. Many analyses of the impacts of urbanization on biodiversity rely on traditional “urban-to-rural” gradient measures, such as distance from urban center or population density, and thus can fail to account for the ways in which human socioeconomic and cultural characteristics are shaping the human–environment interaction and ecological outcomes. This influence of residential values and economic resources on biodiversity within the urban matrix has implications for human quality of life, for urban conservation strategies, and for urban planning.

Ann P. Kinzig; Paige Warren; Chris Martin; Diane Hope; Madhusudan Katti

2005-01-01

129

A STUDY ON RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACHIEVEMENT LEVELAND THEIR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF SECONDARY CHILDREN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environment is a global concept today. Environmental Education is an approach to learning. Environmental Education means the educational process dealing with man's relationship of population, pollution resource, conservation, technology, energy, urban and rural planning to the total biosphere.A self-made questionnaire was made in order to find the relationship between the Environmental Education aptitude and socioeconomic status among class IX Children of rural, urban and semi urban. The question paper contents fifty (50) questions and it divided into two sector. In sector-I content (10) questions by which the socioeconomic status of the children can be known and Sector-II consists of four type questions by which Environmental Education aptitude can be understood.Socioeconomic status is evaluated from the response of sector-I questions by analyzing the educational status of the family, occupation of the parents & the monthly income of the family of a particular student or sample. After classifying the samples into 3 classes of status (upper, middle & lower) according to their socioeconomic condition, the mean of the marks was computed. The mean score of every status group is then analyzed to know the relationship between Environmental Education achievement level and socioeconomic status. Although there are many factor are responsible for the academic achievements in Environmental Education. But from this observation it may conclude that there is a strong relationship between Environmental Education achievement and socio-economic status.

GOUTAM CHAKRABORTY; JAYANTA META

2012-01-01

130

Socio-economic Status of Livestock farmers of Narasapura Village - A Benchmark Analysis  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted following exploratory research design to ascertain the profile characteristics of livestock farmers. Findings indicated that majority of the farmers had low to medium profile. Hence efforts should be undertaken by the Government, Veterinary Universities and other extension agencies in providing information on livestock farming practices so that they could bring about change in their living and improve the socio-economic status of livestock farmers. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000): 215-218

K. Sathyanarayan; V. Jagadeeswary; V. Chandrashekhar Murthy; S. Wilfred Ruban and G. Sudha

2010-01-01

131

Effect of socioeconomic status on inpatient mortality and use of postacute care after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies in the United States and Canada have demonstrated socioeconomic gradients in outcomes of acute life-threatening cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The extent to which these findings are applicable to subarachnoid hemorrhage is uncertain. This study investigated socioeconomic status-related differences in risk of inpatient mortality and use of institutional postacute care after subarachnoid hemorrhage in the United States and Canada. METHODS: Subarachnoid hemorrhage patient records in the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2005-2010) and the Canadian Discharge Abstract Database (2004-2010) were analyzed separately, and summative results were compared. Both databases are nationally representative and contain relevant sociodemographic, diagnostic, procedural, and administrative information. We determined socioeconomic status on the basis of estimated median household income of residents for patient's ZIP or postal code. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted with adjustment for relevant confounding covariates. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 31 631 US patients and 16 531 Canadian patients. Mean age (58 years) and crude inpatient mortality rates (22%) were similar in both countries. A significant income-mortality association was observed among US patients (odds ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.93), which was absent among Canadian patients (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.85-1.12). Neighborhood income status was not significantly associated with use of postacute care in the 2 countries. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status is associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage inpatient mortality risk in the United States, but not in Canada, although it does not influence the pattern of use of institutional care among survivors in both countries.

Jaja BN; Saposnik G; Nisenbaum R; Schweizer TA; Reddy D; Thorpe KE; Macdonald RL

2013-10-01

132

Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Inpatient Mortality and Use of Postacute Care After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies in the United States and Canada have demonstrated socioeconomic gradients in outcomes of acute life-threatening cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The extent to which these findings are applicable to subarachnoid hemorrhage is uncertain. This study investigated socioeconomic status-related differences in risk of inpatient mortality and use of institutional postacute care after subarachnoid hemorrhage in the United States and Canada. METHODS: Subarachnoid hemorrhage patient records in the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2005-2010) and the Canadian Discharge Abstract Database (2004-2010) were analyzed separately, and summative results were compared. Both databases are nationally representative and contain relevant sociodemographic, diagnostic, procedural, and administrative information. We determined socioeconomic status on the basis of estimated median household income of residents for patient's ZIP or postal code. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted with adjustment for relevant confounding covariates. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 31 631 US patients and 16 531 Canadian patients. Mean age (58 years) and crude inpatient mortality rates (22%) were similar in both countries. A significant income-mortality association was observed among US patients (odds ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.93), which was absent among Canadian patients (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.85-1.12). Neighborhood income status was not significantly associated with use of postacute care in the 2 countries. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status is associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage inpatient mortality risk in the United States, but not in Canada, although it does not influence the pattern of use of institutional care among survivors in both countries.

Jaja BN; Saposnik G; Nisenbaum R; Schweizer TA; Reddy D; Thorpe KE; Macdonald RL

2013-07-01

133

Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Melanoma, Ultraviolet Radiation, and Socioeconomic Status  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

2011-10-19

134

Association between socio-economic status and sexual behavior of adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of contextual factors as determinants of sexual behavior of adolescents. It has been found that lower socioeconomic status is associated with risky sexual behavior. Sexual behavior is individual but develops under strong influence of cultural and other influences. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of family’s socioeconomic status and risky sexual behavior of adolescents in Belgrade. Method. Self-administered questionnaire was used in secondary schools in Belgrade, and 1,782 adolescents attending first grade filled the questionnaire. For the analyses of predictors of risky sexual behavior, multiple logistic regression was used. Results. Parents’ occupations did not show significant association with any of analyzed behaviors. Adolescents who received weekly disposable money above average were 2.5 times more likely to ever have had sexual intercourse, and if sexually active were more likely to use contraception. Perceived family’s wealth was a significant predictor of ever having sex (OR=1.9; CI 1.2-2.8) and not using contraception (OR=4.3; CI 1.2-15.0). Conclusion. Socioeconomic status is associated with sexual behaviors of adolescents. Fifteen-year olds who perceive their families as wealthier are more likely to ever have had sex and not use any kind of contraception. Adolescents with higher weekly income are more likely to ever have had sex and use contraception than their counterpats with less weekly disposable money. .

Vukovi? Dejana S.; Bjegovi?-Mikanovi? Vesna M.

2007-01-01

135

Association of sleep duration with socio-economic status and behavioural problems among schoolchildren.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: In this population-based study, we aimed to determine the total sleep duration (TSD), its association with socio-economic status (SES) and behavioural symptoms among schoolchildren. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among schoolchildren in Istanbul. A structured questionnaire evaluating the sleep schedule variables was filled out by their parents. SES was determined according to the Turkish SES scale. RESULTS: The mean age of 2669 children was 8.2 ± 2.4 years, and 51% of the students were girls. The mean TSD was 10.20 ± 1.04, and the mean bedtime was 21.57 ± 0.56 (both in hours, minutes ± SD). Boys tended to go bed later (p = 0.004) and slept less than girls (p = 0.02). The duration of sleep disruptions increased (p < 0.001), whereas TSD decreased with age (p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression revealed that waking time and TSD decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with higher SES among both girls and boys. Sleep fragmentation was associated with habitual snoring, parasomnias, daytime sleepiness and conduct symptoms. CONCLUSION: Decreased total sleep duration is more prominent in boys, older children and children among higher socio-economic status. Insufficient sleep attributed to shortened total sleep duration by age and higher socio-economic status might have a negative effect on both sleep hygiene and psychological well-being in schoolchildren.

Arman AR; Ay P; Fis NP; Ersu R; Topuzoglu A; Isik U; Berkem M

2011-03-01

136

Socioeconomic Status, Negative Affect, and Modifiable Cancer Risk Factors in African American Smokers  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had at least one cancer risk factor in addition to smoking. Univariate ordinal logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, unemployment, lower positive affect and greater negative affect were associated with having a greater number of cancer risk factors. Multivariate analyses yielded similar findings. A structural equation modeling approach indicated that stress/negative affect may function as one pathway linking socioeconomic status and modifiable cancer risk factors among African American smokers, and that gender has a direct effect on modifiable cancer risk factors. Thus, risk patterns identified within each gender group may guide the development of multiple risk factor interventions for African American smokers. Stress and negative affect may be an important treatment target within behavioral interventions for African American smokers of low socioeconomic status.

Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

2008-01-01

137

Socioeconomic status and body mass index in Canada: exploring measures and mechanisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES), sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors (fruit and vegetable intake, exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption), and body mass index (BMI) using the Canadian Community Health Survey 2.1. We explore two different measures of SES, education and income, to elucidate material and cultural explanations of the SES-BMI relationship. Results vary significantly by gender, highlighting the complexity of the relationship between SES, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, and BMI. We suggest that body weight is still a gendered status symbol, and that cultural and psychosocial factors may be more important than material factors in perpetuating this health inequality.

Godley J; McLaren L

2010-11-01

138

Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status.

Cavigelli SA; Chaudhry HS

2012-08-01

139

Socioeconomic status as determinant for participation in mammography screening: assessing the difference between using women's own versus their partner's  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Earlier research has shown that participation in mammography screening tends to vary across socioeconomic levels. We assessed the difference between using the woman's own socioeconomic status (SES) and using that of her household or partner as determinant of participation in mammography screening.

Kjellén, Malin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

2010-01-01

140

Status and socio-economic significance of wetland in the tropics: a study from Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out in the adjacent communities of the Hakaluki haor, the largest inland freshwater wetland of Bangladesh to explore their socio-economic status and haor-based livelihood dependency. Hakaluki haor is a poverty stricken region with 37% households falling into extreme poor group having monthly income of Tk 2 000.00 only. More than half of the community view Hakaluki haor as the vital source of livelihoods. The surrounding community is dependent on the haor in varying degree (15% totally dependent, 32% moderately and 53% less) with a variety of livelihood activities like fishing and related profession (32%), duck rearing (29%), cattle rearing (28%), fuel wood collection (6%), sand extraction (3%) and reed collection (2%). The average annual household incomes from fishing of naturally available fish, pisciculture and NTFPs collection are Tk 21 701.35, Tk 31 524.83 and Tk 2 704.80, respectively. The haor serves as the source of fuel for cooking to a majority of the community (48%). The respondents identified over-exploitation of fish resources, use of excessive pesticides and gradual increase of human settlement in and around the haor as the most threatened events. With the designation as Ecologically Critical Area (ECA) by the government, immediate attempts should be taken to ensure sustainable utilization of the haor resources. Development of integrated management plan with a provision of the participation of local stakeholders may become the possible way of conserving this wetland.This study was carried out in the adjacent communities of the Hakaluki haor, the largest inland freshwater wetland of Bangladesh to explore their socio-economic status and haor-based livelihood dependency. Hakaluki haor is a poverty stricken region with 37% households falling into extreme poor group having monthly income of Tk 2 000.00 only. More than half of the community view Hakaluki haor as the vital source of livelihoods. The surrounding community is dependent on the haor in varying degree (15% totally dependent, 32% moderately and 53% less) with a variety of livelihood activities like fishing and related profession (32%), duck rearing (29%), cattle rearing (28%), fuel wood collection (6%), sand extraction (3%) and reed collection (2%). The average annual household incomes from fishing of naturally available fish, pisciculture and NTFPs collection are Tk 21 701.35, Tk 31 524.83 and Tk 2 704.80, respectively. The haor serves as the source of fuel for cooking to a majority of the community (48%). The respondents identified over-exploitation of fish resources, use of excessive pesticides and gradual increase of human settlement in and around the haor as the most threatened events. With the designation as Ecologically Critical Area (ECA) by the government, immediate attempts should be taken to ensure sustainable utilization of the haor resources. Development of integrated management plan with a provision of the participation of local stakeholders may become the possible way of conserving this wetland.

Rana MP; Chowdhury MSH; Sohel MSI Akhter S; Koike M

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Socioeconomic status and mortality after acute myocardial infarction: a study from Iran  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown an inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD). Little is known about this association in Iran. This study aimed to investigate whether mortality after myocardial infarction (MI) varies by SES. Methods In a retrospective study, 1283 MI patients who hospitalized in Tehran Heart Center from March 2005 to March 2006 were followed up in March 2008. Demographic, clinical and SES data were collected from case records and by telephone interviews. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the predictive effect of socioeconomic factors on outcome. Results In all 664 patients were studied. Of these, 500 patients were alive and 164 were dead due to MI (64 died at hospital and 100 died at home). The results of regression analysis showed that in addition to treatment (OR = 9.52, 95%CI 4.84-18.7), having diabetes (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.12-2.81) or hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.14-2.90), socioeconomic variables including living area in square per person (lowest level vs. upper level OR = 4.92, 95% CI 2.11-11.4), unemployment (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 1.50-8.13) and education (OR for illiterate patients = 2.51, 95% CI 1.00-6.31) were the most significant contributing factors to increased mortality after MI. Conclusion Although the findings should be interpreted with caution, the study results indicated that socioeconomic variables were significant contributing factors to increased mortality after myocardial infarction. The underlying role of socioeconomic status on increased mortality after MI deserves further investigation.

Donyavi Tahereh; Naieni Kourosh; Nedjat Saharnaz; Vahdaninia Mariam; Najafi Mahdi; Montazeri Ali

2011-01-01

142

Conceptualizing Health Consequences of Hurricane Katrina From the Perspective of Socioeconomic Status Decline.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: The long-term health impact of acute unemployment and socioeconomic resource deficit has not been shown to be unique from the effects of stable socioeconomic status (SES) and serious life circumstances, such as trauma. This study examined associations between these acute socioeconomic declines and health of hurricane survivors, independent of prehurricane SES and hurricane trauma. Method: Participants were 215 African American adults (60% female, mean age = 39 years) living in the Greater New Orleans area at the time of Hurricane Katrina and survey 4 years later. The survey included prehurricane SES measures (i.e., education and neighborhood poverty level); acute unemployment and deficits in access to SES resources following Hurricane Katrina; and posthurricane health events (i.e., cardiometabolic events, chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], and major depressive disorder [MDD]). Results: Acute unemployment was associated with odds of experiencing a cardiometabolic event (odds ratio [OR] = 5.65, p < .05), MDD (OR = 2.76, p < .05) and chronic pain (OR = 2.76, p < .05), whereas acute socioeconomic resource deficit was associated with odds of chronic pain (OR = 1.93, p < .001) and MDD (OR = 1.19, p < .05). Associations were independent of prehurricane SES, hurricane trauma, potentially chronic SES resource deficits, and current unemployment. Conclusions: This study shows that acute socioeconomic decline following a natural disaster can create long-term health disparities beyond those created by prehurricane SES level and traumatic hurricane experiences. Findings suggest that early intervention postdisaster to reduce pervasive socioeconomic disruption may reduce the long-term health impact of disasters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Joseph NT; Matthews KA; Myers HF

2013-03-01

143

Food habits, socioeconomic status and body mass index among premenopausal and post-menopausal women in Mauritius.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although many health disparities arise as a result of socioeconomic inequalities, less is known about the diet quality of women after menopause. The present study aimed to determine the factors affecting food habits and body mass index (BMI) among premenopausal and post-menopausal Mauritian working women. METHODS: The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey in different workplaces located in the nine districts of Mauritius. Mauritian women (n = 400; 215 premenopausal, 185 post-menopausal) were recruited using stratified random sampling. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire comprising a food frequency questionnaire previously constructed and used to address dietary guidelines that assess the intake of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, cereals, high- and low-fat protein sources, fats and sweetened beverages, as well as questions aiming to elicit socioeconomic profile, menopausal status, physical activity level and demographic data. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured. An independent sample t-test, chi-squared test and one-way analysis of variance were used for the statistical analyses. RESULTS: The mean dietary guideline score was significantly higher for post-menopausal than premenopausal women, (P = 0.017). Each socioeconomic status (SES) category of post-menopausal women also demonstrated a higher dietary guideline score than that of premenopausal women (P > 0.05). A high BMI was significantly associated with a low SES of participants (P = 0.042) and post-menopausal stage (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Low SES and post-menopausal stage are risk factors for obesity among female workers in Mauritius. Although post-menopausal women ate a better diet, their mean BMI was higher than that of premenopausal women.

Bhurosy T; Jeewon R

2013-07-01

144

[Socioeconomic status, perception of environment, and their association with self-rated health status among women in Bogota, Colombia].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate a conceptual model that suggests an association between socioeconomic status (SES), perception of neighborhood environment, physical activity behavior, and self-rated health status (SRHS) among women living in low-resource neighborhoods of Bogotá, Colombia. METHODS: A secondary source analysis of the first measurement of a community cluster trial was used to evaluate a program to encourage a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables and increase physical activity levels among homemakers in Bogotá. Analyses were done using a multivariate multilevel logistic model to identify associations and confirm the mediations proposed in the conceptual model. RESULTS: The adjusted models revealed that individual-level SES and neighborhood perception are inversely and significantly associated with suboptimal SRHS, while the association between physical activity and SRHS was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings underscore the importance of individual SES in assessment of health status and strengthen the evidence on the independent role of perception of neighborhood environment in the SRHS of women.

Lucumí DI; Grogan-Kaylor A; Espinosa-García G

2013-07-01

145

Gender, socio-economic status and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and old adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies that addressed social and economic determinants of cardiovascular diseases, consistently showed an increase prevalence of the individual features of metabolic syndrome in the lower socio-economic strata. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the association between social class and metabolic syndrome in a sample of urban middle-aged and old Portuguese adults. Methods We evaluated 1962 subjects (1207 women and 755 men) aged 40 or more years. Marital status, education, occupation, menarche age and height distribution were used as socioeconomic indicators. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the ATP III, by the presence of at least three of the following characteristics: waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women; triglycerides ? 150 mg/dl; HDL cholesterol Fisher's exact test. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression to estimate the magnitude of the associations. Results Metabolic syndrome was significantly more frequent in females (24.9 vs. 17.4, p Conclusion This study showed that gender influenced the association of socio-economic status indicators with metabolic syndrome. Females in lower social classes, as defined by education and occupational classification, more frequently presented metabolic syndrome, no such association was found in males.

Santos Ana C; Ebrahim Shah; Barros Henrique

2008-01-01

146

Socioeconomic status and the quality of prescribing asthma drugs in Sweden.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Introduction: Socioeconomic status is strongly associated with morbidity as well as with health care utilization and expenditure. The association between socioeconomic status and quality of prescribing of asthma drugs is less studied. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between socioeconomic factors, i.e. education, income and country of birth, and the prevalence, incidence and adherence to guidelines for antiasthmatic drugs. Methods: This registry study includes all Swedish citizens aged 25-44 who redeemed at least one prescription of an antiasthmatic drug during 2010. Incidence and prevalence was calculated. The adherence to guidelines was studied using two defined quality indicators. Heavy users were also assessed. Results: Incidence for antiasthmatic drugs was 18.4 per 1000 person-years and the prevalence 50.9 per 1000 inhabitants. Previously untreated patients who redeemed fixed combination ranged from 45 to 49 %. Patients who purchase long acting beta agonists without inhaled corticosteroid ranged from 43-59 %. 6 % of the population was classified as heavy users.Conclusion: The study showed a high incidence and prevalence of asthma drug use with a poor adherence to guidelines for rational drug prescribing. Fixed combination as first line asthma treatment as well as purchasing LABA without concomitant ICS was more common in patients born outside Scandinavia. Heavy users of short-acting bronchodilators were associated with male sex, high age, low income levels and low levels of education.

Arnlind MH; Wettermark B; Sjöborg B; Dahlén E; Loikas D; Jonsson EW

2013-06-01

147

Factors associated with inadequate fine motor skills in Brazilian students of different socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the motor coordination of Brazilian schoolchildren of different socioeconomic status in their first year of primary education. Factors associated with inadequate fine motor skills were identified. A total of 238 schoolchildren, 118 from a public school and 120 from a private school, were evaluated on fine motor skills using the Evolutional Neurological Examination. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate logistic regression followed by multivariate analysis. Children attending public school had a 5.5-fold greater risk of having inadequate fine motor skills for their age compared to children attending private school, while children who started school after four years of age had a 2.8-fold greater risk of having inadequate motor coordination compared to children who began school earlier. Data for this sample suggest socioeconomic factors and later entry of children to school may be associated with their fine motor skills.

Bobbio TG; Morcillo AM; Barros Filho Ade A; Concalves VM

2007-12-01

148

Perfil lipídico en preescolares venezolanos según nivel socioeconómico. Lipid profile in Venezuelan preschoolers by socioeconomic status  

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Full Text Available Estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado que, niveles desfavorables de lípidos séricos en la infancia son predictores del desarrollo de lesiones en la adultez. Se evaluó el perfil lipídico de 297 preescolares venezolanos (4-7 años) para establecer comparaciones según el nivel socioeconómico (NSE), medido por Graffar modificado. Se hicieron dos grupos: NSE alto (n=103) y NSE bajo (n=194). El estado nutricional antropométrico se evaluó mediante el indicador peso/talla (P/T), adoptando los puntos de corte del NCHS/OMS. El perfil lipídico se determinó por métodos bioquímicos colorimétricos y se calcularon las relaciones de riesgo aterogénico. Según el estado nutricional se encontró 5,8% y 14,9% de déficit; 78,6% y 70,1% de normalidad; 15,5% y 14,9% de exceso en el NSE alto y el NSE bajo, respectivamente. Los valores promedio del perfil lipídico fueron: Triglicéridos (TG): 0,66± 0,27 y 0,76± 0,31 mmol/L, Colesterol Total (CT): 3,61± 0,65 y 2,98± 0,71 mmol/L, HDL-C: 1,04± 0,18 y 0,62± 0,16 mmol/L, LDL-C: 2,27± 0,61 y 2,01± 0,71 mmol/L, CT/HDL-C: 3,5± 0,78 y 5,0± 1,5. LDL-C/HDL-C: 2,0± 0,71 y 3,4± 1,4; con diferencias significativas entre los grupos en NSE alto y bajo, respectivamente. Se encontró asociación significativa (pEpidemiological studies have shown that unfavorable serum lipids levels in childhood are predictors of development of atherosclerosis lesions in adulthood. We assessed the lipid profile of 297 Venezuelan preschool children (4-7 years old) from two socioeconomic levels in order to compare them by this characteristic. Their social level was determined according to modified Graffar method, and two groups were obtained: high socioeconomic status (HSES, n=103) and low socioeconomic status (LSES, n=194). Nutritional anthropometric evaluation was performed by weight to height, and NCHS/OMS cut-off point was used. Lipid profile was determined by colorimetric biochemical methods and atherogenic risks factors were calculated. Underweight for HSES was 5.8% and for LSES: 14.9%, while normal status was 78.6% and 70.1%, and overweight was 15.5% and 14.9%, respectively. Mean values for triglycerides were 0.66± 0.27and 0.76± 0.31 mmol/L, total cholesterol (TC): 3.61± 0.65 and 2.98± 0.71 mmol/L, HDL-C: 1.04± 0.18 and 0.62± 0.16 mmol/L, LDL-C: 2.27± 0.61 and 2.01± 0.71 mmol/L, TC/HDL-C: 3.5± 0.78 and 5.0± 1.5; LDL-C/HDL-C: 2.0± 0.71 and 3.4± 1.4 with significant differences between HSES and LSES as shown respectively. A significant association was found (p<0,01) between lipid values and socioeconomic status, being the LSES preschoolers those with the higher atherogenic risk. Its pattern was of lower HDL-C levels, and higher TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Comparisons of lipid profile by nutritional status or gender did not show significant differences. Findings indicate that children from low socioeconomic status are at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis than children from high socioeconomic status.

Emma Velásquez; María Adela Barón; Liseti Solano; María Páez; Daisy Llovera; Zulay Portillo

2006-01-01

149

Low socioeconomic status is a strong independent predictor of relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The results of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children depend not only on the biologic diversity of the leukemia cell, the multi-drug treatment schedule and the individual variability of drug metabolism, but also on the socioeconomic and cultural background of the leukemic child. Social and cultural disparity is very marked in underdeveloped countries and has been increasing in industrialized nations. The prognostic influences of these factors are poorly documented and sometimes mistakenly attributed to differences in ethnic origin. We have investigated in Brazil the relative impact of malnutrition and socioeconomic status on the outcome of ALL, adjusting for the known influence of biologic factors. Children with ALL (n = 167) treated with a Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster-based protocol were studied prospectively. At a median follow-up of 1623 days, the estimated probability of disease-free survival was 43 +/- 4%. The main cause for interruption of remission was bone-marrow relapse. Socioeconomic indicators of poverty (poor housing conditions, low per capita income and energy consumption) were significantly associated with a greater risk of relapse in univariate analysis. They were consolidated in a single index, socioeconomic status (SES), defined by the product of monthly per capita income times mean familial daily energy consumption. Other unfavorable findings included age, z score for the height for age at diagnosis (HAZ) below-1.28 and the z score for weight for age below-1.28. After adjustment in Cox's multivariate model, only HAZ and poor SES remained as predictive factors for relapse. Poor prognosis for leukemic children of low SES is just another indicator of social inequality.

Viana MB; Fernandes RA; de Carvalho RI; Murao M

1998-01-01

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Low socioeconomic status is a strong independent predictor of relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

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The results of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children depend not only on the biologic diversity of the leukemia cell, the multi-drug treatment schedule and the individual variability of drug metabolism, but also on the socioeconomic and cultural background of the leukemic child. Social and cultural disparity is very marked in underdeveloped countries and has been increasing in industrialized nations. The prognostic influences of these factors are poorly documented and sometimes mistakenly attributed to differences in ethnic origin. We have investigated in Brazil the relative impact of malnutrition and socioeconomic status on the outcome of ALL, adjusting for the known influence of biologic factors. Children with ALL (n = 167) treated with a Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster-based protocol were studied prospectively. At a median follow-up of 1623 days, the estimated probability of disease-free survival was 43 +/- 4%. The main cause for interruption of remission was bone-marrow relapse. Socioeconomic indicators of poverty (poor housing conditions, low per capita income and energy consumption) were significantly associated with a greater risk of relapse in univariate analysis. They were consolidated in a single index, socioeconomic status (SES), defined by the product of monthly per capita income times mean familial daily energy consumption. Other unfavorable findings included age, z score for the height for age at diagnosis (HAZ) below-1.28 and the z score for weight for age below-1.28. After adjustment in Cox's multivariate model, only HAZ and poor SES remained as predictive factors for relapse. Poor prognosis for leukemic children of low SES is just another indicator of social inequality. PMID:9876480

Viana, M B; Fernandes, R A; de Carvalho, R I; Murao, M

1998-01-01

151

Socioeconomic status and paranoia: the role of life hassles, self-mastery, and striving to avoid inferiority.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Paranoid ideation is more common in the general population than previously thought, and it is associated with low socioeconomic status. Daily life hassles, self-mastery, and striving to avoid inferiority may partly account for this association, but these factors have not been examined in relation to paranoid thoughts. Two hundred fifteen individuals from the general population completed self-report assessments of paranoid thoughts during the last month, daily life hassles, self-mastery, striving to avoid inferiority, and socioeconomic classification. A greater number of daily hassles, low self-mastery, and insecure striving were all associated with greater levels of paranoid thinking. Each variable was associated with markers of socioeconomic status. This study demonstrates for the first time the association of paranoid thoughts with life hassles, self-mastery, and striving to avoid inferiority. Each of the factors examined may be a plausible candidate to account for why lower socioeconomic status is associated with greater perceptions of threat from other people.

Anderson F; Freeman D

2013-08-01

152

Engaging women volunteers of high socioeconomic status in supporting socioeconomically disadvantaged tuberculosis patients in Chiang Rai, Thailand  

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Full Text Available Problem: The 2008 tuberculosis (TB) surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736) defaulted from treatment. Context: TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. Action: We engaged Chiang Rai women’s organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic status to support poor TB patients financially and socially. A group of women formed a team to support these TB patients (n = 192) by raising and sustaining funds and providing home visits (n = 37). TB surveillance and patient-fund register data were used to evaluate TB treatment outcomes. Outcome: The success of TB treatment was significantly higher for patients receiving financial support (relative risk [RR]: 1.351; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.53; P < 0.000). Lower death rates in all groups were observed among patients receiving financial support. However, financial assistance alone did not improve treatment outcomes for migrant patients. Thirty-seven patients (25 Thai, eight hill tribe, four migrants) who were visited by women volunteers at home achieved 95% TB treatment success. Discussion: It is possible to involve volunteers to support poor TB patients. Willingness to support TB patients was driven by presenting provincial TB epidemiology information, research data on the experience of poor patients and the inspiring experiences of other women volunteers. Future research should investigate the reasons for the high treatment success among patients who received home visits.

Jintana Ngamvithayapong-Yanai; Sarmwai Luangjina; Supalert Nedsuwan; Pacharee Kantipong; Jirapohn Wongyai; Nobukatsu Ishikawa

2013-01-01

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Engaging women volunteers of high socioeconomic status in supporting socioeconomically disadvantaged tuberculosis patients in Chiang Rai, Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PROBLEM: The 2008 tuberculosis (TB) surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736) defaulted from treatment. CONTEXT: TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. ACTION: We engaged Chiang Rai women's organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic status to support poor TB patients financially and socially. A group of women formed a team to support these TB patients (n = 192) by raising and sustaining funds and providing home visits (n = 37). TB surveillance and patient-fund register data were used to evaluate TB treatment outcomes. OUTCOME: THE SUCCESS OF TB TREATMENT WAS SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER FOR PATIENTS RECEIVING FINANCIAL SUPPORT (RELATIVE RISK [RR]: 1.351; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-1.53; P < 0.000). Lower death rates in all groups were observed among patients receiving financial support. However, financial assistance alone did not improve treatment outcomes for migrant patients. Thirty-seven patients (25 Thai, eight hill tribe, four migrants) who were visited by women volunteers at home achieved 95% TB treatment success. DISCUSSION: It is possible to involve volunteers to support poor TB patients. Willingness to support TB patients was driven by presenting provincial TB epidemiology information, research data on the experience of poor patients and the inspiring experiences of other women volunteers. Future research should investigate the reasons for the high treatment success among patients who received home visits.

Ngamvithayapong-Yanai J; Luangjina S; Nedsuwan S; Kantipong P; Wongyai J; Ishikawa N

2013-01-01

154

Extra-curricular physical activity and socioeconomic status in Italian adolescents  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between physical activity and health status has been thoroughly investigated in several studies, while the relation between physical activity and socio-economic status (SES) is less investigated. The aim of this study was to measure the extra-curricular physical activity of adolescents related to the socio-economic status (SES) of their families. Methods The survey was carried out by submitting an anonymous questionnaire to junior high school students in the following Regions: Lazio, Abruzzo, Molise, Campania, Puglia, during the school year 2002–2003. Extra-curriculum physical activity was evaluated considering whether or not present and hours of activity weekly conducted. 2411 students agreed to participate in the study. Results Participants were 1121 males (46.5%) and 1290 females (53.5%), aged between 11 and 17 years (median age: 12 years). 71.1% of the students reported to practice extra-curricular physical activity. Parents' educational levels and work activities play an important role in predicting students' physical activity, with the more remunerative activities and higher educational levels being more predictive. Conclusion The results confirm the relationship between adolescents' physical activity and their families' SES. In particular, a positive relationship between participation in extra-curricular physical activity and their families high SES was found. These data will be useful for school administrators and for politicians in order to reduce the gap between adolescents from the least and most disadvantaged families.

Torre Giuseppe La; Masala Daniele; De Vito Elisabetta; Langiano Elisa; Capelli Giovanni; Ricciardi Walter

2006-01-01

155

South Australian four-year-old Aboriginal children: residence and socioeconomic status influence weight.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Obesity rates have increased in children in Australia in the past 15 years. However, there is little available population data describing rates of overweight and obesity in Aboriginal children. METHODS: Anthropometric data of four-year-old children (n=11,859) were collected by trained nurses at routine statewide preschool health checks during 2009. Weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight and obese) was determined using age and gender specific International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-points. RESULTS: There were 337 Aboriginal children (3%) in the study population. Aboriginal children had significantly higher rates of overweight and obesity compared to non-Aboriginal children (28% compared to 18% respectively, ?(2) p=0.0001). A statistically significant association between BMIz score and identifying as Aboriginal remained after controlling for rural/urban residence and socioeconomic status using multiple regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Aboriginal children have higher rates of overweight and obesity compared to their non-Aboriginal peers by the time they are four years of age. Aboriginal children have higher BMIz scores compared to non-Aboriginal children after controlling for rural/urban residence and socioeconomic status. Implications: A significant investment is required to optimise the health of Aboriginal women before pregnancy and throughout pregnancy. A rethink may be necessary in the approach to dietary management and catch-up growth of Aboriginal children of low birth weight or having growth failure in early childhood.

Spurrier NJ; Volkmer RE; Abdallah CA; Chong A

2012-06-01

156

A Study on Socio-Economic Status of Maid-Servant in Purulia Town  

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Full Text Available Over last few decades, there have been rapid growths in the number of women employee in India and majority of them being engaged in informal sector of the economy where jobs are often low paid and repetitive. An attempt has been made in this study to trace out the socio-economic status of maid-servant as well as the manner in which they lives in the informal sector in Purulia Municipal area of the same district of West Bengal. The study has been carried out through personal interview and observation. Results indicate that most of the maid-servants (78%) are satisfied in their profession and most of the respondents (82.35%) do not engaged with other work except maid-servant for earning. However, economic compulsion is the main hardship for taking the job as maid-servants. The general educational status of the maid-servants is not satisfactory and wages of the maid-servants are very low. The maid-servants are subject to variety of exploitations starting from low wages to maltreatment and sexual harassment by the employer. In view of this exploitation it is necessary to improve their socio-economic status and working conditions.

SHYAMAL KUMAR BISWAS

2012-01-01

157

Health literacy, socioeconomic status and self-rated health in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health literacy (HL) is a key determinant of health in a contemporary society characterized by abundant information. Previous studies have suggested that basic or functional HL is positively associated with health, whereas evidences on the association between health and communicative/critical HL are scarce. Furthermore, confounding by socioeconomic status on HL-health association has been poorly tested. Using cross-sectional data from a nationally representative community-based survey in Japan, we investigated whether communicative/critical HL is associated with self-rated health independent of socioeconomic status. A total of 1237 subjects participated in this study; the response rate was 62%. To measure communicative/critical HL, we used three questions assessing the respondents' ability to select, to communicate to others and to evaluate specific health-related information. Potential confounders included demographic factors, household income, employment status, and educational attainment. A multivariate model revealed that good self-reported health was significantly associated with younger age [odds ratio (OR), 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-0.99], employment (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.06-7.88) and higher communicative/critical HL scores (OR 2.75; 95%CI, 1.93-3.90). Respondents with lower education were likely to have poorer communicative/critical HL. These results imply that to close the health gap, policy interventions should focus on the promotion of HL among deprived sociodemographic groups.

Furuya Y; Kondo N; Yamagata Z; Hashimoto H

2013-10-01

158

Socioeconomic status, smoking, and health: a test of competing theories of cumulative advantage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although both low socioeconomic status and cigarette smoking increase health problems and mortality, their possible combined or interactive influence is less clear On one hand, the health of low status groups may be harmed least by unhealthy behavior such as smoking because, given the substantial health risks produced by limited resources, they have less to lose from damaging lifestyles. On the other hand, the health of low status groups may be harmed most by smoking because lifestyle choices exacerbate the health problems created by deprived material conditions. Alternatively, the harm of low status and smoking may accumulate additively rather than multiplicatively. We test these arguments with data from the 1990 U.S. National Health Interview Survey, and with measures of morbidity and mortality. For ascribed statuses such as gender, race, and ethnicity, and for the outcome measure of mortality, the results favor the additive argument, whereas for achieved status and morbidity, the results support the vulnerability hypothesis--that smoking inflicts greater harm among disadvantaged groups.

Pampel FC; Rogers RG

2004-09-01

159

The association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and medical students' personal and professional development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: In order to commit to their mission and placement requirements, medical education policy-makers are required to understand the background and character of students in order to admit, cultivate and support them efficiently and effectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study sample consisted of 408 homogeneous medical students with the same level of education, occupation, school and societal environment. They differed mainly in their family background. Therefore, this study used part of a multidimensional "student portfolio system" database to assess the correlation between family status (indexed by parental education and occupation) and medical students' mental health status and characters. The controls were a group of 181 non-medical students in another university. RESULTS: The parents of the medical students were from a higher socioeconomic status (SES) than the parents of those in the control group. This showed the heritability of genetic and environment conditions as well as the socioeconomic forces at play in medical education. Students' personal and professional development were associated with their parents' SES. The mother's SES was associated with the student's selfreported stress, mental disturbances, attitude towards life, personality, health, discipline, internationalisation and professionalism. The fathers' SES did not show a statistically significant association with the above stress, physical and mental health factors, but showed an association with some of the personality factors. The greater the educational difference between both parents, the more stress, hopelessness and pessimism the student manifested. CONCLUSIONS: Medical educators need to be aware that socioeconomic factors have meaningful patterns of association with students' mental and physical health, and their characters relating to personal and professional development. Low maternal SES negatively influences medical students' personal and professional development, suggesting that medical education policy-makers need to initiate support mechanisms for those with latent vulnerability.

Fan AP; Chen CH; Su TP; Shih WJ; Lee CH; Hou SM

2007-09-01

160

Linking mosquito infestation to resident socioeconomic status, knowledge, and source reduction practices in suburban Washington, DC.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eliminating water-holding containers where mosquitoes oviposit and develop (source reduction) can help manage urban disease-vector mosquitoes. Source reduction requires residents to be knowledgeable of effective practices and motivated to implement them. We tested relationships between demographics, resident knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP), and mosquito infestation by administering larval mosquito surveys and KAP questionnaires in Washington, DC. Respondents who reported practicing source reduction had lower numbers of pupae-positive containers and Culex pipiens-positive containers, but not Aedes albopictus-positive containers or water-holding containers, in their yards. When controlling for numbers of water-holding containers in statistical models, residents who reported source reduction had lower numbers of A. albopictus-positive containers in addition to numbers of pupae-positive containers and C. pipiens-positive containers. These results suggest that while active container reduction may be effective at reducing C. pipiens and overall pupal production, it may be offset by other resident activities that add containers to yards, and that source reduction that involves mosquito habitat management without outright container removal can also be effective at reducing A. albopictus. Source reduction was related to respondent knowledge of mosquitoes and, in particular, specific knowledge of mosquito development, which both varied with demographics alongside respondent motivation to control mosquitoes. Respondents from high socioeconomic status households reported greater knowledge but lower motivation than respondents from middle and low socioeconomic-status households. We conclude that mosquito-related education will help promote community-based container management as part of integrated mosquito management programs, particularly in middle and low socioeconomic status neighborhoods with lower knowledge and high motivation.

Dowling Z; Armbruster P; LaDeau SL; DeCotiis M; Mottley J; Leisnham PT

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Neighborhood socioeconomic status modifies the association between individual smoking status and PAH-DNA adduct levels in prostate tissue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interactions between smoking and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) as risk factors for higher polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) DNA adduct levels in prostate tissue were investigated. PAH-DNA adducts were measured by immunohistochemistry with staining intensity measured in optical density units by semiquantitative absorbance image analysis in tumor adjacent tissue from 400 prostatectomy specimens from the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit. For each subject, their U.S. Census tract of residence was classified as being of higher or lower SES using the median value of the distribution of the proportion of tract residents with a high-school education. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess interactions between neighborhood-level SES and smoking status, adjusting for race, age, education level, tumor volume, primary Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis. There was a statistical interaction (P = 0.004) between tract-level SES and smoking status. In lower SES tracts smoking status was not associated with adduct staining, but in higher SES tracts adduct staining intensity was 13% (P = 0.01) higher in ever-smokers as compared to never-smokers. Among never-smokers, living in a lower SES tract was associated with a 25% higher mean staining intensity (P < 0.001). Neighborhood SES modifies the association between individual smoking status and PAH-DNA adduct levels in prostate tissue.

Rundle A; Richards C; Neslund-Dudas C; Tang D; Rybicki BA

2012-06-01

162

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Modifies the Association Between Individual Smoking Status and PAH-DNA Adduct Levels in Prostate Tissue  

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Interactions between smoking and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) as risk factors for higher polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) DNA adduct levels in prostate tissue were investigated. PAH-DNA adducts were measured by immunohistochemistry with staining intensity measured in optical density units by semiquantitative absorbance image analysis in tumor adjacent tissue from 400 prostatectomy specimens from the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit. For each subject, their U.S. Census tract of residence was classified as being of higher or lower SES using the median value of the distribution of the proportion of tract residents with a high-school education. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess interactions between neighborhood-level SES and smoking status, adjusting for race, age, education level, tumor volume, primary Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis. There was a statistical interaction (P = 0.004) between tract-level SES and smoking status. In lower SES tracts smoking status was not associated with adduct staining, but in higher SES tracts adduct staining intensity was 13% (P = 0.01) higher in ever-smokers as compared to never-smokers. Among never-smokers, living in a lower SES tract was associated with a 25% higher mean staining intensity (P < 0.001). Neighborhood SES modifies the association between individual smoking status and PAH-DNA adduct levels in prostate tissue.

Rundle, Andrew; Richards, Catherine; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

2013-01-01

163

Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general practice. METHODS: We enrolled 184 general practices and 5260 hypertensive patients. The general practitioners reported information about BP and diagnosis of diabetes. Information about education, income, antihypertensive drug treatment and other co-morbidity was retrieved from relevant registers from Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP

Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M

2012-01-01

164

Does socioeconomic status affect mortality subsequent to hospital admission for community acquired pneumonia among older persons?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality for various health conditions. The purpose of this study was twofold: to examine the mortality experience of older persons admitted to hospital with community acquired pneumonia and to test the hypothesis of whether an association exists between socioeconomic status and mortality subsequent to hospital admission for community-acquired pneumonia. Methods A population based retrospective cohort study was conducted including all older persons patients admitted to Ontario hospitals with community acquired pneumonia between April 1995 and March 2001. The main outcome measures were 30 day and 1 year mortality subsequent to hospital admission for community-acquired pneumonia. Results Socioeconomic status for each patient was imputed from median neighbourhood income. Multivariate analyses were undertaken to adjust for age, sex, co-morbid illness, hospital and physician characteristics. The study sample consisted of 60,457 people. Increasing age, male gender and high co-morbidity increased the risk for mortality at 30 days and one year. Female gender and having a family physician as attending physician reduced mortality risk. The adjusted odds of death after 30-days for the quintiles compared to the lowest income quintile (quintile 1) were 1.02 (95% CI: 0.95–1.09) for quintile 2, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97–1.12) for quintile 3, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.94–1.08) for quintile 4 and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.96–1.12) for the highest income quintile (quintile 5). For 1 year mortality, compared to the lowest income quintile the adjusted odds ratios were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.96–1.06) for quintile 2, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.94–1.04) for quintile 3, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.93–1.05) for quintile 4 and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.97–1.10) for the highest income quintile. Conclusion Socioeconomic status is not associated with mortality in the older persons from community-acquired pneumonia in Ontario, Canada.

Vrbova Linda; Mamdani Muhammad; Moineddin Rahim; Jaakimainen Liisa; Upshur Ross EG

2005-01-01

165

Ethnicity, socio-economic status and health research: insights from and implications of Charles Tilly's theory of Durable Inequality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Ethnic inequalities in health status and healthcare remain substantial in Europe, and addressing them is becoming a priority. However, the best way to respond to such a challenge is, as yet, unclear. The research community is grappling with the contribution of socio-economic discrimination to ethnic inequalities. METHODS: The authors present a new theoretical analysis, based on the landmark work of Charles Tilly on 'Durable Inequality,' and we apply it to the public-health goal of reducing ethnic health inequalities. RESULTS: Tilly claims that, for organisational reasons, ethnic categories and socio-economic categories are tied together. The theory of Durable Inequality claims that the matching of ethnic categories with socio-economic categories helps to enforce exploitation, leading to durable inequalities. The authors present the theory, focus on its main components (categories, exploitation, opportunity hoarding, emulation and adaptation) and discuss the implications for health inequalities by ethnic group. In essence, the theory leads to four recommendations for the study of ethnic health inequalities: (1) to investigate organisational processes that create ethnic health inequalities; (2) to investigate the role of networks and ties on health behaviours, healthcare use and their psychological factors; (3) to define ethnicity through flexible, multidimensional binary categories, which should vary according to context; (4) to assess cumulative inequality within a domain, across domains and across generations. CONCLUSIONS: This paper, to our knowledge, is the first attempt to analyse Tilly's theory in relation to ethnicity and health, and opens up a debate on refining the implications of these ideas prior to empirical testing.

Lorant V; Bhopal RS

2011-08-01

166

Tuberculosis in Asia and the pacific: the role of socioeconomic status and health system development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To identify the relationship between socioeconomic status, health system development and the incidence, prevalence and mortality of tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific. METHODS: Incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of tuberculosis and 20 variables of socioeconomic, health system and biological-behavioral issues were included in the study involving all 46 countries of the Asian Development Bank region (2007 data). Both univariate and multivariate linear regressions were used. RESULTS: The worst three tuberculosis affected countries were Cambodia, India and Indonesia, while the least affected was Australia. Tuberculosis incidence, prevalence and mortality rate were higher in countries with lower human development index, corruption perception index, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and countries with more people under minimum food supplements. Among the health system variables, total health expenditure per capita, governmental health expenditure per capita, hospital beds, and access to improved water and sanitation were strongly associated with tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic determinants and health system development have significant effect on the control of tuberculosis in Asia and the Pacific region. The study has some policy implications by means of lowering the corruption and improving the sanitation.

Wu J; Dalal K

2012-01-01

167

Socioeconomic Status and Lung Cancer: Unraveling the Contribution of Genetic Admixture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives. We examined the relationship between genetic ancestry, socioeconomic status (SES), and lung cancer among African Americans and Latinos. Methods. We evaluated SES and genetic ancestry in a Northern California lung cancer case-control study (1998-2003) of African Americans and Latinos. Lung cancer case and control participants were frequency matched on age, gender, and race/ethnicity. We assessed case-control differences in individual admixture proportions using the 2-sample t test and analysis of covariance. Logistic regression models examined associations among genetic ancestry, socioeconomic characteristics, and lung cancer. Results. Decreased Amerindian ancestry was associated with higher education among Latino control participants and greater African ancestry was associated with decreased education among African lung cancer case participants. Education was associated with lung cancer among both Latinos and African Americans, independent of smoking, ancestry, age, and gender. Genetic ancestry was not associated with lung cancer among African Americans. Conclusions. Findings suggest that socioeconomic factors may have a greater impact than genetic ancestry on lung cancer among African Americans. The genetic heterogeneity and recent dynamic migration and acculturation of Latinos complicate recruitment; thus, epidemiological analyses and findings should be interpreted cautiously. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print August 15, 2013: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301370).

Aldrich MC; Selvin S; Wrensch MR; Sison JD; Hansen HM; Quesenberry CP Jr; Seldin MF; Barcellos LF; Buffler PA; Wiencke JK

2013-08-01

168

Socioeconomic status and lung cancer: unraveling the contribution of genetic admixture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives. We examined the relationship between genetic ancestry, socioeconomic status (SES), and lung cancer among African Americans and Latinos. Methods. We evaluated SES and genetic ancestry in a Northern California lung cancer case-control study (1998-2003) of African Americans and Latinos. Lung cancer case and control participants were frequency matched on age, gender, and race/ethnicity. We assessed case-control differences in individual admixture proportions using the 2-sample t test and analysis of covariance. Logistic regression models examined associations among genetic ancestry, socioeconomic characteristics, and lung cancer. Results. Decreased Amerindian ancestry was associated with higher education among Latino control participants and greater African ancestry was associated with decreased education among African lung cancer case participants. Education was associated with lung cancer among both Latinos and African Americans, independent of smoking, ancestry, age, and gender. Genetic ancestry was not associated with lung cancer among African Americans. Conclusions. Findings suggest that socioeconomic factors may have a greater impact than genetic ancestry on lung cancer among African Americans. The genetic heterogeneity and recent dynamic migration and acculturation of Latinos complicate recruitment; thus, epidemiological analyses and findings should be interpreted cautiously.

Aldrich MC; Selvin S; Wrensch MR; Sison JD; Hansen HM; Quesenberry CP Jr; Seldin MF; Barcellos LF; Buffler PA; Wiencke JK

2013-10-01

169

Socioeconomic status of the Dutch population Sociaal-economische status van de Nederlandse bevolking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In west-europese landen is een lagere sociaal-economische status geassocieerd met een hogere frequentie van gezondheidsproblemen en met een hogere sterfte. In Nederland is deze associatie waargenomen voor diverse gezondheidsindicatoren, waaronder chronische aandoeningen, klachten en ervaren gezo...

Stronks K; Mheen H van de; Mackenbach JP

170

Racial/ethnic disparities in health: the interplay between discrimination and socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the past decade, racial/ethnic discrepancy in health status has drawn increased attention from academicians, policy makers and planners, service providers, and community advocates. While the field has witnessed a growth in research projects and intervention programs, the gap in health status among racial/ethnic groups persists, which suggests that future research should incorporate a focus on one neglected area, ie, the health implications of discrimination. Using the National Survey of Functional Health (N=1,659), a nationally representative sample of English-speaking persons 18 years of age and older living in non-institutional arrangements within the United States, we analyzed how self-perceived unfairness (discrimination due to racial identity or to low socioeconomic status [SES]) was linked to self-assessed health status. The study found that racial and class discrimination were rather pervasive in the United States. Experiences of discrimination tended to have a strong negative association with health and accounted for some racial/ethnic differences in health status. The study also revealed a complex relationship between experiences of discrimination and social class, suggesting that future research should focus on specifying the social distribution of discrimination and assessing its subsequent association with health.

Ren XS; Amick BC; Williams DR

1999-01-01

171

Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of health problems among married couples in late midlife.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of mutually occurring health problems among married couples in late midlife. METHODS: Data consisted of 4746 married couples aged 51 to 61 years from the 1992 US Health and Retirement Study. Two health measures were used: (1) self-assessed health status and (2) an index of functional limitations and activity restrictions. SES indicators were household income, education, and insurance coverage. RESULTS: In general, after adjustment for age cohort, a strong association was found between the health of a married individual and the health of his or her spouse. SES was highly associated with the joint occurrence of health problems among marriage partners. CONCLUSIONS: Public health policy should pay particular attention to the interaction between health, SES, and interpersonal relationships.

Wilson SE

2001-01-01

172

Estimating inequalities in ownership of insecticide treated nets: does the choice of socio-economic status measure matter?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research on the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on access to health care services and on health status is important for allocating resources and designing pro-poor policies. Socio-economic differences are increasingly assessed using asset indices as proxy measures for SES. For example, several studies use asset indices to estimate inequities in ownership and use of insecticide treated nets as a way of monitoring progress towards meeting the Abuja targets. The validity of different SES measures has only been tested in a limited number of settings, however, and there is little information on how choice of welfare measure influences study findings, conclusions and policy recommendations. In this paper, we demonstrate that household SES classification can depend on the SES measure selected. Using data from a household survey in coastal Kenya (n = 285 rural and 467 urban households), we first classify households into SES quintiles using both expenditure and asset data. Household SES classification is found to differ when separate rural and urban asset indices, or a combined asset index, are used. We then use data on bednet ownership to compare inequalities in ownership within each setting by the SES measure selected. Results show a weak correlation between asset index and monthly expenditure in both settings: wider inequalities in bednet ownership are observed in the rural sample when expenditure is used as the SES measure [Concentration Index (CI) = 0.1024 expenditure quintiles; 0.005 asset quintiles]; the opposite is observed in the urban sample (CI = 0.0518 expenditure quintiles; 0.126 asset quintiles). We conclude that the choice of SES measure does matter. Given the practical advantages of asset approaches, we recommend continued refinement of these approaches. In the meantime, careful selection of SES measure is required for every study, depending on the health policy issue of interest, the research context and, inevitably, pragmatic considerations.

Chuma J; Molyneux C

2009-03-01

173

Does Socioeconomic Status Affect Patients' Ease of Use of a Touch-Screen (iPad) Patient Survey?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Socioeconomic disparities influence the usage rate of advanced communication technologies in Canada. It is important to assess all patient interactions with computers and electronic devices based on these socioeconomic differences. This project studied the ease of use of a touch-screen interface program for collecting patient feedback. The interface collected feedback on physicians' communication skills, an important health concern that has been garnering more and more attention. A concurrent paper survey was used to gather information on the socioeconomic status and the usability of the touchscreen device. As expected, patients who were older, had lower annual household income, and had lower educational attainment were associated with more difficulty using the devices. Surprisingly, 94% of all users (representing a wide range of socioeconomic status backgrounds) rated the device as easy to use.

Zarghom S; Di Fonzo D; Leung FH

2013-01-01

174

Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668

Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

2013-03-28

175

Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated.

Stochholm K; Juul S; Gravholt CH

2013-06-01

176

Effect of patient socioeconomic status on access to early-phase cancer trials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Little is known about the influence of socioeconomic factors on patient access to cancer trials. Differences should be considered to ensure generalizability of trial results and equality of access. METHODS: Phase I trials unit referrals at our center over 5 years, from 2007 to 2012, were reviewed. Socioeconomic status was defined by the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD; 1, least deprived; 5, most deprived). Multivariate analysis was performed comparing incident cancer cases with referred patients and those ultimately enrolled onto a trial. RESULTS: Four hundred thirty patients were referred (median age, 62 years). Compared with 10,784 incident cases, referral was less likely for patients in the more-deprived quintiles compared with the least deprived (IMD 5: odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.74). Once reviewed in the unit, enrollment onto a trial was not affected (IMD 5: OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.40 to 1.63). Ethnicity analysis showed the nonwhite population was less likely to be recruited (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.88). This relationship was lost with adjustment for age, sex, cancer type, and deprivation index. CONCLUSION: We show for the first time to our knowledge that socioeconomic status affects early-phase cancer trial referrals. The least-deprived patients are almost twice as likely to be referred compared with the most deprived. This may be because more-deprived patients are less suitable for a trial-as a result of comorbidities, for example-or because of inequalities that could be addressed by patient or referrer education. Once reviewed at the unit, enrollment onto a trial is not affected by deprivation.

Mohd Noor A; Sarker D; Vizor S; McLennan B; Hunter S; Suder A; Moller H; Spicer JF; Papa S

2013-01-01

177

Socioeconomic status as a risk factor for late presentation of glaucoma in Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of socioeconomic status on late presentation of glaucoma. DESIGN: Prospective, multicentre, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Newly diagnosed open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: Eligible subjects with newly diagnosed open-angle glaucoma underwent a comprehensive ocular examination and were classified as mild, moderate, or advanced according to the Canadian Ophthalmological Society glaucoma guidelines. Socioeconomic status was estimated by linking the subjects' postal code to the median household income in the 2006 Canadian population census at the level of dissemination areas. Five equal income groups ranging from the lowest to the highest income quintile were considered and compared regarding the frequency and proportion of moderate or advanced glaucoma. RESULTS: A total of 290 subjects were included in the analysis; 151 (52.1%) had mild, 79 (26.9%) moderate, and 60 (21.0%) advanced disease at initial diagnosis. Patients with newly diagnosed glaucoma were less likely to come from the poorest neighborhood areas (16.21%) when compared with an expected one fifth (20%) of patients presented in each of the 5 social economic groups (P = 0.56). Compared with people from the poorest neighborhood areas, people from the richest neighborhood areas had a marginally lower risk for having moderate or advanced glaucoma at first presentation (prevalence ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.43-1.02, P = 0.06). This association was stronger among those ?65 years old (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Canada to provide evidence that socioeconomic deprivation is associated with greater severity of glaucoma at presentation, specifically for those ?65 years old. Consideration should be given to targeting poor neighborhood areas for glaucoma education, screening, or both.

Buys YM; Jin YP

2013-04-01

178

Association between socioeconomic status and functional impairment 3 months after ischemic stroke: the Berlin Stroke Register.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze the association between patient socioeconomic status and functional impairment 3 months after ischemic stroke and to identify factors that influence this association. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Berlin Stroke Register, a network of 14 stroke units in Berlin. Ischemic stroke patients consecutively admitted to 1 of the hospitals in the Berlin Stroke Register between June 2010 and September 2011, were followed-up 3 months after the index event by postal or telephone interview. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between highest education as marker of socioeconomic status and functional impairment after stroke defined by Barthel Index categories. We adjusted for age, sex, prestroke dependency, stroke severity, functional deficit after stroke onset, and comorbidities as possible confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 1688 ischemic stroke patients who were alive at 3 months and completed the questionnaire were included in the analysis; 40% of the patients were female and 50% of the patients were 70 years or older. Age, prestroke dependency, stroke severity, and the absence of comorbidities were significantly associated with good functional outcome at 3 months. In multivariable analysis, a higher probability of good outcome was observed in patients with college or university degree (odds ratio, 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-3.42) compared with patients with no completed education. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with lower education have considerably lower rates of good functional outcome after stroke that cannot be fully explained by variations in the patients' clinical and demographic characteristics.

Grube MM; Koennecke HC; Walter G; Thümmler J; Meisel A; Wellwood I; Heuschmann PU

2012-12-01

179

TV Viewing and BMI by Race/Ethnicity and Socio-Economic Status  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To assess the association between TV viewing and obesity by race/ethnicity and socio-economic status. Design Cross-sectional analysis of 5,087 respondents to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a nationally representative sample of US adults. Multivariate regression models were computed to assess the association between quartiles of TV viewing and BMI, stratified by race/ethnicity, educational attainment, employment and health insurance status. Results Findings indicate that increased TV viewing was associated with higher odds for being overweight/obese in the entire sample, while adjusting for physical activity and other confounders. After stratification by race/ethnicity, increased odds for overweight/obesity in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of TV viewing (e.g., 3rd quartile- cumulative OR?=?1.43, 95%CI 1.07–1.92) was observed in non-Hispanic whites, with statistical significance. In non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the odds were similar to whites, but did not reach statistical significance. Significant relations between greater TV viewing and increased BMI were observed in college graduates and non-graduates, those with health insurance and the employed. Conclusions This study extends previous research by examining potential inconsistencies in this association between various racial/ethnic groups and some socio-economic variables, which primarily were not found.

Shuval, Kerem; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Leonard, Tammy

2013-01-01

180

Widowers' accounts of maternal mortality among women of low socioeconomic status in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The research is based on information collected on 50 deceased Nigerian women of low socioeconomic status in different locations of the country including Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Zaria, Minna, Enugu, and Port-Harcourt among others. They had some common characteristics such as low levels of education, involvement in petty trading and were clients of a microfinance bank as small loan receivers. Primary data were generated mainly through verbal autopsy with widowers employing in-depth interviews and key informant interviews. In addition, unobtrusive observation was carried out in these locations to ascertain in some instances the distance between the deceased homes and health facilities patronised by the women. Secondary data were specific to death certificates of the deceased supplied by the widowers. Both ethnographic summaries and content analysis were employed in data analysis to account for contextual differences, especially in a multicultural society like Nigeria. The findings implicated several issues that are taken for granted at the micro-family and macro-society levels. It specifically revealed that small loans alone are not sufficient to empower poor women to make meaningful contributions to their own reproductive health in a patriarchal society like Nigeria. Results also indicated that cultural differences as well as rural-urban dichotomy were not proximate determinants of maternal behaviour; the latter rather finds expression in low socioeconomic status. Consequently, policy relevant recommendations that could contribute to significant maternal mortality reduction were proffered.

Nwokocha EE

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

TV viewing and BMI by race/ethnicity and socio-economic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between TV viewing and obesity by race/ethnicity and socio-economic status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of 5,087 respondents to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a nationally representative sample of US adults. Multivariate regression models were computed to assess the association between quartiles of TV viewing and BMI, stratified by race/ethnicity, educational attainment, employment and health insurance status. RESULTS: Findings indicate that increased TV viewing was associated with higher odds for being overweight/obese in the entire sample, while adjusting for physical activity and other confounders. After stratification by race/ethnicity, increased odds for overweight/obesity in the 3(rd) and 4(th) quartiles of TV viewing (e.g., 3(rd) quartile-cumulative OR?=?1.43, 95%CI 1.07-1.92) was observed in non-Hispanic whites, with statistical significance. In non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the odds were similar to whites, but did not reach statistical significance. Significant relations between greater TV viewing and increased BMI were observed in college graduates and non-graduates, those with health insurance and the employed. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends previous research by examining potential inconsistencies in this association between various racial/ethnic groups and some socio-economic variables, which primarily were not found.

Shuval K; Gabriel KP; Leonard T

2013-01-01

182

Effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socio-economic status on birth weight.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants' first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants' birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. RESULTS: First and fourth births had lower birth weights compared with second and third births in all maternal ages in controlling parity, birth weight increases with maternal age up to the early 24, and then tends to level off. Male gender, maternal age 20-24 years, second and third births had a significant positive effect on birth weight. Lower family economic status and higher educational attainment were significantly associated with lower birth weight. For women in the 15-19 and 40-44 years age groups, the second birth order was associated with the most undesirable effect on birth weight. CONCLUSION: Accessibility of health care services, parity, maternal age, and socioeconomic factors are strongly associated with infants' birth weight.

Ghaemmaghami SJ; Nikniaz L; Mahdavi R; Nikniaz Z; Razmifard F; Afsharnia F

2013-09-01

183

Gender and socioeconomic status in relation to weight perception and weight control behavior in Korean adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: In Korea, obesity is more prevalent among men and lower socioeconomic groups. To explain this obesity disparity, we compared weight perception and weight control behavior across gender and socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: We analyzed data from 16,260 participants aged 20 years or older in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. SES indicators included education and income levels. Weight under-perception was defined when participants considered themselves lighter than their measured BMI status. Either no active or inappropriate weight control (i.e., trying to gain weight in obese individuals) was considered to be unhealthy patterns. Multivariate prevalence ratios were calculated using log-binomial regressions. RESULTS: Men had a higher prevalence of weight under-perception (24.5 vs. 11.9%) and unhealthy patterns of weight control behavior (57 vs. 40%) than women. Low education level was associated with weight under-perception (ptrend = 0.022 in men, ptrend < 0.001 in women). Both education and income levels were significantly associated with patterns of weight control behavior (for education: ptrend < 0.001 in men and women; for income: ptrend = 0.047 in men, ptrend < 0.001 in women). CONCLUSION: Weight perception and weight control behavior significantly varied by gender and SES. Public actions should be directed toward improving perception and behavior of high-risk populations.

Joh HK; Oh J; Lee HJ; Kawachi I

2013-01-01

184

Socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Disinfection by-products in drinking water are chemical contaminants that have been associated with cancer and other adverse effects. Exposure occurs from consumption of tap water, inhalation and dermal absorption. Methods We determined the relationship between socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in 1271 controls from a multicentric bladder cancer case-control study in Spain. Information on lifetime drinking water sources, swimming pool attendance, showering-bathing practices, and socioeconomic status (education, income) was collected through personal interviews. Results The most highly educated subjects consumed less tap water (57%) and more bottled water (33%) than illiterate subjects (69% and 17% respectively, p-value = 0.003). These differences became wider in recent time periods. The time spent bathing or showering was positively correlated with attained educational level (p Conclusions The most highly educated subjects were less exposed to chlorination by-products through ingestion but more exposed through dermal contact and inhalation in pools and showers/baths. Health risk perceptions and economic capacity may affect patterns of water consumption that can result in differences in exposure to water contaminants.

Castaño-Vinyals Gemma; Cantor Kenneth P; Villanueva Cristina M; Tardon Adonina; Garcia-Closas Reina; Serra Consol; Carrato Alfredo; Malats Núria; Rothman Nathaniel; Silverman Debra; Kogevinas Manolis

2011-01-01

185

Understanding why patients of low socioeconomic status prefer hospitals over ambulatory care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with low socioeconomic status (SES) use more acute hospital care and less primary care than patients with high socioeconomic status. This low-value pattern of care use is harmful to these patients' health and costly to the health care system. Many current policy initiatives, such as the creation of accountable care organizations, aim to improve both health outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of health services. Achieving those goals requires understanding what drives low-value health care use. We conducted qualitative interviews with forty urban low-SES patients to explore why they prefer to use hospital care. They perceive it as less expensive, more accessible, and of higher quality than ambulatory care. Efforts that focus solely on improving the quality of hospital care to reduce readmissions could, paradoxically, increase hospital use. Two different profile types emerged from our research. Patients in Profile A (five or more acute care episodes in six months) reported social dysfunction and disability. Those in Profile B (fewer than five acute care episodes in six months) reported social stability but found accessing ambulatory care to be difficult. Interventions to improve outcomes and values need to take these differences into account.

Kangovi S; Barg FK; Carter T; Long JA; Shannon R; Grande D

2013-07-01

186

[Socioeconomic status, toothbrushing frequency, and health-related behaviors in adolescents: an analysis using the PeNSE database].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the association between oral and general health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status, and the relationship between health-related behaviors and toothbrushing among adolescents. The database used here was the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), a cross-sectional population-based study in 2009 with students from 27 Brazilian State capitals. Socio-demographic and health-related behavior data were collected. The survey included 49,189 adolescents (47.5% males), the majority of whom were 14 years of age and enrolled in public schools. The associations between toothbrushing frequency and other health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status varied between boys and girls. Associations were observed between health-related habits and toothbrushing frequency in both sexes, but with variations according to socioeconomic status. Planning health promotion interventions for adolescents should take their individual characteristics and family and social context into account.

Vettore MV; Moysés SJ; Sardinha LM; Iser BP

2012-01-01

187

[Nutritional and socioeconomic status in adults living in Ribeirao Preto, SP, 2006. OBEDIARP Project].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To estimate overweight and obesity prevalence, and socioeconomic correlates in adults living in Ribeirão Preto city - SP, Brazil, in 2006. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study was carried out in adults aged 30 years and older using three-stage cluster sampling: 81 census tracts were firstly selected, followed by 1,671 households and 1,205 individuals. The variability introduced in the third sampling fraction (individuals assortment) was corrected, resulting in a weighted sample of 2,197 participants. The nutritional status was classified in three categories (normal, overweight and obesity) according the Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs recommended by World Health Organization-2000 criteria. To investigate the nutritional status correlates, prevalence ratios were estimated by points and 95% confidence intervals, using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Overweight prevalence was higher in male (49.7%) than female (33.7%), whereas the obesity prevalence was higher in female (27.5%) than male (19.1%). In the final model, considering "overweight" as the outcome, the following variables were positively associated: the last two strata of age: "50-59" and "60 and older"; the "1st tertile" of income, and living "with partner". Females presented a protective effect compared to males. Considering "obesity", all the "age categories" and "marital status" were positively associated to the outcome. CONCLUSION: Along with the high overweight and obesity prevalences in Ribeirão Preto, the detection of different sets of socioeconomic correlates pointed out the need of specific intervention strategies, focused on health promotion and chronic-degenerative diseases prevention in the population.

de Moraes SA; Humberto JS; de Freitas IC

2011-12-01

188

Access to health care in relation to socioeconomic status in the Amazonian area of Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drugs in relation to household socioeconomic status for children in two small Amazonian urban communities of Peru; Yurimaguas, Department of Loreto and Moyobamba, Department of San Martin, Peru. Methods Cross-sectional study design included household interviews. Caregivers of 780 children aged 6–72 months in Yurimaguas and 793 children of the same age in Moyobamba were included in the study. Caregivers were interviewed on health care seeking strategies (public/private sectors; formal/informal providers), and medication for their children in relation to reported symptoms and socio-economic status. Self-reported symptoms were classified into illnesses based on the IMCI algorithm (Integrated Management of Childhood Ilness). Wealth was used as a proxy indicator for the economic status. Wealth values were generated by Principal Component Analysis using household assets and characteristics. Results Significantly more caregivers from the least poor stratum consulted health professionals for cough/cold (p Conclusion The poorest seek less care from health professionals for non-severe illnesses as well as for severe illnesses; and treatment with antibiotics is lacking for illnesses where it would be indicated. Caregivers frequently paid for health services as well as antibiotics, even though all children in the study qualified for free health care and medicines. The implementation of the Seguro Integral de Salud health insurance must be improved.

Kristiansson Charlotte; Gotuzzo Eduardo; Rodriguez Hugo; Bartoloni Alessandro; Strohmeyer Marianne; Tomson Göran; Hartvig Per

2009-01-01

189

Dynamics of people's socio-economic status in the face of schistosomiasis control interventions in Ukerewe district, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a paucity of research on micro-level assessment of the dynamics of socio-economic status following health interventions. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in low-income countries. Indeed, in such settings information about income is usually lacking and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 159 households in a village in north-western Tanzania before and 1 year after participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based on durable assets ownership (e.g. bicycle and radio) and household characteristics dealing with ownership of land and house construction features (e.g. type of walls and roof). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.761 to -0.448, and the mean from -0.204 (standard deviation (SD) 1.924) to 0.193 (SD 2.079) between pre- and post-intervention phases. The difference in socio-economic status of the people comparing the pre- and post-intervention phases was highly statistically significant (peconomic status observed in our study are attributable to the PHAST intervention, despite other sporadic interventions against schistosomiasis. PMID:23333229

Mwanga, Joseph R; Lwambo, Nicholas J S; Rumisha, Susan F; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg

2013-01-16

190

Parenting of divorced mothers as a link between social status and boys' academic outcomes: unpacking the effects of socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Socialization theories posit parenting practices as mechanisms linking socioeconomic status (SES) and children's academic outcomes. A mediational parenting model was tested examining separate effects of maternal education, occupation, and income for a sample of 238 divorced or recently separated mothers of 6- to 9-year-old sons. For the SEM path models, each indicator of SES was associated with better parenting, and parenting in turn had indirect effects on achievement through home skill-building activities and school behavior. The direct effect of maternal education on achievement was mediated by home skill-building activities, the direct effect of maternal occupation on achievement was not mediated, and income measures had no direct effects on achievement. These findings underscore the importance of unpacking the effects of SES and the relevance of effective parenting practices as a protective factor in the home and school environment for young boys' school success during postdivorce adjustment.

DeGarmo DS; Forgatch MS; Martinez CR Jr

1999-09-01

191

Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56) and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68), respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.

Gray Linsay; Leyland Alastair H

2009-01-01

192

Adult Food Intake Patterns Are Related to Adult and Childhood Socioeconomic Status  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. Dietary data were collected at follow-up using a 195-item FFQ. Food patterns were derived from principal component analysis. Two food patterns labeled "traditional-western food pattern" and "green food pattern" were identified. In men, adult SES was inversely associated with adherence to the traditional-western food pattern. High adherence to the green food pattern was positively related to high adult SES in both sexes. Among women, those with high SES in childhood had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low childhood SES, regardless of adult SES. Among men, those with high adult SES had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low adult SES, regardless of childhood SES. In conclusion, socioeconomic position is important for the development of adult food intake patterns. However, childhood SES seems more important for adult female food intake patterns, whereas adult SES seems more important for adult male food intake patterns.

Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per

2011-01-01

193

Incidence of head and neck cancer and socioeconomic status in Canada from 1992 to 2007.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between head and neck cancer (HNC) incidence and socioeconomic status (SES) in Canada, and investigate changes in the relationship between HNC incidence and SES from 1992 to 2007. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cases were drawn from the Canadian Cancer Registry (1992-2007), and were categorized into three subsites: oropharynx, oral cavity, and "other" (hypopharynx, larynx, and nasopharynx). Demographic and socioeconomic information were extracted from the Canadian Census of Population data for the study period (1992-2007), which included four census years. We linked cases to income quintiles (InQs) according to patients' postal codes. RESULTS: Incidence rates in the lowest InQs were significantly higher than in the highest InQs for all HNC subsites. The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer increased over the time period 1992-2007 for all InQs. However, the greatest increase in incidence was in the highest InQs. As a result, over the time period the gap between the incidence of the highest and lowest InQs significantly narrowed for oropharyngeal cancer. For oral cavity cancer and the other head and neck cancers, the overall incidence did not increase and the gap in incidence did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: HNC incidence was higher with lower income in all HNC subsites in Canada from 1992 to 2007. The gap in incidence between the highest and the lowest InQs narrowed for oropharyngeal cancer over the time period studied, but was unchanged for the other HNC subsites.

Hwang E; Johnson-Obaseki S; McDonald JT; Connell C; Corsten M

2013-09-01

194

Relationship between socio-economic features and health status in elderly hospitalized patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We aimed at investigating the relationship between socioeconomic (SES) and health status in the context of an observational multicenter study of elderly hospitalized patients. Our series consisted of 473 patients aged 70 years or more. K-means cluster analysis was used to generate 3 clusters on the basis of age, gender, education, perception of personal economic situation, difficulty to reach health services, need for formal or informal support, family arrangement, and population density of residence municipality. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of "negative" SES. Correlates of "negative" SES cluster were older age (odds ratio=OR=5.19, 95% Cl=2.28-11.8), cognitive impairment (OR=6.36, 95%CI=3.11-13.0), emergency hospital admission (OR=3.11; 95%CI=1.52-6.35), and dependency in at least 1 BADL (OR=4.36, 95%CI=1.53-12.4). In conclusion, "negative" SES is associated with age and selected indices of frailty in elderly hospitalized patients. The evaluation of socio-economic problems should be routinely addressed in elderly hospitalized patients in order to tailor appropriately post-discharge use of health care resources.

Lucchetti M; Corsonello A; Fabbietti P; Greco C; Mazzei B; Pranno L; Lattanzio F

2009-01-01

195

Health, United States, 2011: With Special Feature on Socioeconomic Status and Health  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health, United States, 2011 is the 35th report on the health status of the Nation and is submitted by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services to the President and the Congress of the United States in compliance with Section 308 of the Public Health Service Act. This report was compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). The National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics served in a review capacity. The Health, United States series presents an annual look at national trends in health statistics. The report contains a Chartbook that assesses the Nation’s health by presenting trends and current information on selected measures of morbidity, mortality, health care utilization, health risk factors, prevention, health insurance, and personal health care expenditures. This year’s Chartbook includes a Special Feature on Socioeconomic Status and Health. The report also contains 151 Trend Tables organized around four major subject areas: health status and determinants, health care utilization, health care resources, and health care expenditures. A companion product to Health, United States—Health, United States: In Brief—features information extracted from the full report. The complete report, In Brief, and related data products are available on the Health, United States website at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm.

196

Food reinforcement partially mediates the effect of socioeconomic status on body mass index.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Low socioeconomic status (low SES), as defined by income or educational attainment, has been associated with obesity in industrialized nations. Low SES persons have limited resources and may experience food insecurity that increases food reinforcement. Food reinforcement has been positively related to energy intake and weight status, and increased food reinforcement may explain the higher prevalence of obesity among low SES individuals who have restricted access to low-energy-dense foods and nonfood reinforcers. DESIGN AND METHODS: Annual household income, highest education level completed and food reinforcement in 166 adults of varying body mass index (BMI, kg m(-2) ) was measured. RESULTS: Multivariate linear regression analyses controlling for age, sex, minority status, session hunger, and the reinforcing value of nonfood alternatives showed that household income was related to food reinforcement (P = 0.048) and BMI (P = 0.019), and that food reinforcement was related to BMI (P = 0.0017). Path analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of household income on BMI through food reinforcement, suggesting that the relationship between lower household income and greater BMI was mediated in part by increased food reinforcement. A similar pattern of results was observed when education level was used as the proxy for SES. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that deprivation and restricted food choice associated with low SES enhance food reinforcement, increasing the risk for obesity.

Lin H; Carr KA; Fletcher KD; Epstein LH

2013-07-01

197

Phonological skills and vocabulary knowledge mediate socioeconomic status effects in predicting reading outcomes for Chinese children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and vocabulary abilities exerted equally strong and independent mediation of the SES effects on children's reading achievement by the end of 3rd grade for this Chinese sample. These findings not only replicate studies in alphabetic languages but, because of their longitudinal nature, also demonstrate the potential for interventions focused on improving children's early language skills, and at which ages these factors may have the greatest impact.

Zhang Y; Tardif T; Shu H; Li H; Liu H; McBride-Chang C; Liang W; Zhang Z

2013-04-01

198

Health, socioeconomic status and self-preception in the elderly: An application of the interpersonal checklist.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One-hundred and thirty-four men and women in the Bonn Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) sample from sixty-two to eighty-one years of age were tested and re-tested a year later using the Interpersonal Checklist (ICL) to study the effects of health, sex, socioeconomic status and time of self perception. Preliminary item analysis justified the use of the ICL for older people. A multiple analysis of variance for repeated measures with the factors SEX, SES, and TIME yielded two interactions for "rebellious-distrustful (FG by sex x health) and "self effacing-masochistic" (HI by time x health) and three main-effects for "agressive-sadistic" (DE by sex), "self-effacing-masochistic" (HI by SES) and "docile-dependent" (IK by time).

Angleitner A

1978-01-01

199

Does socioeconomic status explain the relationship between admissions tests and post-secondary academic performance?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Critics of educational admissions tests assert that tests measure nothing more than socioeconomic status (SES) and that their apparent validity in predicting academic performance is an artifact of SES. The authors examined multiple large data sets containing data on admissions and related tests, SES, and grades showing that (a) SES is related to test scores (r = .42 among the population of SAT takers), (b) test scores are predictive of academic performance, and (c) statistically controlling for SES reduces the estimated test?grade correlation from r = .47 to r = .44. Thus, the vast majority of the test?academic performance relationship was independent of SES: The authors concluded that the test?grade relationship is not an artifact of common influences of SES on both test scores and grades.

Sackett PR; Kuncel NR; Arneson JJ; Cooper SR; Waters SD

2009-01-01

200

The effects of socioeconomic status on participation in care among middle-aged and older adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the effects of socioeconomic status (education and poverty) on seeking health information and subsequent use of this information during the medical encounter. METHOD: Data on 19,944 adults (aged 45 and older) were drawn from the 2000-2001 Household Component of the Community Tracking Study, a nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized individuals. RESULTS: Higher levels of education were associated with a greater likelihood of seeking health information and mentioning information to physicians. The poor and near poor were less likely to seek health information, but only the near poor were significantly less likely to mention information to the physician. DISCUSSION: These findings underscore the importance of education in the acquisition and use of health information among middle-aged and older adults.

Wiltshire JC; Roberts V; Brown R; Sarto GE

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Mastery in Middle Adolescence: The Contributions of Socioeconomic Status, Maternal Mastery and Supportive-Involved Mothering.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mastery, or the feeling of power or control over one's life, is a vital yet understudied covariate of wellbeing in adolescence and adulthood. The goal of the current study was to explore the effects of demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES)), maternal mastery, and supportive-involved mothering on children's mastery at ages 16-17 years. 855 teens (47.6 % female) and their mothers provided study data as part of the 1992 and 1998 waves of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (NLSY-79; 24.1 % Hispanic, 36.6 % Black). Hybrid path models indicated that only maternal parenting during middle childhood was linked directly to levels of children's mastery in middle adolescence; a small portion of the association between parenting and adolescent mastery was attributable to SES. The discussion centers on significance of these findings for future research and theory development.

Moilanen KL; Shen YL

2013-04-01

202

Intellectual interest mediates gene × socioeconomic status interaction on adolescent academic achievement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies have demonstrated that genetic influences on cognitive ability and academic achievement are larger for children raised in higher socioeconomic status (SES) homes. However, little work has been done to document the psychosocial processes that underlie this Gene × Environment interaction. One process may involve the conversion of intellectual interest into academic achievement. Analyses of data from 777 pairs of 17-year-old twins indicated that Gene × SES effects on achievement scores can be accounted for by stronger influences of genes for intellectual interest on achievement at higher levels of SES. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that higher SES affords greater opportunity for children to seek out and benefit from learning experiences that are congruent with their genetically influenced intellectual interests.

Tucker-Drob EM; Harden KP

2012-03-01

203

Racial differences in mortality in older adults: factors beyond socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the simultaneous effect of socioeconomic status (SES), psychosocial, and health-related factors on race differences in mortality in older adults. PURPOSE: This study examined the association between race and mortality and the role of SES, health insurance, psychosocial factors, behavioral factors, and health-related factors in explaining these differences. METHODS: Data consisted of 2,938 adults participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. Mortality was assessed over 8 years. RESULTS: SES differences accounted for 60% of the racial differences in all-cause mortality; behavioral factors and self-rated health further reduced the disparity. The racial differences in coronary heart disease mortality were completely explained by SES. Health insurance and behavioral factors accounted for some, but not all, of the race differences in cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Race-related risk factors for mortality may differ by the underlying cause of mortality.

Thorpe RJ Jr; Koster A; Bosma H; Harris TB; Simonsick EM; van Eijk JT; Kempen GI; Newman AB; Satterfield S; Rubin SM; Kritchevsky SB

2012-02-01

204

An additive regression model for investigating the relationship between childhood health and socio-economic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health risks associated with socio-economic status (SES) have extensively been studied in epidemiology. It is not uncommon that data used exhibit spatial correlation, nonlinear effects, overdispersion and heterogeneity, and structured additive regression (STAR) models permit incorporating these features in a single analytical framework. Nevertheless, most STAR models assume constant spatial effects. However, due to social or disease transmission processes, covariates may be space-varying. We explore this feature by fitting a multinomial logistic model on a joint response variable constructed from four health indicators (i.e. a child having fever, diarrhoea, or being stunted and underweight) and examine its relationship with SES estimated as a space-varying coefficient (SVC) variable. Implementation of the model follow a Bayesian framework. Our comparison with models that assume constant spatial effects shows superiority of the SVC model as well as confirms the fact that SES varies in space.

Kazembe LN

2013-09-01

205

Variation in sport participation, fitness and motor coordination with socioeconomic status among Flemish children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Socioeconomic status (SES) is often indicated as a factor that influences physical activity and associated health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between SES and sport participation, morphology, fitness and motor coordination in a sample of 1955 Flemish children 6-11 years of age. Gender, age and SES-specific values for morphologic dimensions, amount and type of sport participation and fitness and motor coordination tests were compared. SES was positively and significantly associated with sport participation and sports club membership in both sexes. Although differences were not consistently significant, morphologic dimensions and tests of fitness and motor coordination showed a trend in favor of children from higher SES. The results suggest that public and local authorities should consider providing equal opportunities for children in all social strata and especially those in the lower SES to experience the beneficial effects of sport participation through which they can enhance levels of physical fitness and motor coordination.

Vandendriessche JB; Vandorpe BF; Vaeyens R; Malina RM; Lefevre J; Lenoir M; Philippaerts RM

2012-02-01

206

WAITING TIME AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS-AN INDIVIDUAL-LEVEL ANALYSIS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Waiting time is a rationing mechanism that is used in publicly funded healthcare systems. From an equity viewpoint, it is regarded as preferable to co-payments. However, long waits are an indication of poor quality of service. To our knowledge, this analysis is the first to benefit from individual-level data from administrative registers to investigate the relationship between waiting time, income, and education. Furthermore, it makes use of an extensive set of medical information that serves as indicators of patient need. Differences in waiting time by socioeconomic status are detected. For men, there is a statistically highly significant negative association between income and waiting time, driven by men in the highest income group, which constitutes 12% of all men. More educated women, that is, those having an education above compulsory schooling, experience lower waiting time than their fellow sisters with the lowest level of education. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Monstad K; Engesaeter LB; Espehaug B

2013-04-01

207

Role models and the psychological characteristics that buffer low-socioeconomic-status youth from cardiovascular risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163 youth, ages 13-16, completed role model interviews and shift-and-persist measures while cholesterol and inflammatory markers, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein were assessed. Low-SES youth with supportive role models had lower IL-6. Low-SES youth high in shift-and-persist also had lower IL-6. Shift-and-persist partially mediated the interaction of SES and role models on IL-6. Benefits were not found among high-SES youth. Identifying psychological buffers in low-SES youth has implications for health disparities. PMID:23278857

Chen, Edith; Lee, William K; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

2012-12-20

208

Role models and the psychological characteristics that buffer low-socioeconomic-status youth from cardiovascular risk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163 youth, ages 13-16, completed role model interviews and shift-and-persist measures while cholesterol and inflammatory markers, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein were assessed. Low-SES youth with supportive role models had lower IL-6. Low-SES youth high in shift-and-persist also had lower IL-6. Shift-and-persist partially mediated the interaction of SES and role models on IL-6. Benefits were not found among high-SES youth. Identifying psychological buffers in low-SES youth has implications for health disparities.

Chen E; Lee WK; Cavey L; Ho A

2013-07-01

209

Relations between Internet use, socio-economic status (SES), social support and subjective health.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to explore relations between Internet use, socio-economic status (SES), social support and subjective health. Participants were from representative samples between 15 and 80 years of age from seven different European countries. Two different survey datasets were used: (i) eHealth trends (eHT; N = 7934) and (ii) the European social survey (ESS2; N = 11248). Internet users who had used the Internet for health purposes were compared with Internet users who had not used it for health purposes. Structural equation modelling was used to assess the relationships between SES, Internet use, social support and subjective health. Use of other media was compared to Internet use in relation to social support and subjective health. Internet use was found to be more closely related to social support and subjective health than use of other media. Internet use was also found to be a plausible mediator between SES and subjective health, especially through interacting with social support. PMID:18083686

Wangberg, Silje C; Andreassen, Hege K; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Santana, Silvina Maria Vagos; Sørensen, Tove; Chronaki, Catharine E

2007-12-13

210

Moderating effect of socioeconomic status on the relationship between health cognitions and behaviors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is an established link between socioeconomic status (SES) and performance of health behaviors with more health protective and fewer health-risking behaviors in higher SES groups. PURPOSE: This research is novel in testing the moderating effect of SES on the relationship among intention, self-efficacy, and subsequent behavior. METHODS: Effects were tested on data from three prospective correlational studies examining smoking initiation in adolescents (N?=?826), breastfeeding in primiparous women (N?=?202), and physical activity in working adults (N?=?509). RESULTS: Despite examining different behaviors, samples, time intervals, and measures of SES, each study showed significant interactions between intention and SES in predicting behavior. In all three tests, the intention-behavior relationship was attenuated among individuals from lower SES groups. No moderation effects of SES were found for self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: The intention-health behavior relationship can be attenuated in lower SES samples. This finding may contribute to our understanding of SES differences in health behaviors.

Conner M; McEachan R; Jackson C; McMillan B; Woolridge M; Lawton R

2013-08-01

211

Socioeconomic status and the incidence of non-central nervous system childhood embryonic tumours in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood cancer differs from most common adult cancers, suggesting a distinct aetiology for some types of childhood cancer. Our objective in this study was to test the difference in incidence rates of 4 non-CNS embryonic tumours and their correlation with socioeconomic status (SES) in Brazil. Methods Data was obtained from 13 Brazilian population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) of neuroblastoma (NB), Wilms'tumour (WT), retinoblastoma (RB), and hepatoblastoma (HB). Incidence rates by tumour type, age, and gender were calculated per one million children. Correlations between social exclusion index (SEI) as an indicator of socioeconomic status (SES) and incidence rates was investigated using the Spearman's test. Results WT, RB, and HB presented with the highest age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIRs) in 1 to 4 year old of both genders, whereas NB presented the highest AAIR in ?11 month-olds. However, differences in the incidence rates among PBCRs were observed. Higher incidence rates were found for WT and RB, whereas lower incidence rates were observed for NB. Higher SEI was correlated with higher incidences of NB (0.731; p = 0.0117), whereas no SEI correlation was observed between incidence rates for WT, RB, and HB. In two Brazilian cities, the incidence rates of NB and RB were directly correlated with SEI; NB had the highest incidence rates (14.2, 95% CI, 8.6-19.7), and RB the lowest (3.5, 95% CI, 0.7-6.3) in Curitiba (SEI, 0.730). In Natal (SEI, 0.595), we observed just the opposite; the highest incidence rate was for RB and the lowest was for NB (4.6, 95% CI, 0.1-9.1). Conclusion Regional variations of SES and the incidence of embryonal tumours were observed, particularly incidence rates for NB and RB. Further studies are necessary to investigate risk factors for embryonic tumours in Brazil.

de Camargo Beatriz; de Oliveira Ferreira Juliana; de Souza Reis Rejane; Ferman Sima; de Oliveira Santos Marceli; Pombo-de-Oliveira Maria S

2011-01-01

212

The Assessment of Relations between Socioeconomic Status and Number of Complications among Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background:The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Iranian aged 25-64 estimated to be about 7.7%.The aim of current study was the assessment of socioeconomic status of diabetic patients and their complications.Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted on type 2 diabetic patients with complications in four major teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) during July 2009 to March 2010. All patients (530) were interviewed through a questionnaire with 85% response rate (450 patients). Skilled nurses were assigned as responsible for data collection. Collected data analyzed by Exact Fisher and ?2 tests using SPSS version 11.5.Results: The majority of patients had experienced one or more complications. Findings revealed that 50%, 33.6% and 16.4% of the patients suffered from one, two, and three complications of type 2 diabetes, respectively. Patients with cardiovascular complications included 22.2%, with both cardiovascular and eye complications (12.7%), and with cardiovascular, eye and foot ulcer together 14% of the respondents. Frequency of complications demonstrated significant relation with sex,age,educational level,type of occupation, duration of diabetes (P<0.001) and social class (P=0.002).The majority of patients (54.2%) belonged to low income group.Conclusion: It seems patients with low socioeconomic status face more challenges in their social environment together with less psychological support. Health care systems are responsible to empower them to control their illness and feel a better life to live.

A Tol; A Pourreza; D Shojaeezadeh; M Mahmoodi; B Mohebbi

2012-01-01

213

Dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing: The relevance of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examined the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing (as reflected in physical symptom reporting) in two groups of American and Jordanian college students. It also assessed moderation effects of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Participants were administered a questionnaire consisting of items pertaining to dispositional optimism (as measured by the Revised Life Orientation Test, LOT-R) along with items assessing physical symptom reporting and sociodemographic factors (e.g., gender, socioeconomic status). The results revealed significant negative correlations between dispositional optimism and physical symptom reporting for both American and Jordanian participants, although the magnitude of the correlation for the American group was noticeably larger than that for the Jordanian group. The results also showed that women, especially Jordanians, were more likely than men to report physical symptoms. Among Jordanians, physical symptom reporting was more common among those of lower SES. No statistically significant differences in physical symptom reporting were found between American men and women or between the two cultural groups. Multiple regression analyses revealed no statistically significant interactions between optimism and cultural background, optimism and gender, or optimism and SES. Overall, the results suggest that optimism is the factor most predictive of physical symptom reporting, followed by SES and gender. These results corroborate previous findings on the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing, and point to crosscultural differences in relationship patterns. These differences suggest that although personality characteristics such as optimism may play an important role in the physical wellbeing of both Western and non-Western groups, the influence of sociodemographic factors such as gender and SES and their interaction with cultural variables must not be overlooked.

Khallad Y

2013-10-01

214

Dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing: The relevance of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing (as reflected in physical symptom reporting) in two groups of American and Jordanian college students. It also assessed moderation effects of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Participants were administered a questionnaire consisting of items pertaining to dispositional optimism (as measured by the Revised Life Orientation Test, LOT-R) along with items assessing physical symptom reporting and sociodemographic factors (e.g., gender, socioeconomic status). The results revealed significant negative correlations between dispositional optimism and physical symptom reporting for both American and Jordanian participants, although the magnitude of the correlation for the American group was noticeably larger than that for the Jordanian group. The results also showed that women, especially Jordanians, were more likely than men to report physical symptoms. Among Jordanians, physical symptom reporting was more common among those of lower SES. No statistically significant differences in physical symptom reporting were found between American men and women or between the two cultural groups. Multiple regression analyses revealed no statistically significant interactions between optimism and cultural background, optimism and gender, or optimism and SES. Overall, the results suggest that optimism is the factor most predictive of physical symptom reporting, followed by SES and gender. These results corroborate previous findings on the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing, and point to crosscultural differences in relationship patterns. These differences suggest that although personality characteristics such as optimism may play an important role in the physical wellbeing of both Western and non-Western groups, the influence of sociodemographic factors such as gender and SES and their interaction with cultural variables must not be overlooked. PMID:22822989

Khallad, Yacoub

2012-07-24

215

Incidence of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer by Socioeconomic Status and Urban residence: Canada 1991-2006.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in Canada. The purpose of this study was to investigate the following questions: 1) What was the magnitude of increased incidence of thyroid cancer in Canada from 1991-2006? 2) Is there an association between socioeconomic status (SES) and thyroid cancer incidence in Canada? 3) Does the relationship between SES and the incidence of thyroid cancer vary by rural/urban status? Methods: Thyroid cancer cases were drawn from the Canadian Cancer Registry. Demographic and socioeconomic information were extracted from the Canadian Census of Population data. We linked cases to income quintiles (InQs) according to patients' postal codes, and categorized place of residence into city, town, or rural. We then performed a negative binomial regression analysis on the incidence of thyroid cancer to identify relationships between these variables. Results: The overall incidence of thyroid cancer in Canada increased by 156% between 1991 and 2006. Incidence was significantly lower among individuals from lower InQs (IRR 0.77 for lowest InQ compared to highest). The incidence of thyroid cancer was more than 25% lower in towns or rural areas compared to cities, after controlling for SES and demographic factors. Lastly, when we allowed the relationship between thyroid cancer incidence and geography of residence to vary by SES we found that the difference in incidence between highest and lowest InQs was significantly larger in cities than in towns and was insignificant in rural areas. Discussion/Conclusion: Our study confirmed a dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence in Canada. Thyroid cancer incidence was significantly higher in higher InQs and in cities. These data support the theory that increased access to imaging is largely responsible for this increased incidence.

Guay B; Johnson-Obaseki SE; McDonald JT; Connell C; Corsten M

2013-09-01

216

Association between socioeconomic status and HIV-associated oral lesions in Rio de Janeiro from 1997 to 2004  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The prevalence of HIV-related oral lesions may vary according to socioeconomic status and antiretroviral therapy, among other factors. This study's intent was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic indicators, CD4+ counts and HIV-related oral lesions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. A retrospective epidemiological analysis was performed of the medical records of HIV-positive patients that attended the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro between 1997 (more) and 2004. Gender, age, mode of HIV transmission, level of education, monthly familial income, CD4+ counts and HIV-related oral lesions were assessed. For statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was used with a level of significance of 5%. 254 medical records were reviewed: 83 women and 171 men. Monthly familial income below 2 minimum wages was associated with a higher prevalence of pseudomembranous candidiasis (p = 0.024), while income above 10 minimum wages was associated with a higher prevalence of salivary gland disease (p = 0.021). Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower CD4+ counts (p = 0.017). In this study, an association was noted between socioeconomic status, immune suppression and prevalence of oral lesions. However, further studies are warranted using other socioeconomic variables in order to better assess this relationship.

Noce, Cesar Werneck; Ferreira, Sonia Maria Soares; Silva Júnior, Arley; Dias, Eliane Pedra

2009-06-01

217

Association between socioeconomic status and HIV-associated oral lesions in Rio de Janeiro from 1997 to 2004  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of HIV-related oral lesions may vary according to socioeconomic status and antiretroviral therapy, among other factors. This study's intent was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic indicators, CD4+ counts and HIV-related oral lesions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. A retrospective epidemiological analysis was performed of the medical records of HIV-positive patients that attended the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro between 1997 and 2004. Gender, age, mode of HIV transmission, level of education, monthly familial income, CD4+ counts and HIV-related oral lesions were assessed. For statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was used with a level of significance of 5%. 254 medical records were reviewed: 83 women and 171 men. Monthly familial income below 2 minimum wages was associated with a higher prevalence of pseudomembranous candidiasis (p = 0.024), while income above 10 minimum wages was associated with a higher prevalence of salivary gland disease (p = 0.021). Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower CD4+ counts (p = 0.017). In this study, an association was noted between socioeconomic status, immune suppression and prevalence of oral lesions. However, further studies are warranted using other socioeconomic variables in order to better assess this relationship.

Cesar Werneck Noce; Sonia Maria Soares Ferreira; Arley Silva Júnior; Eliane Pedra Dias

2009-01-01

218

Association of lifecourse socioeconomic status with chronic inflammation and type 2 diabetes risk: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic adversity in early life has been hypothesized to "program" a vulnerable phenotype with exaggerated inflammatory responses, so increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The aim of this study is to test this hypothesis by assessing the extent to which the association between lifecourse socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes incidence is explained by chronic inflammation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use data from the British Whitehall II study, a prospective occupational cohort of adults established in 1985. The inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured repeatedly and type 2 diabetes incidence (new cases) was monitored over an 18-year follow-up (from 1991-1993 until 2007-2009). Our analytical sample consisted of 6,387 non-diabetic participants (1,818 women), of whom 731 (207 women) developed type 2 diabetes over the follow-up. Cumulative exposure to low socioeconomic status from childhood to middle age was associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood (hazard ratio [HR]?=?1.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.48-2.58 for low cumulative lifecourse socioeconomic score and HR?=?1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.26-1.91 for low-low socioeconomic trajectory). 25% of the excess risk associated with cumulative socioeconomic adversity across the lifecourse and 32% of the excess risk associated with low-low socioeconomic trajectory was attributable to chronically elevated inflammation (95% confidence intervals 16%-58%). CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, chronic inflammation explained a substantial part of the association between lifecourse socioeconomic disadvantage and type 2 diabetes. Further studies should be performed to confirm these findings in population-based samples, as the Whitehall II cohort is not representative of the general population, and to examine the extent to which social inequalities attributable to chronic inflammation are reversible.

Stringhini S; Batty GD; Bovet P; Shipley MJ; Marmot MG; Kumari M; Tabak AG; Kivimäki M

2013-07-01

219

Aircraft Carriers: China´s way to Great Power Status?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There are many indications that China is actively researching the design of an aircraft carrier. It is unknown whether China will initiate the actual acquisition of a carrier, but the indications that are available of their research into aircraft carriers and carrier-capable aircraft, as well as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status as a great power in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy, with potentially far-reaching consequences for the countries of the region. The Chinese have bought several retired carriers, which they have studied in great detail. The largest is the Russian-built carrier Varyag of the Kuznetsov class, which today is anchored in the Chinese Naval Base at Dalian. If they decide to acquire a carrier, they can either buy one or build it themselves. The easiest way would be to buy a carrier, and if that is the chosen option, then Russia would be the most likely country to build it. Technologically, it will be a major challenge for them to build one themselves and it is likely that they would have to obtain the assistance of another country. But there are indications, that China may choose this more diffi cult path, since it has bought four Russian carrier landing systems. China is very secretive about this, but when all the information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for China to complete, especially if they develop the complex catapult with which to launch the fi ghter aircraft, not to mention the possible development of a nuclear power plant for the ship. The Russian press has indicated that China is negotiating to buy SU-33 fi ghters, which Russia uses on the Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an alternative China may chose to modify the domestically produced J-10 or J-11 multirole fi ghter. If China does decide to acquire carriers, it would be operationally logical to acquire a minimum of two to three carriers to ensure an adequate and continually available combat capability. A Chinese carrier group, with the associated protection and support vessels, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new carriers. All these carriers could potentially infl uence Chinese interests in the future, and this could be a

NØdskov, Kim

2008-01-01

220

Effect Of Stress On The Academic Achievement Of Students In Relation To Socio-economic Status And Sex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Children feel stress long before they grow up. Many children have to cope with family conflict, divorce, constant changes in schools, neighbourhood and child care arrangements, peer pressure and sometimes even violence in their homes or communities. The impact of a stressor depends on the academic achievement of students. It is the stress which does not allow students to perform well in classroom situation, the study objectives The objectives tested in this part of the study are as under 1. To study the differences in scores of academic achievement between the students possessing different levels of stress belonging to different socio-economic status and sex. 2. To study the nature of interaction between stress and socio-economic status, stress and sex, and among stress, socioeconomic status and sex when academic achievement was taken as a dependent variable. The study reveals that students belonging to High Socio-economic Status are academically sound as compared to their counterparts while as when male and female students compared together they have an equal chance of being academically sound or poor. This reveals that when stress and sex, and SES and Sex taken jointing they do effect on dependent variable i.e. academic achievement.

Bharti Sharma

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Socioeconomic status, cardiovascular risk factors, and subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which socioeconomic status (SES) in young adults is associated with cardiovascular risk factor levels and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and their changes over a 6-year follow-up period.

Kestilä, P; Magnussen, CG; Viikari, JS; Kähönen, M; Hutri-Kähönen, N; Taittonen, L; Jula, A; Loo, BM; Pietikäinen, M

222

The Impact of Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Language, and Training Program on Teaching Choice among New Teachers in California  

Science.gov (United States)

The cultural disparity between teachers and students has been a concern among educators for quite some time. While the student body grows more ethnically heterogeneous, non-Hispanic Whites, especially women, continue to dominate the teaching profession. Ethnicity, language, and socioeconomic status (SES) all play a critical role in the education…

Green, Tonika Duren; Tran, MyLuong; Young, Russell

2005-01-01

223

Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, Culture, and Immigration: Examining the Potential Mechanisms Underlying Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Organized Activity Participation  

Science.gov (United States)

The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms…

Simpkins, Sandra D.; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Price, Chara D.; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

224

Patients' beliefs about the causes of heart disease: relationships with risk factors, sex and socio-economic status.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients' beliefs about the causes of their heart disease (causal attributions) are important to effective medical communication, psychological adaptation, and adherence to advice. We assessed the extent to which causal attributions relate to risk factors, sex and socio-economic status in men and wo...

Perkins-Porras, L; Whitehead, DL; Steptoe, A

225

The Association of Sexual Behaviors with Socioeconomic Status, Family Structure, and Race/Ethnicity among U.S. Adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessed the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES), family structure, and race/ethnicity to adolescent sexual behaviors that are key determinants of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data from the 1992 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that differences in adolescent sexual behavior by race and SES were not large enough to…

Santelli, John S.; Lowry, Richard; Brener, Nancy D.; Robin, Leah

2000-01-01

226

IS POSTURE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN ASSOCIATED WITH SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OF THEIR PARENTS?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with health is well-established. Nevertheless; theunderlying mechanisms linking SES to adverse health outcomes have yet to be established. Wehypothesized that poor posture as a risk factor in general health would be directly related to SESand as such; eventually influences health. In eepresentative clustered sample of 100 childrenaged 7-11; kyphosis; lordosis; head and shoulder posture were examined. SES data wascollected from parents. Poor posture was seen in 68% children. Less posture score diagnosed inchildren with poor SES (p<0.01; ?=0.769). In logistic regression (p<0.05); only 3 out of the 5estimates (Household income: ?=0.244; Mother’s education: ?=0.449; Father’s education:?=0.279) were statically significant; while there was no association between social-class ofparents and children posture. This might be the consequence of the perception that people withhigher SES have better nutritional and physical activity status and more postural education.

Shahrzad Zandi; Reza Rajabi

2011-01-01

227

Association of race and socioeconomic status and outcomes of patients with rectal cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated disparities of race and socioeconomic status (SES) with outcomes in patients with rectal cancer. We hypothesize that disparities exist in the treatment and outcomes among patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: Medical records of all patients with rectal cancer treated from 2000 to 2009 at an NCI cancer center (Fox Chase Cancer Center) and an urban academic center (Temple University Hospital) were retrospectively reviewed from a prospectively maintained tumor registry database. SES was estimated using census data. Quartiles of income and education based on zip codes were calculated. Lowest vs other quartiles were compared. Clinicopathologic variables included: initial stage, chemotherapy refusal, sphincter preservation, and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 748 patients were included in the analysis (581 white, 135 black, 6 other, 26 unknown). No difference in race, SES, or insurance status was seen with regard to stage at presentation. Chemotherapy and radiation refusal was rare. After excluding stage IV patients; sphincter preservation was more common among those with higher income. Median OS for all stages was worse for nonwhite patients (31 vs 50 months, p < .001), and those with low income and education. OS disparities were most pronounced among nonwhite patients with advanced disease. Insurance was not associated with a survival difference. Age, stage, and race were independent predictors of survival. CONCLUSIONS: Disparity exists in outcomes of patients with rectal cancer. Nonwhite race is associated with worse OS, and lower SES is associated with lower OS and sphincter preservation among patients with rectal cancer.

Nitzkorski JR; Willis AI; Nick D; Zhu F; Farma JM; Sigurdson ER

2013-04-01

228

Socioeconomic status and health among older adults in Thailand: an examination using multiple indicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 14,000 Thais, 50 and older, is utilized to test hypotheses about the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health previously derived through observation of Western populations. Central among hypotheses is the notion that an inverse association can be uniformly detected across a matrix of SES indicators and health outcomes. Indicators of SES in this study include the traditional education, occupation and income measures, and a measure of household possessions. This later indicator may be particularly useful in a non-Western setting such as Thailand. Health outcomes were derived in order to represent a subjective, a social, and a medical conceptualization of health and included measures for self-assessed health, functional disorders and chronic health conditions. All health indicators were dichotomously coded as existence or non-existence. Also tested are associations throughout ordered categories of SES. Results generally support hypotheses. Unadjusted for other SES covariates, all four indicators of status strongly related to two of the three health measures, when controlling for other important covariates. When adjusted for each other, a number of the associations remained strong. There were also several notable exceptions. Little association existed between SES and chronic health disorders. The results may serve to highlight the distinct social environment acting upon the association. PMID:11281411

Zimmer, Z; Amornsirisomboon, P

2001-04-01

229

Socioeconomic status and health among older adults in Thailand: an examination using multiple indicators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey of 14,000 Thais, 50 and older, is utilized to test hypotheses about the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health previously derived through observation of Western populations. Central among hypotheses is the notion that an inverse association can be uniformly detected across a matrix of SES indicators and health outcomes. Indicators of SES in this study include the traditional education, occupation and income measures, and a measure of household possessions. This later indicator may be particularly useful in a non-Western setting such as Thailand. Health outcomes were derived in order to represent a subjective, a social, and a medical conceptualization of health and included measures for self-assessed health, functional disorders and chronic health conditions. All health indicators were dichotomously coded as existence or non-existence. Also tested are associations throughout ordered categories of SES. Results generally support hypotheses. Unadjusted for other SES covariates, all four indicators of status strongly related to two of the three health measures, when controlling for other important covariates. When adjusted for each other, a number of the associations remained strong. There were also several notable exceptions. Little association existed between SES and chronic health disorders. The results may serve to highlight the distinct social environment acting upon the association.

Zimmer Z; Amornsirisomboon P

2001-04-01

230

Socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome in the general population of China: a cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual socioeconomic status (SES) has been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases in developed countries, but the association between individual SES and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is still unclear in China. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between individual SES and MetS in China. Methods A cross-sectional study of 10054 community residents was performed from May to August 2007 using multistage stratified random sampling. SES was assessed in terms of education, personal monthly income, and household monthly income. The association between SES and MetS was determined by logistic regression models. Results After the adjustments regarding age, marital status, smoking, drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and community type, odds ratios (ORs) for MetS of individuals with education level of 7~12 years and >12 years were 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75 to 0.99) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.62 to 0.91) respectively compared with those with education level of Conclusions Gender had an influence on the association between individual SES and MetS. Lower education and household monthly income level were associated with higher risk of MetS among community residents in women, while such association was not significant in men.

Zhan Yiqiang; Yu Jinming; Chen Ruoqing; Gao Junling; Ding Rongjing; Fu Yuanyuan; Zhang Lijun; Hu Dayi

2012-01-01

231

The effect of socioeconomic status on treatment and pregnancy outcomes in women with epilepsy in Scotland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared to the background population, people with epilepsy tend to have lower rates of education and employment, lower rates of marriage and childbearing, and lower overall socioeconomic status (SES). Disparities in epilepsy care based on sociodemographic factors have been observed in the literature, but it is not known whether any such disparities exist in the UK. The UK Epilepsy and Pregnancy Register is a prospective, observational, registration and follow-up study that was set up to determine the relative safety of all AEDs taken in pregnancy. Here, we report outcomes of registered pregnancies to women with epilepsy living in Scotland from December 1996 to June 2012, based on the degree of socioeconomic deprivation of their postcode area. The Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) quintile scores from 2006 were used to determine degree of socioeconomic deprivation, and group 1 (most deprived) and group 5 (least deprived) were compared. There were 1526 pregnancies with complete outcome data to women living in Scotland. Of these, 1453 (95.1%) resulted in a live birth and 68 (4.7%) had a major congenital malformation (MCM). Postcodes could not be reliably identified or verified for an additional three women, who have been excluded from SIMD group analysis. Of all women included in this study, 32.4% were in group 1 and 13.2% in group 5. No difference in MCM rate was observed between the two groups (4.4% in group 1 compared to 4.7% in group 5, p=0.84). Women in group 5 were more likely to take preconceptual folic acid (56.8% compared to 14.0%, relative risk: 4.1; 95% CI: 3.1-5.2) and less likely to have generalized tonic-clonic seizures in pregnancy (13.0% compared to 29.2%, relative risk: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3-0.7) than those in group 1. Women in group 5 were more likely to be on monotherapy regimens (80.2% compared to 65.9%, relative risk: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1-1.3), less likely to be on valproate (19.5% compared to 28.0%, p=0.05), and more likely to be on lower doses of the drug (825.9mg/day compared to 1012.0mg/day, p=0.05) compared to those in group 1. Although no change in MCM rate was seen based on SES, differences in treatment between socioeconomic groups do exist, particularly for preconceptual folic acid consumption, AED regimen, and seizure frequency. Greater emphasis on the importance of preconceptual counseling, both to discuss AED choice and folic acid intake, would be of benefit, particularly to those living in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation, to improve equity of healthcare delivery for women with epilepsy in Scotland. PMID:23827318

Campbell, E; Hunt, S; Kinney, M O; Guthrie, E; Smithson, W H; Parsons, L; Irwin, B; Morrison, P J; Morrow, J; Craig, J; Russell, A J

2013-07-01

232

Excess direct medical costs of severe obesity by socioeconomic status in German adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Excess direct medical costs of severe obesity are by far higher than of moderate obesity. At the same time, severely obese adults with low socioeconomic status (SES) may be expected to have higher excess costs than those with higher SES, e.g. due to more comorbidities. This study compares excess costs of severe obesity among German adults across different SES groups.Methods: In a subsample (N=947) of the KORA-Survey S4 1999/2001 (a cross-sectional health survey in the Augsburg region, Germany; age group: 25-74 years), visits to physicians, inpatient days in hospital, and received and purchased medication were assessed via computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) over half a year. Body mass index (BMI in kg/m(2)) was measured anthropometrically. SES was determined via reports of education, income, and occupational status from computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI) (used both as single indicators, and as indexed by the Helmert algorithm); due to small subsample sizes all were median-split. Data of respondents in normal weight (18.5 /= 35) range were analysed by generalized linear models with mixed poisson-gamma (Tweedie) distributions. Physician visits and inpatient days were valuated as recommended by the Working Group Methods in Health Economic Evaluation (AG MEG), and drugs were valuated by actual costs. Sex, age, kind of sickness fund (statutory/private) and place of residence (urban/rural) were adjusted for, and comorbidities were considered by the Physical Functional Comorbidity Index (PFCI).Results: Excess costs of severe obesity were higher in respondents with high SES, regardless of the SES indicator used. For instance, annual excess costs were almost three times higher in those with an above-median SES-Index as compared with those with a median or lower SES-Index (plus euro 2,966 vs. plus euro 1,012; contrast significant at p<.001). Mediation of excess costs of severe obesity by physical comorbidities pertained to the low SES-Index and the low occupational status groups: differences in costs between severe obesity and normal weight were still positive, but statistically insignificant, in the lower status groups after adjusting for the PFCI, but still positive and significant given higher SES. For example, severe obesity's excess costs were euro 2,406 after PFCI-adjustment in the high SES-Index group (p<.001), but euro 539 in the lower status group (p=.17). At the same time, physical comorbidities as defined by the PCFI increased with BMI and decreased with SES, however the factors BMI and SES did not significantly interact in this context.Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to show in Germany that excess direct medical costs of severe obesity are not distributed equitably across different SES groups, do not reflect comorbidity status, and are significantly higher in those with high SES than in those with lower SES. Thus, allocation of health care resources spent on severely obese adults seems to be in need of readjustment towards an equitable utilization across all socioeconomic groups. PMID:20421952

von Lengerke, Thomas; John, Jürgen; Mielck, Andreas

2010-04-20

233

Excess direct medical costs of severe obesity by socioeconomic status in German adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Excess direct medical costs of severe obesity are by far higher than of moderate obesity. At the same time, severely obese adults with low socioeconomic status (SES) may be expected to have higher excess costs than those with higher SES, e.g. due to more comorbidities. This study compares excess costs of severe obesity among German adults across different SES groups. Methods: In a subsample (N=947) of the KORA-Survey S4 1999/2001 (a cross-sectional health survey in the Augsburg region, Germany; age group: 25–74 years), visits to physicians, inpatient days in hospital, and received and purchased medication were assessed via computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) over half a year. Body mass index (BMI in kg/m²) was measured anthropometrically. SES was determined via reports of education, income, and occupational status from computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI) (used both as single indicators, and as indexed by the Helmert algorithm); due to small subsample sizes all were median-split. Data of respondents in normal weight (18.5 ? BMI < 25), preobese (25 ? BMI < 30), moderately (class 1:30 ? BMI < 35) and severely obese (classes 2–3: BMI ? 35) range were analysed by generalized linear models with mixed poisson-gamma (Tweedie) distributions. Physician visits and inpatient days were valuated as recommended by the Working Group Methods in Health Economic Evaluation (AG MEG), and drugs were valuated by actual costs. Sex, age, kind of sickness fund (statutory/private) and place of residence (urban/rural) were adjusted for, and comorbidities were considered by the Physical Functional Comorbidity Index (PFCI). Results: Excess costs of severe obesity were higher in respondents with high SES, regardless of the SES indicator used. For instance, annual excess costs were almost three times higher in those with an above-median SES-Index as compared with those with a median or lower SES-Index (plus € 2,966 vs. plus € 1,012; contrast significant at p<.001). Mediation of excess costs of severe obesity by physical comorbidities pertained to the low SES-Index and the low occupational status groups: differences in costs between severe obesity and normal weight were still positive, but statistically insignificant, in the lower status groups after adjusting for the PFCI, but still positive and significant given higher SES. For example, severe obesity’s excess costs were € 2,406 after PFCI-adjustment in the high SES-Index group (p<.001), but € 539 in the lower status group (p=.17). At the same time, physical comorbidities as defined by the PCFI increased with BMI and decreased with SES, however the factors BMI and SES did not significantly interact in this context. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to show in Germany that excess direct medical costs of severe obesity are not distributed equitably across different SES groups, do not reflect comorbidity status, and are significantly higher in those with high SES than in those with lower SES. Thus, allocation of health care resources spent on severely obese adults seems to be in need of readjustment towards an equitable utilization across all socioeconomic groups.

Thomas von Lengerke; Jürgen John; Andreas Mielck; KORA Study Group

2010-01-01

234

The impact of school socioeconomic status on student lunch consumption after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. METHODS: Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the Texas policy. Students recorded amount and source of foods/beverages consumed. Two-way analyses of variance with year and school SES as factors were performed to compare consumption by school SES before and after implementation of the Texas policy. RESULTS: Regardless of year, the low SES group consumed less fat, sweetened beverages, and candy and more vitamin C and calcium than the middle SES group. There were more significant improvements in dietary patterns for the middle SES school students post-policy, particularly from the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) meal. The middle SES school students reported significantly higher percentages of less healthy items from home post-policy. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, low SES school students consumed more healthy lunches at school compared with middle SES school students, and the Texas policy improved middle SES school student dietary intakes. Whether the dietary behaviors in school influence dietary intake for the entire day is unknown.

Cullen KW; Watson KB; Fithian AR

2009-11-01

235

Dynamics of people's socio-economic status in the face of schistosomiasis control interventions in Ukerewe district, Tanzania.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a paucity of research on micro-level assessment of the dynamics of socio-economic status following health interventions. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in low-income countries. Indeed, in such settings information about income is usually lacking and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 159 households in a village in north-western Tanzania before and 1 year after participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based on durable assets ownership (e.g. bicycle and radio) and household characteristics dealing with ownership of land and house construction features (e.g. type of walls and roof). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.761 to -0.448, and the mean from -0.204 (standard deviation (SD) 1.924) to 0.193 (SD 2.079) between pre- and post-intervention phases. The difference in socio-economic status of the people comparing the pre- and post-intervention phases was highly statistically significant (p<0.001). This observation was confirmed by a multinomial model with a random effect on the households. We argue that significant changes in the socio-economic status observed in our study are attributable to the PHAST intervention, despite other sporadic interventions against schistosomiasis.

Mwanga JR; Lwambo NJ; Rumisha SF; Vounatsou P; Utzinger J

2013-11-01

236

Area-based socioeconomic status, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular mortality in Scotland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between type 2 diabetes mellitus, area-based socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular disease mortality in Scotland. METHODS: We used an area-based measure of SES, Scottish national diabetes register data linked to mortality records, and general population cause-specific mortality data to investigate the relationships between SES, type 2 diabetes and mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CbVD), for 2001-2007. We used negative binomial regression to obtain age-adjusted RRs of mortality (by sex), comparing people with type 2 diabetes with the non-diabetic population. RESULTS: Among 216,652 people aged 40 years or older with type 2 diabetes (980,687 person-years), there were 10,554 IHD deaths and 4,378 CbVD deaths. Age-standardised mortality increased with increasing deprivation, and was higher among men. IHD mortality RRs were highest among the least deprived quintile and lowest in the most deprived quintile (men: least deprived, RR 1.94 [95% CI 1.61, 2.33]; most deprived, RR 1.46 [95% CI 1.23, 1.74]) and were higher in women than men (women: least deprived, RR 2.84 [95% CI 2.12, 3.80]; most deprived, RR 2.04 [95% CI 1.55, 2.69]). A similar, weaker, pattern was observed for cerebrovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Absolute risk of cardiovascular mortality is higher in people with diabetes than in the non-diabetic population and increases with increasing deprivation. The relative impact of diabetes on cardiovascular mortality differs by SES, and further efforts to reduce cardiovascular risk both in deprived groups and people with diabetes are required. Prevention of diabetes may reduce socioeconomic health inequalities.

Jackson CA; Jones NR; Walker JJ; Fischbacher CM; Colhoun HM; Leese GP; Lindsay RS; McKnight JA; Morris AD; Petrie JR; Sattar N; Wild SH

2012-11-01

237

Socioeconomic status, John Henryism and blood pressure among African-Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

John Henryism connotes a strong behavioral predisposition to engage in effortful, active coping with difficult social and economic stressors. This behavioral predisposition is measured by the 12 item John Henryism Scale for Active Coping (JHAC). The John Henry hypothesis predicts that the well-known inverse socioeconomic status (SES)-blood pressure association will be stronger among persons who score high rather than low on the JHAC. We tested this hypothesis in a large African American cohort using baseline data from the Jackson Heart Study. Unlike previous studies, we used multiple indicators of SES: income, education, occupation, childhood SES and cumulative SES. Because the hypothesis is most relevant for adults still in the labor force, we excluded retired participants, yielding a sample size of 3978. Gender-specific Poisson regression models for hypertension adjusting for age, John Henryism, SES, and a John Henryism-SES interaction term, were fit to examine associations. Separate models were fit for each SES indicator. We found some evidence that John Henryism modified the association between income and hypertension in men: low income was associated with higher prevalence of hypertension in men who scored high on John Henryism (prevalence ratio (PR) for low vs. high income tertile 1.12), but with lower hypertension prevalence among men who scored low on John Henryism (PR 0.85, one sided P value for multiplicative interaction <0.05). For women, the association of low income with higher hypertension prevalence was stronger at lower than higher levels of John Henryism (PR 1.27 and 1.06 at low and high levels of John Henryism respectively, P value<0.05). There was no evidence that John Henryism modified the associations of hypertension with other SES indicators in men or women. The modest support of the John Henryism Hypothesis in men only, adds to the literature on this subject, but underscores questions regarding the gender, spatial, socioeconomic and historical contexts in which the hypothesis is valid.

Subramanyam MA; James SA; Diez-Roux AV; Hickson DA; Sarpong D; Sims M; Taylor HA Jr; Wyatt SB

2013-09-01

238

Family socioeconomic status and the provision of motor affordances in the home  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) and stimulation provided in the home environment are influential factors in aspects of child well-being including motor development. Little is known regarding the influence of SES on specific aspects of the home environment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the availability of affordances in the home to promote infant motor development and family SES. METHOD : The sample consisted of 300 (more) families with infants aged 3 to 18 months. SES was assessed according to family socioeconomic class, income and parental level of education. To evaluate motor affordances found at home, the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS) was used. The AHEMD-IS was designed to assess dimensions of the home environment including Physical Space (outside and inside space), Daily Activities and Play Materials (fine-motor and gross-motor toys). RESULTS: SES indicators significantly influenced the availability of Physical Space and Play Materials. The Physical Space dimension was influenced by family economic class and income. The Play Materials dimension was influenced by all SES indicators. Daily Activities were not influenced by any of the SES indicators. Daily activities and play material were influenced by the infant's age. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that SES indicators are influential with regard to the provision of motor affordances in the home environment for infants. However, daily activities, which represent an aspect of the environment that is highly dependent on parental generation of situations that are conducive to motor skill development, are independent of family SES.

Freitas, Teresa C. B.; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Montebelo, Maria I. L.; Santos, Denise C. C.

2013-08-01

239

Socioeconomic status, stature, and obesity in women: 20-year trends in urban Colombia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Ongoing social and economic changes in developing countries are associated with increases in body size, and most notably increases in the prevalence of obesity. The social patterning of these changes in terms of socioeconomic status (SES) is not well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in stature, body mass index (BMI) and fatness in adult women in urban Cali, Colombia between 1988-1989 and 2007-2008. METHODS: We compared the results of anthropometric surveys completed in 1988-1989 and 2007-2008 of nonpregnant, nonlactating women, 18-44 years of age. Samples in both studies were stratified by SES. We calculated age-standardized prevalence rates to assess time trends in obesity. Body fatness was assessed by skinfold thicknesses. RESULTS: Stature increased in all SES groups and remained positively associated with SES. BMI increased only in the lower SES group, from 24.4 to 25.9 kg/m(2) and remained negatively associated with SES. The age-standardized prevalence of obesity increased from 7.9 to 17.0% in the lower SES group, but only from 4.5 to 8.2% in the middle SES group, and was unchanged in the upper SES group. Body fatness increased in all SES groups, but only in the upper body. CONCLUSION: The increased stature in all SES groups is indicative of general improvements in socioeconomic conditions. The increased prevalence of obesity in the lower SES groups is in keeping with the findings in other middle-income developing countries.

Olszowy KM; Dufour DL; Bender RL; Bekelman TA; Reina JC

2012-09-01

240

Impact of socioeconomic status on the use of inhaled corticosteroids in young adult asthmatics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based longitudinal study was to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and anti-asthmatic treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) among young Danish adult asthmatics, and to investigate whether these associations were consistent over time. METHODS: We extracted data on prescription drug use, education, and income in 97 665 users of anti-asthmatic drugs, aged 18-44 years, identified in Statistics Denmark during 1997-2005. Individual information on education and income was used as measures of SES. Education was categorised into basic school/high school, vocational training, and higher education, and income was categorised into low, middle, and high income. Associations between ICS use and SES were estimated by logistic regression models. RESULTS: High levels of education and income were independently associated with ICS use, education demonstrating the strongest association. Using basic school/high school and low income as baselines, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ICS use for higher education were 1.46 (95% CI 1.40-1.51) and 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.14) for high income. Higher education was a nearly constant factor associated with ICS use throughout the observation period, but high income did not demonstrate any association before 2001 with increasing ORs observed each year hereafter. All associations became more pronounced when restricting to 35-44 year-olds. CONCLUSION: High levels of SES were positively associated with ICS use in young adult asthmatics. To encourage ICS use, special attention should be paid to asthmatics with low educational level and low income. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for this socioeconomic inequality.

Davidsen, Jesper RØmhild; SØndergaard, Jens

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Sub-optimal birth weight in newborns of a high socioeconomic status population  

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Full Text Available Objective: To compare sub-optimal birth weight (2,500 to 2,999 g) term newborns to appropriate for gestational age (birth weight ? 3,000 g) term newborns, regarding maternal data and newborn morbidity and mortality. Methods: Single term newborns, appropriate for gestational age from a high socioeconomic population (n = 1,242) with birth weight ranging from 2,500 to 2,999 g (Group I) were compared to 4,907 newborns with birth weight ? than 3,000 g (Group II). Maternal and newborn characteristics were compared between the groups. The Mann-Whitney test, ?2 test and multivariate analysis were used. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Rresults: The frequency of sub-optimal birth weight newborns in the population studied was 20.2%. There was a significant association between sub-optimal birth weight and maternal weight before pregnancy and body mass index, maternal weight gain, height, smoking habit and hypertension. Newborns’ 1-minute Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia and hospital stay were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05). A significant relationship could not be established with the 5-minute Apgar score and pulmonary hypertension in both groups. Neonatal mortality did not differ between the groups. Cconclusions: Socioeconomic status was not a risk factor for sub-optimal birth weight in the studied population. Genetic and environmental factors were associated to sub-optimal weight and neonatal diseases. According to these data, this group of newborns should receive special attention from the health team.

Maura Aparecida Prado Vaccari Villela Boacnin; Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre

2008-01-01

242

Detrimental impact of socioeconomic status on exercise capacity in adults with congenital heart disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES), access to physical activity resources, urban-rural dwelling, levels of pollution and exercise capacity in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients. BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance is prevalent in ACHD and the contributing factors are poorly understood. METHODS: A total of 1268 ACHD patients living in England who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing at our center were included. Neighborhood deprivation (English Indices of Deprivation), urban-rural dwelling, availability of green space, distance to the closest gym/fitness center and levels of pollution were estimated based on administrative data. RESULTS: Urban-rural dwelling, availability of green space and levels of pollution were unrelated to exercise capacity. Lower SES was associated with a significantly lower peak oxygen consumption (P<0.002) and heart rate reserve (P<0.004). This association was non-linear and most pronounced in ACHD patients with cardiac defects of medium complexity living in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Low SES was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes (P=0.015) and smoking (P=0.01). Coronary artery disease was rare in this young population and low SES was found to be related to exercise capacity independently of the presence of coronary artery disease. CONCLUSIONS: Living in poorer areas is associated with exercise intolerance in contemporary ACHD patients. Although low SES is linked to traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the deleterious effects of SES on exercise capacity seem to be only partially mediated via coronary artery disease. Reducing social inequalities in ACHD patients may have a positive effect on quality of life and long-term prognostic implications.

Diller GP; Inuzuka R; Kempny A; Alonso-Gonzalez R; Liodakis E; Borgia F; Lockhart CJ; Prapa M; Lammers AE; Swan L; Dimopoulos K; Gatzoulis MA

2013-04-01

243

Pre-typhoon socioeconomic status factors predict post-typhoon psychiatric symptoms in a Vietnamese sample.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Exposure to natural disasters has been associated with increased risk for various forms of psychopathology. Evidence indicates that socioeconomic status (SES) may be important for understanding post-disaster psychiatric distress; however, studies of SES-relevant factors in non-Western, disaster-exposed samples are lacking. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the role of pre-typhoon SES-relevant factors in relation to post-typhoon psychiatric symptoms among Vietnamese individuals exposed to Typhoon Xangsane. METHODS: In 2006, Typhoon Xangsane disrupted a mental health needs assessment in Vietnam in which the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20), and the Demographic and Health Surveys Wealth Index, a measure of SES created for use in low-income countries, were administered pre-typhoon. The SRQ-20 was re-administered post-typhoon. RESULTS: Results of a linear mixed model indicated that the covariates of older age, female sex, and higher levels of pre-typhoon psychiatric symptoms were associated with higher levels of post-typhoon psychiatric symptoms. Analysis of SES indicators revealed that owning fewer consumer goods, having lower quality of household services, and having attained less education were associated with higher levels of post-typhoon symptoms, above and beyond the covariates, whereas quality of the household build, employment status, and insurance status were not related to post-typhoon psychiatric symptoms. CONCLUSION: Even after controlling for demographic characteristics and pre-typhoon psychiatric symptoms, certain SES factors uniquely predicted post-typhoon psychiatric distress. These SES characteristics may be useful for identifying individuals in developing countries who are in need of early intervention following disaster exposure.

Brown RC; Trapp SK; Berenz EC; Bigdeli TB; Acierno R; Tran TL; Trung LT; Tam NT; Tuan T; Buoi LT; Ha TT; Thach TD; Amstadter AB

2013-04-01

244

Bystander-initiated CPR in an Asian Metropolitan: Does the socioeconomic status matter?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) with bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and patient outcomes of out of hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) in an Asian metropolitan area. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in a prospectively collected cohort from the Utstein registry of adult non-traumatic OHCAs in Taipei, Taiwan. Average real estate value was assessed as the first proxy of SES. Twelve administrative districts in Taipei City were categorized into low versus high SES areas to test the association. The primary outcome was bystander-initiated CPR, and the secondary outcome was patient survival status. Factors associated with bystander-initiated CPR were adjusted for in multivariate analysis. The mean household income was assessed as the second proxy of SES to validate the association. RESULTS: From Jan. 1, 2008 to Dec. 30, 2009, 3573 OHCAs received prehospital resuscitation in the community. Among these, 617 (17.3%) cases received bystander CPR. The proportion of bystander CPR in low-SES vs. high-SES areas was 14.5% vs. 19.6% (p<0.01). Odds ratio of receiving bystander-initiated CPR in low-SES areas was 0.72 (95% confidence interval: [0.60-0.88]) after adjusting for age, gender, witnessed status, public collapse, and OHCA unrecognized by the online dispatcher. Survival to discharge rate was significantly lower in low-SES areas vs. high-SES areas (4.3% vs. 6.8%; p<0.01). All results above remained consistent in the analyses by mean household income. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who experienced an OHCA in low-SES areas were less likely to receive bystander-initiated CPR, and demonstrated worse survival outcomes.

Chiang WC; Ko PC; Chang AM; Chen WT; Liu SS; Huang YS; Chen SY; Lin CH; Cheng MT; Chong KM; Wang HC; Yang CW; Liao MW; Wang CH; Chien YC; Lin CH; Liu YP; Lee BC; Chien KL; Lai MS; Ma MH

2013-09-01

245

Socioeconomic status and paranoia: the role of life hassles, self-mastery, and striving to avoid inferiority.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paranoid ideation is more common in the general population than previously thought, and it is associated with low socioeconomic status. Daily life hassles, self-mastery, and striving to avoid inferiority may partly account for this association, but these factors have not been examined in relation to paranoid thoughts. Two hundred fifteen individuals from the general population completed self-report assessments of paranoid thoughts during the last month, daily life hassles, self-mastery, striving to avoid inferiority, and socioeconomic classification. A greater number of daily hassles, low self-mastery, and insecure striving were all associated with greater levels of paranoid thinking. Each variable was associated with markers of socioeconomic status. This study demonstrates for the first time the association of paranoid thoughts with life hassles, self-mastery, and striving to avoid inferiority. Each of the factors examined may be a plausible candidate to account for why lower socioeconomic status is associated with greater perceptions of threat from other people. PMID:23896852

Anderson, Fraser; Freeman, Daniel

2013-08-01

246

Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women), the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups), individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income) and regional (N = 60) indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate) were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.

Fukuda Yoshiharu; Nakamura Keiko; Takano Takehito

2005-01-01

247

Disparities in ovarian cancer care quality and survival according to race and socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The relationship between racial and socioeconomic status (SES) disparities and the quality of epithelial ovarian cancer care and survival outcome are unclear. METHODS: A population-based analysis of National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) records for invasive primary epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed in the period from 1998 to 2002 was done using data from patients classified as white or black. Adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline care was defined by stage-appropriate surgical procedures and recommended chemotherapy. The main outcome measures were differences in adherence to NCCN guidelines and overall survival according to race and SES and were analyzed using binomial logistic regression and multilevel survival analysis. RESULTS: A total of 47 160 patients (white = 43 995; black = 3165) were identified. Non-NCCN-guideline-adherent care was an independent predictor of inferior overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.38 to 1.47). Demographic characteristics independently associated with a higher likelihood of not receiving NCCN guideline-adherent care were black race (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.25 to 1.48), Medicare payer status (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.28), and not insured payer status (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.19 to 1.49). After controlling for disease and treatment-related variables, independent racial and SES predictors of survival were black race (HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.22 to 1.36), Medicaid payer status (HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.38), not insured payer status (HR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.44), and median household income less than $35 000 (HR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.11). CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight statistically and clinically significant disparities in the quality of ovarian cancer care and overall survival, independent of NCCN guidelines, along racial and SES parameters. Increased efforts are needed to more precisely define the patient, provider, health-care system, and societal factors leading to these observed disparities and guide targeted interventions.

Bristow RE; Powell MA; Al-Hammadi N; Chen L; Miller JP; Roland PY; Mutch DG; Cliby WA

2013-06-01

248

Prosthetic status and prosthetic needs in relation to socio-economic factors among the Municipal employees of Mysore city.  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the Prosthetic status and prosthetic needs in relation to socio-economic among the Municipal employees of Mysore city. Settings and Design: The study was cross sectional and conducted on the employees of Reader1 Mysore City Corporation. Materials and methods: All the available employees (1187) of Mysore city Corporation during the study period were considered for the study. WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997) and a preformed questionnaire were used to collect the required data. Modified Kuppuswamy scale with readjustment of the per capita income was used for classifying the individuals into different Socioeconomic status (SES) categories. Data was collected by a single, trained and calibrated examiner (dentist) using mouth mirror and CPI probe under natural day light. Data analysis was done using SPSS windows version 10. Comparison of the prosthetic status and needs between different SES categories was done using cross tabs and contingency co-efficient. Results: 6.1% of the subjects in the study had prosthesis of some kind. Prosthesis of some kind was present in 24.7% of the subjects in the upper middle SES category and none of the subjects in the lower SES category had prosthesis. The prosthetic need in the study population was 45.7%. About 67.9% of the subjects in the lower SES category needed prosthesis of some kind. The prosthetic need was 52.9% in the upper lower and 6% in the upper SES category. Conclusion: The study found a direct relationship between socio-economic status and prosthetic status and inverse relation between socio-economic status and prosthetic need.

Chandra Shekar

2010-01-01

249

A national cohort study of parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour-the mediating role of school performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A link between low parental socioeconomic status and mental health problems in offspring is well established in previous research. The mechanisms that explain this link are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether school performance was a mediating and/or moderating factor in the path between parental socioeconomic status and the risk of hospital admission for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Methods A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-1977 was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the end of their ninth and final year of compulsory school until 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and linear regression analyses were performed to test whether the association between parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour was mediated or moderated by school performance. Results The results of a series of multiple regression analyses, adjusted for demographic variables, revealed that school performance was as an important mediator in the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and risk of non-fatal suicidal behaviour, accounting for 60% of the variance. The hypothesized moderation of parental socioeconomic status-non-fatal suicidal behaviour relationship by school performance was not supported. Conclusions School performance is an important mediator through which parental socioeconomic status translates into a risk for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Prevention efforts aimed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among young people will need to consider socioeconomic inequalities in school performance.

Jablonska Beata; Lindblad Frank; Östberg Viveca; Lindberg Lene; Rasmussen Finn; Hjern Anders

2012-01-01

250

Association of Food Insecurity and Household Socio-Economic Status with the Body Mass Index Among Urban Women in Dezful  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Food insecurity implies a limited ability to secure adequate and safe food or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways.The nutrition transition in Iran is taking place in the context of rapid demographic change and urbanization in spite of underweight, obesity and overweight increased, especially among women. It is usually expected that food-insecure people have an inadequate food intake, less body fat, and body weight. However, several studies in developed countries have shown a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among food-insecure household members, especially women. Under weight and overweight or obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in the developed countries and is assuming to become a serious health problem in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the association between food insecurity and socio-economic factors in households and body mass index among urban women in Dezful in 2008.Materials and Methods: A total of 400 household were randomly selected by two stage sampling from different areas in Dezful. Heights and weights of all women were measured based on standard protocols, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI status was defined based on cut-off values recommended by NIH( under weight = BMI<18.5, normal weight 18.5< BMI< 25, overweight 25?BMI<30 and obesity BMI?30"nWomen provided detailed demographic and food insecurity information via a face- to- face interview. Information on food insecurity was collected using the instrument originally developed by USDA. All analysis was conducted using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The prevalence of household food insecurity was %37.6 and 42.8% of the women were overweight, and 12% obese, respectively. Results showed that, BMI was positively associated with food insecurity, womens age and family size and inversely associated with , race and economic status (p <0.05).Conclusion: It is evident that household food insecurity, overweight and obesity coexist in Dezful. Women age, family size, race and economic status were recognized as associated factors with food insecurity but other factors didnt show significant relationship. There is lack of published information regarding food insecurity and some factors affecting with body weight status; therefore, it is necessary to perform such studies in other regions too.

S Hakim; A R Dorosty; M R Eshraghian

2010-01-01

251

Socioeconomic status as determinant of risk factors for overweight in adolescents/ Status socioeconômico como determinante de fatores de risco associados com o sobrepeso em adolescentes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores de risco para o sobrepeso entre adolescentes agrupados em três níveis econômicos diferentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que incluiu 1779 adolescentes com idade de 11-17 anos, agrupados de acordo com a condição econômica (baixo, médio e alto). Os pais reportaram seus próprios dados antropométricos e os adolescentes tiveram seus dados antropométricos aferidos por avaliadores treinados, e também responderam a três questionários. R (more) ESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 16.7%, 23.8% e 26.3% nas classes econonômicas baixa, média e alta, respectivamente (P=0.001). Em todas as condições econômicas, o sobrepeso dos pais foi associado com o sobrepeso dos filhos (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To analyze risk factors for overweight among adolescents grouped in three different socioeconomic levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1779 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years, grouped according to socioeconomic status (low, middle, and high). Parents reported their own anthropometric data and the adolescents had their anthropometric data taken by trained researchers, and completed three questionnaires. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 16. (more) 7%, 23.8%, and 26.3% in low, middle and high socioeconomic status, respectively (P= 0.001). In all socioeconomic status, parent's overweight was associated with adolescent overweight (all P

Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Ronque, Enio Ricardo Vaz; Freitas Júnior, Ismael Forte; Kawaguti, Sandra Satie; Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira de; Oliveira, Arli Ramos de

2011-10-01

252

Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality.

Scalone F

2013-10-01

253

A Study on Socioeconomic Status and Obesity in a Group of Adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on obesity in a group of adolescents. METHODS: This study was performed Ankara with students of two schools with low SES (n:183) and high SES (n:187) according to data Prime Minister Republic of Turkey, Turkish Statistical Institute. The total of 370 adolescents, 11-13 years-old, joined to the study which was 186 boys and 184 girls. The anthropometric measurements and the prevalence of obesity were done on adolescents. Moreover, their nutritional statuses were assessed; daily energy and nutrient intakes were calculated. The data were evaluated as low and high SES. RESULTS: Weight, BMI, triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfold thickness, and percentage of fat mass were significantly higher in high SES than in low SES (p<0.05). Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 5.5% and 2.2% for low SES; 10.7% and 6.4% for high SES, respectively. Overweight and obesity prevelance are higher in high SES than low SES (p<0.05). Daily energy intake, percentage of energy from proteins and fats and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages were higher in high SES than in low SES. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity in adolescents with high SES is more common due to high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet composition. To inform adolescents, regarding to their SES, about nutrition and physical activities would be preventive for obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000): 433-440

Nurcan Yabanci; Isil Simsek

2011-01-01

254

Cardiac rehabilitation barriers by rurality and socioeconomic status: a cross-sectional study  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Despite greater need, rural inhabitants and individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) are less likely to undertake cardiac rehabilitation (CR). This study examined barriers to enrollment and participation in CR among these under-represented groups. Method Cardiac inpatients from 11 hospitals across Ontario were approached to participate in a larger study. Rurality was assessed by asking participants whether they lived within a 30-minute drive-time from the nearest hospital, with those >30 minutes considered “rural.” Participants completed a sociodemographic survey, which included the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status. One year later, they were mailed a survey which assessed CR utilization and included the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale. In this cross-sectional study, CR utilization and barriers were compared by rurality and SES. Results Of the 1809 (80.4%) retained, there were 215 (11.9%) rural participants, and the mean subjective SES was 6.37?±?1.76. The mean CRBS score was 2.03?±?0.73. Rural inhabitants reported attending significantly fewer CR sessions (p < .05), and greater CR barriers overall compared to urban inhabitants (p < .01). Patients of lower subjective SES were significantly less likely to be referred, enroll, and participate in CR, and reported significantly greater barriers to CR compared to their high SES counterparts (p < .01). Prominent barriers for both groups included distance, cost, and transportation problems. These relationships sustained adjustment, and a significant relationship between having undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery and lower barriers was also identified. Conclusions The results confirm that rural inhabitants and patients of low SES experience greater barriers to CR utilization when compared to their urban, high SES counterparts. It is time to implement known strategies to overcome these barriers, to achieve equitable and greater use of CR.

2013-01-01

255

Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years) from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99), overweight (BMI: 25-29.99) or obese (BMI: 30+). Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental). In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34) and physical activity (OR = 1.11) despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28) remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81) with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.

MacFarlane Abbie; Abbott Gavin; Crawford David; Ball Kylie

2010-01-01

256

Association of socioeconomic status and life-style factors with coping strategies in Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To investigate the association between life-style and socioeconomic factors and coping strategies in a community sample in Iran. METHOD: As part of a community-based study called Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, we studied 17593 individuals older than 19 living in the central part of Iran. Demographic and socioeconomic factors (age, sex, occupation status, marital status, and educational level) and lifestyle variables (smoking status, leisure time physical activity, and psychological distress), and coping strategy were recorded. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Not smoking (women beta=-11.293, P<0.001; men beta=-3.418, P=0.007), having leisure time physical activity (women beta=0.017, P=0.046; men beta=0.005, P=0.043), and higher educational level (women beta=0.344, P=0.015; men beta=0.406, P=0.008) were predictors of adaptive coping strategies, while smoking (women beta=11.849, P<0.001; men beta=9.336, P<0.001), high stress level (women beta=1.588, P=0.000; men beta=1.358, P<0.001), and lower educational level (women beta=-0.443, P=0.013; men beta=-0.427, P=0.013) were predictors of maladaptive coping strategies in both sexes. Non-manual work was a positive predictor of adaptive (beta=4.983, P<0.001) and negative predictor of maladaptive (beta=-3.355, P=0.023) coping skills in men. CONCLUSION: Coping strategies of the population in central Iran were highly influenced by socioeconomic status and life-style factors. Programs aimed at improving healthy life-styles and increasing the socioeconomic status could increase adaptive coping skills and decrease maladaptive ones and consequently lead to a more healthy society.

Roohafza H; Sadeghi M; Shirani S; Bahonar A; Mackie M; Sarafzadegan N

2009-08-01

257

Racial differences in breast cancer survival: the interaction of socioeconomic status and tumor biology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of sociodemographic and clinical variables on survival rates of African-American and white women with breast cancer. STUDY DESIGN: Between 1988 and 1992 the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System Identified 10,502 women (82% white and 18% African-American) in whom invasive breast cancer was diagnosed. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the relative risk of death for African-Americans compared with whites after controlling for variables believed to influence survival. RESULTS: African-American women were more likely than white women to have tumors that were of a more advanced stage, a higher grade, and hormone receptor-negative. After controlling for age, tumor size, stage, histologic grade, census-derived socioeconomic status, and the presence of a residency training program at the treatment hospital, the relative risk of dying for African-Americans compared with whites was 1.68 (95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.23) for women less than 50 years of age, and 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.56) for women older than 50 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Known factors that predict survival differences between African-Americans and whites are more prevalent among women less than 50 years of age, emphasizing the need to focus more attention on public health efforts directed toward younger women.

Simon MS; Severson RK

1997-06-01

258

The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development.

DeVantier L; Alcala A; Wilkinson C

2004-02-01

259

The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development. PMID:15083654

DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

2004-02-01

260

Under-Reporting of Socioeconomic Status of Patients in Stroke Trials: Adherence to Consort Principles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The 2001 Revised Consolidated Standards of Reporting of Trials (CONSORT) statement requires reporting of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) to include participants' baseline demographics. This enables comparison of intervention and control groups on potential confounding variables as well as assessment of study generalizability. Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with access to care and outcomes (mortality, functional outcome, recurrent stroke, and hospital readmission) poststroke. We aimed to document the reporting of baseline SES in reports of RCTs of stroke and transient ischemic attack. METHODS: Measures of SES were extracted from studies reporting trials of stroke or transient ischemic attack published in 12 major journals in the disciplines of general medicine, general neurology, cerebrovascular disease, and rehabilitation subsequent to revised CONSORT. Percentages of studies reporting SES measures were calculated. Differences in reporting between journal categories, and temporal trends in reporting, were tested. RESULTS: Only 12% of studies reported any SES measure. Journal categories did not differ in rate of SES reporting. SES reporting did not increase over time. CONCLUSIONS: Improving reporting of SES could enhance clinicians' ability to evaluate RCT findings and apply them to their patients.

Magin P; Victoire A; Zhen XM; Furler J; Pirotta M; Lasserson DS; Levi C; Tapley A; van Driel M

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Contextual Socioeconomic Status and Mental Health Counseling Use Among US Adolescents with Depression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most adolescents with depressive disorders do not receive any mental health services, even though effective treatments exist. Although research has examined numerous individual-level factors associated with mental health service use among depressed adolescents, less is known about the role of contextual factors. This study examines the relationship between contextual-level socioeconomic status (SES) and clinic-based mental health counseling use among US adolescents with high depressive symptoms in urban and suburban areas. Data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,133; 59 % female) were analyzed using multilevel logistic models in which adolescents were nested within counties. After controlling for individual-level predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics, as well as county racial/ethnic composition, county SES was positively associated with clinic-based counseling use among depressed youth. A one standard deviation increase in the county affluence index was associated with 43 % greater odds of receiving any clinical counseling services. Furthermore, the positive relationship between county affluence and clinical counseling use was no longer significant after controlling for the county supply of mental health specialist physicians. The results indicate that county residential context is a key correlate of mental health service use among depressed adolescents, such that those who live in lower SES counties with fewer mental health specialists are less likely to receive treatment.

Cummings JR

2013-10-01

262

A life course model of cognitive activities, socioeconomic status, education, reading ability, and cognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To cross-sectionally quantify the contribution of proxy measures of cognitive reserve reflective of the lifespan, such as education, socioeconomic status (SES), reading ability, and cognitive activities, in explaining late-life cognition. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of aging. SETTING: Retirement communities across the Chicago metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred fifty-one older adults free of clinical dementia in the Rush Memory and Aging Project (aged 79 ± 8, 74% female). MEASUREMENTS: Baseline data on multiple life course factors included early-, mid-, and late-life participation in cognitive activities; early-life and adult SES; education; and reading ability (National Adult Reading Test; NART). Path analysis quantified direct and indirect standardized effects of life course factors on global cognition and five cognitive domains (episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, visuospatial ability, perceptual speed). RESULTS: Adjusting for age, sex, and race, education had the strongest association with global cognition, episodic memory, semantic memory, and visuospatial ability, whereas NART (followed by education) had the strongest association with working memory. Late-life cognitive activities had the strongest association with perceptual speed, followed by education. CONCLUSIONS: These cross-sectional findings suggest that education and reading ability are the most-robust proxy measures of cognitive reserve in relation to late-life cognition. Additional research leveraging path analysis is warranted to better understand how these life course factors, reflecting the latent construct of cognitive reserve, affect abnormal cognitive aging.

Jefferson AL; Gibbons LE; Rentz DM; Carvalho JO; Manly J; Bennett DA; Jones RN

2011-08-01

263

Socioeconomic status and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Kashmir, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies have persistently associated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk with low socioeconomic status (SES), but this association is unexplored in Kashmir, an area with a high incidence of ESCC in the northernmost part of India. We carried out a case-control study to assess the association of multiple indicators of SES and ESCC risk in the Kashmir valley. A total number of 703 histologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1664 controls matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence were recruited from October 2008 to January 2012. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Composite wealth scores were constructed based on the ownership of several appliances using multiple correspondence analyses. Higher education, living in a kiln brick or concrete house, use of liquefied petroleum gas and electricity for cooking, and higher wealth scores all showed an inverse association with ESCC risk. Compared to farmers, individuals who had government jobs or worked in the business sector were at lower risk of ESCC, but this association disappeared in fully adjusted models. Occupational strenuous physical activity was strongly associated with ESCC risk. In summary, we found a strong relationship of low SES and ESCC in Kashmir. The findings need to be studied further to understand the mechanisms through which such SES parameters increase ESCC risk.

Dar NA; Shah IA; Bhat GA; Makhdoomi MA; Iqbal B; Rafiq R; Nisar I; Bhat AB; Nabi S; Masood A; Shah SA; Lone MM; Zargar SA; Islami F; Boffetta P

2013-09-01

264

The association of gout with socioeconomic status in primary care: a cross-sectional observational study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective. Little is known about the association between gout and socioeconomic status (SES). Inequalities in rheumatology provision associated with SES may need to be addressed by health care planners. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of gout and SES in the community at both the individual and area levels.Methods. Questionnaires were sent to all patients older than age 50 years who were registered with eight general practices in North Staffordshire. Data on individual SES were collected by questionnaire while area SES was measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation derived from respondents' postcodes. Responders reported their occupation, education and the adequacy of their income; their medical records were searched for consultations for gout.Results. Of the 348 consultations for gout in this period, at the individual level there was a significant association between gout and income. An association of gout with education was seen only in the unadjusted analyses. No association was found between gout and area level deprivation.Conclusion. Gout is associated with some aspects of individual level but not area level deprivation. More extensive musculoskeletal services may need to be provided in low income areas, although further research is needed.

Hayward RA; Rathod T; Roddy E; Muller S; Hider SL; Mallen CD

2013-07-01

265

Jumping the gun: the problematic discourse on socioeconomic status and cardiovascular health in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There has been an increased focus on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in India, especially on cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors. In this essay, we scrutinize the prevailing narrative that cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are no longer confined to the economically advantaged groups but are an increasing burden among the poor in India. We conducted a comprehensive review of studies reporting the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and CVRF, CVD, and CVD-related mortality in India. With the exception of smoking and low fruit and vegetable intake, the studies clearly suggest that CVRF/CVD is more prevalent among high SES groups in India than among the low SES groups. Although CVD-related mortality rates appear to be higher among the lower SES groups, the proportion of deaths from CVD-related causes was found to be greatest among higher SES groups. The studies on SES and CVRF/CVD also reveal a substantial discrepancy between the data presented and the authors' interpretations and conclusions, along with an unsubstantiated claim that a reversal in the positive SES-CVRF/CVD association has occurred or is occurring in India. We conclude our essay by emphasizing the need to prioritize public health policies that are focused on the health concerns of the majority of the Indian population. Resource allocation in the context of efforts to make health care in India free and universal should reflect the proportional burden of disease on different population groups if it is not to entrench inequity.

Subramanian S; Corsi DJ; Subramanyam MA; Davey Smith G

2013-04-01

266

Association between socioeconomic status and obesity in a Chinese adult population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Existing studies which regarding to the association between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity are still scarce in developing countries. The major aim of this study is to estimate such association in an adult population which was drawn from an economically prosperous province of China. METHODS: Study population was determined by multilevel randomized sampling. Education and income were chosen as indicators of individual SES, general obesity and abdominal obesity were measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Descriptive statistical methods were used to depict overall and factor-specific distributions of general and abdominal obesity among 16,013 respondents. Two-step logistic regression models were fitted on gender basis. RESULTS: The age-and-sex adjusted rates of general overweight, general obesity, abdominal overweight and abdominal obesity in study population were 28.9% (95%CI: 27.9%-29.9%), 7.5% (95%CI: 7.0%-8.1%), 32.2% (95%CI: 31.2%-33.3%) and 12.3% (95%CI: 11.6%-13.1%), respectively. Based on model fitting results, a significant inverse association between education and obesity only existed in women, while in men, income rather than education was positively related to obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The atypical SES-obesity relationship we found reflected the on-going social economy transformation in affluent regions of China. High-income men and poorly-educated women were at higher risk of obesity in Zhejiang province, thus merit intense focuses.

Xiao Y; Zhao N; Wang H; Zhang J; He Q; Su D; Zhao M; Wang L; Zhang X; Gong W; Hu R; Yu M; Ding G; Cong L; Ye Z

2013-01-01

267

The residential segregation patterns of whites by socioeconomic status, 2000-2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In light of increasing racial and ethnic diversity, a recent housing crisis, and deep economic recession, arguments pertaining to the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in shaping patterns of racial/ethnic segregation remain salient. Using data from the 2000 decennial census and the 2007-2011 American Community Survey, we provide new evidence on the residential segregation patterns of whites from minorities by SES (income, education, and poverty). Results from our comprehensive analyses indicate that SES matters for the segregation patterns of whites from minorities. In particular, we find that whites as a whole are less segregated from higher-SES minority group members than lower-SES ones. Among whites, those of higher SES are more segregated from blacks and Hispanics as a whole and less segregated from Asians, indicating the importance of SES differentials across racial/ethnic groups in shaping residential patterns. We also find that during the 2000s, white-black segregation remained stable or declined, while whites became more segregated from Hispanics and Asians by all SES indicators. Fixed-effects models indicate that increasing white-minority SES segregation was fueled in part by increases in a metropolitan area's immigrant and elderly populations, minority poverty rate, and home values, while declining segregation was associated with rising education levels and new housing construction.

Sharp G; Iceland J

2013-07-01

268

The effect of socioeconomic status on staging and treatment decisions in esophageal cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment choice for patients with esophageal cancer (EC) is complex and largely determined by tumor characteristics, comorbidity, and age. GOALS: This study describes the role of patient characteristics, among which is socioeconomic status (SES), in EC treatment. STUDY: Patients diagnosed with primary EC between 1990 and 2008 in the southern part of the Netherlands were identified using the Eindhoven Cancer Registry. Multivariable logistic and proportional hazard regression analyses were used to identify determinants of treatment and survival. RESULTS: We included 1914 patients, and 37% of them underwent intentionally curative treatment. Low-SES patients were diagnosed at older age (16% vs. 9%, age more than or equal to 80) and with more advanced tumor stages (13% vs. 10%, stage T4) than high-SES patients. Age less than 60 compared with 70 to 79 years [adjusted odds ratio, 4.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.98-6.84] and high SES compared with low SES (adjusted odds ratio 1.59; 95% CI, 1.07-2.37) were independent predictors for curative treatment. Probability of death for high-SES patients undergoing palliative treatment was decreased compared with low-SES patients (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: SES is an important factor in treatment choice of EC. As health care is equally accessible to the whole population in the Netherlands, this suggests that both patient-related and physician-related factors are involved in this phenomenon.

Bus P; Aarts MJ; Lemmens VE; van Oijen MG; Creemers GJ; Nieuwenhuijzen GA; van Baal JW; Siersema PD

2012-11-01

269

Alcohol advertising at Boston subway stations: an assessment of exposure by race and socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the frequency of alcohol ads at all 113 subway and streetcar stations in Boston and the patterns of community exposure stratified by race, socioeconomic status, and age. METHODS: We assessed the extent of alcohol advertising at each station in May 2009. We measured gross impressions and gross rating points (GRPs) for the entire Greater Boston population and for Boston public school student commuters. We compared the frequency of alcohol advertising between neighborhoods with differing demographics. RESULTS: For the Greater Boston population, alcohol advertising at subway stations generated 109 GRPs on a typical day. For Boston public school students in grades 5 to 12, alcohol advertising at stations generated 134 GRPs. Advertising at stations in low-poverty neighborhoods generated 14.1 GRPs and at stations in high-poverty areas, 63.6 GRPs. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol ads reach the equivalent of every adult in the Greater Boston region and the equivalent of every 5th- to 12th-grade public school student each day. More alcohol ads were displayed in stations in neighborhoods with high poverty rates than in stations in neighborhoods with low poverty rates.

Gentry E; Poirier K; Wilkinson T; Nhean S; Nyborn J; Siegel M

2011-10-01

270

Socioeconomic status and stress in Mexican-American women: a multi-method perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stress is a hypothesized pathway in socioeconomic status (SES)-physical health associations, but the available empirical data are inconsistent. In part, this may reflect discrepancies in the approach to measuring stress across studies, and differences in the nature of SES-stress associations across demographic groups. We examined associations of SES (education, income) with general and domain-specific chronic stressors, stressful life events, perceived stress, and stressful daily experiences in 318 Mexican-American women (40-65 years old). Women with higher SES reported lower perceived stress and fewer low-control experiences in everyday life (ps < .05), but greater chronic stress (education only, p < .05). Domain-specific analyses showed negative associations of income with chronic housing and financial stress (ps < .05), but positive associations of SES with chronic work and caregiving stress (all ps < .05 except for income and caregiving stress, p < .10). Sensitivity analyses showed that most SES-stress associations were consistent across acculturation levels. Future research should adopt a multi-dimensional assessment approach to better understand links among SES, stress, and physical health, and should consider the sociodemographic context in conceptualizing the role of stress in SES-related health inequalities.

Gallo LC; Shivpuri S; Gonzalez P; Fortmann AL; de los Monteros KE; Roesch SC; Talavera GA; Matthews KA

2013-08-01

271

Socioeconomic status is positively correlated with frontal white matter integrity in aging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important reserve variable which has been shown to benefit the aging brain's macrostructure. However, it remains unknown whether SES affects age-related changes in the brain's white matter (WM) microstructure. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging to explore the relationship between SES and three components of the diffusion tensor [fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity (DR)]. Participants were 40 (16 male) cognitively normal young adults (mean age?=?33.3 years, SD?=?4.27) and 44 (19 male) cognitively normal community dwelling seniors (mean age?=?66.2 years, SD?=?7.5). Age-related FA declines were observed across a large portion of the WM skeleton. However, seniors with high SES showed lower age-related WM integrity declines in three frontal tracts: the right anterior corona radiata and bilateral portions of WM underlying the superior frontal gyri (SFG-WM). Positive SES-FA correlations were primarily driven by negative DR-SES correlations, suggesting that SES may buffer age-related declines in myelin. The functional significance of high SES in these frontal tracts was demonstrated through positive correlations with working memory performance. Possible mechanisms through which SES may attenuate the effects of age on frontal WM integrity are discussed. PMID:23160736

Johnson, Nathan F; Kim, Chobok; Gold, Brian T

2012-11-18

272

The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30-40%) than the European (20-30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10-20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity-SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts.

Wang Y; Lim H

2012-06-01

273

How socioeconomic status influences road traffic injuries and home injuries in Rome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Road traffic injuries (RTI) and home injuries (HI) are a relevant public health problem, especially among people living in deprived areas. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between morbidity, hospitalisation, mortality from RTI and HI, and socioeconomic status (SES) of the area of residence. RTI and HI surveillance based on the Emergency Information System, the Hospital Information System and the Mortality Registry of Lazio region are the three sources of this study to create a unique surveillance system. For each subject, the SES index (5 levels) of its census tract of residence was obtained. The study population included emergency department admissions (year 2005) of residents in Rome, Italy. Incidence Rate Ratios (IRRs) have been estimated using Poisson Regression. The rates of RTI and HI emergency department visits were higher among the most deprived level of SES (IRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.24-1.30; IRR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.29-1.37, respectively) compared to the most privileged ones; a similar result was found for hospitalisation (IRR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.08-1.32; IRR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01-1.22). A strong relation was found between RTI mortality rates and poor level of SES. The study concluded that RTI and HI incidence were associated to sociodemographic factors.

Camilloni L; Farchi S; Chini F; Giorgi Rossi P; Borgia P; Guasticchi G

2013-01-01

274

Low life course socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with negative NEO PI-R personality patterns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with poor health. One potential pathway accounting for this relationship may be an association between low SES and personality characteristics that affect health. METHODS: Associations among parent's education, current SES (education and income), and personality were examined among 233 African Americans and Caucasian, male and female community volunteers. RESULTS: Using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to model neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness simultaneously, participant's education, household income, and father's and mother's education each had significant main effects on personality. When examining the life course--the combination of both current and childhood SES--distinctive patterns emerged for each domain, depending upon whether mother's or father's education was used to index childhood SES. When using mother's education as a childhood SES index, a high life course SES (high participant's SES/high mother's education) was associated with high extraversion and openness. Using father's education as a childhood SES index, a low life course SES (low participant's SES/low father's education) was associated with disproportionately high neuroticism and low conscientiousness. These effects did not differ by race or sex. CONCLUSION: The implications of these findings for the role of personality in the SES-health relationship are discussed.

Jonassaint CR; Siegler IC; Barefoot JC; Edwards CL; Williams RB

2011-03-01

275

Socioeconomic status, negative affect, and modifiable cancer risk factors in African-American smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of cooccurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African-Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African-American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had at least one cancer risk factor in addition to smoking. Univariate ordinal logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, unemployment, lower positive affect, and greater negative affect were associated with having a greater number of cancer risk factors. Multivariate analyses yielded similar findings. A structural equation modeling approach indicated that stress/negative affect may function as one pathway linking SES and modifiable cancer risk factors among African-American smokers and that gender has a direct effect on modifiable cancer risk factors. Thus, risk patterns identified within each gender group may guide the development of multiple risk factor interventions for African-American smokers. Stress and negative affect may be an important treatment target within behavioral interventions for African-American smokers of low SES. PMID:18842995

Kendzor, Darla E; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Costello, Tracy J; Businelle, Michael S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

2008-10-01

276

[Breastfeeding and obesity in school-age children from families of high socioeconomic status].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between breastfeeding and obesity in school-age children from Brazilian families of high socioeconomic status. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted including 555 students aged six to 14 years from a private school in the city of Sao Paulo. Obesity - the outcome variable - was defined as body mass index at or above the 85th centile plus sub scapular and triceps skin folds at or above the 90th centile using the sex and age specific standards of the US National Center for Health Statistics. Exposure was the frequency and duration of breastfeeding. Potential confounders, controlled for using multiple logistic regression, included child sex, age, birthweight, and dietary and physical activity patterns, and maternal age, body mass index, schooling, and practice of sports or physical exercise. RESULTS: Prevalence of obesity in the studied population was 26%. After confounder adjustment, the risk of obesity in children that had never been breastfed was twice that of other children (OR=2.06; 95% CI: 1.02; 4.16). There was no dose-response effect of duration of breastfeeding on prevalence of child obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Children who were never breastfed showed greater prevalence of obesity at school age. The absence of a dose-response effect in the relationship between duration of breastfeeding and prevalence of obesity and the still controversial findings regarding this association reported by other authors indicate a need for further studies on the subject, in particular studies with longitudinal design.

Scanferla de Siqueira R; Monteiro CA

2007-02-01

277

[Zinc plasma levels in a low socioeconomic status population of children in Maracaibo, Venezuela  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the present work was to determine plasma zinc concentration in a children's population belonging to low income families in Maracaibo, Venezuela. One hundred fifty-nine children (M:75;F:84) aged 3 months to 8 years were studied by clinic, anthropometric and socio-economical parameters. Fasting peripheral venipuncture blood samples were obtained and analyzed for plasma zinc using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plasma zinc levels were low (< 75 micrograms/dl) in 38.36% of the children studied. In turn, 33.89% of the eutrophic group, and 41% of the malnourished group were zinc deficient. By analyzing separately the group of children in which plasma zinc levels ranged between 75-80 micrograms/dl (critical zone), it could be seen that 18.65% of eutrophic and 10% of malnourished children belonged to this group. Thus, over 50% of the total children's population studied had critical or deficient plasma zinc levels. Therefore, functional studies on nutritional status of zinc are recommended to the Venezuelan children population; in case of being evidently deficitary, it is necessary to establish immediate zinc supplementation nutritional programs; especially for children coming from low income families.

Amaya D; Urrieta R; Gil NM; Molano NC; Medrano I; Castejón HV

1997-03-01

278

Physical fitness, academic achievement, and socioeconomic status in school-aged youth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. METHODS: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the assessments. Fitness was assessed using FITNESSGRAM (aerobic fitness, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition). Results were used to determine individual fitness scores. Academic achievement was measured by standardized tests for Math (all grades), English (all grades), and Social Studies (sixth and ninth grades only). The SES was determined using eligibility for free and reduced lunch program. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between fitness groups for Math and English in third-grade students. Sixth- and ninth-grade students with high fitness scored significantly better on Math and Social Studies tests compared with less fit students. Lower SES students scored significantly worse on all tests. Muscular strength and muscular endurance were significantly associated with academic achievement in all grades. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with all other variables, SES appears to have the strongest association with academic achievement. However, it also appears that high fitness levels are positively associated with academic achievement in school-aged youth.

Coe DP; Peterson T; Blair C; Schutten MC; Peddie H

2013-07-01

279

Food shopping behaviors and socioeconomic status influence obesity rates in seattle and in paris.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective:To compare the associations between food environment at the individual level, socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity rates in two cities: Seattle and Paris.Methods:Analyses of the SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) were based on a representative sample of 1340 adults in metropolitan Seattle and King County. The RECORD (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) cohort analyses were based on 7131 adults in central Paris and suburbs. Data on socio-demographics, health and weight were obtained from a telephone survey (SOS) and from in-person interviews (RECORD). Both studies collected data on and geocoded home addresses and food shopping locations. Both studies calculated GIS network distances between home and the supermarket that study respondents listed as their primary food source. Supermarkets were further stratified into three categories by price. Modified Poisson regression models were used to test the associations among food environment variables, SES and obesity.Results:Physical distance to supermarkets was unrelated to obesity risk. By contrast, lower education and incomes, lower surrounding property values, and shopping at lower-cost stores were consistently associated with higher obesity risk.Conclusion:Lower SES was linked to higher obesity risk in both Paris and Seattle, despite differences in urban form, the food environments, and in the respective systems of health care. Cross-country comparisons can provide new insights into the social determinants of weight and health.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 27 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.97.

Drewnowski A; Vernez Moudon A; Jiao J; Aggarwal A; Charreire H; Chaix B

2013-05-01

280

Influence of socioeconomic status trajectories on innate immune responsiveness in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is consistently associated with poor health, yet little is known about the biological mechanisms underlying this inequality. In children, we examined the impact of early-life SES trajectories on the intensity of global innate immune activation, recognizing that excessive activation can be a precursor to inflammation and chronic disease. METHODS: Stimulated interleukin-6 production, a measure of immune responsiveness, was analyzed ex vivo for 267 Canadian schoolchildren from a 1995 birth cohort in Manitoba, Canada. Childhood SES trajectories were determined from parent-reported housing data using a longitudinal latent-class modeling technique. Multivariate regression was conducted with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: SES was inversely associated with innate immune responsiveness (p=0.003), with persistently low-SES children exhibiting responses more than twice as intense as their high-SES counterparts. Despite initially lower SES, responses from children experiencing increasing SES trajectories throughout childhood were indistinguishable from high-SES children. Low-SES effects were strongest among overweight children (p<0.01). Independent of SES trajectories, immune responsiveness was increased in First Nations children (p<0.05) and urban children with atopic asthma (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These results implicate differential immune activation in the association between SES and clinical outcomes, and broadly imply that SES interventions during childhood could limit or reverse the damaging biological effects of exposure to poverty during the preschool years.

Azad MB; Lissitsyn Y; Miller GE; Becker AB; HayGlass KT; Kozyrskyj AL

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Neural Correlates of Aggression among Individuals from Low and High Socioeconomic Status: An ERP Study  

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Full Text Available Event-related brain potentials were recorded to investigate electrophysiological correlates of aggression in high and low socioeconomic status (SES) participants who responded to violent and nonviolent images by using a choice reaction time paradigm. ERP data showed that violent images elicited a smaller N2 deflection than did nonviolent images in both high and low SES groups, but there was no difference in N2 amplitudes to aggressive and non-aggressive information as a function of SES. Notably, the latency of N2 in the low SES group was longer than that of the high SES group, suggesting slowness by the low SES group in deploying control responses. In addition, the low SES group exhibited significantly smaller P3 amplitudes to violent images, suggesting a reduction in brain activity known to reflect activation of the aversive motivational system, and this findings link this brain activity to aggressive behavior. As a whole the present findings show that participants low in SES seem to display similar psychophysiological responses to individuals high in aggression.

Yizhu Wang; Yufang Zhao; Jiang Qiu; Oscar Ybarra; Lu Liu; Yuqing Huang

2012-01-01

282

Personality, socio-economic status and inflammation: cross-sectional, population-based study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Associations between socio-economic status (SES), personality and inflammation were examined to determine whether low SES subjects scoring high on neuroticism or hostility might suffer relatively higher levels of inflammation than affluent subjects. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, 666 subjects were recruited from areas of high (most deprived - "MD") and low (least deprived - "LD") deprivation. IL-6, ICAM-1, CRP and fibrinogen were measured along with demographic and health-behaviour variables, and personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion and psychoticism (hostility). Regression models assessed the prediction of inflammation as a function of personality, deprivation and their interaction. RESULTS: Levels of CRP and IL-6 were an increasing function of neuroticism and extraversion only in LD subjects opposite trends were seen in MD subjects. The result was ascribed parsimoniously to an inflammatory ceiling effect or, more speculatively, to SES-related health-behaviour differences. Psychoticism was strongly associated with ICAM-1 in both MD and LD subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The association between neuroticism, CRP and IL-6 may be reduced in MD subjects confirming speculation that the association differs across population sub-groups. The association between psychoticism and ICAM-1 supports evidence that hostility has adverse effects upon the endothelium, with consequences for cardiovascular health. Health interventions may be more effective by accounting for personality-related effects upon biological processes.

Millar K; Lloyd SM; McLean JS; Batty GD; Burns H; Cavanagh J; Deans KA; Ford I; McConnachie A; McGinty A; Mõttus R; Packard CJ; Sattar N; Shiels PG; Velupillai YN; Tannahill C

2013-01-01

283

Socioeconomic status and health: is parasympathetic nervous system activity an intervening mechanism?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The link between socioeconomic status (SES) and health is widely recognized but the pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) regulation is one such mechanism. Methods In a cross-sectional study, electrocardiogram-derived RR interval variability (RRV), a non-invasive index of cardiac PNS regulation, and SES, measured as educational attainment and income, were collected in 756 subjects in the CARDIA study of heart disease in young adults. Results Relative to those with less than a high school education, those with high school to college and post-college education had 26% (? = 0.233) and 43% (? = 0.355) greater low frequency (LF) RRV, respectively, adjusted for age, sex, and race. For high frequency (HF) RRV, race interacted with income: relative to low income whites, intermediate and high income whites had 133 and 191% greater HF power, respectively, while intermediate and high income blacks had 32 and 44% greater HF RRV, respectively, relative to low income blacks. Conclusions Numerous studies demonstrate that psychosocial stressors reduce cardiac parasympathetic regulation and that SES disparities are associated with increasing social stress proportional to the degree of disparity. Data from the current study suggest that PNS regulation may be a mechanism linking the stressful effects of low SES to increased morbidity and mortality.

Sloan, Richard P; Huang, Mei-Hua; Sidney, Stephen; Liu, Kiang; Williams, O Dale; Seeman, Teresa

2005-01-01

284

The Well-Being of Junior High School Students in Taiwan in Relation to Familial Socioeconomic Status, School Life Adjustment, and Deviant Behavior  

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Full Text Available This study explores the influence that familial socioeconomic status, school life adjustment, and deviant behavior have on the well-being of junior high school students. The participants were 1886 first-year junior high school students recruited using the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS). The findings of this study indicated that a) the well-being of male students exceeded that of female students; b) significant interaction effects were exhibited between familial socioeconomic status and school life adjustment, and higher familial socioeconomic status and higher school life adjustment with higher well-being; and c) deviant behavior was related to lower well-being.

Hsiao-Fang Lin

2013-01-01

285

The lingering effect of childhood socioeconomic status: parental education predicts diurnal cortisol trajectory in adulthood  

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Full Text Available Socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood has lasting effects on adult health. Children raised by less educated parents are at higher risk for later cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer's disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms through which childhood socioeconomic status (SES) affect health are unclear. Childhood SES may shape stress physiology, including neuroendocrine processes, which may negatively impact health in adulthood. Prior literature shows that less educated individuals have flatter cortisol slopes across the day compared to those higher in education. Flattened slopes have been linked to chronic stress, CVD outcomes, breast cancer mortality, and both all-cause and CVD mortality. It is unknown whether one's childhood SES, approximated by parental education level, predicts diurnal cortisol trajectories independent of one's individual education. To this end, we recruited 20 Black and 20 White women who previously participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-supported National Growth and Health Study (NGHS) to complete a daily stress assessment, which included salivary cortisol sampling at four times per day over two consecutive days. Mixed modeling indicated that cortisol slope across the day was a function of individual education (b time×individual education=???0.04, SE?=?0.02, p=0.045). Simple slope analyses revealed that women with only a high school diploma had significantly flatter cortisol slopes (b=???0.22, SE?=?0.06, p<0.001) than those with more than a high school diploma (b=???0.26, SE?=?0.02, p<0.001). Cortisol slopes were also a function of parental education (b time*parental education=???0.04, SE?=?0.02, p=0.038). Simple slopes analyses revealed that women with parents who received only high school educations had significantly flatter cortisol slopes (b=???0.20, SE?=?0.06, p<0.001) compared to those with parents who received more than a high school diploma (b=???0.24, SE?=?0.02, p<0.001). Importantly, the effect of parental education was independent of individual education. These findings provide preliminary evidence that parental education, a marker of childhood SES, can influence neuroendocrine activity beyond childhood, having lasting effects into adulthood with important implications for health.

Pardis Esmaeili; Eli Puterman; Aric Prather; Sheila Loharuka; Elissa S. Epel; David Rehkopf; Zoe Evans; A. Janet Tomiyama; Barbara Laraia

2012-01-01

286

Socioeconomic status affects the prevalence, but not the perinatal outcomes, of in vitro fertilization pregnancies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY QUESTION: Does maternal socioeconomic status (SES) confound or modify the association between IVF and perinatal outcome among singleton births? SUMMARY ANSWER: There were substantial socioeconomic differences in the frequency of IVF pregnancies, but maternal SES was not associated with the outcome of IVF pregnancies. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The use of IVF is associated with SES. Additionally, women with lower SES tend to have an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes such as preterm birth and small for gestational age birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Finnish Medical Birth Register (2006-2010). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We analyzed the total population of singleton births in Finland (n = 291 004) and then compared the unadjusted and adjusted incidences of adverse perinatal outcomes for singleton births after IVF (n = 5647) and non-IVF pregnancies (n = 285 357) in relation to SES. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: SES did not confound or modify the association between IVF and perinatal outcomes after adjustments for age, parity, smoking, gestational diabetes, maternal diabetes and pre-eclampsia. However, the prevalence of IVF pregnancies increased with SES; on average 1.9% of singleton infants were born after IVF pregnancies, while the corresponding percentages were 3.2 and 1.2% for the highest and lowest SES strata, respectively. IVF was statistically significantly associated with 1.27-, 1.49-, 1.63-, 1.47-, 1.35-, 1.40-, 4.97- and 1.14-fold higher incidences of admission to a neonatal unit, stillbirth, preterm birth, low birthweight, low Apgar scores (<7 at 5 min), Cesarean section, placenta previa and major congenital anomaly, respectively. Irrespective of the SES group, women who became pregnant through IVF were older and more often nulliparous and non-smokers compared with women with non-IVF pregnancies. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The occupation of 22% of the women was unknown and that of a further 25% did not match any of the criteria for our SES strata. Additionally, infertility is a problem for couples but the definition of SES in this study was based only on the mother's occupation at the time of birth. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The prevalence of IVF-conceived pregnancies was highest among the highest SES group, but SES did not confound the perinatal outcomes of IVF pregnancies after adjusting for background factors. However, the magnitude of risks associated with the IVF technique itself may be more significant than previously thought. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): None of the authors received any funding specifically for this study, and we have no competing interests.

Räisänen S; Randell K; Nielsen HS; Gissler M; Kramer MR; Klemetti R; Heinonen S

2013-07-01

287

Socioeconomic status affects the prevalence, but not the perinatal outcomes, of in vitro fertilization pregnancies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY QUESTION: Does maternal socioeconomic status (SES) confound or modify the association between IVF and perinatal outcome among singleton births? SUMMARY ANSWER: There were substantial socioeconomic differences in the frequency of IVF pregnancies, but maternal SES was not associated with the outcome of IVF pregnancies. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The use of IVF is associated with SES. Additionally, women with lower SES tend to have an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes such as preterm birth and small for gestational age birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Finnish Medical Birth Register (2006-2010). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We analyzed the total population of singleton births in Finland (n = 291 004) and then compared the unadjusted and adjusted incidences of adverse perinatal outcomes for singleton births after IVF (n = 5647) and non-IVF pregnancies (n = 285 357) in relation to SES. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: SES did not confound or modify the association between IVF and perinatal outcomes after adjustments for age, parity, smoking, gestational diabetes, maternal diabetes and pre-eclampsia. However, the prevalence of IVF pregnancies increased with SES; on average 1.9% of singleton infants were born after IVF pregnancies, while the corresponding percentages were 3.2 and 1.2% for the highest and lowest SES strata, respectively. IVF was statistically significantly associated with 1.27-, 1.49-, 1.63-, 1.47-, 1.35-, 1.40-, 4.97- and 1.14-fold higher incidences of admission to a neonatal unit, stillbirth, preterm birth, low birthweight, low Apgar scores (<7 at 5 min), Cesarean section, placenta previa and major congenital anomaly, respectively. Irrespective of the SES group, women who became pregnant through IVF were older and more often nulliparous and non-smokers compared with women with non-IVF pregnancies. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The occupation of 22% of the women was unknown and that of a further 25% did not match any of the criteria for our SES strata. Additionally, infertility is a problem for couples but the definition of SES in this study was based only on the mother's occupation at the time of birth. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The prevalence of IVF-conceived pregnancies was highest among the highest SES group, but SES did not confound the perinatal outcomes of IVF pregnancies after adjusting for background factors. However, the magnitude of risks associated with the IVF technique itself may be more significant than previously thought. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): None of the authors received any funding specifically for this study, and we have no competing interests.

Räisänen S; Randell K; Nielsen HS; Gissler M; Kramer MR; Klemetti R; Heinonen S

2013-11-01

288

Socio-economic status and language acquisition: children's performance on the new Reynell Developmental Language Scales.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Several studies in recent years have indicated a link between socio-economic status (SES) of families and children's language development, including studies that have measured children's language through formal standardized test procedures. High numbers of children with low performance have been found in lower socio-economic groups in some studies. This has proved a cause for concern for both clinicians and educationalists. AIMS: To investigate the relationship between maternal education and postcode-related indicators of SES, and children's performance on the New Reynell Developmental Scales (NRDLS). METHODS & PROCEDURES: Participants were 1266 children aged between 2;00 and 7;06 years who were recruited for the standardization of a new assessment procedure (NRDLS). Children were divided into four groups reflecting years of maternal education, and five groups reflecting SES Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) quintiles for the location of participating schools and nurseries. Groups were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with age as a covariate, in order to identify which might be affected by the two SES variables. Where relationships were found between SES and performance on the scales, individual children's standard scores were looked at to determine numbers potentially at risk for language delay. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: An effect of years of maternal education on performance was found such that children whose mothers had minimum years performed less well than other children in the study, this effect being stronger for younger children. Children attending schools or nurseries in IMD quintile 1 areas performed less well in language production. Higher than expected numbers with language delay were found for younger children whose mothers had minimum years of education, and for children in quintile 1 schools and nurseries; however, numbers were not as high as noted in some other studies. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: Characteristics of the participant sample and measures used for language and SES may explain these results and are important considerations when interpreting results of studies or developing policies for intervention. The usefulness of commonly used categories of language delay is questioned.

Letts C; Edwards S; Sinka I; Schaefer B; Gibbons W

2013-03-01

289

Relationship between household socio-economic status and under-five mortality in Rufiji DSS, Tanzania.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Disparities in health outcomes between the poor and the better off are increasingly attracting attention from researchers and policy makers. However, policies aimed at reducing inequity need to be based on evidence of their nature, magnitude, and determinants. OBJECTIVES: The study aims to investigate the relationship between household socio-economic status (SES) and under-five mortality, and to measure health inequality by comparing poorest/least poor quintile mortality rate ratio and the use of a mortality concentration index. It also aims to describe the risk factors associated with under-five mortality at Rufiji Demographic Surveillance Site (RDSS), Tanzania. METHODS: This analytical cross sectional study included 11,189 children under-five residing in 7,298 households in RDSS in 2005. Principal component analysis was used to construct household SES. Kaplan-Meier survival incidence estimates were used for mortality rates. Health inequality was measured by calculating and comparing mortality rates between the poorest and least poor wealth quintile. We also computed a mortality concentration index. Risk factors of child mortality were assessed using Poisson regression taking into account potential confounders. RESULTS: Under-five mortality was 26.9 per 1,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) (23.7-30.4)]. The poorest were 2.4 times more likely to die compared to the least poor. Our mortality concentration index [-0.16; 95% CI (-0.24, -0.08)] indicated considerable health inequality. Least poor households had a 52% reduced mortality risk [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.48; 95% CI 0.30-0.80]. Furthermore, children with mothers who had attained secondary education had a 70% reduced risk of dying compared to mothers with no education [IRR = 0.30; 95% CI (0.22-0.88)]. CONCLUSION: Household socio-economic inequality and maternal education were associated with under-five mortality in the RDSS. Targeted interventions to address these factors may contribute towards accelerating the reduction of child mortality in rural Tanzania.

Nattey C; Masanja H; Klipstein-Grobusch K

2013-01-01

290

Maternal Body Mass Index, Dietary Intake and Socioeconomic Status: Differential Effects on Breast Milk Zinc, Copper and Iron Content  

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Full Text Available Background: As breast milk micronutrients content are essential for health and growth of the infants, this study was conducted to determine the breast milk zinc, copper and iron concen-trations and their possible correlations with maternal nutritional status, dietary intakes as well as socioeconomic status.Methods: Breast milk samples and information on maternal anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake were collected from 90 Iranian lactating women with 3 different socioeco-nomic status who exclusively breastfed their infants. Concentrations of trace elements were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nutritionist III program, Multiple Re-gression and ANOVA test were used for data analyses.Results: The mean milk zinc, copper, and iron concentrations were 1.93 ± 0.71, 0.58 ± 0.32, and 0.81 ± 0.2 mg/l, respectively. In all three SES groups only zinc mean level was lower than the recommended range. A significant difference was observed in breast milk zinc, copper and iron concentration between high and low SES groups (Zn (P<0.001), Cu (P<0.001) and Fe (P<0.044)) and also moderate and low SES groups (Zn (P<0.03), Cu (P<0.001) and Fe (P<0.049)). After adjusting for maternal body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status, mean dietary energy, zinc, copper, and iron intakes, there was a negative and significant association between maternal age and breast milk zinc (?=-0.28, P<0.034), copper (?=-0.18, P<0.048), and iron (?=-0.22, P<0.04) concentrations.Conclusion: In low socioeconomic group with lower mean age, breast milk mineral levels were higher than others and there was no significant correlation between mineral levels and dietary intake. Hence it is supposed that maternal age may be better predictor of breast milk mineral levels.

Leila Nikniaz; Reza Mahdavi; Bahram Pourghassem Gargari; Seyed Jamal Gayem-magami; Zeinab Nikniaz

2011-01-01

291

Tooth loss and periodontitis by socio-economic status and inflammation in a longitudinal population-based study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To examine the associations between factors of socio-economic status (SES), systemic inflammation and the progression of periodontitis and incidence of tooth loss. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data of 2566 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) with a 5-year follow-up were analysed. We evaluated attachment loss and tooth loss with regard to social variables including education, income, marital status and related risks such as smoking and obesity. RESULTS: Socio-economic factors were associated with the progression of attachment level and tooth loss during the follow-up period. Low education and low income were associated with tooth loss (incidence risk ratio IRR 1.63, p < 0.001 and 1.25, p < 0.001 respectively) and also progression of mean clinical attachment level (p < 0.010 and p = 0.046 respectively). SES as well as smoking and obesity were also associated with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) with effect modifications between SES factors and CRP, also between gender and marital status. Tooth loss was associated with disadvantageous SES, particularly under conditions of high CRP levels (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The progression of periodontal disease is influenced by socio-economic factors. Effect modifications of socio-behavioural factors by CRP indicate that under conditions of systemic inflammation adverse SES effects may be aggravated.

Buchwald S; Kocher T; Biffar R; Harb A; Holtfreter B; Meisel P

2013-03-01

292

The Role of Socioeconomic Status in Longitudinal Trends of Cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh, 1993–2007  

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There has been little evidence of a decline in the global burden of cholera in recent years as the number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to rise. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of socioeconomic development. Overall socioeconomic development i...

Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Rodd, Joshua; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael

293

Ways of perfection of socio-economic bases of development of physical culture and sport in Republic Lebanon.  

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Full Text Available Consisting of economy of physical culture and sport is certain of Republic Lebanon. Opinions of the Lebanese specialists are presented on questions of perfection of socio-economic bases of development of physical culture and sport. The necessity of decision of complex of tasks of socio-economic character is grounded for a country taking into account experience of foreign countries. It is offered to develop and realize a target comprehensive programme under the title « Lebanon - sports country ».

Michuda Y.P.; Youssef Youssef Ali.

2010-01-01

294

Childhood socioeconomic status, telomere length, and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood and adolescence has been found to predict greater susceptibility to common cold viruses in adults. Here, we test whether low childhood SES is associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length in adulthood, and whether telomere length mediates the association between childhood SES and susceptibility to acute upper respiratory disease in adulthood. At baseline, 196 healthy volunteers reported whether they currently owned their home and, for each year of their childhood, whether their parents owned the family home. Volunteers also had blood drawn for assessment of specific antibody to the challenge virus, and for CD8(+)CD28(-) T-lymphocyte telomere length (in a subset, n=135). They were subsequently quarantined in a hotel, exposed to a virus (rhinovirus [RV] 39) that causes a common cold and followed for infection and illness (clinical cold) over five post-exposure days. Lower childhood SES as measured by fewer years of parental home ownership was associated with shorter adult CD8(+)CD28(-) telomere length and with an increased probability of developing infection and clinical illness when exposed to a common cold virus in adulthood. These associations were independent of adult SES, age, sex, race, body mass, neuroticism, and childhood family characteristics. Associations with infections and colds were also independent of pre-challenge viral-specific antibody and season. Further analyses do not support mediating roles for smoking, alcohol consumption or physical activity but suggest that CD8(+)CD28(-) cell telomere length may act as a partial mediator of the associations between childhood SES and infection and childhood SES and colds.

Cohen S; Janicki-Deverts D; Turner RB; Marsland AL; Casselbrant ML; Li-Korotky HS; Epel ES; Doyle WJ

2013-07-01

295

Low socioeconomic status is a risk factor for CPAP acceptance among adult OSAS patients requiring treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether socioeconomic status (SES) has a role in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients' decision to accept continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; patients were recruited between March 2007 and December 2007. SETTING: University-affiliated sleep laboratory. PATIENTS: 162 consecutive newly diagnosed (polysomnographically) adult OSAS patients who required CPAP underwent attendant titration and a 2-week adaptation period. RESULTS: 40% (n = 65) of patients who required CPAP therapy accepted this treatment. Patients accepting CPAP were older, had higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and higher income level, and were more likely to sleep in a separate room than patients declining CPAP treatment. More patients who accepted treatment also reported receiving positive information about CPAP treatment from family or friends. Multiple logistic regression (after adjusting for age, body mass index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and AHI) revealed that CPAP purchase is determined by: each increased income level category (OR, 95% CI) (2.4; 1.2-4.6), age + 1 year (1.07; 1.01-1.1), AHI ( > or = 35 vs. < 35 events/hr) (4.2, 1.4-12.0), family and/or friends with positive experience of CPAP (2.9, 1.1-7.5), and partner sleeps separately (4.3, 1.4-13.3). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the already known determinants of CPAP acceptance, patients with low SES are less receptive to CPAP treatment than groups with higher SES. CPAP support and patient education programs should be better tailored for low SES people in order to increase patient treatment initiation and adherence.

Simon-Tuval T; Reuveni H; Greenberg-Dotan S; Oksenberg A; Tal A; Tarasiuk A

2009-04-01

296

Child overweight in France and its relationship with physical activity, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: (1) To assess the prevalence of childhood overweight (OW) and obesity in France; (2) to examine how physical activity and sedentary behaviour are involved in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW, while taking into account total energy intake. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Representative sample of French children aged 3-14 years (n=1016) taken from the 1998-1999 cross-sectional French INCA (Enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires) food consumption survey. MEASUREMENTS: Weight and height, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), sedentary behaviour (TV viewing and video-game use), and SES were reported by parents or children by answering questionnaires; total energy intake was assessed using a 7-day food record. RESULTS: In total, 15.2% (95% CI: 13.0-17.6) of the children are OW (including obese), according to the IOTF (International Obesity Task Force) definition. OW is inversely associated with SES in children over 6 years of age. LTPA is negatively correlated to OW among the 3 to 5-year-old children only, whereas sedentary behaviour is positively related to OW in childhood and adolescence. From 6 years old on, SES is inversely associated with sedentary behaviour, which consequently may partly mediate the relationship between SES and OW. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the association between SES, sedentary behaviour and childhood OW in France. It was performed before the launching of the French Program of Nutrition and Health (PNNS) in 2001 and will be repeated in 2006. This will contribute to monitoring both childhood OW and its main determinants at the population scale.

Lioret S; Maire B; Volatier JL; Charles MA

2007-04-01

297

Socioeconomic status and the health of youth: a multilevel, multidomain approach to conceptualizing pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has clearly established associations between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor youth physical health outcomes. This article provides an overview of the main pathways through which low SES environments come to influence youth health. We focus on 2 prevalent chronic health problems in youth today, asthma and obesity. We review and propose a model that encompasses (a) multiple levels of influence, including the neighborhood, family and person level; (b) both social and physical domains in the environment; and finally (c) dynamic relationships between these factors. A synthesis of existing research and our proposed model draw attention to the notion of adverse physical and social exposures in youth's neighborhood environments altering family characteristics and youth psychosocial and behavioral profiles, thereby increasing youth's risk for health problems. We also note the importance of acknowledging reciprocal influences across levels and domains (e.g., between family and child) that create self-perpetuating patterns of influence that further accentuate the impact of these factors on youth health. Finally, we document that factors across levels can interact (e.g., environmental pollution levels with child stress) to create unique, synergistic effects on youth health. Our model stresses the importance of evaluating influences on youth's physical health not in isolation but in the context of the broader social and physical environments in which youth live. Understanding the complex relationships between the factors that link low SES to youth's long-term health trajectories is necessary for the creation and implementation of successful interventions and policies to ultimately reduce health disparities. PMID:22845752

Schreier, Hannah M C; Chen, Edith

2012-07-30

298

Childhood socioeconomic status, telomere length, and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood and adolescence has been found to predict greater susceptibility to common cold viruses in adults. Here, we test whether low childhood SES is associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length in adulthood, and whether telomere length mediates the association between childhood SES and susceptibility to acute upper respiratory disease in adulthood. At baseline, 196 healthy volunteers reported whether they currently owned their home and, for each year of their childhood, whether their parents owned the family home. Volunteers also had blood drawn for assessment of specific antibody to the challenge virus, and for CD8(+)CD28(-) T-lymphocyte telomere length (in a subset, n=135). They were subsequently quarantined in a hotel, exposed to a virus (rhinovirus [RV] 39) that causes a common cold and followed for infection and illness (clinical cold) over five post-exposure days. Lower childhood SES as measured by fewer years of parental home ownership was associated with shorter adult CD8(+)CD28(-) telomere length and with an increased probability of developing infection and clinical illness when exposed to a common cold virus in adulthood. These associations were independent of adult SES, age, sex, race, body mass, neuroticism, and childhood family characteristics. Associations with infections and colds were also independent of pre-challenge viral-specific antibody and season. Further analyses do not support mediating roles for smoking, alcohol consumption or physical activity but suggest that CD8(+)CD28(-) cell telomere length may act as a partial mediator of the associations between childhood SES and infection and childhood SES and colds. PMID:23845919

Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Turner, Ronald B; Marsland, Anna L; Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Li-Korotky, Ha-Sheng; Epel, Elissa S; Doyle, William J

2013-07-08

299

Do general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status account for performance on the Children's Gambling Task?  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies that use the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and its age-appropriate versions as indices of affective decision-making during childhood and adolescence have demonstrated significant individual differences in scores. Our study investigated the association between general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status (SES) and its effect on the development of affective decision-making in preschoolers by using a computerized version of the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). We administered the CGT and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS) to 137 Brazilian children between the ages of 3 and 5 years old to assess their general intellectual functioning. We also used the Brazilian Criterion of Economic Classification (CCEB) to assess their SES. Age differences between 3- and 4-years-old, but not between 4- and 5-years-old, confirmed the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo (2004), indicating the rapid development of affective decision-making during the preschool period. Both 4- and 5-years-old performed significantly above chance on blocks 3, 4, and 5 of the CGT, whereas 3-years-old mean scores did not differ from chance. We found that general intellectual functioning was not related to affective decision-making. On the other hand, our findings showed that children with high SES performed better on the last block of the CGT in comparison to children with low SES, which indicates that children from the former group seem more likely to use the information about the gain/loss aspects of the decks to efficiently choose cards from the advantageous deck throughout the task.

Mata, Fernanda; Sallum, Isabela; Miranda, Debora M.; Bechara, Antoine; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

2013-01-01

300

Socioeconomic status and the health of youth: a multilevel, multidomain approach to conceptualizing pathways.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous research has clearly established associations between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor youth physical health outcomes. This article provides an overview of the main pathways through which low SES environments come to influence youth health. We focus on 2 prevalent chronic health problems in youth today, asthma and obesity. We review and propose a model that encompasses (a) multiple levels of influence, including the neighborhood, family and person level; (b) both social and physical domains in the environment; and finally (c) dynamic relationships between these factors. A synthesis of existing research and our proposed model draw attention to the notion of adverse physical and social exposures in youth's neighborhood environments altering family characteristics and youth psychosocial and behavioral profiles, thereby increasing youth's risk for health problems. We also note the importance of acknowledging reciprocal influences across levels and domains (e.g., between family and child) that create self-perpetuating patterns of influence that further accentuate the impact of these factors on youth health. Finally, we document that factors across levels can interact (e.g., environmental pollution levels with child stress) to create unique, synergistic effects on youth health. Our model stresses the importance of evaluating influences on youth's physical health not in isolation but in the context of the broader social and physical environments in which youth live. Understanding the complex relationships between the factors that link low SES to youth's long-term health trajectories is necessary for the creation and implementation of successful interventions and policies to ultimately reduce health disparities.

Schreier HM; Chen E

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

Impact of educational differences as measure of socioeconomic status on survival for breast cancer patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM OF THE STUDY: Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy affecting women. Some reports suggest the influence of socioeconomic status, including education, on survival rates for cancer patients. This report analyzes the effect of patients' education level on their survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the group of 810 breast cancer patients treated in single center in Poland was performed. The analyzed group included women with elementary education (24%), vocational training (19%), secondary (38%) or higher education (16%). Overall, recurrence-free and metastasis free survival times were analyzed. RESULTS: The actuarial 5-year overall survival was 72% (median 4.7 years), 5-year local recurrence-free survival was 84%, whereas metastasis-free survival 76%. Multivariate Cox model has shown that lower education had independent significantly negative influence on local recurrence-free survival time (p = 0.024). The highest risk of recurrence was found for patients with elementary education (p = 0.009). The same was confirmed for distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.001), with the highest risk of metastases in patients with vocational education and stage IIIB breast cancer (p < 0.001). Education level had significant impact on overall survival. The patients with higher-level education lived longer (p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Shorter recurrence-free survival time among women attaining lowest education level and longer overall survival time for women with higher education level suggest the necessity for intensified cancer awareness educational effort and screening among less-educated healthy Polish women.

Nowara E; Suwi?ski R

2012-01-01

302

Socioeconomic status and transient ischaemic attack/stroke: a prospective observational study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with an increased risk of stroke but the mechanisms are unclear. We aimed to determine whether low-SES stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) patients have a greater burden of vascular risk factors/co-morbidity and reduced health care access. METHODS: We prospectively studied 467 consecutive stroke and TIA patients from 3 Scottish hospitals (outpatients and inpatients) during 2007/2008. We recorded vascular risk factors, stroke severity, co-morbidity measures, investigations and health service utilisation. SES was derived from postcodes using Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics and analysed in quartiles. RESULTS: TIA/stroke patients in the lowest SES quartile were younger (64 years, SD 14.1) than those in the highest quartile (72 years, SD 12.9; p < 0.0001). They were more likely to be current smokers (42 vs. 22%; p = 0.001) but there was no association with other vascular risk factors/co-morbidity. There was a trend for those with lower SES to have a more severe stroke [modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and interquartile range: 4 (2-6) vs. 3 (1-5); multivariate p = 0.05]. Lower SES groups were less likely to have neuro-imaging (82 vs. 90%; p = 0.036) or an electrocardiogram (72 vs. 87%; p = 0.003), but differences were no longer significant on multivariate analysis. However, there was equal access to stroke unit care. CONCLUSIONS: Low-SES TIA and stroke patients are younger and have a more severe deficit; an increased prevalence of smoking is likely to be a major contributor. We found equal access to stroke unit care for low-SES patients.

Kerr GD; Higgins P; Walters M; Ghosh SK; Wright F; Langhorne P; Stott DJ

2011-01-01

303

Socioeconomic status and non-fatal injuries among Canadian adolescents: variations across SES and injury measures  

Science.gov (United States)

Background While research to date has consistently demonstrated that socioeconomic status (SES) is inversely associated with injury mortality in both children and adults, findings have been less consistent for non-fatal injuries. The literature addressing SES and injury morbidity among adolescents has been particularly inconclusive. To explore potential explanations for these discrepant research findings, this study uniquely compared the relationship across different measures of SES and different causes of injury (recreation versus non-recreation injuries) within a sample of Canadian adolescents. Methods The sample included adolescent participants (aged 12 to 19 years) in the Canadian 1996–1997 cross-sectional National Population Health Survey (n = 6967). Five SES measures (household income, two neighbourhood-level proxy measures, two parental indicators) were examined in relation to three injury outcomes (total, recreation, and non-recreation injuries) using multivariable logistic regression. Results Among males, a clear relationship with injury was observed only for a parental SES index, which was positively associated with total and recreation injuries (odds ratios for the highest versus lowest SES category of 1.9 for total and 2.5 for recreation injuries). Among females, there was some evidence of a positive relationship between SES and injuries, particularly for a neighbourhood-level education measure with total and recreation injuries (odds ratios of 1.7 for total and 2.0 for recreation injuries). Conclusion The results suggest that differences related to the measures of SES chosen and the causes of injury under study may both contribute to discrepancies in past research on SES and non-fatal injuries among adolescents. To clarify the potential SES-injury relationship among youth, the findings emphasize a need for a greater understanding of the meaning and relevance of different SES measures for adolescents, and for an exploration of the pathways through which SES may be related to injury risk.

Potter, Beth K; Speechley, Kathy N; Koval, John J; Gutmanis, Iris A; Campbell, M Karen; Manuel, Douglas

2005-01-01

304

Socioeconomic status and non-fatal injuries among Canadian adolescents: variations across SES and injury measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background While research to date has consistently demonstrated that socioeconomic status (SES) is inversely associated with injury mortality in both children and adults, findings have been less consistent for non-fatal injuries. The literature addressing SES and injury morbidity among adolescents has been particularly inconclusive. To explore potential explanations for these discrepant research findings, this study uniquely compared the relationship across different measures of SES and different causes of injury (recreation versus non-recreation injuries) within a sample of Canadian adolescents. Methods The sample included adolescent participants (aged 12 to 19 years) in the Canadian 1996–1997 cross-sectional National Population Health Survey (n = 6967). Five SES measures (household income, two neighbourhood-level proxy measures, two parental indicators) were examined in relation to three injury outcomes (total, recreation, and non-recreation injuries) using multivariable logistic regression. Results Among males, a clear relationship with injury was observed only for a parental SES index, which was positively associated with total and recreation injuries (odds ratios for the highest versus lowest SES category of 1.9 for total and 2.5 for recreation injuries). Among females, there was some evidence of a positive relationship between SES and injuries, particularly for a neighbourhood-level education measure with total and recreation injuries (odds ratios of 1.7 for total and 2.0 for recreation injuries). Conclusion The results suggest that differences related to the measures of SES chosen and the causes of injury under study may both contribute to discrepancies in past research on SES and non-fatal injuries among adolescents. To clarify the potential SES-injury relationship among youth, the findings emphasize a need for a greater understanding of the meaning and relevance of different SES measures for adolescents, and for an exploration of the pathways through which SES may be related to injury risk.

Potter Beth K; Speechley Kathy N; Koval John J; Gutmanis Iris A; Campbell M Karen; Manuel Douglas

2005-01-01

305

Socioeconomic status affects mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitat type availability and infestation level.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito populations are largely regulated by processes occurring at the larval stage. We sampled mosquito larval microhabitats (mostly water-holding containers) in six neighborhoods in the Washington, DC, area that varied in socioeconomic status (SES) and housing structure (row houses vs. stand-alone houses) to test associations among these neighborhood characteristics, microhabitat abundance and parameters, and mosquito occurrence and densities. Thirty-four percent (33.9%) of sampled microhabitats contained mosquito larvae, and 93.1% of larvae were Aedes albopictus Skuse or Culex pipiens L. Five specific container types (drains, corrugated flexible drainpipes, planters, garbage cans, and buckets) accounted for the majority of water-holding (56.0%) and mosquito-positive (50.6%) microhabitats sampled. We found no associations between SES or housing structure with total microhabitat abundance per yard, mosquito occurrence or mosquito densities per microhabitat. In contrast, container purpose varied with SES, with low SES neighborhoods having greater numbers of disused containers and lower numbers of functional containers than low and medium SES neighborhoods. Ae. albopictus were 83% more abundant in disused containers, whereas Cx. pipiens were more abundant in structural and functional containers, possibly owing to species-specific oviposition and development related to water quality. Ae. albopictus densities increased over the summer, whereas Cx. pipiens densities remained constant. Ae. albopictus is usually the dominant pest in urban areas in the eastern United States; therefore, integrated mosquito management programs should incorporate the elimination of disused containers to reduce its infestation and adult production, especially in low SES neighborhoods where they occur most frequently.

Dowling Z; Ladeau SL; Armbruster P; Biehler D; Leisnham PT

2013-07-01

306

Association between weight perception and socioeconomic status among adults in the Seychelles  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the association between weight perception and socioeconomic status (SES) in sub-Saharan Africa, and none made this association based on education, occupation and income simultaneously. Methods Based on a population-based survey (n = 1255) in the Seychelles, weight and height were measured and self-perception of one's own body weight, education, occupation, and income were assessed by a questionnaire. Individuals were considered to have appropriate weight perception when their self-perceived weight matched their actual body weight. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35% and 28%, respectively. Multivariate analysis among overweight/obese persons showed that appropriate weight perception was directly associated with actual weight, education, occupation and income, and that it was more frequent among women than among men. In a model using all three SES indicators together, only education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-4.8) and occupation (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.5) were independently associated with appropriate perception of being overweight. The OR reached 6.9 [95% CI: 3.4-14.1] when comparing the highest vs. lowest categories of SES based on a score including all SES indicators and 6.1 [95% CI: 3.0-12.1] for a score based on education and occupation. Conclusions Appropriately perceiving one's weight as too high was associated with different SES indicators, female sex and being actually overweight. These findings suggest means and targets for clinical and population-based interventions for weight control. Further studies should examine whether these differences in weight perception underlie differences in cognitive skills, healthy weight norms, or body size ideals.

Alwan Heba; Viswanathan Bharathi; Williams Julita; Paccaud Fred; Bovet Pascal

2010-01-01

307

Differences in prevalence of tobacco use among Indian urban youth: the role of socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined whether the distribution of tobacco use and related psychosocial risk factors among youth in urban India vary by socioeconomic status (SES). Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of students enrolled in the 6th and 8th grades in 32 schools in Delhi and Chennai (N = 11,642). The survey was conducted in 2004, before the implementation of a program designed to prevent and reduce tobacco use (MYTRI). Mixed-effect regression models were used (a) to determine the prevalence of tobacco use among private (higher SES) and government (lower SES) school students, (b) to investigate whether certain psychosocial factors were associated with increased tobacco use, and (c) to determine how these factors varied by school type. Ever-use of multiple forms of tobacco (e.g., gutkha, bidis, and cigarettes) was more prevalent among government school students than private school students. After adjusting for city, gender, grade, and age, we found the prevalence rate for ever-use of any tobacco product to be 18.9% for government school students, compared with 12.2% for private school students (p<.01). Students in government schools scored lower than private school students on most psychosocial risk factors for tobacco use studied here, indicating higher risk. Government school students scored the lowest for refusal skills, self-efficacy, and reasons not to use tobacco. Social susceptibility to chewing tobacco and social susceptibility to smoking were strong correlates of current tobacco use among government school students. Exposure to tobacco advertising was also a strong correlate of current tobacco use for government school students but not private school students. In two large cities of India, students attending government schools are using many forms of tobacco at higher rates than private school students. The psychosocial risk profile of government school students suggests they are more vulnerable to initiation and use and to outside influences that encourage use.

Mathur C; Stigler MH; Perry CL; Arora M; Reddy KS

2008-01-01

308

The association between socioeconomic status and traditional chinese medicine use among children in Taiwan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) utilization is common in Asian countries. Limited studies are available on the socioeconomic status (SES) associated with TCM use among the pediatric population. We report on the association between SES and TCM use among children and adolescents in Taiwan. Methods A National Health Interview Survey was conducted in Taiwan in 2001 that included 5,971 children and adolescents. We assessed the children's SES using the head of household's education, occupation and income. This information was used to calculate pediatric SES scores, which in turn were divided into quartiles. Children and adolescents who visited TCM in the past month were defined as TCM users. Results Compared to children in the second SES quartile, children in the fourth SES quartile had a higher average number of TCM visits (0.12 vs. 0.06 visits, p = 0.027) and higher TCM use prevalence (5.0% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.024) within the past month. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for TCM use was higher for children in the fourth SES quartile than for those in the first SES quartile (OR 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.17). The corresponding OR was 2.17 for girls (95% CI 1.24-3.78). The highest-SES girls (aged 10-18 years) were most likely to visit TCM practices (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.25-4.90). Conclusions Children and adolescents with high SES were more likely to use TCM and especially girls aged 10-18 years. Our findings point to the high use of complementary and alternative medicine among children and adolescents.

Shih Chun-Chuan; Liao Chien-Chang; Su Yi-Chang; Yeh Tsu F; Lin Jaung-Geng

2012-01-01

309

Neighborhood socioeconomic status and behavioral pathways to risks of colon and rectal cancer in women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Neighborhood amenities and resources plausibly determine individual modifiable risk factors for colon and rectal cancer. Evidence on the associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and incident colon and rectal cancer is limited. METHODS: The authors analyzed a prospective cohort of 111,129 women in the Nurses' Health Study with no history of cancer in 1986 followed to 2006. Neighborhood SES was based on Census-derived characteristics of block groups of residence. Cox models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted associations between neighborhood SES and incident colon and rectal cancer, and to examine for effect modification. For significant associations, path models were estimated with behavioral risk factors included as potential mediators. RESULTS: Neighborhood SES was unassociated with colon cancer among all women. However, among women with college or greater education, higher neighborhood SES was inversely related to colon cancer (P for trend = .01; P for interaction between neighborhood SES and education = .03). Path analysis suggested mediation by red meat intakes and body mass index (BMI). Higher neighborhood SES was inversely related to rectal cancer among all women (relative risk in highest quintile, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.93; P for trend = .08). Path analysis was consistent with mediation by multivitamin use and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that living in a higher-SES neighborhood may protect against rectal cancer in women and colon cancer in higher-educated women, mediated by selected behavioral risk factors. Risk factor differences between colon and rectal cancer may account for discrepancies in estimated neighborhood effects by cancer site.

Kim D; Masyn KE; Kawachi I; Laden F; Colditz GA

2010-09-01

310

Duração do sono em adolescentes de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos Sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a duração de sono na adolescência em diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODO: Foram investigados 863 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em duas escolas de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas por meio de questionários para identificação de informações sobre os hábitos de sono e nível socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: A duração média de sono nos dias da semana foi de 8,83(1,87) horas e a prevalência de adolescentes com duração de sono de oito ou menos horas diárias foi de 39,0% nos dias com aula. Adolescentes da classe baixa apresentaram menor duração do sono (p = 0,043). Na análise ajustada, a idade, o nível socioeconômico e o hábito de tirar a sesta foram os principais fatores associados a poucas horas de sono. Os participantes de 18 a 19 anos apresentaram maior prevalência de poucas horas de sono em comparação aos de 10 a 11 anos (PR = 4,78; CI95%: 1,98-11,53), assim como os adolescentes da classe alta em comparação com a classe baixa (PR = 1,48; CI95%: 1,20-1,83). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram associações entre o nível socioeconômico e os hábitos de sono de adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status. METHOD: We investigated 863 adolescents from 10 to 19 years in two schools in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Sleep habits data and socioeconomic status were obtained by questionnaires. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration on days of the week was 8.83(1.87) hours and the prevalence of adolescents with eight or fewer hours/day was 39.0% on school days (p = 0.043). On adjusted analysis, age, socioeconomic status and taking a nap habit were the main factors associated with few hours of sleep. Older students (aged 18 to 19 years) showed higher prevalence of few hours of sleep when compared to younger students (10 to 11 years) (RP = 4.78; IC95%: 1.98-11.53), as well as for upper class adolescents when compared to those with lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Results showed the association between socioeconomic status and adolescents' sleep/wake habits.

Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite Bernardo; Érico Felden Pereira; Fernando Mazzilli Louzada; Vânia D'Almeida

2009-01-01

311

Association of educational, occupational and socioeconomic status with cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians: a cross-sectional study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To determine correlation of multiple parameters of socioeconomic status with cardiovascular risk factors in India. METHODS: The study was performed at eleven cities using cluster sampling. Subjects (n = 6198, men 3426, women 2772) were evaluated for socioeconomic, demographic, biophysical and biochemical factors. They were classified into low, medium and high socioeconomic groups based on educational level (<10, 10-15 and >15 yr formal education), occupational class and socioeconomic scale. Risk factor differences were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalence (%) of risk factors in men and women was overweight or obesity in 41.1 and 45.2, obesity 8.3 and 15.8, high waist circumference 35.7 and 57.5, high waist-hip ratio 69.0 and 83.8, hypertension 32.5 and 30.4, hypercholesterolemia 24.8 and 25.3, low HDL cholesterol 34.1 and 35.1, high triglycerides 41.2 and 31.5, diabetes 16.7 and 14.4 and metabolic syndrome in 32.2 and 40.4 percent. Lifestyle factors were smoking 12.0 and 0.5, other tobacco use 12.7 and 6.3, high fat intake 51.2 and 48.2, low fruits/vegetables intake 25.3 and 28.9, and physical inactivity in 38.8 and 46.1%. Prevalence of > = 3 risk factors was significantly greater in low (28.0%) vs. middle (23.9%) or high (22.1%) educational groups (p<0.01). In low vs. high educational groups there was greater prevalence of high waist-hip ratio (odds ratio 2.18, confidence interval 1.65-2.71), low HDL cholesterol (1.51, 1.27-1.80), hypertriglyceridemia (1.16, 0.99-1.37), smoking/tobacco use (3.27, 2.66-4.01), and low physical activity (1.15, 0.97-1.37); and lower prevalence of high fat diet (0.47, 0.38-0.57),overweight/obesity (0.68, 0.58-0.80) and hypercholesterolemia (0.79, 0.66-0.94). Similar associations were observed with occupational and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Low educational, occupational and socioeconomic status Asian Indians have greater prevalence of truncal obesity, low HDL cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, smoking or tobacco use and low physical activity and clustering of > = 3 major cardiovascular risk factors.

Gupta R; Deedwania PC; Sharma K; Gupta A; Guptha S; Achari V; Asirvatham AJ; Bhansali A; Gupta B; Gupta S; Jali MV; Mahanta TG; Maheshwari A; Saboo B; Singh J; Gupta R

2012-01-01

312

Psychosocial correlates of leisure-time walking among Australian adults of lower and higher socio-economic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adults of lower socio-economic status (SES) participate less in physical activity than those of higher SES. Understanding the correlates of physical activity participation and how these may differ between socio-economic groups can inform policies and physical activity promotion strategies. The psychosocial correlates of leisure-time walking (the most common voluntary physical activity of adults) were assessed using a survey of 2488 randomly sampled Australian adults (response rate = 74.2%). Among respondents of higher SES, there were higher levels of positive cognitions towards physical activity, and walking for leisure was more prevalent than among those of lower SES. Relationships of psychosocial attributes with leisure-time walking differed by SES. The strongest correlate of leisure-time walking was perceived barriers for lower SES adults and enjoyment for those of higher SES. Social support from friends was associated with walking for both groups, while the effect of support from family was significant only for adults of lower SES. Strategies influencing leisure-time walking may have to target the specific needs of different socio-economic groups. For example, removing perceived barriers may be more appropriate to promote walking among lower SES adults. Interventions tailored for lower SES groups may help close the socio-economic gap in physical activity participation.

Janssen E; Sugiyama T; Winkler E; de Vries H; te Poel F; Owen N

2010-04-01

313

Study of the relationship between socioeconomic status and controlling diabetes among patients admitted to specialized clinic of Dr. Gharazi hospital in Isfahan-2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Diabetes is one of the chronic diseases that have been considered by policy makers. Diabetes causes premature mortality, disability and sometimes irreversible problems. Although it is under consideration of doctors, there is no study about the role of the socioeconomic status of the patient in control of diabetes in our society. The main purpose of this research is to explore relationship between socioeconomic status and control of diabetes. Materials and Methods: 320 diabetic patients were randomly chosen from specialized clinic of Dr. Gharazy hospital. The element was questionnaire which its reliability was calculated according to coefficients Cronbach's alpha (r = .078). The patients’ two previous sessions’ blood sugar level and also their HbA1C were studied via referring to their medical records. Then the patients were categorized into successful and unsuccessful groups in controlling the diabetes. Their socioeconomic status was analyzed through SPSS software. Results: The findings show that there is a direct relationship between socioeconomic status and control of diabetes. The better socioeconomic status is the better diabetes has been controlled. Conclusion: In order to control diabetes, taking drugs and patients’ socioeconomic status should be take into consider and social screening is essential.

Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Emami, Parirokh

2012-01-01

314

Neighborhood socioeconomic status and stroke mortality: Disentangling individual and area effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Brown et al.(1) reported higher poststroke mortality among residents of the most socioeconomically disadvantaged census tracts relative to the residents of the least disadvantaged census tracts. The authors did not find any association by race or income.

Mittal MK; McCormick JB; Sposato LA; Grimaud O

2013-09-01

315

Socioeconomic status as determinant of risk factors for overweight in adolescents Status socioeconômico como determinante de fatores de risco associados com o sobrepeso em adolescentes  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze risk factors for overweight among adolescents grouped in three different socioeconomic levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1779 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years, grouped according to socioeconomic status (low, middle, and high). Parents reported their own anthropometric data and the adolescents had their anthropometric data taken by trained researchers, and completed three questionnaires. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 16.7%, 23.8%, and 26.3% in low, middle and high socioeconomic status, respectively (P= 0.001). In all socioeconomic status, parent's overweight was associated with adolescent overweight (all POBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores de risco para o sobrepeso entre adolescentes agrupados em três níveis econômicos diferentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que incluiu 1779 adolescentes com idade de 11-17 anos, agrupados de acordo com a condição econômica (baixo, médio e alto). Os pais reportaram seus próprios dados antropométricos e os adolescentes tiveram seus dados antropométricos aferidos por avaliadores treinados, e também responderam a três questionários. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 16.7%, 23.8% e 26.3% nas classes econonômicas baixa, média e alta, respectivamente (P=0.001). Em todas as condições econômicas, o sobrepeso dos pais foi associado com o sobrepeso dos filhos (P<0.05). Os estudantes de classes econômicas média e alta (RP=2.00) de escolas privadas foram associados com o sobrepeso, e estudantes de baixo nível sócio-econômico com comportamento sedentário (RP = 2,25) e alta ingestão de frituras (PR = 2.35). CONCLUSÃO: Em cada nível socioeconômico o sobrepeso é associado com diferentes fatores de risco de diferente formas, exceto para pais com sobrepeso.

Rômulo Araújo Fernandes; Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro; Jefferson Rosa Cardoso; Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque; Ismael Forte Freitas Júnior; Sandra Satie Kawaguti; Augusto César Ferreira de Moraes; Arli Ramos de Oliveira

2011-01-01

316

Environmental settings and families' socioeconomic status influence mobility and the use of mobility devices by children with cerebral palsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Functional mobility of children with cerebral palsy (CP) is influenced by personal and environmental factors, serving as barriers and/or facilitators and impacting on children's strategies and functional outcome. OBJECTIVES: To describe typical mobility methods used by children with CP at home, school and community and to compare them across family's socioeconomic levels (SES). METHODS: The Functional Mobility Scale was used to assess mobility of 113 children with CP of high and low SES at home, school, and community. RESULTS: Differences in mobility methods of participants classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System levels II, III and IV were found between home and community. For levels III and IV, differences were also found between home and school. At home, participants from higher SES used wheelchairs more frequently while those from lower SES used floor mobility (crawling). CONCLUSIONS: Environmental settings and families' socioeconomic status influence mobility and use of mobility devices by children with CP.

Cury VC; Figueiredo PR; Mancini MC

2013-02-01

317

African ancestry, socioeconomic status, and kidney function in elderly African Americans: a genetic admixture analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kidney disease is a major public health problem in the United States that affects African Americans disproportionately. The relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the increased burden of kidney disease among African Americans is unknown. The associations of genetic African ancestry and socioeconomic status with kidney function were studied cross-sectionally and longitudinally among 736 community-dwelling African Americans who were aged >65 yr and participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Genetic African ancestry was determined by genotyping 24 biallelic ancestry-informative markers and combining this information statistically to generate an estimate of ancestry for each individual. Kidney function was evaluated by cystatin C and estimated GFR (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Longitudinal changes in serum creatinine and eGFR were estimated using baseline and follow-up values. In cross-sectional analyses, there was no association between genetic African ancestry and either measure of kidney function (P = 0.36 for cystatin C and 0.68 for eGFR). African ancestry was not associated with change in serum creatinine > or =0.05 mg/dl per yr (odds ratio [OR] 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83 to 1.06) or with change in eGFR > or =3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per yr (OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.13). In contrast, self reported African-American race was strongly associated with increased risk for kidney disease progression compared with white individuals for change in creatinine (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.33 to 2.36) and for change in eGFR (OR 3.21; 95% CI 2.54 to 4.06). Among self-identified African Americans, low income (1.29 g/dl (adjusted OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 7.5) or by eGFR US dollars 35,000/yr. Alleles that are known to be present more frequently in the African ancestral group were not associated with kidney dysfunction or kidney disease progression. Rather, kidney dysfunction in elderly African Americans seems more attributable to differences in environmental and social factors. PMID:17082243

Peralta, Carmen A; Ziv, Elad; Katz, Ronit; Reiner, Alex; Burchard, Esteban González; Fried, Linda; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Psaty, Bruce; Shlipak, Michael

2006-11-02

318

Oral mucosal conditions in preschool children of low socioeconomic status: prevalence and determinant factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal conditions and associated factors among 541 preschoolers of low socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Sociodemographic data and information on harmful oral habits were gathered with the use of a questionnaire. A clinical exam was performed for the determination of oral mucosal conditions, dental caries and level of oral hygiene. Data analysis involved statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate regression (p < 0.05, 95 % CI). The prevalence of oral mucosal conditions was 40.7 %. The most prevalent oral mucosal conditions were coated tongue (23.4 %), melanotic macules (14.4 %), oral ulcers (11.8 %), Fordyce's spots (8.1 %), angular cheilitis (3.0 %), geographic tongue (2.8 %), linea alba (1.5 %) and fistula (1.3 %). Children between 3 and 5 years of age had a greater chance of exhibiting coated tongue (OR, 2.55; 95 % CI, 1.6-4.1), melanotic macules (OR, 4.07; 95 % CI, 2.3-7.2) and Fordyce's spots (OR, 12.70; 95 % CI, 7.2-28.6). The female gender had a greater chance of exhibiting melanotic macules (OR, 2.23; 95 % CI, 1.3-1.8). Coated tongue was more prevalent among children from low-income families (OR, 2.35; 95 % CI, 1.3-4.3) and those with inadequate oral hygiene (OR, 4.65; 95 % CI, 2.9-7.4). Caries constituted a predictive factor for oral ulcers (OR, 2.15; 95 % CI, 1.2-3.9) and fistula (OR, 12.00; 95 % CI, 1.4-11.3). Bruxism (teeth clenching/grinding) was a predictive factor for angular cheilitis (OR, 5.55; 95 % CI, 1.9-16.3). The determinant factors for oral mucosal conditions were the female gender, age between 3 and 5 years, inadequate oral hygiene, low household income, residence in rural areas and presence of dental caries and bruxism.

Vieira-Andrade RG; Martins-Júnior PA; Corrêa-Faria P; Stella PE; Marinho SA; Marques LS; Ramos-Jorge ML

2013-05-01

319

Mammographic density and markers of socioeconomic status: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to be positively associated with breast cancer risk but its relationship with mammographic density, a marker of susceptibility to breast cancer, is unclear. This study aims to investigate whether mammographic density varies by SES and to identify the underlying anthropometric, lifestyle and reproductive factors leading to such variation. Methods In a cross-sectional study of mammographic density in 487 pre-menopausal women, SES was assessed from questionnaire data using highest achieved level of formal education, quintiles of Census-derived Townsend scores and urban/rural classification of place of residence. Mammographic density was measured on digitised films using a computer-assisted method. Linear regression models were fitted to assess the association between SES variables and mammographic density, adjusting for correlated variables. Results In unadjusted models, percent density was positively associated with SES, with an absolute difference in percent density of 6.3% (95% CI 1.6%, 10.5%) between highest and lowest educational categories, and of 6.6% (95% CI -0.7%, 12.9%) between highest and lowest Townsend quintiles. These associations were mainly driven by strong negative associations between these SES variables and lucent area and were attenuated upon adjustment for body mass index (BMI). There was little evidence that reproductive factors explained this association. SES was not associated with the amount of dense tissue in the breast before or after BMI adjustment. The effect of education on percent density persisted after adjustment for Townsend score. Mammographic measures did not vary according to urban/rural place of residence. Conclusions The observed SES gradients in percent density paralleled known SES gradients in breast cancer risk. Although consistent with the hypothesis that percent density may be a mediator of the SES differentials in breast cancer risk, the SES gradients in percent density were mainly driven by the negative association between SES and BMI. Nevertheless, as density affects the sensitivity of screen-film mammography, the higher percent density found among high SES women would imply that these women have a higher risk of developing cancer but a lower likelihood of having it detected earlier.

Aitken Zoe; Walker Kate; Stegeman Bernardine H; Wark Petra A; Moss Sue M; McCormack Valerie A; dos Santos Silva Isabel

2010-01-01

320

Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6?years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

Jansen Pauline W; Verlinden Marina; Berkel Anke Dommisse-van; Mieloo Cathelijne; van der Ende Jan; Veenstra René; Verhulst Frank C; Jansen Wilma; Tiemeier Henning

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. METHODS: The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5-6 years. RESULTS: One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. CONCLUSIONS: Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

Jansen PW; Verlinden M; Dommisse-van Berkel A; Mieloo C; van der Ende J; Veenstra R; Verhulst FC; Jansen W; Tiemeier H

2012-01-01

322

Socio-economic status and health care utilization in rural Zimbabwe: findings from Project Accept (HPTN 043)  

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Full Text Available Zimbabwe’s HIV epidemic is amongst the worst in the world, and disproportionately effects poorer rural areas. Access to almost all health services in Zimbabwe includes some form of cost to the client. In recent years, the socio-economic and employment status of many Zimbabweans has suffered a serious decline, creating additional barriers to HIV treatment and care. We aimed to assess the impact of i) socio-economic status (SES) and ii) employment status on the utilization of health services in rural Zimbabwe. Data were collected from a random probability sample household survey conducted in the Mutoko district of north-western Zimbabwe in 2005. We selected variables that described the economic status of the respondent, including: being paid to work, employment status, and SES by assets. Respondents were also asked about where they most often utilized healthcare when they or their family was sick or hurt. Of 2,874 respondents, all forms of healthcare tended to be utilized by those of high or medium-high SES (65%), including private (65%), church-based (61%), traditional (67%), and other providers (66%) (P=0.009). Most respondents of low SES utilized government providers (74%) (P=0.009). Seventy-one percent of respondents utilizing health services were employed. Government (71%), private (72%), church (71%), community-based (78%) and other (64%) health services tended to be utilized by employed respondents (P=0.000). Only traditional health services were equally utilized by unemployed respondents (50%) (P=0.000). A wide range of health providers are utilized in rural Zimbabwe. Utilization is strongly associated with SES and employment status, particularly for services with user fees, which may act as a barrier to HIV treatment and care access. Efforts to improve access in low-SES, high HIVprevalence settings may benefit from the subsidization of the health care payment system, efforts to improve SES levels, political reform, and the involvement of traditional providers.

Sebastian Kevany; Oliver Murima; Basant Singh; Daniel Hlubinka; Michal Kulich; Stephen F. Morin; Michael Sweat

2012-01-01

323

Duração do sono em adolescentes de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos/ Sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a duração de sono na adolescência em diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODO: Foram investigados 863 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em duas escolas de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas por meio de questionários para identificação de informações sobre os hábitos de sono e nível socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: A duração média de sono nos dias da semana foi de 8,83(1,87) horas e a prevalência de adolescentes com duração (more) de sono de oito ou menos horas diárias foi de 39,0% nos dias com aula. Adolescentes da classe baixa apresentaram menor duração do sono (p = 0,043). Na análise ajustada, a idade, o nível socioeconômico e o hábito de tirar a sesta foram os principais fatores associados a poucas horas de sono. Os participantes de 18 a 19 anos apresentaram maior prevalência de poucas horas de sono em comparação aos de 10 a 11 anos (PR = 4,78; CI95%: 1,98-11,53), assim como os adolescentes da classe alta em comparação com a classe baixa (PR = 1,48; CI95%: 1,20-1,83). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram associações entre o nível socioeconômico e os hábitos de sono de adolescentes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status. METHOD: We investigated 863 adolescents from 10 to 19 years in two schools in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Sleep habits data and socioeconomic status were obtained by questionnaires. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration on days of the week was 8.83(1.87) hours and the prevalence of adolescents with eight or fewer hours/day was 39.0% on school days (p = 0.043). On adjusted analysis, age, soci (more) oeconomic status and taking a nap habit were the main factors associated with few hours of sleep. Older students (aged 18 to 19 years) showed higher prevalence of few hours of sleep when compared to younger students (10 to 11 years) (RP = 4.78; IC95%: 1.98-11.53), as well as for upper class adolescents when compared to those with lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Results showed the association between socioeconomic status and adolescents' sleep/wake habits.

Bernardo, Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite; Pereira, Érico Felden; Louzada, Fernando Mazzilli; D'Almeida, Vânia

2009-01-01

324

Will seasonal and climatic conditions influence living habits and socio-economic activities in such a way that nuclear accident are affected  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses to which extent climatic and seasonal effects can influence living habits and socio-economic activities in such a way that consequences of a nuclear accident might be affected. A number of examples from Sweden are given, related to dwellings (building standards and location), diet, seasonal effects in agriculture and tourism. The reindeer are discussed separately. Although climate and season do change man's habits in a way relevant to accident consequences, the conclusion of this paper is that in most cases this mechanism is severely mixed with other, sometimes more important ones.

1989-01-01

325

A case–control analysis of socio-economic and marital status differentials in alcohol- and non-alcohol-related mortality among working-age Russian males  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: We examined the role of socio-economic status (SES) and marital status in premature mortality among working-age Russian males. Life expectancy among this group dropped sharply following the collapse of the Soviet Union and has yet to recover despite the relative economic and political st...

Pridemore, William Alex; Tomkins, Susannah; Eckhardt, Krista; Kiryanov, Nikolay; Saburova, Lyudmila

326

Weak and strong novice readers of English as a foreign language: effects of first language and socioeconomic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined individual differences among beginning readers of English as a foreign language (EFL). The study concentrated on the effects of underlying first language (L1) knowledge as well as EFL letter and vocabulary knowledge. Phonological and morphological awareness, spelling, vocabulary knowledge, and word reading in Hebrew L1, in addition to knowledge of EFL letters and EFL vocabulary, were measured. The study also investigated the effect of socioeconomic background (SES) on beginning EFL readers. Participants included 145 fourth graders from three schools representing two socioeconomic backgrounds in the north of Israel. The results indicate that knowledge of English letters played a more prominent role than knowledge of Hebrew L1 components in differentiating between strong and weak EFL readers. The Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis was supported by L1 phonological awareness, word reading, and vocabulary knowledge appearing as part of discriminating functions. The presence of English vocabulary knowledge as part of the discriminant functions provides support for English word reading being more than just a decoding task for EFL beginner readers. Socioeconomic status differentiated the groups for EFL word recognition but not for EFL reading comprehension.

Kahn-Horwitz J; Shimron J; Sparks RL

2006-06-01

327

Effect of socio-economic status on the prevalence of dermatophytosis in Madras  

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A total of 462 patients living in varying socio-economic conditions were screened for tinea infection. 372/462 (70.7%) were found to be culture positive for dermatophytes. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte. 35% of the infected cases were from the very lo...

Ranganathan S; Menon Thangam; Selvi Sentamil; Kamalam A

328

Influence of Maternal Work Patterns and Socioeconomic Status on Gen Y Lifestyle Choice  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the lifestyle balance between career and family desired by the next generation of workers and whether these desires have been influenced by socioeconomic variables and maternal work patterns. The individuals who will enter the workforce in the next several years are the first generation in which most mothers worked outside…

Bosco, Susan M.; Bianco, Candy A.

2005-01-01

329

How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20– to 65-year-old...

330

The Effects of Human Socioeconomic Status and Cultural Characteristics on Urban Patterns of Biodiversity  

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We present evidence that there can be substantial variation in species richness in residential areas differing in their socioeconomic and cultural characteristics. Many analyses of the impacts of urbanization on biodiversity rely on traditional “urban-to-rural” gradient measures, such as...

Ann P. Kinzig; Paige Warren; Chris Martin; Diane Hope; Madhusudan Katti

331

Gender differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms in older adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With rapid population aging, increasing attention is given to the mental health of older people. This study examined the association between SES and depressive symptoms in older adults. The study population consisted of a representative community sample of 4165 persons aged 65 and older from Wave 1 of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale was used to measure the extent of depressive symptoms. Socioeconomic indicators included education, household income, and net worth. Analyses were conducted by gender, using multiple linear regression analysis, to identify independent effects of socioeconomic variables on depressive symptoms, controlling for demographics and health-related variables. There was an inverse association between higher levels of socioeconomic factors and depressive symptoms in the study population. A clear difference in the association between depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors by gender was observed. In the multivariate analysis, wealth was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in men, whereas education and income was so in women. Gender disparities in depressive symptoms across social gradients suggest the need for gender-sensitive investments in health and social services for the disadvantaged segments of the older population.

Back JH; Lee Y

2011-05-01

332

Gender differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms in older adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

With rapid population aging, increasing attention is given to the mental health of older people. This study examined the association between SES and depressive symptoms in older adults. The study population consisted of a representative community sample of 4165 persons aged 65 and older from Wave 1 of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale was used to measure the extent of depressive symptoms. Socioeconomic indicators included education, household income, and net worth. Analyses were conducted by gender, using multiple linear regression analysis, to identify independent effects of socioeconomic variables on depressive symptoms, controlling for demographics and health-related variables. There was an inverse association between higher levels of socioeconomic factors and depressive symptoms in the study population. A clear difference in the association between depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors by gender was observed. In the multivariate analysis, wealth was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in men, whereas education and income was so in women. Gender disparities in depressive symptoms across social gradients suggest the need for gender-sensitive investments in health and social services for the disadvantaged segments of the older population. PMID:20947184

Back, Joung Hwan; Lee, Yunhwan

2010-10-13

333

Socio-economic, health and nutritional status of the villagers in the Nong Wai irrigation area, Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were carried out from June 1974 to May 1975 on the socio-economic status, health and nutritional status of the people in 4 villages, in the irrigation area of the Nong Wai Pioneer Agricultural Project of Khon Kaen Province, Northeast Thailand. The result obtained were compared with those in 2 non-irrigated villages in the same province, in order to identify the health and nutritional problems which might arise during the water resource development in the irrigation area. It was found that in the irrigated villages 90% of the peoples were farmers, while in the non-irrigated villages all were farmers. The socio-economic status of the people in the irrigated villages was much better than those in the non-irrigated ones. The income per family in the former was about three times greater than that in the latter. In the study of the health conditions of the villagers, the vulnerable age group including pre-school children under 7 years of age and school children in the elementary school class 1 and class 2, aged 7-9 years old, served as subjects for investigation. Haematological and physical examinations revealed many children with mild to moderate anaemia, vitamin B2 deficiency and a few cases of hepatomegaly. Anaemic children were found to be more prevalent in the non-irrigated villages than in the irrigated area. The overall parasitic infection rates in children in the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were similar with respect to severity of the infection. Hookworm infection, opisthorchiasis, strongyloidiasis and giardiasis were the leading parasitic infections, while amoebiasis was rare. Ascariasis and trichuriasis were not found. However, the first two helminthic infections had a low grade of intensity. The nutritional status of pre-school children, showed that there were more children with good growth in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated one. Serum proteins, albumin and globulin, and urinary urea nitrogen-creatinine ratio revealed normal findings indicating that the children had sufficient protein intake. The results of the urinary hydroxyproline-creatinine index suggested that many of the children in both groups of the villages were at marginal malnutrition status. Surveys on domestic animals including cattle, buffaloes, pigs, and field rats revealed no important zoonotic diseases except leptospirosis in a few rats. Some fish were found to harbour metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini, while some snails were positive for cercariae of O. viverrini, Schistosoma spindale, and Echinostoma malayanum. The overall findings indicated that the water resource development by establishing better irrigation, resulted in an improved socio-economic and nutritional status among the villagers, but health conditions and associated parasitic diseases and some nutritional deficiency still existed in the children. However, the findings from this study provide only preliminary data concerning the socio-economic status, health, and nutritional status of the villagers in the irrigation area... PMID:1030856

Harinasuta, C; Sornamani, S; Migasena, P; Vivatanasesth, P; Pongpaew, P; Intarakao, C; Vudhivai, N

1976-12-01

334

Socio-economic, health and nutritional status of the villagers in the Nong Wai irrigation area, Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies were carried out from June 1974 to May 1975 on the socio-economic status, health and nutritional status of the people in 4 villages, in the irrigation area of the Nong Wai Pioneer Agricultural Project of Khon Kaen Province, Northeast Thailand. The result obtained were compared with those in 2 non-irrigated villages in the same province, in order to identify the health and nutritional problems which might arise during the water resource development in the irrigation area. It was found that in the irrigated villages 90% of the peoples were farmers, while in the non-irrigated villages all were farmers. The socio-economic status of the people in the irrigated villages was much better than those in the non-irrigated ones. The income per family in the former was about three times greater than that in the latter. In the study of the health conditions of the villagers, the vulnerable age group including pre-school children under 7 years of age and school children in the elementary school class 1 and class 2, aged 7-9 years old, served as subjects for investigation. Haematological and physical examinations revealed many children with mild to moderate anaemia, vitamin B2 deficiency and a few cases of hepatomegaly. Anaemic children were found to be more prevalent in the non-irrigated villages than in the irrigated area. The overall parasitic infection rates in children in the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were similar with respect to severity of the infection. Hookworm infection, opisthorchiasis, strongyloidiasis and giardiasis were the leading parasitic infections, while amoebiasis was rare. Ascariasis and trichuriasis were not found. However, the first two helminthic infections had a low grade of intensity. The nutritional status of pre-school children, showed that there were more children with good growth in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated one. Serum proteins, albumin and globulin, and urinary urea nitrogen-creatinine ratio revealed normal findings indicating that the children had sufficient protein intake. The results of the urinary hydroxyproline-creatinine index suggested that many of the children in both groups of the villages were at marginal malnutrition status. Surveys on domestic animals including cattle, buffaloes, pigs, and field rats revealed no important zoonotic diseases except leptospirosis in a few rats. Some fish were found to harbour metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini, while some snails were positive for cercariae of O. viverrini, Schistosoma spindale, and Echinostoma malayanum. The overall findings indicated that the water resource development by establishing better irrigation, resulted in an improved socio-economic and nutritional status among the villagers, but health conditions and associated parasitic diseases and some nutritional deficiency still existed in the children. However, the findings from this study provide only preliminary data concerning the socio-economic status, health, and nutritional status of the villagers in the irrigation area...

Harinasuta C; Sornamani S; Migasena P; Vivatanasesth P; Pongpaew P; Intarakao C; Vudhivai N

1976-12-01

335

Who is eating where? Findings from the SocioEconomic Status and Activity in Women (SESAW) study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Foods prepared outside of the home have been linked to less-than-ideal nutrient profiles for health. We examine whether the locations where meals are prepared and consumed are associated with socio-economic predictors among women. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using self-reported data. We examined multiple locations where meals are prepared and consumed: (i) at home; (ii) fast food eaten at home; (iii) fast food eaten at the restaurant; (iv) total fast food; (v) non-fast-food restaurant meals eaten at home; (vi) non-fast-food restaurant meals eaten at the restaurant; and (vii) all non-fast-food restaurant meals. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether frequent consumption of meals from these sources varied by level of education, occupation, household income and area-level disadvantage. SETTING: Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. SUBJECTS: A total of 1328 women from forty-five neighbourhoods randomly sampled for the SocioEconomic Status and Activity in Women study. RESULTS: Those with higher educational qualifications or who were not in the workforce (compared with those in professional employment) were more likely to report frequent consumption of meals prepared and consumed at home. High individual- and area-level socio-economic characteristics were associated with a lower likelihood of frequent consumption of fast food and a higher likelihood of frequent consumption of meals from non-fast-food sources. The strength and significance of relationships varied by place of consumption. CONCLUSIONS: The source of meal preparation and consumption varied by socio-economic predictors. This has implications for policy makers who need to continue to campaign to make healthy alternatives available in out-of-home food sources.

Thornton LE; Crawford DA; Ball K

2011-03-01

336

Association of Educational, Occupational and Socioeconomic Status with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Asian Indians: A Cross-Sectional Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background To determine correlation of multiple parameters of socioeconomic status with cardiovascular risk factors in India. Methods The study was performed at eleven cities using cluster sampling. Subjects (n?=?6198, men 3426, women 2772) were evaluated for socioeconomic, demographic, biophysical and biochemical factors. They were classified into low, medium and high socioeconomic groups based on educational level (15 yr formal education), occupational class and socioeconomic scale. Risk factor differences were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Results Age-adjusted prevalence (%) of risk factors in men and women was overweight or obesity in 41.1 and 45.2, obesity 8.3 and 15.8, high waist circumference 35.7 and 57.5, high waist-hip ratio 69.0 and 83.8, hypertension 32.5 and 30.4, hypercholesterolemia 24.8 and 25.3, low HDL cholesterol 34.1 and 35.1, high triglycerides 41.2 and 31.5, diabetes 16.7 and 14.4 and metabolic syndrome in 32.2 and 40.4 percent. Lifestyle factors were smoking 12.0 and 0.5, other tobacco use 12.7 and 6.3, high fat intake 51.2 and 48.2, low fruits/vegetables intake 25.3 and 28.9, and physical inactivity in 38.8 and 46.1%. Prevalence of >?=?3 risk factors was significantly greater in low (28.0%) vs. middle (23.9%) or high (22.1%) educational groups (p?=?3 major cardiovascular risk factors.

Gupta, Rajeev; Deedwania, Prakash C.; Sharma, Krishnakumar; Gupta, Arvind; Guptha, Soneil; Achari, Vijay; Asirvatham, Arthur J.; Bhansali, Anil; Gupta, Balkishan; Gupta, Sunil; Jali, Mallikarjuna V.; Mahanta, Tulika G.; Maheshwari, Anuj; Saboo, Banshi; Singh, Jitendra; Gupta, Rajiv

2012-01-01

337

Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, individual wealth status and patterns of delivery care utilization in Nigeria: a multilevel discrete choice analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of maternal healthcare services has been accepted as an important factor for reducing maternal deaths. This study investigates the effect of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic position on the utilization of different forms of place of delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. METHODS: A population-based multilevel discrete choice analysis was performed using the most recent population-based 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years. The analysis was restricted to 15,162 ever-married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. RESULTS: The choice of place to deliver varies across the socioeconomic strata. The results of the multilevel discrete choice models indicate that with every other factor controlled for, the household wealth status, women's occupation, women's and partner's high level of education attainment, and possession of health insurance were associated with use of private and government health facilities for child birth relative to home delivery. The results also show that higher birth order and young maternal age were associated with use of home delivery. Living in a highly socioeconomic disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with home birth compared with the patronage of government health facilities. More specifically, the result revealed that choice of facility-based delivery is clustered around the neighborhoods. CONCLUSION: Home delivery, which cuts across all socioeconomic strata, is a common practice among women in Nigeria. Initiatives that would encourage the appropriate use of healthcare facilities at little or no cost to the most disadvantaged should be accorded the utmost priority.

Aremu O; Lawoko S; Dalal K

2011-01-01

338

High seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in a subset of Mexican patients with work accidents and low socioeconomic status  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii has been associated with reflex impairment and traffic accidents. It is unknown whether Toxoplasma infection might be associated with work accidents. Therefore, using a case-control seroprevalence study design, 133 patients with a recent work accident and 266 control subjects of the general population from the same region were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence and levels of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics from each worker were obtained. Results Eleven (8.3%) of 133 patients, and 14 (5.3%) of 266 controls had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. Anti-T. gondii IgG levels were higher than 150 IU/ml in 8 (6%) patients and 10 (3.8%) controls. Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in one (0.8%) of the workers, and in 6 (2.3%) of the controls. No statistically significant differences in the IgG seroprevalences, frequencies of high IgG levels, and IgM seroprevalences among patients and controls were found. In contrast, a low socio-economic level in patients with work accidents was associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity (P = 0.01). Patients with work accidents and low socioeconomic status showed a significantly (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: 0.84-16.06; P = 0.04) higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than controls of the same socioeconomic status (15.1% vs. 5%, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed a positive association of T. gondii infection with boar meat consumption (OR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.03-8.94; P = 0.04). In contrast, a negative association between T. gondii infection and national trips (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.17-0.96; P = 0.04), sausage consumption (OR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.05-0.68; P = 0.01), and ham consumption (OR = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.05-0.51; P = 0.002) was found. Conclusions In the study described here seropositivity to T. gondii was associated to work accidents in a subset of patients with low socioeconomic status. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii infection and work accidents. Further studies to confirm our results are needed. Results may help in designing optimal prevention strategies to avoid T. gondii infection.

Alvarado-Esquivel Cosme; Torres-Castorena Alejandro; Liesenfeld Oliver; Estrada-Martínez Sergio; Urbina-Álvarez Jesús D

2012-01-01

339

Impact of ethnicity and socio-economic status on Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia incidence and mortality: a heavy burden in Indigenous Australians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Investigations of the impact of ethnicity and socio-economic status on incidence and outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia are limited. METHODS: We prospectively identified all S. aureus bacteraemia episodes in the Australian New Zealand Cooperative on Outcomes in Staphylococcal Sepsis cohort study between 2007 and 2010. We calculated population level incidence rates using regional postcodes and stratified the analysis by ethnicity, age and socio-economic status indexes. RESULTS: There were 7539 episodes of S. aureus bacteraemia with an annual incidence of 11·2 episodes per 100,000 population. The age-adjusted incidence in the Indigenous population was 62·5 per 100,000 population with an age standardized incidence rate ratio of 5·9 compared to the non-Indigenous population and an incidence rate ratio of 29.2 for community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Populations in the lowest socio-economic status quintile had an increased S. aureus bacteraemia incidence compared to higher quintiles. However, there was a disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations across all socio-economic status quintiles. The lower 30-day mortality for Indigenous patients (7%) compared to non-Indigenous patients (17%) was explained by differences in age. CONCLUSIONS: Indigenous Australians suffer from a higher rate of S. aureus bacteraemia than non-Indigenous Australians, particularly for community-associated MRSA. Ethnicity and socio-economic status had little impact on subsequent mortality, with other host factors contributing more significantly.

Tong SY; van Hal SJ; Einsiedel L; Currie BJ; Turnidge JD

2012-01-01

340

Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Methods The study used data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) from Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Sierra Leone with a total of 38,990 children below age five. A multi-level random effects logistic model was fitted to examine the socioeconomic factors that influence the prevalence of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Data from the four countries were also combined to estimate this relationship, after country-specific analysis. Results The results show that children from wealthier households reported lower prevalence of fever in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Result from the combined dataset shows that children from wealthier households were less likely to report fever. In general, vaccination against fever-related diseases and the use of improved toilet facility reduces fever prevalence. The use of bed nets by children and mothers did not show consistent relationship across the countries. Conclusion Poverty does not only influence prevalence of fever at the macro level as shown in other studies but also the individual and household levels. Policies directed towards preventing childhood fevers should take a close account of issues of poverty alleviation. There is also the need to ensure that prevention and treatment mechanisms directed towards fever related diseases (such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, polio, tuberculosis etc.) are accessible and effectively used.

Novignon Jacob; Nonvignon Justice

2012-01-01