Socioeconomic status (SES) measured by educational and income levels has long been known to be associated with mortality from some diseases. Many studies from developed countries suggested that SES is associated with lung function and COPD exacerbation, prevalence and mortality. Socioeconomic disadvantage is an independent risk factor for COPD. The impact of low SES on respiratory disease in general has been attributed to poorer housing, more hazardous occupational exposure, poorer diet, a hi...
Objectives: To analyse the variability in health status within as well as between socioeconomic groups. What is the range of individual variability in the health effects of socioeconomic status? Is the adverse effect of lower socioeconomic status uniform across the entire distribution of health status?
Ferrer, R.; Palmer, R.
A recent study examined the socioeconomic status (SES), parent participation, teacher awareness, and academic achievement of 76 elementary school students. Results were obtained through interpretation of data and review of relevant literature. A strong positive correlation was found between a student's SES and academic achievement in school. Some…
Shakiba-Nejad, Hadi; Yellin, David
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program has focused attention on ways to reduce thirty-day readmissions and on factors affecting readmission risk. Using inpatient data from an urban teaching hospital, we examined how elements of individual characteristics and neighborhood socioeconomic status influenced the likelihood of readmission under a single fixed organizational and staffing structure. Patients living in high-poverty neighborhoods were 24 percent more likely than others to be readmitted, after demographic characteristics and clinical conditions were adjusted for. Married patients were at significantly reduced risk of readmission, which suggests that they had more social support than unmarried patients. These and previous findings that document socioeconomic disparities in readmission raise the question of whether CMS's readmission measures and associated financial penalties should be adjusted for the effects of factors beyond hospital influence at the individual or neighborhood level, such as poverty and lack of social support. PMID:24799574
Hu, Jianhui; Gonsahn, Meredith D; Nerenz, David R
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hierarchical social classification associated with different outcomes in health and disease. The most important factors influencing SES are income, educational level, occupational class, social class, and ancestry. These factors are closely related to each other as they present certain dependent interactions. Since there is a need to improve the understanding of the concept of SES and the ways it affects health and disease, we review herein the tools currently available to evaluate SES and its relationship with health and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24418307
Calixto, Omar-Javier; Anaya, Juan-Manuel
Data regarding the socioeconomic status in Iranian kidney transplant (KT) recipients is lacking. In this cross sectional descriptive study we evaluated the socio-economic status of 100 KT recipients in Shiraz organ transplantation center. In a cross-sectional design, we randomly selected and interviewed 100 RT recipients (50 males and 50 females). Data regarding age, gender, martial status, occupation, level of education, number of children, type of insurance, monthly household income, place ...
Roozbeh Jamshid; Jalaeian Hamed; Banihashemi Mohammad; Rais-Jalali Ghanbar; Sagheb Mohammad; Salehipour Mehdi; Faghihi Hajar; Malek-Hosseini Seyed
Full Text Available The paper deals with the idea that a common river-Danube- can cover a lot of disparities connected to socio-economic, cultural, historical and religious approaches. As a result, the analysis in the paper is focused on economic disparities in all Danube countries, even that they are members or not of the EU27. The analysis is based on the latest official statistical data and is followed by a forecast for 2013-2014 in order to observe if the disparities will decrease or not. The main conclusion of the paper is that Danube can be a way and an instrument to solve regional disparities. The same Danube River can support a better socio-economic integration of the Danube countries, as well.
Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood is related to both immediate and persisting impairments in mental health and well-being. Findings from epidemiological studies suggest that children who grow up in families with a lower socioeconomic status (SES) have more symptoms of mental health problems, compared to those raised in more affluent families.
The overall aim of the current thesis was to expand the knowledge of the socioeconomic distribution of childhood mental healt...
Purpose: To estimate the strength of relationships between socioeconomic status and injury in a large Canadian farm population. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 4,769 people from 2,043 farms in Saskatchewan, Canada. Participants reported socioeconomic exposures in 2007 and were followed for the occurrence of injury through 2009…
Pickett, William; Day, Andrew G.; Hagel, Louise; Sun, Xiaoqun; Day, Lesley; Marlenga, Barbara; Brison, Robert J.; Pahwa, Punam; Crowe, Trever; Voaklander, Donald C.; Dosman, James
The immune system evolved to require input from at least three sources that we collectively term the 'old friends': (i) the commensal microbiotas transmitted by mothers and other family members; (ii) organisms from the natural environment that modulate and diversify the commensal microbiotas; and (iii) the 'old' infections that could persist in small isolated hunter-gatherer groups as relatively harmless subclinical infections or carrier states. These categories of organism had to be tolerated and co-evolved roles in the development and regulation of the immune system. By contrast, the 'crowd infections' (such as childhood virus infections) evolved later, when urbanization led to large communities. They did not evolve immunoregulatory roles because they either killed the host or induced solid immunity, and could not persist in hunter-gatherer groups. Because the western lifestyle and medical practice deplete the 'old' infections (for example helminths), immunoregulatory disorders have increased, and the immune system has become more dependent upon microbiotas and the natural environment. However, urbanization maintains exposure to the crowd infections that lack immunoregulatory roles, while accelerating loss of exposure to the natural environment. This effect is most pronounced in individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) who lack rural second homes and rural holidays. Interestingly, large epidemiological studies indicate that the health benefits of living close to green spaces are most pronounced for individuals of low SES. Here we discuss the immunoregulatory role of the natural environment, and how this may interact with, and modulate, the proinflammatory effects of psychosocial stressors in low SES individuals. PMID:24401109
Rook, G A W; Raison, C L; Lowry, C A
Education, socioeconomic status, and intelligence are commonly used as predictors of health outcomes, social environment, and mortality. Education and socioeconomic status are typically viewed as environmental variables although both correlate with intelligence, which has a substantial genetic basis. Using data from 6815 unrelated subjects from the Generation Scotland study, we examined the genetic contributions to these variables and their genetic correlations. Subjects underwent genome-wide testing for common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). DNA-derived heritability estimates and genetic correlations were calculated using the ‘Genome-wide Complex Trait Analyses’ (GCTA) procedures. 21% of the variation in education, 18% of the variation in socioeconomic status, and 29% of the variation in general cognitive ability was explained by variation in common SNPs (SEs ~ 5%). The SNP-based genetic correlations of education and socioeconomic status with general intelligence were 0.95 (SE 0.13) and 0.26 (0.16), respectively. There are genetic contributions to intelligence and education with near-complete overlap between common additive SNP effects on these traits (genetic correlation ~ 1). Genetic influences on socioeconomic status are also associated with the genetic foundations of intelligence. The results are also compatible with substantial environmental contributions to socioeconomic status.
Marioni, Riccardo E.; Davies, Gail; Hayward, Caroline; Liewald, Dave; Kerr, Shona M.; Campbell, Archie; Luciano, Michelle; Smith, Blair H.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hocking, Lynne J.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Wright, Alan F.; Porteous, David J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Deary, Ian J.
Time perspective is a measure of the degree to which one’s thinking is motivated by considerations of the future, present, or past. Time perspective has been proposed as a potential mediator of socioeconomic disparities in health because it has been associated with health behaviors and is presumed to vary with socioeconomic status. In this cross-sectional community-based survey of respondents recruited from hair salons and barber shops in a suburb of Washington DC, we examined the associati...
Ward, M. M.; Guthrie, Lori C.; Butler, Stephen C.
Full Text Available AbstractBackground Leukemia is the most prevalent childhood cancer, and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL constitutes 75% of all cases. Some epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and some childhood cancers. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess socioeconomical status in a case-control study.Materials and MethodsIn 2010, a case-control study was conducted on 100 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged 1 to14 years in Department of Pediatric Oncology of Dr.Sheikh Hospital in Mashhad – Iran and matched age and sex with 400 healthy controls. Data was collected by interview using a questionnaire. Ninety five percent confidence intervals were used to measure the relationship between childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and parental education, income status, father's job (Socioeconomic status, number of children, birth score and paternal smoking. ResultsThere was a significant difference in parental education level, income status, and number of children, birth score, father's job and paternal smoking between two groups. Regression analysis showed that the risk of childhood ALL associated with paternal smoking, and father's high risk job. Fifty percent cases and thirty five percent of control groups located in upper lower and lower middle class of socioeconomic status, respectively. There is a meaningful different between socioeconomic status in two groups. But the risk of childhood ALL did not associate with socioeconomic status.ConclusionThe results suggest that paternal smoking and father’s high risk job are related to risk of childhood leukemia. It should be considered for planning support.
Noori R MSc
The association between socioeconomic status and colon cancer was investigated in a prospective cohort study that started in 1986 in The Netherlands among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on socioeconomic status, alcohol consumption and other dietary and non-dietary covariates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. For data analysis a case-cohort approach was used, in which the person-years at risk were estimated using a randomly selected subcoh...
This study examined the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and school readiness, testing whether parenting (maternal sensitivity and negative behavior/intrusiveness) and financial stress mediated this association and if race moderated these paths. Participants included 164 mother-child dyads from African American and European American…
Dotterer, Aryn M.; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Pungello, Elizabeth
Uses data from current research and two older adult focus groups to develop a conceptual model of exercise self-efficacy and its predictors among older adults. Specifically addresses the issue of low socioeconomic status among older adults and how to improve their health and activity level. (SNR)
Clark, Daniel O.
Data regarding the socioeconomic status in Iranian kidney transplant (KT) recipients is lacking. In this cross sectional descriptive study we evaluated the socio-economic status of 100 KT recipients in Shiraz organ transplantation center. In a cross-sectional design, we randomly selected and interviewed 100 RT recipients (50 males and 50 females). Data regarding age, gender, martial status, occupation, level of education, number of children, type of insurance, monthly household income, place of residence, ownership of a personal transportation device, duration and frequency of pre-transplant dialysis, family history of CRF (Chronic renal failure), and etiology of renal disease were obtained. There were 50 (50%) patients aged between 16 and 35 years, 55 had a family history of CRF, 60 had been on dialysis for more than a year, 61 were married, 47 did not have any children, 41 had more than 3 children, and 65 were unemployed due to physical and emotional impairment as a result of their disease. The majority (73%) did not have a high school diploma, 15% were illiterate, 85% were below the poverty line, 52% were from rural areas, and 98% were covered by insurance. We conclude that patients with CKD in our study had acquired this condition possibly due to negligence and lack of basic health care in the lower socioeconomic class. In addition, KT is an available therapeutic modality to lower socio-economic level in Iran. PMID:18310885
Roozbeh, Jamshid; Jalaeian, Hamed; Banihashemi, Mohammad Amin; Rais-Jalali, Ghanbar Ali; Sagheb, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehipour, Mehdi; Faghihi, Hajar; Malek-Hosseini, Seyed Ali
Full Text Available Data regarding the socioeconomic status in Iranian kidney transplant (KT recipients is lacking. In this cross sectional descriptive study we evaluated the socio-economic status of 100 KT recipients in Shiraz organ transplantation center. In a cross-sectional design, we randomly selected and interviewed 100 RT recipients (50 males and 50 females. Data regarding age, gender, martial status, occupation, level of education, number of children, type of insurance, monthly household income, place of residence, ownership of a personal transportation device, duration and frequency of pre-transplant dialysis, family history of CRF (Chronic renal failure, and etiology of renal disease were obtained. There were 50 (50% patients aged between 16 and 35 years, 55 had a family history of CRF, 60 had been on dialysis for more than a year, 61 were married, 47 did not have any children, 41 had more than 3 children, and 65 were unemployed due to physical and emotional impairment as a result of their disease. The majority (73% did not have a high school diploma, 15% were illiterate, 85% were below the poverty line, 52% were from rural areas, and 98% were covered by insurance. We conclude that patients with CKD in our study had acquired this condition possibly due to negligence and lack of basic health care in the lower socioeconomic class. In addition, KT is an available therapeutic modality to lower socio-economic level in Iran.
Full Text Available Education is one of the most significant landmarks in women empowerment as it facilitates them to deal with their traditional responsibilities to bring positive changes in their lives. Education lessens Socio-economic disparities rampant in the society and acts as a way of improving the status of women within the family if the access to education is not denied to women on the pretext of tradition, religion or any other social norm. This research is designed to explore the relationship between access to education of Muslim women and their socio-economic status in Azamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. With respect to the former, in-depth interviews were used. This Study however shows that Education has had a positive impact on socio economic status of Muslim women in the district.
Race and current socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with sleep. Parental education, a commonly studied component of childhood SES, is predictive of adult health outcomes; yet its impact on adult sleep remains unclear. In this study, the sleep of 128 Black and White adults was investigated. Participants with lower childhood SES (assessed via parental education) slept more time in Stage 2 sleep and less time in slow wave sleep (SWS) than those with higher childhood SES. Additionally, wom...
Tomfohr, Lianne; Ancoli-israel, Sonia; Dimsdale, Joel E.
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES), feeling of anomie, and law-breaking behavior or illegality. A sample of 480 students has been randomly selected from Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in Iran. The results revealed that SES had significant negative correlation with anomie and non-significant correlation with illegality. Anomie had positive correlation with illegal behavior and the fetishism of money dimension had the grea...
We examined whether socioeconomic status (SES) could be used to identify which schools or children are at greatest risk of bullying, which can adversely affect children's health and life. We conducted a review of published literature on school bullying and SES. We identified 28 studies that reported an association between roles in school bullying (victim, bully, and bully-victim) and measures of SES. Random effects models showed SES was weakly related to bullying roles. Adjusting for publication bias, victims (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24, 1.58) and bully-victims (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.36, 1.74) were more likely to come from low socioeconomic households. Bullies (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97, 0.99) and victims (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.94, 0.97) were slightly less likely to come from high socioeconomic backgrounds. SES provides little guidance for targeted intervention, and all schools and children, not just those with more socioeconomic deprivation, should be targeted to reduce the adverse effects of bullying. PMID:24825231
Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter
The aim of the article was to study the relation between socioeconomic factors and mortality from CVS diseases. The study was performed among 346 native Indians (260 males and 86 females), aged 41-54 years and employed by the Civil Service. The study was carried out during 7 years. At 24 months of follow-up, 281 of 346 subjects (81.2%) had blood pressure progression. Subjects in the highest category of education or income had a 16 and 11% lower risk of cardiovascular events when compared with those in the lowest education or income category, respectively. The study demonstrates that socioeconomic status is a powerful and independent predictor of blood pressure progression and cardiovascular event in initially healthy persons. In this population, education was a more robust indicator of incident hypertension than income. It was found that obese persons with primary education did not have a higher risk of blood pressure progression or cardiovascular event than their counterparts with high school education. Finally, our findings indicate that even in this well-educated cohort, socioeconomic status as measured by education and income remains an important determinant of hypertension. PMID:24632646
Senan, Mahavir; Petrosyan, A
Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES, feeling of anomie, and law-breaking behavior or illegality. A sample of 480 students has been randomly selected from Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in Iran. The results revealed that SES had significant negative correlation with anomie and non-significant correlation with illegality. Anomie had positive correlation with illegal behavior and the fetishism of money dimension had the greatest effect on illegality. The result is discussed with regard to the socio-cultural sphere of Iran as well as with regard to the previous anomie theories including Merton, and Messner and Rosenfeld theories.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil. Methods We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n = 768, 35–60 years old. Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain. They were then invited to be clinically assessed (304 accepted. Pain was estimated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, as well as screening for tender points using dolorimetry. Statistical analyses included Bayesian Statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis Anova test (significance level = 5%. Results From the phone-interview screening, we divided participants (n = 768 in three groups: No Pain (NP (n = 185; Regional Pain (RP (n = 388 and Widespread Pain (WP (n = 106. Among those participating in the clinical assessments, (304 subjects, the prevalence of fibromyalgia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [2.6%; 6.3%]. Symptoms of pain (VAS and FIQ, feeling well, job ability, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depression were statically different among the groups. In multivariate analyses we found that individuals with FM and WP had significantly higher impairment than those with RP and NP. FM and WP were similarly disabling. Similarly, RP was no significantly different than NP. Conclusion Fibromyalgia is prevalent in the low socioeconomic status population assisted by the public primary health care system. Prevalence was similar to other studies (4.4% in a more diverse socioeconomic population. Individuals with FM and WP have significant impact in their well being.
Pereira Carlos AB
Although socioeconomic status is a major contributing factor to health disparities, the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status influences health remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an a priori conceptual model of the pathways between socioeconomic status and modifiable health risk factors in a sample of 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment. A latent variable modeling approach was utilized to characterize the interrelationships among soc...
Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-woerpel, Ludmila M.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Costello, Tracy J.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Wetter, David W.
Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on ...
Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; Ahmadshah Farhat; Rana Amiri; Habibollah Esmaeeli
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been ''authorized as a defense activity of the Department of Energy...for the express purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States...'' (PL 96-164). As reported in previous conferences, WIPP continues ahead of schedule and below budget with full facility construction well underway. To date, based on recent review, the socioeconomic impacts have been negligible and steps have been taken to ensure that they remain that way throughout operations
Objectives: To assess the effects of neighbourhood level socioeconomic status (SES) and convenience store concentration on individual level smoking, after consideration of individual level characteristics.
Background: Although the immunization coverage has increased over the past few years, school age is still a neglected area and accounts for high number of unimmunized children in developing world including India. Objective: This study has been undertaken to determine the immunization status of school children in an urban locality of Indore, a district of central India; and to determine if parental socioeconomic status affect immunization coverage. Material and methods: The study was school ba...
Madhuri Inamdar, Saurabh Piparsania
Full Text Available The wealth of country in terms of man power totally depends upon the children, the future citizen. Apart from this, children also determine the socio-cultural values of the future. Physical, mental and social well beings of the children are closely related to the socioeconomic well beings of the parents. To know the Relationship between socioeconomic status of parents and health of children of Government primary school of Bangalore, a one-time observational cross sectional study was conducted in the three primary schools of Kottigepalya. 456 children were included in the study. A complete physical examination of the children was done and deviations from normal were recorded. A large number, 319 (69.96%, school children were found to be sick, in which 39 (12.23% children were belonging to SES lower middle (III, 239 (74.92% were to SES upper lower (IV and 41 (12.85% children were to SES lower (V. This results show that the SES of parents is truly affects the health of children.
This article attempts to establish that socioeconomic status (SES) plays an important role in the lives of adolescents and is reflected in adolescent literature. The emphasis on SES in four adolescent novels: The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton, To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, and The Pigman by Paul Zindel suggests that both the authors and their young readers are aware of its influence in today's society. Three areas which are greatly affected by SES are examined: adolescents' self-esteem, how it affects characterization and subsequently the degree to which adolescents identify with a literary character, and how it functions as a learning device, enabling authors to infuse their own moral values into the minds of their audiences. PMID:7625261
Full Text Available Socio-economic status of plain and hill area differ to a large degree from each other. Such type of study is very much common for both the areas. Rishop village of Darjeeling is very much interesting from social as well as economic point of view. On one hand tourism is a part of their economic life, on the other hand they are exceptional in West Bengal in terms of language, religion, way of life style etc. All these are due to the especial category of physical, and atmospheric set up
The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the knowledge, attitudes, practices and formal schooling ofparents and the oral health status in schoolchildren enrolled in educational institutions of different socioeconomic levels, using dental caries as the tracer disease. A convenience sample of 300 school children aged 6-14 years old and living in Mar del Plata city, Argentina, was composed according to income characterization in three strata: low, middle and high income. The children were grouped according to age (6-8, 9-11 and 12-14 years old). A validated questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes and oral health practices was administered to parents. Children were examined for dental and gingival status. DMFS, dmfs, plaque and gingival bleeding indexes were determined. Mean and SEM and/or frequency distribution of each variable were determined and diferences assessed by ANOVA, chi-squared, Yates chi-squared and Scheffé tests (p < 0.05). Association among variables was tested by chi-squared test. The children from low income families showed significantly higher levels oforal disease in all the studied age groups. These families revealed significantly less healthy practices and attitudes along with lower formal schooling level. Dental indicators were inversely and significantly associated with parents' knowledge, attitudes and formal schooling and with plaque index. Bleeding on probing was inversely and significantly associated with plaque index, parents 'formal schooling and practices. Plaque index was found to be inversely associated with parents' knowledge, attitudes and formal schooling. Parents 'knowledge, formal schooling, attitudes and health practices are intervening variables on oral health status ofschool children and an intervention field with potential impactfor the oral component of health. PMID:22928394
Ravera, Enilde; Sanchez, Gabriel A; Squassi, Aldo F; Bordoni, Noemí
Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the maternal socioeconomic status and the caries experience among 2-6 years old preschool children of Lucknow city, India. Material and Methods: A sample of 512 preschool going children were selected through a multistage cluster random sampling. Their mothers provided information regarding their demographic data. Their socioeconomic statuses were elicited by using the modified B.G.L. Prasad’s classification for the year 2010. Their mothers’ education, occupations and incomes were also recorded. The dental caries experience was recorded by using the dentition status and the treatment needs (WHO Basic Oral Health Survey 1997). The association between the socioeconomic status and the caries experience was obtained by using the Chi – square test. One way ANOVA was used for the multiple group comparisons. Results: The prevalence of nursing caries was 33.01%. The association between the presence of nursing caries and a lower status of the mother’s education and occupation and socioeconomic position proved to be statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Instilling positive attitudes in the parents, especially in the mothers, towards the prevention of nursing caries, would reduce its prevalence at this tender age of life.
Narang, Ridhi; Saha, Sabyasachi; G V, Jagannath; Kumari, Minti; Mohd, Shafaat; Saha, Sonali
Abstract We investigated the association between length of school education and 5-year prognosis of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), including exacerbations, hospital admissions and survival. We used sample of general population from two independent population studies: The Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study. A total of 6,590 individuals from general population of Copenhagen with COPD defined by the Global initiative for obstructive lung disease criteria were subdivided into 4 groups based on the length of school education: 1,590 with education education 8-10 years, 1,244 with more than 10 years, but no college/university education and 625 with college/university education. Compared with long education, short education was associated with current smoking (p sex, age, FEV1%pred, dyspnea, frequency of previous exacerbations and smoking we observed that shortest school education (in comparison with university education), was associated with a higher risk of COPD exacerbations (hazards ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.15-2.37) and higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.28-2.99). We conclude that even in an economically well-developed country with a health care system (which is largely free of charge), low socioeconomic status, assessed as the length of school education, is associated with a poorer clinical prognosis of COPD. PMID:24568315
Lange, Peter; Marott, Jacob Louis; Vestbo, Jørgen; Ingebrigtsen, Truls Sylvan; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne
Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in Northern Europe, despite equal access to health care. SES per se is not responsible for this association, which must be ascribed to important risk factors for CMM such as intermittent ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, and screening for CMM possibly owing to a greater knowledge and understanding of CMM. Our review of the literature showed that high SES is associated with increased risk of CMM, thinner tumours, increased survival and decreased mortality from CMM - the latter shown among women, and in recent studies also among men. There is evidence that high SES is associated with sun holidays, whereas low SES is associated with the use of sunbeds. Findings suggest that high SES is associated with the use of physicians and dermatologists for marks and moles, possibly owing to more knowledge and better understanding of CMM. We conclude that there has been a true increase in CMM incidence among high SES individuals in Northern Europe probably due to past intense intermittent UVR exposure, especially in connection with sun holidays. However, the increased risk of CMM and a better outcome of CMM in high SES individuals may also be conditioned by frequent recourse to physicians, which may be ascribed to more knowledge and better understanding of CMM, although more studies on this subject are warranted. Thicker CMM tumours and increased CMM mortality among low SES individuals in recent decades may reflect exposure to intermittent UVR, such as the use of sunbeds, as well as delayed diagnosis. PMID:24359255
Idorn, L W; Wulf, H C
Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject…
Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G.; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Kushnerenko, Elena
Background: Several studies in recent years have indicated a link between socio-economic status (SES) of families and children's language development, including studies that have measured children's language through formal standardized test procedures. High numbers of children with low performance have been found in lower socio-economic groups in…
Letts, Carolyn; Edwards, Susan; Sinka, Indra; Schaefer, Blanca; Gibbons, Wendy
The hypothesis of this study is twofold and states that parental socioeconomic status has an effect on the soft drink consumption of the child, and that this effect is mediated by the soft drink related parenting practices. One thousand six hundred and thirty-nine parents of 2.5-7 year old children from 34 Flemish pre-primary and primary schools, completed a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, soft drink consumption and soft drink related parenting practices. Causal mediation analyses showed an effect of socioeconomic status on soft drink consumption of the child: children from high socioeconomic status consume 0.42 times the amount of soft drinks of children from lower socioeconomic status. Interestingly, this effect is almost entirely mediated by three soft drink parenting practices: soft drinks served at meals, the child can take soft drink whenever he or she wants and having soft drinks at home. PMID:22475631
De Coen, Valerie; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Maes, Lea; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vereecken, Carine
Evaluation of reading-disabled children (N=57 and ages 6-11 years) found that socioeconomic status related significantly to achievement and intelligence but was not correlated with performance on neuropsychological tests. (DB)
Morrison, Delmont C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.
The present study was designed to examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) of the mother’s knowledge about different aspects of diabetes and the glycemic control of type 1 children with diabetes. Samples were taken from successive admissions to the outpatient diabetes clinics in Prince Sultan Medical Military City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well designed questionnaire covering different aspects including demographic data, educational background, and socioeconomic status of the c...
Abdulrahman Nasser Al-Odayani; Omar Zayyan Alsharqi; Alaeddin Mohammad Khalaf Ahmad; Ala'Eddin Mohammad Khalaf Ahmad; Hussein Mohammad Al-Borie; Qattan, Ameerah M. N.
Introduction: Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of contextual factors as determinants of sexual behavior of adolescents. It has been found that lower socioeconomic status is associated with risky sexual behavior. Sexual behavior is individual but develops under strong influence of cultural and other influences. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of family’s socioeconomic status and risky sexual behavior of adolescents in Belgrade. Method. Self-...
Vukovi? Dejana S.; Bjegovi?-Mikanovi? Vesna M.
The risk of experiencing adverse financial events (e.g. bankruptcy) depends on the world economy and on individual differences in financial and psychological variables. Analysing data from 109,472 British survey respondents, this study reports the risks associated with financial capabilities, money attitudes, and socio-economic status for suffering negative financial outcomes. The results show that (1) socio-economic status is associated with financial capabilities but not with money attitude...
This paper will present the socioeconomic profile and nutritional status of children aged 1-6 years in the rubber smallholdings of Peninsula Malaysia. A total of 323 households were involved in this study. The sociodemographic data were obtained through interviews with heads of households using a set of questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were taken from 506 children aged 1-6 years from these households. The weight and height of the children were compared with the reference values of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the nutritional status was classified based on the recommendations of WHO. The average age of the fathers was 39.9+/-8.6 years and 34.4+/-7.0 years for the mothers. The mean household size was 6.67+/-2.27. The majority (49.7%) of the heads of households received 4-6 years of formal education and 7.9% received no formal education. Based on the monthly per capita income, 24.0% were found to be in the hardcore poor category, 38.3% fall into the poor category and 37.7% in the above poverty income group. The prevalence of stunting and underweight among children between the ages of 1-6 years were highest among children from the hardcore poor, followed by the poor category and above the poverty line income group. Wasting was present in all income groups, with a prevalence of 4.2% found among the hardcore poor, 9.4% among the poor group and 8.4% in the above poverty income group. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation showed significant relationships between household total income and height-for-age (r = 0.131, P = 0.05) and weight-for-age (r = 0.127, P = 0.05). There were also significant correlations between monthly per capita income with height-for-age (r = 0.16, P < 0.01) and weight-for-age (r = 0.13, P < 0.05). The acreage of land utilised was correlated with height-for-age (r = 0.11, P < 0.05), weight-for-age (r = 0.17, P < 0.05) and weight-for-height (r = 0.16, P < 0.05). However, stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the predictor of height-for-age was monthly per capita income (R2 = 0.03, P < 0.01) and acreage of land utilised was a predictor for weight-for-age (R2 = 0.03, P < 0.01) and weight-for-height (R2 = 0.01, P < 0.01). Because income and acreage of land utilised have been shown to be associated with nutritional status, it is recommended that intervention programs that focus on generation of income and diversification of land utilisation should be undertaken. A multidiscipline approach involving the family, community and government agencies should be applied to any type of intervention program. PMID:12074180
Marjan, Zamaliah Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Lin, Khor Geok; Siong, Tee E
Background The association of pain and socioeconomic status is widely reported, yet much less clearly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of experimentally induced pain threshold and tolerance with socioeconomic status. Material and Methods The study sample consisted of 319 adult subjects from the population of the island of Vis, Croatia, which was previously shown to have a high level of social homogeneity. A manual dolorimeter was used to measure mechanical pressure pain threshold (least stimulus intensity) and pain tolerance (maximum tolerance stimulus intensity) on both hands. Pain tolerance interval was defined as the difference between pain tolerance and threshold. Years of schooling and material status were used as socioeconomic estimates. Results Both of the socioeconomic estimates were significantly correlated with pain threshold, tolerance, and tolerance interval (Ppoor people indeed do hurt more. PMID:25029965
Miljkovi?, Ana; Stip?i?, Ana; Braš, Marijana; Dor?evi?, Veljko; Brajkovi?, Lovorka; Hayward, Caroline; Pavi?, Arsen; Kol?i?, Ivana; Polašek, Ozren
The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between Locus of Control (LoC) and oral health among a group of rural adolescent school children and to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between health, LoC and oral health status. A total of 318 children 15 years of age from a public and private school formed the study population. The children were administered following the Indian translation of the 18-item Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, and subsequently examined for caries and oral hygiene. T tests and correlation analyses showed a significant relationship between higher 'Internal' Locus of Control and dental caries. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on LoC and oral health using three interaction models which showed a statistically significant interaction between 'Internal' LoC and socioeconomic status on caries. Socioeconomic stratum-specific estimates of the relationship between the LoC and caries revealed a positive association between Internal LoC and caries in the middle socioeconomic group. The results demonstrated the relationship between Locus of Control and oral health, and the role of socioeconomic status having a strong bearing on this relationship. PMID:21594202
Acharya, Shashidhar; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy; Singh, Sweta
Much of the secular trend toward increased body size among populations in the Pacific Region has been attributed to the processes of economic modernization and socioeconomic change. The primary objective of the present analysis was to examine the relationships between socioeconomic factors and stature, weight, body mass index and physical activity level of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernized lifestyle in the Pacific Region. In a cross-sectional study of physical activity, body size and socioeconomic status, a volunteer sample of 345 Cook Islanders aged 20-65 years was obtained from the total adult population of Rarotonga, and measured at six out-patient clinics. Stature, weight, body mass index (BMI), physical activity level and age were calculated by sex and occupational category, years of education, island of birth and number of years lived on Rarotonga, respectively, using SPSSPC for Windows. Stepwise multiple regression was used to examine the relationships between stature, weight, BMI, PALweekday (a measure of physical activity level), age and non-linear functions of age, and the socioeconomic variables. These analyses indicate that the secular trend in stature is a function of the relative level of modernization on Rarotonga relative to other Cook Islands, and with level of education. These factors associate differently among males and females, the secular trend among males appearing to be a general phenomenon in response to lifestyle change associated with life on Rarotonga, while among females the trend is a function of lifestyle change associated with education and independent of island of origin. The trend toward increasing body fatness is also different for males and females. Weight declines with age for both men and women, in a linear way for the males, but in a non-linear fashion for the females. Body weight is also greater among those males in more skilled and professional occupations than among those with less-skilled professions. For the women, weight is independent of occupation category. Physical activity patterns of modernizing adult Cook Islanders show no relationships with socioeconomic variables for the males, but while older women are less active, those born on Rarotonga are less active than those born elsewhere in the Cook Islands. The number of years spent on Rarotonga shows no significant relationships with any of the physical measures, or with physical activity level. This is likely to be as much a function of small sample size as a lack of effect. Although declines in energy expenditure with increasing age have been demonstrated for both males and females in various populations around the world, on Rarotonga this holds true for females and not males, indicating that physical activity declines with increasing age in modernizing societies do not occur in uniform fashion. PMID:11572521
Ulijaszek, S J
We use an exploratory agent-based model of adults’ walking behavior within a city to examine the possible impact of interventions on socioeconomic differences in walking. Simulated results show that for persons of low socioeconomic status, increases in walking resulting from increases in their positive attitude towards walking may diminish over time if other features of the environment are not conducive to walking. Similarly, improving the safety level for the lower SES neighborhoods may be...
Yang, Yong; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Brown, Daniel G.
A landmark review of studies published prior to 1989 on socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity supported the view that obesity in the developing world would be essentially a disease of the socioeconomic elite. The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity. Although more studies are necessary to clarify the exact nature of this relationship, partic...
Background: There are pronounced socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease, but the extent to which these primarily reflect gradients in underlying coronary artery disease severity or in the clinical manifestation of advanced disease is uncertain. We measured the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) as indexed by grade of employment and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort, and tested the contribution of lifestyle, biological and ...
Steptoe, A.; Hamer, M.; O Donnell, K.; Venuraju, S.; Marmot, M. G.; Lahiri, A.
Objectives To propose a simple correction of body-mass index (BMI) based on self-reported weight and height (reported BMI) using gender, body shape perception and socioeconomic status in an adolescent population. Methods 341 boys and girls aged 17–18 years were randomly selected from a representative sample of 2165 French adolescents living in Paris surveyed in 2010. After an anonymous self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire asking for height, weight, body shape perception (feeling too thin, about the right weight or too fat) and socioeconomic status, subjects were measured and weighed. BMI categories were computed according to Cole’s cut-offs. Reported BMIs were corrected using linear regressions and ROC analyses and checked with cross-validation and multiple imputations to handle missing values. Agreement between actual and corrected BMI values was estimated with Kappa indexes and Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Results On average, BMIs were underreported, especially among girls. Kappa indexes between actual and reported BMI were low, especially for girls: 0.56 95%CI?=?[0.42–0.70] for boys and 0.45 95%CI?=?[0.30–0.60] for girls. The regression of reported BMI by gender and body shape perception gave the most balanced results for both genders: the Kappa and ICC obtained were 0.63 95%CI?=?[0.50–0.76] and 0.67, 95%CI?=?[0.58–0.74] for boys; 0.65 95%CI?=?[0.52–0.78] and 0.74, 95%CI?=?[0.66–0.81] for girls. The regression of reported BMI by gender and socioeconomic status led to similar corrections while the ROC analyses were inaccurate. Conclusions Using body shape perception, or socioeconomic status and gender is a promising way of correcting BMI in self-administered questionnaires, especially for girls.
Legleye, Stephane; Beck, Francois; Spilka, Stanislas; Chau, Nearkasen
Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semistructured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.
Claudette D. Ncho
Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates ofmorbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Dueto the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health ina low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gainan understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due totheir socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory usingpurposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realisedas 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in SoshanguveExtension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using opencoding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and geneticconstitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and workingconditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of peopleliving in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approachfrom registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned andimplemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in thecommunity without evidence based on a family perspective.
Claudette D. Ncho
Background & objectives: Socio-economic status is associated with increased morbidity in patients with asthma. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between socio-economic status and family history of asthma in adult asthma patients. Methods: The study included 200 adults with asthma and 400 non-asthmatic controls. Socio-economic status was determined based on income. Regression analysis was used to estimate odd ratios in relation to socio-economic class, using age, gender, family history of asthma and smoking habits. Results: The highest occurrence of having any family history of asthma was observed in the high class group (88.2%), followed by upper middle class (79.5%), lower middle class (60%) and the lowest in the low class group (34%). Having any family history of asthma was an important risk factor in both univariate and multivariate analyses in lower middle class, upper middle class and high class, but not in the low class group. Interpretation and conclusions: The results indicated a positive association between having a family history of asthma and higher socio-economic status. Further studies on a large representative sample need to be conducted to confirm these findings.
Davoodi, Parisa; Mahesh, P.A.; Holla, Amrutha D.; Ramachandra, Nallur B.
Students from rural and low socioeconomic backgrounds do not pursue university education at the same rate as those from metropolitan areas or from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. This has been a long-standing issue for government. This study explores the aspirations and intentions for university education among low socioeconomic status (SES) and…
Curtis, David D.; Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, John; Lawson, Michael J.
Full Text Available Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on weight, heighting and BMI of school age children. Healthy six years old children who were screened before enter, to school were eligible for participating in our study between 6 June 2006 and 31 July. Weight and standing height were documented at birth and measured at 6 years old. Then, their BMI were calculated in childhood period. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. Result. Results show that some socio-economic variables and birth weight is associated with and, perhaps, influence the variation of growth in the children. The variables which show the most consistent and significant association were birth weight, sex, economic status and education of parents. Conclusion. In this paper, we found that birth weight, economic status and education parents of neonates have directly significant effect on growth childhood period. We recommended that paying attention to these criteria for improving growth of children in our society should be considered by authorities.
Abstract Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a trial of long-term weight loss among adults wit...
Objective Reported associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity are inconsistent depending on gender and geographic location. Globally, these inconsistent observations may hide a variation in the contextual effect on individuals' risk of obesity for subgroups of the population. This study explored the regional variability in the association between SES and BMI in the USA and in Canada, and describes the geographical variance patterns by SES category. Methods The 2009–2010 samples of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) were used for this comparison study. Three-level random intercept and differential variance multilevel models were built separately for women and men to assess region-specific BMI by SES category and their variance bounds. Results Associations between individual SES and BMI differed importantly by gender and countries. At the regional-level, the mean BMI variation was significantly different between SES categories in the USA, but not in Canada. In the USA, whereas the county-specific mean BMI of higher SES individuals remained close to the mean, its variation grown as SES decreased. At the county level, variation of mean BMI around the regional mean was 5 kg/m2 in the high SES group, and reached 8.8 kg/m2 in the low SES group. Conclusions This study underlines how BMI varies by country, region, gender and SES. Lower socioeconomic groups within some regions show a much higher variation in BMI than in other regions. Above the BMI regional mean, important variation patterns of BMI by SES and place of residence were found in the USA. No such pattern was found in Canada. This study suggests that a change in the mean does not necessarily reflect the change in the variance. Analyzing the variance by SES may be a good way to detect subtle influences of social forces underlying social inequalities.
Lebel, Alexandre; Kestens, Yan; Clary, Christelle; Bisset, Sherri; Subramanian, S. V.
Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status is a risk factor for liver cirrhosis, but it is unknown whether it is a prognostic factor after cirrhosis diagnosis. We examined whether marital status, employment, and personal income were associated with the survival of cirrhosis patients. Methods Using registry-data we conducted a population-based cohort study of 1,765 Danish cirrhosis patients diagnosed in 1999–2001 at age 45–59 years. Follow-up ended on 31 De...
Objective: To assess the oral health of adolescents and its association with nutritional status and socioeconomic condition. Methods: The population consisted of 313 adolescents, aged between 15 and 19 years. DMFT index was assessed using the form proposed by the World Health Organization for epidemiological surveys in oral health. For the diagnosis of nutritional status, body mass index was calculated, classified in accordance with the standard reference of the National Center for Health Sta...
Aims: To assess cross-level interactions between neighborhood and individual socioeconomic status (SES) on alcohol consumption and problems, and investigate three possible explanations for such interactions, including the double jeopardy, status inconsistency and relative deprivation hypotheses. Methods: Data from the 2000 and 2005 US National Alcohol Surveys were linked to the 2000 US Census to define respondent census tracts as disadvantaged, middle-class and advantaged. Risk drinking (cons...
Mulia, Nina; Karriker-jaffe, Katherine J.
Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Burkina Faso (2003), Cameroon (2004), Ghana (2003), Kenya (2003), and Tanzania (2003), I investigate the cross-sectional relationship between HIV status and socioeconomic status. I find evidence of a robust positive education gradient in HIV infection, showing that, up to very high levels of education, better-educated respondents are more likely to be HIV-positive. Adults with six years of schooling are as much as three percentage p...
Fortson, Jane G.
Objective: To assess the socioeconomic status, treatment being offered and the impact of congenital heart disease treatment on families. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital / Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from first March to 31 August 2010. Methodology: All patients undergoing a cardiac surgical or angiographic intervention were enrolled. Socioeconomic status was assessed by Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale with income group modification. The impact was measured by the source of financing, effect on family financing source and schooling and health of siblings. Results: Of 211 patients undergoing treatment in the study period, surgery was the definitive treatment in 164 (77.7%) and angiographic intervention in 47 (22.3%) patients. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The mean age of the patient was 39.1 +- 3.2 months (range 01 day to 15 years). Majority of families belonged to middle (66.4%, n=140) and lower (27%, n=57) socioeconomic class. The mean cost of medicines and disposable was PKR 78378.2 +- 8845.9 (US$ 933.1 +- 105.3) in open heart surgery, PKR 12581 +- 7010.8 (US$ 149.8 +- 83.5) in closed heart surgery and PKR 69091 + 60906 in angiographic interventions. In 63.1% patients, families contributed towards these costs either completely (12.3%) or partly (50.8%) with significant contribution from the hospital. Adverse effect on families ranged from leave without pay to losing jobs or business (46%), and selling their assets (11.3%). It also affected schooling and health of siblings (22.7% and 26.1% respectively). Conclusion: Majority of children with congenital heart disease belonged to middle and lower socioeconomic status in this study. Main definitive treatment was surgery. The cost of health care facilities posed a marked socioeconomic burden on those families. (author)
Full Text Available The survey was carried out to study socioeconomic status of 50 dog owners in Nagpur of Maharashtra.The result revealed the businessmen (38% are more interested in dog keeping followed by government servants (16% and student (12%. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 229-229
The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…
von Stumm, Sophie
This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…
Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc
The authors explored how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) predicted physics achievement as mediated by metacognition and physics self-efficacy. Data were collected from 338 high school students. The model designed for exploring how gender and SES-related differences in physics achievement were explained through metacognition and physics…
Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Pesman, Haki
Full Text Available Objective: To examine the association between socio-economic status and adult mortality in a rural South African community.Methods: Longitudinal data of adults aged 15-64 yrs residing within the Demographic Surveillance Area [DSA] on 1st January 2001 and followed up for seven years, was used. Out of the total 33,677 adults who met the inclusion criteria, 4,058 died during the seven years follow up period. Mortality rates were computed using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates expressed per 1000 person-year of observation (PYO. Household wealth index was constructed by the use of PCA, while the association was assessed using Cox proportional Hazard model controlling for potential confounders such as age, sex and marital status.Results: The high group of the socioeconomic quintile had the highest mortality rate of 22.2 per 1000 PYO, 95% confidence interval (20.7-23.7. After adjusting for the potential confounders, the effect of socioeconomic status in the highest SES category was 0.10 times less likelihood of death compared to the lowest SES group (Hazard Ratio=0.90; p=0.042; 95% confidence interval [0.81-0.99].Conclusion: This study revealed that adult socioeconomic status is not significantly associated with adult mortality. Reducing the gap between the rich and the poor, though a worthwhile effort; might not be the most effective means of reducing adult mortality.
Christian Ashong Nikoi
In overcrowded urban high schools, students are dealing with many issues in and out of school. Issues at home paired with math curriculum that does not seem relevant to their lives, leads to a lack of engagement in the classroom. This research poses the question: How can project-based algebra engage low-socioeconomic status high school students?…
Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.
This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…
Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale
Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)
This study was design to determine whether there is a difference in the number of meals consumed away from home (restaurant or fast food) between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high SES adolescents. Additionally, this study sought to determine if the nutrients and food group chosen differs among children who consume meals away from home versus those who do not. Eighty four adolescences (51 boys and 33 girls) ages 12-16 years and their parents from Shiraz, Iran completed the three 24 h diet recalls (one weekend and two week days). The demographics questionnaire was also completed from each participant. Data analyzed using SPSS and hypothesis tested using one way ANOVA. There was no significant difference in the number of meals consumed away from home in low SES adolescents compared to high SES (p = 0.464). However, those who consumed meals away from home reported a higher percentage of calories from fat (p = 0.007) and serving of fried vegetables (p = 0.010) compared to those who consumed no meals away from home. These findings suggest that intervention for adolescents eating patterns should provide information on choosing healthy meals away from home. PMID:19634480
Hejazi, N; Mazloom, Z
Background The prevalence of overweight and underweight is steadily increasing among children and adolescents. To explore the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and body mass index, we examined levels of overweight and underweight among representative samples of children and adolescents in South Korea. Methods We analyzed data from the 2009 Korean Survey on the Obesity of Youth and Children, conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute. The sample response rate for this survey was 93.9%. After excluding 745 subjects who had missing information on age, height, or weight, 9411 subjects were included. To measure parental socioeconomic status, 4 categories were assessed by using a structured questionnaire: subjective economic status, parental education level, parental occupational status, and family structure. We used the chi-squared test in univariable analysis and multinomial logistic regression in multivariable analysis. Results Multinomial logistic regression analysis identified sex, education level, parental interest in weight management, and parental body shapes as statistically significant characteristics affecting overweight in children, and sex, place of residence, parental interest in weight management, and paternal and maternal body shapes as statistically significant characteristics affecting underweight (P < 0.05). Conclusions Underweight and overweight coexist among adolescent Korean males of low socioeconomic status, which indicates that these conditions can coexist in developed countries. Appropriate interventions to address both overweight and underweight in adolescents are required.
Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Young-eun; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae
There is controversy regarding the influence of genetic versus environmental factors on kidney transplant outcome in minority groups. The goal of this project was to evaluate the role of certain socioeconomic factors in allograft and recipient survival. Graft and recipient survival data from the United States Renal Data System were analyzed using Cox modeling with primary variables of interest, including recipient education level, citizenship, and primary source of pay for medical service. College (hazard ratio [HR] 0.93, P < 0.005) and postcollege education (HR 0.85, P < 0.005) improved graft outcome in the whole group and in patients of white race. Similar trends were observed for recipient survival (HR 0.9, P < 0.005 for college; HR 0.88, P = 0.09 for postcollege education) in the whole population and in white patients. Resident aliens had a significantly better graft outcome in the entire patient population (HR 0.81, P < 0.001) and in white patients in subgroup analysis (HR 0.823, P < 0.001) compared with US citizens. A similar effect was observed for recipient survival. Using Medicare as a reference group, there is a statistically significant benefit to graft survival from having private insurance in the whole group (HR 0.87, P < 0.001) and in the black (HR 0.8, P < 0.001) and the white (HR 0.89, P < 0.001) subgroups; a similar effect of private insurance is observed on recipient survival in the entire group of patients and across racial groups. Recipients with higher education level, resident aliens, and patients with private insurance have an advantage in the graft and recipient outcomes independent of racial differences. PMID:17699222
Goldfarb-Rumyantzev, Alexander S; Koford, James K; Baird, Bradley C; Chelamcharla, Madhukar; Habib, Arsalan N; Wang, Ben-Jr; Lin, Shih-jui; Shihab, Fuad; Isaacs, Ross B
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are pervasive racial and socioeconomic differences in health status among older adults with type 2 diabetes. The extent to which racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities unfold to differential health outcomes has yet to be investigated among older adults with diabetes. This study examines whether or not race/ethnicity and SES are independent predictors of steeper rates of decline in self-rated health among older adults in the U.S. with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study population was a subset of diabetic adults aged 65 and older from the Health and Retirement Study. Respondents were followed up to 16 years. Multilevel cumulative logit regression models were used to examine the contributions of socioeconomic indicators, race/ethnicity, and covariates over time. Health decline was measured as a change in self-reported health status over the follow-up period. Results Relative to whites, blacks had a significantly lower cumulative odds of better health status over time (OR: 0.61, p Conclusions The author found that race/ethnicity and some socioeconomic indicators were independent predictors of health decline among older adults with diabetes.
Nicklett Emily J
Background The ever-increasing older population and its association with serious overweight problems have garnered much attention. The correlation between being overweight and socioeconomic status factors could be helpful for understanding the inequalities among the overweight population. We examined the correlation between being overweight and some key variables, such as demographics, socioeconomic status, general health status, and health behavior in a large sample of older individuals, by each gender. Methods We used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging and it included 8,157 participants who were 45 years or older. To understand the relationship between the overweight participants in accordance to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health status, and health behaviors, a weighted chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted by separating variables related to overweight, according to the genders. Results The number of people in the normal group was 6,347 (77.8%), while the people who were considered overweight were 1,810 (22.2%). Women (n?=?4,583) constituted 52.7% of the subject, 24.9% of whom were classified as overweight. Meanwhile, 20.6% of the 47.3% (n?=?3,574) of the sample who were men were classified as overweight. Participants between the ages of 45 and 64 with chronic diseases were more likely to be overweight. Men in the 4th quartile of household income were more likely to be overweight than those who were in the 1st quartile, in contrast, while unemployed women with lower education levels and urban residents were at greater risk for being overweight. Conclusions Among the men, health status and health behavior appeared to show a correlation with being overweight; however, among women, socioeconomic status factors were strongly related to being overweight. These findings appear to support the association of gender-specifics with the prevalence of being overweight.
Noh, Jin-Won; Jo, Minkyung; Huh, Taewook; Cheon, Jooyoung; Kwon, Young Dae
Zimbabwe’s HIV epidemic is amongst the worst in the world, and disproportionately effects poorer rural areas. Access to almost all health services in Zimbabwe includes some form of cost to the client. In recent years, the socio-economic and employment status of many Zimbabweans has suffered a serious decline, creating additional barriers to HIV treatment and care. We aimed to assess the impact of i) socio-economic status (SES) and ii) employment status on the utilization of health services ...
Kevany, Sebastian; Murima, Oliver; Singh, Basant; Hlubinka, Daniel; Kulich, Michal; Morin, Stephen F.; Sweat, Michael
This paper assesses the hypothesis that depressive syndrome is associated with socioeconomic status, using longitudinal data from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Followup. Socioeconomic measures include those used in most studies of status attainment, as well as measures of financial dependence, non-job income, and work environment. Analyses include inter-and intra- generational mobility, and replicate the basic aspects of the status attainment process, as well as psychiatric epide...
Eaton, William W.; Muntaner, Carles; Bovasso, Gregory; Smith, Corey
In the present study we investigated the impact of respiratory allergy on quality of life in young people, and examined whether socio-economic status modifies the above dependence. The study was conducted in 458 female and 363 male university students, aged 18-25. Information on socio-economic status (SES) was collected using a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and specific allergens were medically diagnosed. Quality of life (QoL) was based on the Polish version of the SF-36 test. Respiratory allergy or respiratory and food allergy were declared by 19.2 % of women and 19.0 % of men. The prevalence of allergy was higher in students with high SES. The students suffering from allergy obtained lower scores in all domains of QoL, but the differences were statistically insignificant. However, the overall test result in allergic students was significantly lower than that in non-allergic students. Differences QoL were significantly associated with socio-economic variables. In persons with low SES, the differences in QoL between those suffering from allergy and those who did not have allergy were larger than in persons with high SES. The results indicate that the course of allergic diseases is highly dependent on socio-economic status. The prevalence of allergy among students of low status is lower than among those of high status. However, allergy to a greater extent impairs the quality of life of students with low than high SES. PMID:23836002
Pawlinska-Chmara, Romana; Wronka, Iwona; Marchewka, Justyna
Full Text Available Systemic hypertension is a common disease in the population and is one of the most important risk factors whose prevalence reaches 28% in U.S.A, 44% in Europe, so that in 2025, it is estimated that hypertensive persons will reach 1.56 billion worldwide. In our country, the overall prevalence was 44.92%, mainly higher in males (50.17% than females (41.11%. We conducted an assessment of social and psychological factors in association with medical and biological routine quantification in a group of 80 hypertensives newly diagnosed, compared with a control group. Questionnaires were for studying the marital status, education level, quantifying the number of working hours per day, the level of physical training and professional socio-familial stress, smoking, alcohol consumption, after which patients were tested to assess the psychometric anxiety and depression using the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The results may support an increased risk of hypertension in individuals who are undergoing to social and family stress, working over 10 hours/day and who record mild or moderate levels of anxiety and depression at evaluation tests. These data support the implementation of complex programs to decrease the risk of hypertension by working professionals in the medical, social and psychological fields of expertise.
Full Text Available Environment is a global concept today. Environmental Education is an approach to learning. Environmental Education means the educational process dealing with man's relationship of population, pollution resource, conservation, technology, energy, urban and rural planning to the total biosphere.A self-made questionnaire was made in order to find the relationship between the Environmental Education aptitude and socioeconomic status among class IX Children of rural, urban and semi urban. The question paper contents fifty (50 questions and it divided into two sector. In sector-I content (10 questions by which the socioeconomic status of the children can be known and Sector-II consists of four type questions by which Environmental Education aptitude can be understood.Socioeconomic status is evaluated from the response of sector-I questions by analyzing the educational status of the family, occupation of the parents & the monthly income of the family of a particular student or sample. After classifying the samples into 3 classes of status (upper, middle & lower according to their socioeconomic condition, the mean of the marks was computed. The mean score of every status group is then analyzed to know the relationship between Environmental Education achievement level and socioeconomic status. Although there are many factor are responsible for the academic achievements in Environmental Education. But from this observation it may conclude that there is a strong relationship between Environmental Education achievement and socio-economic status.
Full Text Available We present evidence that there can be substantial variation in species richness in residential areas differing in their socioeconomic and cultural characteristics. Many analyses of the impacts of urbanization on biodiversity rely on traditional “urban-to-rural” gradient measures, such as distance from urban center or population density, and thus can fail to account for the ways in which human socioeconomic and cultural characteristics are shaping the human–environment interaction and ecological outcomes. This influence of residential values and economic resources on biodiversity within the urban matrix has implications for human quality of life, for urban conservation strategies, and for urban planning.
This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status. Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 10/19/2011.
Obesity and depression are two diseases of major public health importance. While both correlate with each other, potential pathways involving depression that would link socioeconomic status (SES) to lifestyle factors and obesity have not been systematically examined using nationally representative data. Using rich data on 2,217 US young adults aged 20–39 years from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) and multivariate linear and logistic regression models, we exami...
Beydoun, May A.; Wang, Youfa
This study determined ethnic differences in anthropometric measures of a sample of adults in Hawaii, examining the effects of differing degrees of ethnic admixing and socioeconomic status (SES) on the measures. Adults who had attended elementary school in Hawaii underwent anthropometric measurements and answered questionnaires about their educational attainment, income, age, cultural identity, ethnic ancestry, and health. Individuals reporting Asian American cultural identity had significantl...
The negative social attributes associated with drug use and abuse/dependence may arise as a result of shared genetic or environmental factors rather than through causal pathways. To evaluate this possibility, structured interviews were conducted for 3969 male and female twins from the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry and evaluations of their socioeconomic status (SES), social interactions, and use of drugs were obtained. Drug involvement was categorized as never used, tried, or met criteria for abu...
Increased left ventricular mass (LVM) and lower socioeconomic status (SES) are predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Blacks and Hispanics are more likely to have higher LVM and lower SES. The relation between SES, race–ethnicity, and LVM has not been fully explored. Data were used from the NOMAS population-based sample of 1916 subjects living in Northern Manhattan. SES was characterized on the basis of educational attainment and divided into 4 categories. Echocardiography-de...
Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Sciacca, Robert R.; Diez-roux, Ana V.; Boden-albala, Bernadette; Sacco, Ralph L.; Homma, Shunichi; Ditullio, Marco R.
The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had a...
Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.
The aim of this dissertation was to examine the determinants of severe back disorders leading to hospital admission in Finland. First, back-related hospitalisations were considered from the perspective of socioeconomic status, occupation, and industry. Secondly, the significance of psychosocial factors at work, sleep disturbances, and such lifestyle factors as smoking and overweight was studied as predictors of hospitalisation due to back disorders. Two sets of data were used: 1) the pop...
A trend analysis was conducted on the influence of socio-economic (SES) status on obesity levels in Canadian baby boomers over time. Two, large scale national studies conducted 10 years apart were analyzed. Riley’s Social Change Model was used to frame how the influence of SES on obesity will converge over time due to social changes to food production and eating habits coupled with reliance on modern technology. Partial support was found for convergence of SES and obesity associations over ...
Cummings, Linda Martha Dawn
Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES). Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional stud...
Abstract Background Studies have shown an inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD). Little is known about this association in Iran. This study aimed to investigate whether mortality after myocardial infarction (MI) varies by SES. Methods In a retrospective study, 1283 MI patients who hospitalized in Tehran Heart Center from March 2005 to March 2006 were followed up in March 2008. Demographic, clini...
Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to higher morbidity in patients with chronic diseases, but may be particularly relevant to asthma, as asthmatics of lower SES may have higher exposures to indoor (e.g., cockroaches, tobacco smoke) and outdoor (e.g., urban pollution) allergens, thus increasing risk for exacerbations. Methods This study assessed associations between adult SES (measured according to educational level) and asthma mor...
Abstract Background It is unclear whether the socioeconomic status (SES) of the community of residence has a substantial association with infant birth weight. We used multilevel models to examine associations of birth weight with family- and community-level SES in the Cape Cod Family Health Study. Data were collected retrospectively on births to women between 1969 and 1983 living on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The sample included siblings born in different residences with differ...
Lower socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to higher incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) and lower survival. However, there is little known about the effect of SES on HNC survival in Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs). This study’s purpose is to examine the effect of SES on disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) in APIs with HNC using population-based data.
Chu, Kp; Shema, S.; Wu, S.; Gomez, Sl; Chang, Et; Le, Qt
The authors assessed the extent to which socioeconomic status (SES) and the personality factors termed the “big 5” (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness) represented confounded or independent risks for all-cause mortality over a 10-year follow-up in the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) cohort between 1995 and 2004. Adjusted for demographics, the 25th versus 75th percentile of SES was associated with an odds ratio of 1.43 (95% ...
Chapman, Benjamin P.; Fiscella, Kevin; Kawachi, Ichiro; Duberstein, Paul R.
Abstract Background As longevity increases, cases of myocardial infarction (MI) are likely to be more. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major global health problem reaching epidemic proportions in the Indian subcontinent, also among low socio-economic status (SES) and thin individuals. Objectives The present study was undertaken to elicit risk factors for MI among low SES Southern Indians and to find out its association with body mass index (BMI). Materi...
Meenakshisundaram Ramachandran; Agarwal Dipti; Rajendiran Chinnaswamy; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian Ponniah
Background:The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Iranian aged 25-64 estimated to be about 7.7%.The aim of current study was the assessment of socioeconomic status of diabetic patients and their complications.Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted on type 2 diabetic patients with complications in four major teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) during July 2009 to March 2010. All patients (530) were interviewed through a questionnaire with 85%...
Tol, A.; Pourreza, A.; Shojaeezadeh, D.; Mahmoodi, M.; Mohebbi, B.
This paper examines whether and how socio-economic status is associated with children’s behavioural development in today’s children. Using a large cohort of English children born in the early 1990s we find significant social inequalities in several dimensions of child behaviour at age 7. We examine whether these inequalities are associated with characteristics of the child’s early home environment and parental behaviours. These include the material quality of the child’s home, materna...
Abstract Background Although the general association between socioeconomic status (SES) and hospitalization has been well established, few studies have considered the relationship between SES and hospital length of stay (LOS), and/or hospital re-admission. The primary objective of this study therefore, was to examine the relationship of SES to LOS and early re-admission among adult patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia in a setting with universal health insu...
Socioeconomic status (SES) is often indicated as a factor that influences physical activity and associated health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between SES and sport participation, morphology, fitness and motor coordination in a sample of 1955 Flemish children 6-11 years of age. Gender, age and SES-specific values for morphologic dimensions, amount and type of sport participation and fitness and motor coordination tests were compared. SES was positively and significantly asso...
This paper investigates the association between mental health and socioeconomic status and assesses the extent to which the correlates of depression change over the life cycle. Mean depression scores for South Africans are markedly higher than those found in other countries. There are large differences in depression between population groups. For both men and women, sixty percent of the gap between Africans and whites can be explained by their socioeconomic status. Household expenditure per member and the number of assets owned by the household are significant negative correlates of depression, as is educational attainment. Reporting that one is on the lowest rung of the socioeconomic status ladder, or that children in the household are often hungry, is associated with reporting more depressive symptoms. Adults report more symptoms of depression and anxiety at older ages, with the most dramatic increase occurring between young adulthood and middle adulthood. For the African sub-sample, this can be explained in part by prime-age and older adults being more troubled by poverty. PMID:21915159
Ardington, C; Case, A
Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of contextual factors as determinants of sexual behavior of adolescents. It has been found that lower socioeconomic status is associated with risky sexual behavior. Sexual behavior is individual but develops under strong influence of cultural and other influences. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of family’s socioeconomic status and risky sexual behavior of adolescents in Belgrade. Method. Self-administered questionnaire was used in secondary schools in Belgrade, and 1,782 adolescents attending first grade filled the questionnaire. For the analyses of predictors of risky sexual behavior, multiple logistic regression was used. Results. Parents’ occupations did not show significant association with any of analyzed behaviors. Adolescents who received weekly disposable money above average were 2.5 times more likely to ever have had sexual intercourse, and if sexually active were more likely to use contraception. Perceived family’s wealth was a significant predictor of ever having sex (OR=1.9; CI 1.2-2.8 and not using contraception (OR=4.3; CI 1.2-15.0. Conclusion. Socioeconomic status is associated with sexual behaviors of adolescents. Fifteen-year olds who perceive their families as wealthier are more likely to ever have had sex and not use any kind of contraception. Adolescents with higher weekly income are more likely to ever have had sex and use contraception than their counterpats with less weekly disposable money. .
Vukovi? Dejana S.
Full Text Available This study was carried out in the adjacent communities of the Hakaluki haor, the largest inland freshwater wetland of Bangladesh to explore their socio-economic status and haor-based livelihood dependency. Hakaluki haor is a poverty stricken region with 37% households falling into extreme poor group having monthly income of Tk 2 000.00 only. More than half of the community view Hakaluki haor as the vital source of livelihoods. The surrounding community is dependent on the haor in varying degree (15% totally dependent, 32% moderately and 53% less with a variety of livelihood activities like fishing and related profession (32%, duck rearing (29%, cattle rearing (28%, fuel wood collection (6%, sand extraction (3% and reed collection (2%. The average annual household incomes from fishing of naturally available fish, pisciculture and NTFPs collection are Tk 21 701.35, Tk 31 524.83 and Tk 2 704.80, respectively. The haor serves as the source of fuel for cooking to a majority of the community (48%. The respondents identified over-exploitation of fish resources, use of excessive pesticides and gradual increase of human settlement in and around the haor as the most threatened events. With the designation as Ecologically Critical Area (ECA by the government, immediate attempts should be taken to ensure sustainable utilization of the haor resources. Development of integrated management plan with a provision of the participation of local stakeholders may become the possible way of conserving this wetland.This study was carried out in the adjacent communities of the Hakaluki haor, the largest inland freshwater wetland of Bangladesh to explore their socio-economic status and haor-based livelihood dependency. Hakaluki haor is a poverty stricken region with 37% households falling into extreme poor group having monthly income of Tk 2 000.00 only. More than half of the community view Hakaluki haor as the vital source of livelihoods. The surrounding community is dependent on the haor in varying degree (15% totally dependent, 32% moderately and 53% less with a variety of livelihood activities like fishing and related profession (32%, duck rearing (29%, cattle rearing (28%, fuel wood collection (6%, sand extraction (3% and reed collection (2%. The average annual household incomes from fishing of naturally available fish, pisciculture and NTFPs collection are Tk 21 701.35, Tk 31 524.83 and Tk 2 704.80, respectively. The haor serves as the source of fuel for cooking to a majority of the community (48%. The respondents identified over-exploitation of fish resources, use of excessive pesticides and gradual increase of human settlement in and around the haor as the most threatened events. With the designation as Ecologically Critical Area (ECA by the government, immediate attempts should be taken to ensure sustainable utilization of the haor resources. Development of integrated management plan with a provision of the participation of local stakeholders may become the possible way of conserving this wetland.
Presenting evaluation results of a kindergarten bilingual education program and followup program, this article indicates French immersion can be effective among rural and urban students of both middle-upper and low socioeconomic status. (JC)
Swain, M.; Barik, H. C.
Purpose The cognitive, social, and biological transitions of adolescence suggest that subjective perceptions of social position based on the socioeconomic hierarchy may undergo important changes during this period, yet how such perceptions develop is poorly understood and no studies assess if changes in such perceptions influence adolescents’ health. This study describes adolescents’ subjective perceptions of familial socioeconomic status (SSS), how SSS changes over time, and how age, race, and objective socioeconomic status (SES) indicators influence SSS. In addition, the study determines if SSS independently influences adolescents’ self-rated health, an important predictor of morbidity and health service utilization. Methods 1179 non-Hispanic black and white baseline 7–12th graders from a Midwestern public school district completed a validated, teen-specific measure of SSS annually for 4 consecutive years. A parent provided information on SES. Markov modeling assessed transitions in SSS over time. Results SSS declined with age (p=.001) and stabilized among older teens. In addition to age, SES and race, but not gender, were significant correlates of SSS, but the relationships between these factors were complex. In cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, black teens from families with low parent education had higher SSS than white teens from similarly educated families, while white teens from highly educated families had higher SSS than black teens from highly educated families. Lower SSS and changes in SSS predicted poor self rated health even when adjusting for race and objective SES measures. Conclusion Subjective evaluations of socioeconomic status predict adolescents’ global health ratings even when adjusting for the sociodemographic factors which shape them.
Goodman, Elizabeth; Huang, Bin; Schafer-Kalkhoff, Tara; Adler, Nancy E.
Abstract Background While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES) independent of body mass index. Methods Data were from two cohorts including 271 children (117 males; 154 females) in s...
Full Text Available Studies have indicated that, less affluent families are less likely to have the financial and or time availability to provide their children with academic support compared to affluent families.This study investigated the relationship between Language Learning Strategies used by secondary school students in Nigeria and their Parents Socio-economic Status. The data for this research was provided by 559 respondents who study English as a second language and belonging to three varied socio-economic affiliations. A modified Oxford Study Inventory of Language Learning (SILL questionnaire was used as the measurement instrument. Analysis of the data was done using SPSS version 16.0. This was done to assess the strategies employed and to understand their mean frequencies. A one-way ANOVA was conducted to determine the relationship between language learning strategy choice and socio-economic status of student’s parents. The study found that, respondents highly used Language Learning Strategy (LLS while learning English and within closely related frequency level. The study found significant relationship between socio-economic statuses of parents of the learner in the choice of Cognitive, Metacognitive, Social, situational and religious Strategies and no significance in the learner choice of Memory and compensation strategies to learn English. Conclusively, the findings of the study has pedagogical implications for English Language teachers and curriculum designers that could assist in understanding the English language learning patterns of secondary school students in Nigeria.
Mallam Adamu Babikkoi
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on elderly health. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean. The sample comprised 2,143 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 years and older living in the urban area of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Linear regression models estimated the effect of socioeconomic status indicators (years of schooling completed, occupation and purchasing power on each one of the following health indicators: depression, self-rated health, morbidity and memory capacity. A 5% significance level was set. RESULTS: There was a significant effect of years of education and purchasing power on self-rated health and memory capacity when controlled for the variables number of diseases during childhood, bed rest for at least a month due to health problems during childhood, self-rated health during childhood, living arrangements, sex, age, marital status, category of health insurance, intake of medicines. Only purchasing power had an effect on depression. Despite the bivariate association between socioeconomic status indicators and number of diseases (morbidity, this effect was no longer seen after including the controls in the model. CONCLUSIONS: The study results confirm the association between socioeconomic status indicators and health among Brazilian elderly, but only for some dimensions of socioeconomic status and certain health outcomes.OBJETIVO: Investigar o impacto do status socioeconômico na saúde de idosos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a base de dados transversal Inquérito sobre a Saúde, o Bem estar o Envelhecimento na América Latina e Caribe. Analisaram-se 2.143 idosos (60 anos ou mais residentes em domicílios, na área urbana de São Paulo, no ano de 2000. Modelos de regressões lineares estimaram o efeito dos indicadores de status socioeconômico (anos de estudo completos, ocupação e poder de compra nos indicadores de saúde: depressão, auto-avaliação da saúde, morbidade e capacidade de memória. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: Observou-se efeito significativo dos anos de estudo e do poder de compra na auto-avaliação da saúde e na capacidade da memória, quando controlado pelas variáveis: número de doenças antes dos 15 anos de idade, ter ficado na cama ao menos por um mês por problema de saúde antes dos 15 anos, auto-avaliação da saúde na infância, arranjos de vida, sexo, idade, estado civil, tipo de seguro de saúde, ingestão de remédios. Somente a capacidade de compra apresentou efeito na depressão. Apesar das análises bivariadas indicarem uma associação entre status socioeconômico e o número de doenças (morbidade, este efeito desapareceu quando os controles entraram no modelo. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam a associação entre indicadores socioeconômicos e a saúde dos idosos brasileiros, mas somente entre alguns indicadores e certos aspectos da saúde.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Maternal care is affected by socioeconomic factors. This study analyses the effect of maternal education, employment and citizenship on some antenatal and postnatal care indicators in Italy. METHODS: Data are from two population-based follow-up surveys conducted to evaluate the quality [...] of maternal care in 25 Italian Local Health Units in 2008/9 and 2010/1 (6942 women). Logistic models were applied and interactions among independent variables were explored. RESULTS: Education and employment status affect antenatal and postnatal care indicators and migrant women are less likely to make use of health opportunities. Low education status exacerbates the initial social disadvantage of migrants. Migrant women are also more affected by socioeconomic pressure to restart working early, with negative impact on postnatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions focusing on women's empowerment may tackle inequalities in maternal care for those women, Italians or migrants, who have a worse initial maternal health literacy due to their lower socioeconomic conditions.
Laura, Lauria; Manila, Bonciani; Angela, Spinelli; Michele E., Grandolfo.
A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120
Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin
This paper presents new estimates of sibling correlations in health and socioeconomic outcomes over the life course in the U.S. Sibling correlations provide an omnibus measure of the importance of all family and community influences. I find that sibling correlations in a range of health and socioeconomic outcomes start quite high at birth and remain high over the life course. The sibling correlation in birth weight is estimated to be 0.5. Sibling correlations in test scores during childhood are as high as 0.6. Sibling correlations in adult men's wages are also around 0.5. Decompositions provide suggestive evidence on which pathways may account for the gradients in health and SES by family background. For example, sibling correlations in cognitive skills and non-cognitive skills during childhood are lower controlling for family income. Similarly, parent education levels can account for a sizable portion of the correlation in adult health status among brothers. PMID:23412989
This paper presents new estimates of sibling correlations in health and socioeconomic outcomes over the life course in the U.S. Sibling correlations provide an omnibus measure of the importance of all family and community influences. I find that sibling correlations in a range of health and socioeconomic outcomes start quite high at birth and remain high over the life course. The sibling correlation in birth weight is estimated to be 0.5. Sibling correlations in test scores during childhood are as high as 0.6. Sibling correlations in adult men’s wages are also around 0.5. Decompositions provide suggestive evidence on which pathways may account for the gradients in health and SES by family background. For example, sibling correlations in cognitive skills and non-cognitive skills during childhood are lower controlling for family income. Similarly, parent education levels can account for a sizable portion of the correlation in adult health status among brothers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine the household and community level socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with child nutritional status in Cameroon, and changes in the effects of these factors during the 1990s economic crisis. We further consider age-specific effects of household economic status on child nutrition. Methods Child nutritional status was measured by weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores. Data were from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1991 and 1998. We used analysis of variance to assess the bivariate association between the explanatory factors and nutritional status. Multivariate, multilevel analyses were undertaken to estimate the net effects of both household and community factors. Results Average WAZ and HAZ declined respectively from -0.70 standard deviations (SD, i.e. 0.70 SD below the reference median, to -0.83 SD (p = 0.006 and from -1.03 SD to -1.14 SD (p = 0.026 between 1991 and 1998. These declines occurred mostly among boys, children over 12 months of age, and those of low socioeconomic status. Maternal education and maternal health seeking behavior were associated with better child nutrition. Household economic status had an overall positive effect that increased during the crisis, but it had little effect in children under 6 months of age. Improved household (water, sanitation and cooking fuel and community environment had positive effects. Children living in the driest regions of the country were consistently worst off, and those in the largest cities were best off. Conclusion Both household and community factors have significant impact on child health in Cameroon. Understanding these relationships can facilitate design of age- and community-specific intervention programs.
Full Text Available Over last few decades, there have been rapid growths in the number of women employee in India and majority of them being engaged in informal sector of the economy where jobs are often low paid and repetitive. An attempt has been made in this study to trace out the socio-economic status of maid-servant as well as the manner in which they lives in the informal sector in Purulia Municipal area of the same district of West Bengal. The study has been carried out through personal interview and observation. Results indicate that most of the maid-servants (78% are satisfied in their profession and most of the respondents (82.35% do not engaged with other work except maid-servant for earning. However, economic compulsion is the main hardship for taking the job as maid-servants. The general educational status of the maid-servants is not satisfactory and wages of the maid-servants are very low. The maid-servants are subject to variety of exploitations starting from low wages to maltreatment and sexual harassment by the employer. In view of this exploitation it is necessary to improve their socio-economic status and working conditions.
SHYAMAL KUMAR BISWAS
BACKGROUND: The most potent risk factor for affective disorders is a family history of affective disorder but the specific factors that are transmitted in families are unknown. It is possible to investigate the relation between risk factors and affective disorder by using a high-risk design e.g.: a study of the healthy relatives of patients with affective disorders. AIM: To compare psychopathology and socio-economic status between twins with a co-twin history of affective disorder and twins without. METHODS: In a cross-sectional high-risk case-control study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nation-wide registers. Participants were assessed using semi-structured psychiatric interviews and self-rating of psychopathology. RESULTS: High-Risk twins had a lower education level, a lower work position and tendency towards being more often unemployed and early retired than the Low-Risk twins. Furthermore, they presented higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and were more likely to experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Healthy twins with a high genetic liability to affective disorder seem to present lower socio-economic status, higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and more often experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis than twins with no familial history of affective disorder. It is not possible from the present cross-sectional data to determine the causality of these findings, thus genetic liability to affective disorder, socio-economic status and minor psychopathology seem to have a complex interrelation.
Vinberg Christensen, Maj; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm
Full Text Available Studies that use the Iowa Gambling Task and its age-appropriate versions as indices of affective decision-making during childhood and adolescence have demonstrated significant individual differences in scores. Our study investigates the association between general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status and its effect on the development of affective decision-making in preschoolers by using a computerised version of the Children’s Gambling Task (CGT. We administered the CGT and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS to 137 Brazilian children between the ages of 3 and 5 years old to assess their general intellectual functioning. We also used the Brazilian Criterion of Economic Classification (CCEB to assess their socioeconomic status. Age differences between 3-and 4-year-olds, but not between 4-and 5-year-olds, confirmed the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo (2004, indicating the rapid development of affective decision-making during the preschool period. Both 4- and 5-year-olds performed significantly above chance on blocks 3, 4 and 5 of the CGT, whereas 3-year-olds’ mean scores did not differ from chance. We found that general reasoning ability was not related to affective decision-making. On the other hand, our findings showed that children with high socioeconomic status (SES performed better on the last block of the CGT in comparison to children with low SES. We also found that more children from the high SES group performed better in comparison to children from the low SES group, which indicates that children from the former group seem more likely to use the information about the gain/loss aspects of the decks to efficiently choose cards from the advantageous deck throughout the task.
The present study focuses on the relationship between parent’s socioeconomic status and parental involvement in their child’s education at home. Eighty Indian students who were studying in one the best performance-based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. It comprised 20 students from Year Two, 20 students from Year Three, 20 students from Year Four and 20 students from Year Five. Of these 80 students, 40 low-achiev...
Vellymalay, Suresh Kumar N.
OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general practice. METHODS: We enrolled 184 general practices and 5260 hypertensive patients. The general practitioners reported information about BP and diagnosis of diabetes. Information about education, income, antihypertensive drug treatment and other co-morbidity was retrieved from relevant registers from Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP
Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to describe the distribution of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status in adult men and women across Canada using the Canadian Heart Health Surveys Database. METHODS: The data were derived from provincial cross-sectional surveys done between 1986 and 1992. Data were obtained through a home interview and a clinic visit using a probability sample of 29,855 men and women aged 18-74 years of whom 23,129 (77%) agreed to participate. The ...
Choinie?re, R.; Lafontaine, P.; Edwards, A. C.
This study was design to determine whether there is a difference in the number of meals consumed away from home (restaurant or fast food) between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high SES adolescents. Additionally, this study sought to determine if the nutrients and food group chosen differs among children who consume meals away from home versus those who do not. Eighty four adolescences (51 boys and 33 girls) ages 12-16 years and their parents from Shiraz, Iran completed the three 24 h die...
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (?65 years and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the independent effect of socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and SES on the four preventive services. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, region, survey year, living situation, risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and health status (self-assessed health and longstanding illness lower educated elderly were significantly less likely to report a blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement. For instance, elderly participants with no degree or only primary education were less likely to have had a cholesterol and blood sugar measurement compared with those with higher education. Pneumococcus vaccination was not related to educational level, but lower income groups were more likely to have had a pneumococcus immunization. Influenza vaccination was not significantly related to SES. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to promote cholesterol and blood sugar measurement for lower SE groups, and pneumococcus immunization for the entire elderly population. Influenza immunization seems to be equally spread among different SE groups.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status is a risk factor for liver cirrhosis, but it is unknown whether it is a prognostic factor after cirrhosis diagnosis. We examined whether marital status, employment, and personal income were associated with the survival of cirrhosis patients. Methods Using registry-data we conducted a population-based cohort study of 1,765 Danish cirrhosis patients diagnosed in 1999–2001 at age 45–59 years. Follow-up ended on 31 December 2003. With Cox regression we examined the associations between marital status (never married, divorced, married, employment (employed, disability pensioner, unemployed, personal income (0–49, 50–99, 100+ percent of the national average and survival, controlling for gender, age, cirrhosis severity, comorbidity, and substance abuse. Results Five-year survival was higher for married patients (48% than for patients who never married (40% or were divorced (34%, but after adjustment only divorced patients had poorer survival than married patients (adjusted hazard ratio for divorced vs. married = 1.22, 95% CI 1.04–1.42. Five-year survival was lower for disability pensioners (31% than for employed (46% or unemployed patients (48%, also after adjustment (adjusted hazard ratio for disability pensioners vs. employed = 1.35, 95% CI 1.09–1.66. Personal income was not associated with survival. Conclusion Marital status and employment were associated with the survival of cirrhosis patients. Specifically, divorced cirrhosis patients and cirrhosis patients who never married had a poorer survival than did married cirrhosis patients, and cirrhosis patients who were disability pensioners had a poorer survival than did employed or unemployed cirrhosis patients. The poorer survival for the divorced and for the disability pensioners could not be explained by differences in other socioeconomic factors, gender, age, cirrhosis severity, substance abuse, or comorbidity. Personal income was not associated with survival.
Full Text Available Increasing interests have been shown in associations between socioeconomic status (SES and obesity in relation to health inequality. The research objectives were 1 to examine associations between SES and child obesity (including overweight in Korea over 10 years and 2 to explore possible underlying mechanisms of relationships between SES and obesity. This study used the nationally representative data (KNHA-NES from 1998, 2005, to 2009. Children (10-18 year-old were grouped by household income (low, middle-low, middle-high and high adjusted for the number of family members. Z-scores of height, weight, and BMI for each child were calculated from measured anthropometric data using the 2007 Korean national growth charts. No statistically significant associations were found, however, changes in association patterns were noted. The lower SES group showed shorter height as well as lighter weight among Korean children. More research should be conducted to understand the effects of socioeconomic status on child obesity.
The research is based on information collected on 50 deceased Nigerian women of low socioeconomic status in different locations of the country including Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Zaria, Minna, Enugu, and Port-Harcourt among others. They had some common characteristics such as low levels of education, involvement in petty trading and were clients of a microfinance bank as small loan receivers. Primary data were generated mainly through verbal autopsy with widowers employing in-depth interviews and key informant interviews. In addition, unobtrusive observation was carried out in these locations to ascertain in some instances the distance between the deceased homes and health facilities patronised by the women. Secondary data were specific to death certificates of the deceased supplied by the widowers. Both ethnographic summaries and content analysis were employed in data analysis to account for contextual differences, especially in a multicultural society like Nigeria. The findings implicated several issues that are taken for granted at the micro-family and macro-society levels. It specifically revealed that small loans alone are not sufficient to empower poor women to make meaningful contributions to their own reproductive health in a patriarchal society like Nigeria. Results also indicated that cultural differences as well as rural-urban dichotomy were not proximate determinants of maternal behaviour; the latter rather finds expression in low socioeconomic status. Consequently, policy relevant recommendations that could contribute to significant maternal mortality reduction were proffered. PMID:23437504
Nwokocha, Ezebunwa Ethelbert
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional quotient (EQ) and socioeconomic status and their effect on the performance of EFL learners in reading comprehension at high school. To this end, 80 homogenous EFL female students were selected from different high schools in Eghlid with the age range of 14-17. The participants were asked to complete Quick Placement Test, the "Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire", and the "Socioeconomic Questionnaire". Moreove...
Talebinejad, Mohammad R.; Zahra Rezai Fard
Our aim was to examine the influence that socioeconomics and drug use had on current smokers (n=137) and nonsmokers (n=143) from an urban adult population of black African descent. Participants were a median of 33 years (range 20–59). Smokers consumed a median of 8 cigarettes per day (range 0–35). Interestingly, 86% smoked <15 cigarettes per day and only 8% smoked menthol cigarettes. Socioeconomic and drug use variables that were significantly associated with smoking status in univariate ...
Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bully...
Full Text Available This study carries out empirical researches among Mainland Chinese high school students to explore the impactof parent’s socioeconomic status on perceived parental pressure and test anxiety. The discoveries of the studyinclude: perceived parental pressure has significant impact on test anxiety; parents’ occupations, parents’ incomeand mother’s education have significant impact on perceived parental pressure; parents’ occupations, parents’income and mother’s education have significant impact on test anxiety. There are sufficient evidences to supportthe notion that the ethic stressing family glory and material success can be a major source of perceived parentalpressure and test anxiety in China. Another finding of the study is that there may exist a mediation relationshipamong parent’s socioeconomic status, perceived parental pressure, and test anxiety. By controlling perceivedparental pressure, the mediator variable, the impact of parent’s socioeconomic status on test anxiety can begreatly reduced.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls. MAIN RESULTS: The suicide rate ratios obtained from the case-sibling and the case-control analysis, respectively, were of similar magnitude. For example, in the case-sibling analysis the adjusted suicide rate ratios associated with discharge from a psychiatric hospital within the previous 365 days, being unemployed the previous year, having a postgraduate degree and being single were 42.13 (95% CI 17.75 to 100.02), 1.78 (1.35 to 2.36), 0.51 (0.21 to 1.26), and 2.69 (1.91 to 3.79), respectively. The corresponding rate ratios obtained from the case-control analysis were 47.91 (35.41 to 64.83), 1.76 (1.49 to 2.08), 0.45 (0.26 to 0.76), and 2.39 (1.87 to 3.07). Moreover, the analogous ratios when comparing siblings and controls were 1.98 (1.08 to 3.63), 1.22 (1.06 to 1.41), 0.65 (0.44 to 0.95), and 0.89 (0.75 to 1.06). CONCLUSIONS: People who commit suicide deviate similarly from siblings and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides.
Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping
Introduction Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Methods Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national ‘Health Behavior in School-aged Children’ study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Results Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p?0.001), 1.5-times higher odds of low life satisfaction (p?=?0.008), and a greater chance of a lower quality of life and a higher SDQ score than boys (p?=?0.001). The adolescents who perceived their family’s material welfare as worse had 4-times higher odds (p?0.001) of a low life satisfaction, a greater chance of a low quality of life, and a higher SDQ score than those who perceived it as better (p?0.001). Adolescents with no friends had lower KIDSCREEN-10 and higher SDQ scores than those who had more than three friends. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia is among the EU members with the lowest rates of social inequalities, it was found that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on adolescents’ mental health status in Slovenia in the future.
Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES of the mother’s knowledge about different aspects of diabetes and the glycemic control of type 1 children with diabetes. Samples were taken from successive admissions to the outpatient diabetes clinics in Prince Sultan Medical Military City (PSMMC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well designed questionnaire covering different aspects including demographic data, educational background, and socioeconomic status of the care providers was used to collect information from mothers of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM children. The questionnaire was designed on the basis of the Michigan diabetes knowledge scale and also on the basis of food habits of Saudi Arabia and it was validated. The questionnaire was completed after interviewing the mothers during visits to the PSMMC hospital. Every mother was asked with those particular questions. Glycemic control was assessed by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c. The socio-demographic data of mothers was recorded by self-report. It was found that, there was significant variation in the knowledge of diabetes among mothers with different ages (P 0.05. No significant results were observed between family income and diabetes knowledge (p>0.05.However, a positive relationship was observed with higher income and higher knowledge. There was a significant association between mothers knowledge of diabetes and HbA1C level (r = -0.1739, p<0.05 indicating that, higher knowledge ultimately leads to greater control of HbA1c level. A significant association was also observed between education and HbA1c level (r= -0.2538, p<0.05 with children of mothers with higher level of education showing a better control of glycated haemoglobin levels. However, no significant association was found between monthly family income and HbA1C level. In conclusion, the current study illustrated that, mothers with more knowledge of diabetes and with better education were maintaining a better glycemic control of their children, irrespective of the socio-economic status. It was found that, to improve glycemic control and to decrease acute and chronic complications of diabetes in children, mother’s knowledge and education is needed.
Abdulrahman Nasser Al-Odayani
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56 and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68, respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.
Leyland Alastair H
Background: Population-based estimates of traffic accidents (TAs) are not readily available for developing countries. This study examined the contribution of socioeconomic status (SES) to the risk of TA among Iranian adults. Methods: A total of 64,200people aged ?18years were identified from 2008 Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) survey. 22,128 households were interviewed to estimate the overall annual incidence, severity and socioeconomic determinants of TAs for males and females in Iranian capital over the preceding year. Wealth index and house value index were constructed for economic measurement. Weighted estimates were computed adjusting for complex survey design. Logistic regression models were used to examine individual and SES measures as potential determinants of TAs in adults. Results: The overall incidence of traffic accident was 17.3(95% CI 16.0, 18.7) per 1000 per year. TA rate in men and women was 22.6(95% CI 20.6, 24.8) and 11.8(95% CI 10.4, 13.2), respectively. The overall TA mortality rate was 26.6(95% CI 13.4, 39.8) per 100,000 person-years, which was almost three times higher in men than that for women (40.4 vs. 12.1 per 100,000person-years). Lower economic level was associated with increased incidence and mortality of TA. Association between SES and incidence, and severity and mortality of TA were identified. Conclusion: TAs occur more in lower socioeconomic layers of the society. This should be taken seriously into consideration by policy makers, so that preventive programs aimed at behavioral modifications in the society are promoted to decrease the health and economic burden imposed by TAs.
Sehat, Mojtaba; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Malek-Afzali, Hossein
The current multigenerational study evaluates the utility of the interactionist model of socioeconomic influence on human development (IMSI) in explaining problem behaviors across generations. The IMSI proposes that the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and human development involves a dynamic interplay that includes both social causation (SES influences human development) and social selection (individual characteristics affect SES). As part of the developmental cascade proposed by the IMSI, the findings from this investigation showed that Generation 1 (G1) adolescent problem behavior predicted later G1 SES, family stress, and parental emotional investments, as well as the next generation of children's problem behavior. These results are consistent with a social selection view. Consistent with the social causation perspective, we found a significant relation between G1 SES and family stress, and in turn, family stress predicted Generation 2 (G2) problem behavior. Finally, G1 adult SES predicted both material and emotional investments in the G2 child. In turn, emotional investments predicted G2 problem behavior, as did material investments. Some of the predicted pathways varied by G1 parent gender. The results are consistent with the view that processes of both social selection and social causation account for the association between SES and human development. PMID:20576188
Martin, Monica J; Conger, Rand D; Schofield, Thomas J; Dogan, Shannon J; Widaman, Keith F; Donnellan, M Brent; Neppl, Tricia K
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.
Bastos João Luiz Dornelles
Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. Dietary data were collected at follow-up using a 195-item FFQ. Food patterns were derived from principal component analysis. Two food patterns labeled "traditional-western food pattern" and "green food pattern" were identified. In men, adult SES was inversely associated with adherence to the traditional-western food pattern. High adherence to the green food pattern was positively related to high adult SES in both sexes. Among women, those with high SES in childhood had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low childhood SES, regardless of adult SES. Among men, those with high adult SES had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low adult SES, regardless of childhood SES. In conclusion, socioeconomic position is important for the development of adult food intake patterns. However, childhood SES seems more important for adult female food intake patterns, whereas adult SES seems more important for adult male food intake patterns.
Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per
The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal conditions and associated factors among 541 preschoolers of low socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Sociodemographic data and information on harmful oral habits were gathered with the use of a questionnaire. A clinical exam was performed for the determination of oral mucosal conditions, dental caries and level of oral hygiene. Data analysis involved statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate regression (p teeth clenching/grinding) was a predictive factor for angular cheilitis (OR, 5.55; 95 % CI, 1.9-16.3). The determinant factors for oral mucosal conditions were the female gender, age between 3 and 5 years, inadequate oral hygiene, low household income, residence in rural areas and presence of dental caries and bruxism. PMID:23354789
Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Martins-Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Stella, Paulo Eduardo Melo; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia
In a retrospective cohort study involving 57902 women initially screened between January 1, 1995 and December 31 1997 by the Ontario Breast Screening Program (OBSP), we examined the relationship between geographically derived socioeconomic status (SES) and returning for a second screen. We controlled for age, rurality, preferred language, initial mammography results, previous mammography history, and referral by a health professional. Although SES was related to returning, rurality was an effect modifier of this relationship, a finding not previously reported. Compared to women in the highest ('richest') quintile, urban women in the first and second quintile were less likely to return; this relationship was not found in rural women. Low SES women, particularly in urban areas, should be specifically targeted to increase their likelihood of re-attendance for breast cancer screening within an organized program. PMID:14659307
Tatla, R K; Paszat, L F; Bondy, S J; Chen, Z; Chiarelli, A M; Mai, Verna
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The prevalence of HIV-related oral lesions may vary according to socioeconomic status and antiretroviral therapy, among other factors. This study's intent was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic indicators, CD4+ counts and HIV-related oral lesions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Bra [...] zil. A retrospective epidemiological analysis was performed of the medical records of HIV-positive patients that attended the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro between 1997 and 2004. Gender, age, mode of HIV transmission, level of education, monthly familial income, CD4+ counts and HIV-related oral lesions were assessed. For statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was used with a level of significance of 5%. 254 medical records were reviewed: 83 women and 171 men. Monthly familial income below 2 minimum wages was associated with a higher prevalence of pseudomembranous candidiasis (p = 0.024), while income above 10 minimum wages was associated with a higher prevalence of salivary gland disease (p = 0.021). Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower CD4+ counts (p = 0.017). In this study, an association was noted between socioeconomic status, immune suppression and prevalence of oral lesions. However, further studies are warranted using other socioeconomic variables in order to better assess this relationship.
Noce, Cesar Werneck; Ferreira, Sonia Maria Soares; Silva Júnior, Arley; Dias, Eliane Pedra.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes, a trial of long-term weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes, were linked to neighborhood-level SES (% living below poverty from the 2000 US Census (tracts. Dependent variables included depression (Beck Inventory, and health status (Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36 scale. Multi-level regression models were used to account simultaneously for individual-level age, sex, race, education, personal yearly income and neighborhood-level SES. Results Overall, the % living in poverty in the participants' neighborhoods varied, mean = 11% (range 0-67%. Compared to their counterparts in the lowest tertile of neighborhood poverty (least poverty, those in the highest tertile (most poverty had significantly lower scores on the role-limitations(physical, role limitations(emotional, physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, and vitality sub-scales of the SF-36 scale. When evaluating SF-36 composite scores, those living in neighborhoods with more poverty had significantly lower scores on the physical health (?-coefficient [?] = -1.90 units, 95% CI: -3.40,-0.039, mental health (? = -2.92 units, -4.31,-1.53 and global health (? = -2.77 units, -4.21,-1.33 composite scores. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with poorer health status. Whether these associations might influence response to the Look AHEAD weight loss intervention requires further investigation.
Pi-Sunyer F Xavier
Full Text Available Background:The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Iranian aged 25-64 estimated to be about 7.7%.The aim of current study was the assessment of socioeconomic status of diabetic patients and their complications.Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted on type 2 diabetic patients with complications in four major teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS during July 2009 to March 2010. All patients (530 were interviewed through a questionnaire with 85% response rate (450 patients. Skilled nurses were assigned as responsible for data collection. Collected data analyzed by Exact Fisher and ?2 tests using SPSS version 11.5.Results: The majority of patients had experienced one or more complications. Findings revealed that 50%, 33.6% and 16.4% of the patients suffered from one, two, and three complications of type 2 diabetes, respectively. Patients with cardiovascular complications included 22.2%, with both cardiovascular and eye complications (12.7%, and with cardiovascular, eye and foot ulcer together 14% of the respondents. Frequency of complications demonstrated significant relation with sex,age,educational level,type of occupation, duration of diabetes (P<0.001 and social class (P=0.002.The majority of patients (54.2% belonged to low income group.Conclusion: It seems patients with low socioeconomic status face more challenges in their social environment together with less psychological support. Health care systems are responsible to empower them to control their illness and feel a better life to live.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Delayed motherhood is a common phenomenon in the developed world, where the age at frst delivery is around 30 years. In Chile the National Institute of Statistics established that this age has remained around 23 years for more than two decades. Motherhood postponement may be modulated by [...] socioeconomic status. Aim: To determine whether the age at frst delivery is higher in a private clinic compared to a public hospital. Patients and Methods: Two cohorts of primiparous women delivering in 1998 and 2008 in the public hospital San Borja Arriarán (HSBA) and a private setting Clínica Las Condes (CLC), were analyzed. Results: The age of all delivering women was significantly lower in HSBA than in CLC in both study periods (26.3 ± 0.8 and 25.7 ± 0.9 compared to 31.6 ± 0.1 and 32.7 ± 0.1 years, respectively). Likewise, the frequency of adolescent pregnancy was significantly higher in HSBA than CLC in both study periods (38.8 and 42.2% compared to 1.7 and 1.6% respectively). The age at frst delivery was significantly lower in both periods in HSBA (21.8 and 21.3 years compared to 28.6 and 30.6 years, respectively). Excluding primiparous women of less than 20 years, the difference in age was smaller, but remained still significant (24.6 and 24.2 versus 29.9 and 31.0 years, respectively). Conclusions: In Santiago, the postponement of motherhood is more marked among women of high socioeconomic status.
ARIEL, FUENTES; CRISTIAN, JESAM; LUIGI, DEVOTO; BLANCA, ANGARITA; ANDREA, GALLEGUILLOS; ANDREA, TORRES; ANTONIO, MACKENNA.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood cancer differs from most common adult cancers, suggesting a distinct aetiology for some types of childhood cancer. Our objective in this study was to test the difference in incidence rates of 4 non-CNS embryonic tumours and their correlation with socioeconomic status (SES in Brazil. Methods Data was obtained from 13 Brazilian population-based cancer registries (PBCRs of neuroblastoma (NB, Wilms'tumour (WT, retinoblastoma (RB, and hepatoblastoma (HB. Incidence rates by tumour type, age, and gender were calculated per one million children. Correlations between social exclusion index (SEI as an indicator of socioeconomic status (SES and incidence rates was investigated using the Spearman's test. Results WT, RB, and HB presented with the highest age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIRs in 1 to 4 year old of both genders, whereas NB presented the highest AAIR in ?11 month-olds. However, differences in the incidence rates among PBCRs were observed. Higher incidence rates were found for WT and RB, whereas lower incidence rates were observed for NB. Higher SEI was correlated with higher incidences of NB (0.731; p = 0.0117, whereas no SEI correlation was observed between incidence rates for WT, RB, and HB. In two Brazilian cities, the incidence rates of NB and RB were directly correlated with SEI; NB had the highest incidence rates (14.2, 95% CI, 8.6-19.7, and RB the lowest (3.5, 95% CI, 0.7-6.3 in Curitiba (SEI, 0.730. In Natal (SEI, 0.595, we observed just the opposite; the highest incidence rate was for RB and the lowest was for NB (4.6, 95% CI, 0.1-9.1. Conclusion Regional variations of SES and the incidence of embryonal tumours were observed, particularly incidence rates for NB and RB. Further studies are necessary to investigate risk factors for embryonic tumours in Brazil.
Pombo-de-Oliveira Maria S
The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between family socioeconomic status and mathematics performance on the base of a multi-level analysis involving a large sample of Chinese primary school students. A weak relationship is found between socioeconomic status and performance in the Chinese context. The relationship does…
Zhao, Ningning; Valcke, Martin; Desoete, Annemie; Verhaeghe, JeanPierre
Background There is a scarcity of data in rural health centers in Nigeria regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and HIV infection. We investigated this relationship using indicators of SES. Methods An analytical case-control study was conducted in the HIV clinic of a rural tertiary health center. Data collection included demographic variables, educational attainment, employment status, monthly income, marital status, and religion. HIV was diagnosed by conventional methods. Data were analyzed with the SPSS version 16 software. Results A total of 115 (48.5%) HIV-negative subjects with a mean age of 35.49±7.63 years (range: 15–54 years), and 122 (51.5%) HIV-positive subjects with a mean age of 36.35±8.31 years (range: 15–53 years) were involved in the study. Participants consisted of 47 (40.9%) men and 68 (59.1%) women who were HIV negative. Those who were HIV positive consisted of 35 (28.7%) men and 87 (71.3%) women. Attainment of secondary school levels of education, and all categories of monthly income showed statistically significant relationships with HIV infection (P=0.018 and P<0.05, respectively) after analysis using a logistic regression model. Employment status did not show any significant relationship with HIV infection. Conclusion Our findings suggested that some indicators of SES are differently related to HIV infection. Prevalent HIV infections are now concentrated among those with low incomes. Urgent measures to improve HIV prevention among low income earners are necessary. Further research in this area requires multiple measures in relation to partners’ SES (measured by education, employment, and income) to further define this relationship.
Ogunmola, Olarinde Jeffrey; Oladosu, Yusuf Olatunji; Olamoyegun, Michael Adeyemi
Using Young Lives longitudinal data from Peru, this paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) measured at the age of one, opportunities to learn (OTL) and achievement in mathematics ten years later. Four variables of OTL were measured: hours of class per year, curriculum coverage, quality of teachers' feedback, and…
Cueto, Santiago; Guerrero, Gabriela; Leon, Juan; Zapata, Mayli; Freire, Silvana
Full Text Available Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and family structure with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A total of 1782 15-year-old Belgrade schoolchildren (47.5% boys and 52.5% girls) completed a questionnaire from the WHO study, "Health behavior of schoolchildren." Results:…
Vukovic, Dejana S.; Bjegovic, Vesna M.
Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…
Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.
This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status…
Feinstein, Leon; Bynner, John
Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…
Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla
The study examined the effects of gender, socio-economic status and school location, on Nigerian students performance in Integrated Science. The method used for the study was a three variable analysis of variance experimental design consisting of three independent variables at two levels each and one dependent variable. Six hundred junior…
Okoye, N. S.
Objective Our objective was to use longitudinal data from a US birth cohort to test whether the probability of overweight or obesity during the first 6 years of life varied according to socioeconomic status. Design and Methods Using six waves of longitudinal data from full-term children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007; n?4,950), we examined the prevalence of overweight or obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI)>2 standard deviations above age- and sex- specific WHO Childhood Growth Standard reference mean; henceforth, “overweight/obesity”) according to age, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity using generalized estimating equation models. Results The association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity varied significantly by race/ethnicity, but not by sex. Overweight/obesity was significantly associated with socioeconomic status among whites, Hispanics and Asians; the adjusted odds of overweight/obesity began to diverge according to SES after the first 9 months of life. By approximately 4 years, children with the highest SES had a significantly lower odds of overweight/obesity. SES was not significantly related to overweight/obesity among African Americans and American Indians during early childhood. Conclusions Few studies have assessed the associations between SES and overweight/obesity within racial/ethnic groups in the US. We find that in contemporary, US-born children, SES was inversely associated with overweight/obesity among more racial/ethnic groups (whites, Hispanics, and Asians) than previously reported.
Jones-Smith, Jessica C.; Dieckmann, Marlowe Gates; Gottlieb, Laura; Chow, Jessica; Fernald, Lia C. H.
This third-generation, longitudinal study evaluated a family investment perspective on family socioeconomic status (SES), parental investments in children, and child development. The theoretical framework was tested for first-generation parents (G1), their children (G2), and the children of the second generation (G3). G1 SES was expected to…
Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Martin, Monica J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna; Conger, Rand
Full Text Available Children feel stress long before they grow up. Many children have to cope with family conflict, divorce, constant changes in schools, neighbourhood and child care arrangements, peer pressure and sometimes even violence in their homes or communities. The impact of a stressor depends on the academic achievement of students. It is the stress which does not allow students to perform well in classroom situation, the study objectives The objectives tested in this part of the study are as under 1. To study the differences in scores of academic achievement between the students possessing different levels of stress belonging to different socio-economic status and sex. 2. To study the nature of interaction between stress and socio-economic status, stress and sex, and among stress, socioeconomic status and sex when academic achievement was taken as a dependent variable. The study reveals that students belonging to High Socio-economic Status are academically sound as compared to their counterparts while as when male and female students compared together they have an equal chance of being academically sound or poor. This reveals that when stress and sex, and SES and Sex taken jointing they do effect on dependent variable i.e. academic achievement.
The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…
Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath
Objective: Excess direct medical costs of severe obesity are by far higher than of moderate obesity. At the same time, severely obese adults with low socioeconomic status (SES) may be expected to have higher excess costs than those with higher SES, e.g. due to more comorbidities. This study compares excess costs of severe obesity among German adults across different SES groups.Methods: In a subsample (N=947) of the KORA-Survey S4 1999/2001 (a cross-sectional health survey in the Augsburg region, Germany; age group: 25-74 years), visits to physicians, inpatient days in hospital, and received and purchased medication were assessed via computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) over half a year. Body mass index (BMI in kg/m(2)) was measured anthropometrically. SES was determined via reports of education, income, and occupational status from computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI) (used both as single indicators, and as indexed by the Helmert algorithm); due to small subsample sizes all were median-split. Data of respondents in normal weight (18.5 /= 35) range were analysed by generalized linear models with mixed poisson-gamma (Tweedie) distributions. Physician visits and inpatient days were valuated as recommended by the Working Group Methods in Health Economic Evaluation (AG MEG), and drugs were valuated by actual costs. Sex, age, kind of sickness fund (statutory/private) and place of residence (urban/rural) were adjusted for, and comorbidities were considered by the Physical Functional Comorbidity Index (PFCI).Results: Excess costs of severe obesity were higher in respondents with high SES, regardless of the SES indicator used. For instance, annual excess costs were almost three times higher in those with an above-median SES-Index as compared with those with a median or lower SES-Index (plus euro 2,966 vs. plus euro 1,012; contrast significant at p<.001). Mediation of excess costs of severe obesity by physical comorbidities pertained to the low SES-Index and the low occupational status groups: differences in costs between severe obesity and normal weight were still positive, but statistically insignificant, in the lower status groups after adjusting for the PFCI, but still positive and significant given higher SES. For example, severe obesity's excess costs were euro 2,406 after PFCI-adjustment in the high SES-Index group (p<.001), but euro 539 in the lower status group (p=.17). At the same time, physical comorbidities as defined by the PCFI increased with BMI and decreased with SES, however the factors BMI and SES did not significantly interact in this context.Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to show in Germany that excess direct medical costs of severe obesity are not distributed equitably across different SES groups, do not reflect comorbidity status, and are significantly higher in those with high SES than in those with lower SES. Thus, allocation of health care resources spent on severely obese adults seems to be in need of readjustment towards an equitable utilization across all socioeconomic groups. PMID:20421952
von Lengerke, Thomas; John, Jürgen; Mielck, Andreas
Full Text Available Objective: Excess direct medical costs of severe obesity are by far higher than of moderate obesity. At the same time, severely obese adults with low socioeconomic status (SES may be expected to have higher excess costs than those with higher SES, e.g. due to more comorbidities. This study compares excess costs of severe obesity among German adults across different SES groups. Methods: In a subsample (N=947 of the KORA-Survey S4 1999/2001 (a cross-sectional health survey in the Augsburg region, Germany; age group: 25–74 years, visits to physicians, inpatient days in hospital, and received and purchased medication were assessed via computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI over half a year. Body mass index (BMI in kg/m² was measured anthropometrically. SES was determined via reports of education, income, and occupational status from computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI (used both as single indicators, and as indexed by the Helmert algorithm; due to small subsample sizes all were median-split. Data of respondents in normal weight (18.5 ? BMI < 25, preobese (25 ? BMI < 30, moderately (class 1:30 ? BMI < 35 and severely obese (classes 2–3: BMI ? 35 range were analysed by generalized linear models with mixed poisson-gamma (Tweedie distributions. Physician visits and inpatient days were valuated as recommended by the Working Group Methods in Health Economic Evaluation (AG MEG, and drugs were valuated by actual costs. Sex, age, kind of sickness fund (statutory/private and place of residence (urban/rural were adjusted for, and comorbidities were considered by the Physical Functional Comorbidity Index (PFCI. Results: Excess costs of severe obesity were higher in respondents with high SES, regardless of the SES indicator used. For instance, annual excess costs were almost three times higher in those with an above-median SES-Index as compared with those with a median or lower SES-Index (plus € 2,966 vs. plus € 1,012; contrast significant at p<.001. Mediation of excess costs of severe obesity by physical comorbidities pertained to the low SES-Index and the low occupational status groups: differences in costs between severe obesity and normal weight were still positive, but statistically insignificant, in the lower status groups after adjusting for the PFCI, but still positive and significant given higher SES. For example, severe obesity’s excess costs were € 2,406 after PFCI-adjustment in the high SES-Index group (p<.001, but € 539 in the lower status group (p=.17. At the same time, physical comorbidities as defined by the PCFI increased with BMI and decreased with SES, however the factors BMI and SES did not significantly interact in this context. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to show in Germany that excess direct medical costs of severe obesity are not distributed equitably across different SES groups, do not reflect comorbidity status, and are significantly higher in those with high SES than in those with lower SES. Thus, allocation of health care resources spent on severely obese adults seems to be in need of readjustment towards an equitable utilization across all socioeconomic groups.
Thomas von Lengerke
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based longitudinal study was to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and anti-asthmatic treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) among young Danish adult asthmatics, and to investigate whether these associations were consistent over time. METHODS: We extracted data on prescription drug use, education, and income in 97 665 users of anti-asthmatic drugs, aged 18-44 years, identified in Statistics Denmark during 1997-2005. Individual information on education and income was used as measures of SES. Education was categorised into basic school/high school, vocational training, and higher education, and income was categorised into low, middle, and high income. Associations between ICS use and SES were estimated by logistic regression models. RESULTS: High levels of education and income were independently associated with ICS use, education demonstrating the strongest association. Using basic school/high school and low income as baselines, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ICS use for higher education were 1.46 (95% CI 1.40-1.51) and 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.14) for high income. Higher education was a nearly constant factor associated with ICS use throughout the observation period, but high income did not demonstrate any association before 2001 with increasing ORs observed each year hereafter. All associations became more pronounced when restricting to 35-44 year-olds. CONCLUSION: High levels of SES were positively associated with ICS use in young adult asthmatics. To encourage ICS use, special attention should be paid to asthmatics with low educational level and low income. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for this socioeconomic inequality.
Davidsen, Jesper RÃ¸mhild; SÃ¸ndergaard, Jens
Using data (n=60,775 women) from the Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trial (WHI CT)— a national study of postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years — we analyzed cross-sectional associations between the availability of different types of food outlets in the 1.5 miles surrounding a woman’s residence, census tract neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP). We simultaneously modeled NSES and food outlets using linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for multiple socio-demographic factors, population density and random effects at the tract and metropolitan statistical area (MSA) level. We found significant associations between NSES, availability of food outlets and individual-level measurements of BMI and BP. As grocery store/supermarket availability increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile of its distribution, controlling for confounders, BMI was lower by 0.30 kg/m2. Conversely, as fast-food outlet availability increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile, BMI was higher by 0.28 kg/m2. When NSES increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile of its distribution, BMI was lower by 1.26 kg/m2. As NSES increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile, systolic and diastolic BP were lower by 1.11 mm and 0.40 mm Hg, respectively. As grocery store/supermarket outlet availability increased from the 10th and 90th percentiles diastolic BP was lower by 0.31 mm Hg. In this national sample of post-menopausal women, we found important independent associations between the food and socioeconomic environments and BMI and BP. These findings suggest that changes in the neighborhood environment may contribute to efforts to control obesity and hypertension.
Dubowitz, T.; Ghosh-Dastidar, B.; Eibner, C.; Slaughter, M.E.; Fernandes, M.; Whitsel, E.A.; Bird, C.E.; Jewell, A.; Margolis, K. L.; Li, W.; Michael, Y.; Shih, R.; Manson, J.; Escarce, J.J.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) and stimulation provided in the home environment are influential factors in aspects of child well-being including motor development. Little is known regarding the influence of SES on specific aspects of the home environment. OBJECTI [...] VE: To evaluate the availability of affordances in the home to promote infant motor development and family SES. METHOD : The sample consisted of 300 families with infants aged 3 to 18 months. SES was assessed according to family socioeconomic class, income and parental level of education. To evaluate motor affordances found at home, the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS) was used. The AHEMD-IS was designed to assess dimensions of the home environment including Physical Space (outside and inside space), Daily Activities and Play Materials (fine-motor and gross-motor toys). RESULTS: SES indicators significantly influenced the availability of Physical Space and Play Materials. The Physical Space dimension was influenced by family economic class and income. The Play Materials dimension was influenced by all SES indicators. Daily Activities were not influenced by any of the SES indicators. Daily activities and play material were influenced by the infant's age. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that SES indicators are influential with regard to the provision of motor affordances in the home environment for infants. However, daily activities, which represent an aspect of the environment that is highly dependent on parental generation of situations that are conducive to motor skill development, are independent of family SES.
Teresa C. B., Freitas; Carl, Gabbard; Priscila, Cacola; Maria I. L., Montebelo; Denise C. C., Santos.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood injury is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and permanent disability in children in the developed world. This research examines relationships between socio-economic status (SES, demographics, and types of childhood injury in the province of Alberta, Canada. Methods Secondary analysis was performed using administrative health care data provided by Alberta Health and Wellness on all children, aged 0 to 17 years, who had injuries treated by a physician, either in a physician's office, outpatient department, emergency room and/or as a hospital inpatient, between April 1st. 1995 to March 31st. 1996. Thirteen types of childhood injury were assessed with respect to age, gender and urban/rural location using ICD9 codes, and were related to SES as determined by an individual level SES indicator, the payment status of the Alberta provincial health insurance plan. The relationships between gender, SES, rural/urban status and injury type were determined using logistic regression. Results Twenty-four percent of Alberta children had an injury treated by physician during the one year period. Peak injury rates occurred about ages 2 and 13–17 years. All injury types except poisoning were more common in males. Injuries were more frequent in urban Alberta and in urban children with lower SES (receiving health care premium assistance. Among the four most common types of injury (78.6% of the total, superficial wounds and open wounds were more common among children with lower SES, while fractures and dislocations/sprains/strains were more common among children receiving no premium assistance. Conclusion These results show that childhood injury in Alberta is a major health concern especially among males, children living in urban centres, and those living on welfare or have Treaty status. Most types of injury were more frequent in children of lower SES. Analysis of the three types of the healthcare premium subsidy allowed a more comprehensive picture of childhood injury with children whose families are on welfare and those of Treaty status presenting more frequently for an injury-related physician's consultation than other children. This report also demonstrates that administrative health care data can be usefully employed to describe injury patterns in children.
Svenson Lawrence W
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the Prosthetic status and prosthetic needs in relation to socio-economic among the Municipal employees of Mysore city. Settings and Design: The study was cross sectional and conducted on the employees of Reader1 Mysore City Corporation. Materials and methods: All the available employees (1187 of Mysore city Corporation during the study period were considered for the study. WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997 and a preformed questionnaire were used to collect the required data. Modified Kuppuswamy scale with readjustment of the per capita income was used for classifying the individuals into different Socioeconomic status (SES categories. Data was collected by a single, trained and calibrated examiner (dentist using mouth mirror and CPI probe under natural day light. Data analysis was done using SPSS windows version 10. Comparison of the prosthetic status and needs between different SES categories was done using cross tabs and contingency co-efficient. Results: 6.1% of the subjects in the study had prosthesis of some kind. Prosthesis of some kind was present in 24.7% of the subjects in the upper middle SES category and none of the subjects in the lower SES category had prosthesis. The prosthetic need in the study population was 45.7%. About 67.9% of the subjects in the lower SES category needed prosthesis of some kind. The prosthetic need was 52.9% in the upper lower and 6% in the upper SES category. Conclusion: The study found a direct relationship between socio-economic status and prosthetic status and inverse relation between socio-economic status and prosthetic need.
The data presented is part of the findings from a four-year collaborative research project between Universiti Putra Malaysia, the Institute for Medical Research and the Ministry of Health Malaysia. The project assessed the nutritional status of the major functional groups in Peninsular Malaysia. Mukim Sayong and Pulau Kemiri in the District of Kuala Kangsar, Perak were two of the subdistricts selected to represent small rubber holdings in Peninsular Malaysia. This paper attempts to analyse the socio-economic profile of the households and the nutritional status of children below 9 years of age. A total of 307 households were studied. Approximately 63% of the households were involved in rubber activities and the majority of them were hired tappers. The average monthly income of the households was RM467 and the income ranged between RM30 to RM2120. Based on the per capita poverty line income of RM84.38, it was found that 14.1% of the households earned less than RM42.19, which can be considered as hard-core poor, while 32.7% were poor (monthly per capita income between RM42.19 and RM84.38). Slightly more than half (52.7%) earned income above the poverty line. The average family size was 4.5, ranging from 1 through to 16. The majority of the heads of households (56.6%) had between 3 and 6 years of education, and 14.5% did not receive any formal education. The prevalence of stunting among children 0-5 years of age was 26%, while 31.5% were underweight and 3.8% wasted. Among children aged between 5 and 9 years, almost the same pattern of nutritional status was noted. The overall percentages of stunting, underweight and wasting among these children were 29.2%, 26.1% and 0.62%, respectively. Analysis on nutritional status according to income level showed a noticeable difference in the prevalence of malnutrition in children above and below the poverty line income. The Student's t-test indicated significant differences in weight-for-age and weight-for-height between the two poverty line income for children below 5 years of age. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a significant correlation between height-for-age with household size (r = -0.26, p<0.05), and monthly per capita income with weight-for-height (r = 0.25, p<0.05). There was a highly significant correlation between acreage of land cultivated and weight-for-height (r = 0.42, p<0.01), and weight-for-age (r = 0.25, p<0.05). The findings indicated the influence of socio-economic factors on the nutritional status of children. PMID:24393689
Marjan, Z M; Taib, M N; Lin, K G; Siong, T E
We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality. PMID:24134511
It has been noted that great socioeconomic and lifestyle changes have triggered an epidemic of obesity among Eastern Europeans. The objective of this study was to assess the change of adult obesity in Estonia by socioeconomic status and the use of outpatient healthcare services among obese individuals over time. It can be maintained that obesity distribution in Estonia in 1990-2004 developed similarly to an average Western country and, regardless of an increasing level of male obesity, obesity prevalence for 16-64 year-olds was on the average level in Europe in 2004 - 14.0% for men and 14.9% for women. Change in obesity prevalence correlates quite well with changes in the economy in Estonia. From studied socioeconomic variables only age and education (among women) strongly affect the change in obesity level. Obese individuals used outpatient medical care slightly differently compared to individuals with a normal BMI. PMID:21361100
Tekkel, Mare; Veideman, Tatjana; Rahu, Mati
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.
The primary aim of this field study was to investigate the relationships among residential noise exposure at home and at school and blood pressure in low-socioeconomic status African-American children. Children were recruited from Boys and Girls Clubs in a mid-sized, Northeastern city. The sample consisted of 250 schoolchildren (128 boys and 122 girls) aged 6-14 years. Each child was interviewed prior to anthropometric and blood pressure measurement. An oscillometric monitor was used for measurement of resting blood pressure. Correlation analysis in the overall sample showed no significant relationship between noise exposure and children's blood pressure. No interactions were found between noise at home and at schools as well as orientation of bedroom and/or living room and noise at home with blood pressure. A sub-sample of children was also examined by adding the orientation of bedroom and living room as inclusion criteria (n = 128), and there was an interaction between noise exposure and age on systolic blood pressure. In younger children aged 6-10 years, a significant positive relation was found between noise levels at homes and systolic blood pressure, controlling for body mass index (B = 0.48, 95% C.I. = 0.07 -0.88, p = 0.02). PMID:22978869
Belojevic, Goran; Evans, Gary W
Objective To assess whether neighbourhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is independently associated with disparities in biological “wear and tear”—measured by allostatic load (AL)—in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Population-based U.S. survey, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), merged with U.S. Census data describing respondents’ neighbourhoods. Participants 13,184 adults from 83 counties and 1,805 census tracts who completed NHANES III interviews and medical examinations and whose residential addresses could be reliably geocoded to census tracts. Main Outcome Measures A summary measure of biological risk, incorporating nine biomarkers that together represent AL across metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflammatory subindices. Results Being male, older, having lower income, less education, being Mexican-American, and being both Black and female were all independently associated with worse AL. After adjusting for these characteristics, living in a lower SES neighbourhood was associated with worse AL (coeff. = ?0.46; CI ?0.079, ?0.012). The relationship between NSES and AL did not vary significantly by gender or race/ethnicity. Conclusions Living in a lower SES neighbourhood in the United States is associated with significantly greater biological wear and tear as measured by AL, and this relationship is independent of individual SES characteristics. Our findings demonstrate that where one lives is independently associated with AL, thereby suggesting that policies that improve NSES may also yield health returns.
Bird, Chloe E; Seeman, Teresa; Escarce, Jose J; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Finch, Brian K; Dubowitz, Tamara; Heron, Melonie; Hale, Lauren; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Weden, Margaret; Lurie, Nicole; Alcoa, Paul O'Neill
The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development. PMID:15083654
DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.
Studies have persistently associated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk with low socioeconomic status (SES), but this association is unexplored in Kashmir, an area with a high incidence of ESCC in the northernmost part of India. We carried out a case-control study to assess the association of multiple indicators of SES and ESCC risk in the Kashmir valley. A total number of 703 histologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1664 controls matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence were recruited from October 2008 to January 2012. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Composite wealth scores were constructed based on the ownership of several appliances using multiple correspondence analyses. Higher education, living in a kiln brick or concrete house, use of liquefied petroleum gas and electricity for cooking, and higher wealth scores all showed an inverse association with ESCC risk. Compared to farmers, individuals who had government jobs or worked in the business sector were at lower risk of ESCC, but this association disappeared in fully adjusted models. Occupational strenuous physical activity was strongly associated with ESCC risk. In summary, we found a strong relationship of low SES and ESCC in Kashmir. The findings need to be studied further to understand the mechanisms through which such SES parameters increase ESCC risk. PMID:23721087
Dar, Nazir A; Shah, Idrees A; Bhat, Gulzar A; Makhdoomi, Muzamil A; Iqbal, Beenish; Rafiq, Rumaisa; Nisar, Iqra; Bhat, Arshid B; Nabi, Sumaiya; Masood, Akbar; Shah, Sajad A; Lone, Mohd M; Zargar, Showkat A; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo
The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding. PMID:21073770
Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas
Background: Increasingly studies have identified socioeconomic factors adversely affecting healthcare outcomes for a multitude of diseases. To date, however, there has not been a study correlating socioeconomic details from nationwide databases on the prevalence of advanced coronary artery disease. We seek to identify whether socioeconomic factors contribute to advanced coronary artery disease prevalence in the United States. Methods and Findings: State specific prevalence data was queried fo...
Bashinskaya, Bronislava; Nahed, Brian Vala; Walcott, Brian Patrick; Coumans, Jean-valery C. E.; Onuma, Oyere Kalu
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social relations have repeatedly been found to be an important determinant of health. However, it is unclear whether the association between social relations and health is consistent throughout different status groups. It is likely that health effects of social relations vary in different status groups, as stated in the hypothesis of differential vulnerability. In this analysis we explore whether socioeconomic status (SES moderates the association between social relations and health. Methods In the baseline examination of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, conducted in a dense populated Western German region (N = 4,814, response rate 56%, SES was measured by income and education. Social relations were classified by using both structural as well as functional measures. The Social Integration Index was used as a structural measure, whilst functional aspects were assessed by emotional and instrumental support. Health was indicated by self-rated health (1 item and a short version of the CES-D scale measuring the frequency of depressive symptoms. Based on logistic regression models we calculated the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI which indicates existing moderator effects. Results Our findings show highest odds ratios (ORs for both poor self-rated health and more frequent depressive symptoms when respondents have a low SES as well as inappropriate social relations. For example, respondents with low income and a low level of social integration have an OR for a high depression score of 2.85 (95% CI 2.32-4.49, compared to an OR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.12-1.86 amongst those with a low income but a high level of social integration and an OR of 1.72 (95% CI 1.45-2.03 amongst respondents with high income but a low level of social integration. As reference group those reporting high income and a high level of social integration were used. Conclusions The analyses indicate that the association of social relations and subjective health differs across SES groups as we find moderating effects of SES. However, results are inconsistent as nearly all RERI scores are positive but do not reach a significant level. Also moderating effects vary between women and men and depending on the indicators of SES and social relations used. Thus, the hypothesis of differential vulnerability can only partially be supported. In terms of practical implications, psychosocial and health interventions aiming towards the enhancement of social relations should especially consider the situation of the socially deprived.
Background . Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES) and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design . For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods . With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alas...
Objective: To assess the Prosthetic status and prosthetic needs in relation to socio-economic among the Municipal employees of Mysore city. Settings and Design: The study was cross sectional and conducted on the employees of Reader1 Mysore City Corporation. Materials and methods: All the available employees (1187) of Mysore city Corporation during the study period were considered for the study. WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997) and a preformed questionnaire were used to collect the requi...
The ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the host may affect the progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV). We aimed to compare survival and fibrosis progression in Hispanic white (HW) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) recipients of liver transplantation (LT) with HCV. All HW and NHW patients with HCV who underwent transplantation between January 2000 and December 2007 at 2 centers were retrospectively assessed. The primary outcomes were the time to death, death or graft loss due to HCV, and signifi...
Verna, Elizabeth C.; Valadao, Rosa; Farrand, Erica; Pichardo, Elsa M.; Lai, Jennifer C.; Terrault, Norah A.; Brown, Robert S.
Racial/ethnic disparities in obesity widen dramatically during young adulthood in the US. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity can provide insight on these disparities. However, the delay and complexity of the transition to adulthood creates challenges for defining SES using traditional, single indicators, such as income or years of education. Our objective was to define a multidimensional measure of young adult SES using ex...
Scharoun-lee, Melissa; Adair, Linda S.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Gordon-larsen, Penny
Past research has observed inverse associations between neighborhood and personal level measures of socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI), but has not assessed how personal and neighborhood level measures might interact together to predict BMI. Using a sample of 13,102 adult residents of New York City who participated in a health survey, cross-sectional multi-level analyses assessed whether personal income, education and Zip code level poverty rates were associated with BMI. Demograp...
The study of socioeconomic status (SES) and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a...
Raizada, Rajeev D. S.; Kishiyama, Mark M.
Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to influence children’s health-related quality of life. Many SES indicators assess distinct dimensions of a family’s position rather than measuring the same underlying construct. Many researchers, however, see SES indicators as interchangeable. The primary aim of this study was to determine which measure of SES had the strongest impact on health-related quality of life. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the Pediatric Cardiac Quality o...
Cassedy, Amy; Drotar, Dennis; Ittenbach, Richard; Hottinger, Shawna; Wray, Jo; Wernovsky, Gil; Newburger, Jane W.; Mahony, Lynn; Mussatto, Kathleen; Cohen, Mitchell I.; Marino, Bradley S.
Abstract Background Children in households of lower socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to be overweight/obese. We aimed to determine if home physical activity (PA) environments differed by SES and to explore home environment mediators of the relation of family SES to children’s PA and sedentary behavior. Methods Participants were 715 children aged 6 to 11 from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids (NIK) Study. Household SES was examined using highest educati...
Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods ...
Overview: A primary caregivers’ knowledge about child health can have a significant impact on her practices, which in turn can affect child growth and development. The main objective of the study was to explore the level of caregiver’s knowledge and beliefs about the treatment of diarrhoea and child nutrition and to find out whether caregivers’ socio-economic status influences their knowledge and beliefs. Methods: In this study, the data used were from the Savelugu- Nanton Household Sur...
Recent work in biodemography has suggested that life-time exposure to infection and inflammation may be important determinants of later-life morbidity and mortality. Early exposure to infections during critical periods can predispose individuals to chronic disease, in part through the reallocation of energy away from development needed for immune and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, markers of inflammation are known to vary by socioeconomic status in adults and may contribute to overall s...
Dowd, Jennifer Beam; Zajacova, Anna; Aiello, Allison
This paper investigates levels in diabetes prevalence patterns across key socioeconomic status indicators and how they changed over time. The investigation spans both the conventional concept of diagnosed diabetes and a more comprehensive measure that includes those whose diabetes is undiagnosed. By doing so, I separate the distinct impact of covariates on trends over time in disease onset and the probability of disease diagnosis. The principal force leading to higher diabetes prevalence over...
Smith, James P.
Objective: This study examined the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices as mediators of the association between familial socioeconomic status (SES) and child mental health problems. Method: The sample included 2,043 5th-7th graders (50.7% female) participating in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study. Children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parents reported family economy and education level, e...
Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge; Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Robert; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Hysing, Mari
Objective: This study examined the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices as mediators of the association between familial socioeconomic status (SES) and child mental health problems. Method: The sample included 2,043 5th-7th graders (50.7% female) participating in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study. Children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parents reported family economy and education level...
Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge; Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Robert; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Hysing, Mari
Adi Lahat,1 Yehudith Assouline-Dayan,1 Lior H Katz,1 Herma H Fidder2 1Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands Background and aim: The sex of the physician performing the endoscopic procedure is one of the parameters influencing patient satisfaction. Our aim was to characterize patients’ preferences according to their sex, socioeconomic status, and religious beliefs and a...
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of migration, diversity of migrant origins, commuting, and socioeconomic status on the incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood. DESIGN: Poisson regression analysis of incidence rates in relation to the variables of interest. SETTING: The 403 county districts of England and Wales during 1979-85. SUBJECTS: Children aged under 15 years. RESULTS: There were significant trends in the incidence of lymphoblastic leukaemia at ages 0-4 and 5-9 years wi...
Stiller, C. A.; Boyle, P. J.
Examination malpractice has remained a serious challenge to public examinations. The paperexamined the influence of peer pressure and socioeconomic status and student’s attitudetoward examination malpractice. A survey design was employed using a sample size of 1000Junior Secondary two students. Questionnaire was used to elicit the right responses on peerpressure and students attitude toward examination malpractice. Simple regression statisticswas also used to establish the influence of p...
Aim: To study the socio-economic status, horse feeding and management adopted by horse owners of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: Primary data was collected through specially structured proforma by personal interview method from the horse owners of Hanumangarh (50), Churu (42), Jhunjhunu (30) and Jalore (40) districts of Rajasthan, India. Results: The district (Churu and Jhunjhunu) is mostly rain fed, Hanumangarh is canal-irrigated whereas Jalore is tube well irrigated. Majority of responden...
Yash Pal; Legha, R. A.; Dedar, R. K.; Bala, P. A.
Full Text Available Condição socioeconômica e seu impacto em saúde são objeto de grande interesse para pesquisadores e gestores de saúde. O artigo discute dois paradigmas de aferição da condição socioeconômica e revisa estudos epidemiológicos em que eles foram aplicados. Um dos paradigmas é referenciado por medidas de prestígio e diferenciação positiva entre os estratos sociais, como classificações baseadas em capital social e no acesso a bens e serviços. O outro é referenciado por classificações envolvendo privação material e diferenciação negativa entre os estratos sociais, e envolve a proposta de reposição aos segmentos populacionais mais afetados pela privação pelo Estado. A reflexão sobre opções metodológicas para se aferir condição socioeconômica em estudos epidemiológicos pode contribuir para a promoção de saúde e justiça social.Socioeconomic status and its impact on health are in the mainstream of public health thinking. This text discusses two paradigms utilized in assessing socioeconomic status in epidemiologic studies. One paradigm refers to prestige-based measurements and positive differentiation among social strata. This paradigm is characterized by classifications assessing social capital and the access to goods and services. The other paradigm refers to the classification of social deprivation and negative differentiation among social strata. The proposal of State-funded reposition to the mostly deprived social strata is acknowledged as characteristic of this paradigm. The contrast between these paradigms, and their potential interaction and debate are discussed. Fostering reflection on methodological strategies to assess socioeconomic status in epidemiologic studies can contribute to the promotion of health and social justice.
José Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes
Examines the role of human capital and labor market characteristics in explaining geographic and individual differentials in socioeconomic outcomes of Puerto Rican women in mainland United States. Human capital plays a larger role than do labor market characteristics in the better socioeconomic performance of Puerto Ricans outside the Northeast.…
Enchautegui, Maria E.
Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant of population health. Explanatory approaches on how SES determines health have so far included numerous factors, amongst them psychosocial factors such as social relationships. However, it is unclear whether social relationships can help explain socioeconomic differences in general subjective health. Do different aspects of social relationships contribute differently to the explanation? Based on a coho...
Vonneilich Nico; Jöckel Karl-Heinz; Erbel Raimund; Klein Jens; Dragano Nico; Siegrist Johannes; von dem Knesebeck Olaf
Obesity and depression are two diseases of major public health importance. While both correlate with each other, potential pathways involving depression that would link socioeconomic status (SES) to lifestyle factors and obesity have not been systematically examined using nationally representative data. Using rich data on 2,217 US young adults aged 20–39 years from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) and multivariate linear and logistic regression models, we examined associations between major depressive disorder (MDD), dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and measured body mass index (BMI) controlling for socio-demographic factors. Further, structural equations models (SEM) were fit to test pathway explaining SES disparities in BMI through MDD and lifestyle factors. Recent prevalence of MDD was lower among young US men than women (6.4% vs 9.2%) although their prevalence of obesity was similar (21.2% vs 22.7%). Among women, MDD was associated with higher BMI and inversely associated with PA, but not among men. MDD was specifically associated with increased risk of morbid obesity (BMI?40) among women (OR: 2.88 (1.32, 6.30)). Using SEM, a main pathway linking SES to BMI among women was that linking SES ? food insecurity ? MDD ? PA ? BMI. A main pathway linking MDD to BMI in both genders was that going through PA rather than overall dietary quality. Gender and ethnic differences existed underlying how MDD, SES and lifestyle factors were associated with adiposity. Future prospective studies are needed to examine potential mechanisms using physiological markers of depression, lifestyle and obesity.
Beydoun, May A.; Wang, Youfa
Socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with many health outcomes. Commonly used datasets such as medical records often lack data on SES but do include address information. The authors sought to determine whether an SES measure derived from housing characteristics is associated with other SES measures and outcomes known to be associated with SES. The data come from a telephone survey of parents/guardians of children aged 1-17 years who resided in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and Jackson County, Missouri. Seven variables related to housing and six neighborhood characteristics obtained from local government assessor's offices in Olmsted County, Minnesota, were appended to survey responses. An SES index derived from housing characteristics (hereafter, HOUSES) was constructed using principal components factor analysis. For criterion validity, we assessed Pearson's correlation coefficients between HOUSES and other SES measures, including self-reported parents' educational levels, income, Hollingshead Index, and Nakao-Treas Index. For construct validity, we determined the association between HOUSES and outcomes, risks of low birth weight, overweight, and smoking exposure at home. We applied HOUSES to subjects in another community by formulating HOUSES from housing data of subjects in Jackson County, Missouri, using the same statistical algorithm as HOUSES for subjects in Olmsted County, Minnesota. We found that HOUSES had modest to good correlation with other SES measures. Overall, as hypothesized, HOUSES was inversely associated with outcome measures assessed among subjects from both counties. HOUSES may be a useful surrogate measure of individual SES in epidemiologic research, especially when SES measures for individuals are not available. PMID:21499815
Juhn, Young J; Beebe, Timothy J; Finnie, Dawn M; Sloan, Jeff; Wheeler, Philip H; Yawn, Barbara; Williams, Arthur R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM utilization is common in Asian countries. Limited studies are available on the socioeconomic status (SES associated with TCM use among the pediatric population. We report on the association between SES and TCM use among children and adolescents in Taiwan. Methods A National Health Interview Survey was conducted in Taiwan in 2001 that included 5,971 children and adolescents. We assessed the children's SES using the head of household's education, occupation and income. This information was used to calculate pediatric SES scores, which in turn were divided into quartiles. Children and adolescents who visited TCM in the past month were defined as TCM users. Results Compared to children in the second SES quartile, children in the fourth SES quartile had a higher average number of TCM visits (0.12 vs. 0.06 visits, p = 0.027 and higher TCM use prevalence (5.0% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.024 within the past month. The adjusted odds ratio (OR for TCM use was higher for children in the fourth SES quartile than for those in the first SES quartile (OR 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.17. The corresponding OR was 2.17 for girls (95% CI 1.24-3.78. The highest-SES girls (aged 10-18 years were most likely to visit TCM practices (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.25-4.90. Conclusions Children and adolescents with high SES were more likely to use TCM and especially girls aged 10-18 years. Our findings point to the high use of complementary and alternative medicine among children and adolescents.
When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent–child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness.
Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca
Full Text Available Abstract Background As longevity increases, cases of myocardial infarction (MI are likely to be more. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a major global health problem reaching epidemic proportions in the Indian subcontinent, also among low socio-economic status (SES and thin individuals. Objectives The present study was undertaken to elicit risk factors for MI among low SES Southern Indians and to find out its association with body mass index (BMI. Materials and methods A case-control study of patients with MI matched against healthy control subjects was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Standard methods were followed to elicit risk factors and BMI. Chi-square and Fishers exact test for categorical versus categorical, to show relationship with risk factors were analyzed. Results A total of 949 patients (male (M = 692 and post menopausal female (F = 257 and 611 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. In our study, BMI was below 23 in 48.2% of patients and below 21 in 22.5%. The risk of developing MI was significantly more in males (odds ratio (OR = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (C.I. = 2.69-4.13, among females with post-menopausal duration (PMD of more than or equal to 3 years (OR = 9.27, 95% C.I. = 6.36-13.50 and in those with BMI less than 23 with one or other risk factors (P = 0.002, OR = 1.38, 95% C.I. = 1.13-1.70. Conclusion BMI cannot be considered as a lone independent risk factor, as the study population had low BMI but had one or more modifiable risk factors. It would be advisable to keep BMI at least 21 kg/m2 for screening program. Health education on life style modification and programs to diagnose and control diabetes and hypertension have to be initiated at community level in order to reduce the occurrence.
Black women of low-socioeconomic status (SES) demonstrate a high incidence of breast cancer mortality associated with late stage diagnosis. Breast cancer screening, including mammography, breast self-examination, and clinical breast examination, remains t...
K. C. LaSorsa T. Jordan
Black women of low-socioeconomic status (SES) demonstrate a higher incidence of breast cancer mortality associated with late-stage diagnosis than White women. Breast cancer screening, including mammography, breast self- examination, and clinical breast ex...
K. C. LaSorsa
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a duração de sono na adolescência em diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODO: Foram investigados 863 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em duas escolas de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas por meio de questionários para identificação de informações sobre os hábitos [...] de sono e nível socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: A duração média de sono nos dias da semana foi de 8,83(1,87) horas e a prevalência de adolescentes com duração de sono de oito ou menos horas diárias foi de 39,0% nos dias com aula. Adolescentes da classe baixa apresentaram menor duração do sono (p = 0,043). Na análise ajustada, a idade, o nível socioeconômico e o hábito de tirar a sesta foram os principais fatores associados a poucas horas de sono. Os participantes de 18 a 19 anos apresentaram maior prevalência de poucas horas de sono em comparação aos de 10 a 11 anos (PR = 4,78; CI95%: 1,98-11,53), assim como os adolescentes da classe alta em comparação com a classe baixa (PR = 1,48; CI95%: 1,20-1,83). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram associações entre o nível socioeconômico e os hábitos de sono de adolescentes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status. METHOD: We investigated 863 adolescents from 10 to 19 years in two schools in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Sleep habits data and socioeconomic status were obtained by questionnaires. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration [...] on days of the week was 8.83(1.87) hours and the prevalence of adolescents with eight or fewer hours/day was 39.0% on school days (p = 0.043). On adjusted analysis, age, socioeconomic status and taking a nap habit were the main factors associated with few hours of sleep. Older students (aged 18 to 19 years) showed higher prevalence of few hours of sleep when compared to younger students (10 to 11 years) (RP = 4.78; IC95%: 1.98-11.53), as well as for upper class adolescents when compared to those with lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Results showed the association between socioeconomic status and adolescents' sleep/wake habits.
Bernardo, Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite; Pereira, Érico Felden; Louzada, Fernando Mazzilli; D' Almeida, Vânia.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a duração de sono na adolescência em diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODO: Foram investigados 863 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em duas escolas de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas por meio de questionários para identificação de informações sobre os hábitos de sono e nível socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: A duração média de sono nos dias da semana foi de 8,83(1,87 horas e a prevalência de adolescentes com duração de sono de oito ou menos horas diárias foi de 39,0% nos dias com aula. Adolescentes da classe baixa apresentaram menor duração do sono (p = 0,043. Na análise ajustada, a idade, o nível socioeconômico e o hábito de tirar a sesta foram os principais fatores associados a poucas horas de sono. Os participantes de 18 a 19 anos apresentaram maior prevalência de poucas horas de sono em comparação aos de 10 a 11 anos (PR = 4,78; CI95%: 1,98-11,53, assim como os adolescentes da classe alta em comparação com a classe baixa (PR = 1,48; CI95%: 1,20-1,83. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram associações entre o nível socioeconômico e os hábitos de sono de adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status. METHOD: We investigated 863 adolescents from 10 to 19 years in two schools in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Sleep habits data and socioeconomic status were obtained by questionnaires. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration on days of the week was 8.83(1.87 hours and the prevalence of adolescents with eight or fewer hours/day was 39.0% on school days (p = 0.043. On adjusted analysis, age, socioeconomic status and taking a nap habit were the main factors associated with few hours of sleep. Older students (aged 18 to 19 years showed higher prevalence of few hours of sleep when compared to younger students (10 to 11 years (RP = 4.78; IC95%: 1.98-11.53, as well as for upper class adolescents when compared to those with lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Results showed the association between socioeconomic status and adolescents' sleep/wake habits.
Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite Bernardo
Background A number of studies have shown an association between health-related quality of life (HRQL) and socioeconomic status (SES). Indicators of SES usually serve as potential confounders; associations between SES and HRQL are rarely discussed in their own right. Also, few studies assess the association between HRQL and SES among those with a chronic disease. The study focuses on the question of whether people with the same state of health judge their HRQL differently according to their SES, and whether a bias could be introduced by ignoring these differences. Methods The analyses were based on a representative sample of the adult population in Germany (n?=?11,177). HRQL was assessed by the EQ-5D-3 L, i.e. the five domains (e.g. ‘moderate or severe problems’ concerning mobility) and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). SES was primarily assessed by educational level; age, sex and family status were included as potential confounders. Six chronic diseases were selected, each having a prevalence of at least 1% (e.g. diabetes mellitus). Multivariate analyses were conducted by logistic and linear regression. Results Among adults with a chronic disease, most ‘moderate or severe problems’ are reported more often in the low (compared with the high) educational group. The same social differences are seen for VAS values, also in subgroups characterized by ‘moderate or severe problems’. Gender-specific analyses show that for women the associations with VAS values can just be seen in the total sample. For men, however, they are also present in subgroups defined by ‘moderate or severe problems’ or by the presence of a chronic disease; some of these differences exceed 10 points on the VAS scale. Conclusions Low SES groups seem to be faced with a double burden: first, increased levels of health impairments and, second, lower levels of valuated HRQL once health is impaired. These associations should be analysed and discussed in their own right, based on interdisciplinary co-operation. Social epidemiologists could include measures of HRQL in their studies more often, for example, and health economists could consider assessing whether recommendations based on HRQL scales might include a social bias.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the general association between socioeconomic status (SES and hospitalization has been well established, few studies have considered the relationship between SES and hospital length of stay (LOS, and/or hospital re-admission. The primary objective of this study therefore, was to examine the relationship of SES to LOS and early re-admission among adult patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia in a setting with universal health insurance. Methods Four hundred and thirty-four (434 individuals were included in this retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis of adult patients less than 65 years old admitted to a large teaching hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia. Hospital chart review data were linked to population-based health plan administrative data. Chart review was used to gather data on demographics, illness severity, co-morbidity, functional status and other measures of case mix. Two different types of administrative data were used to determine hospital LOS and the occurrence of all-cause re-admission to any hospital within 30 days of discharge. SES was measured by individual-level financial hardship (receipt of income assistance or provincial disability pension and neighbourhood-level income quintiles. Results Those with individual-level financial hardship had an estimated 15% (95% CI -0.4%, +32%, p = 0.057 longer adjusted LOS and greater risk of early re-admission (adjusted OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.38, 5.09. Neighbourhood-level income quintiles, showed no association with LOS or early re-admission. Conclusion Among hospitalized pneumonia patients less than 65 years, financial hardship derived from individual-level data, was associated with an over two-fold greater risk of early re-admission and a marginally significant longer hospital LOS. However, the same association was not apparent when an ecological measure of SES derived from neighbourhood income quintiles was examined. The ecological SES variable, while useful in many circumstances, may lack the sensitivity to detect the full range of SES effects in clinical studies.
Fitzgerald J Mark
Nutritional status of urban schoolchildren of high and low socioeconomic status in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala Estado nutricional de escolares urbanos de niveles socioeconómicos alto y bajo en Quetzaltenango, Guatemala
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing in children in many developing countries, increasing chronic disease risk. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren 8 to 10 years old who were of high or low socioeconomic status (SES) in Quetzaltenango, which is the second largest city in Guatemala METHODS: Between April and June 2005 we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 583 children in private and publi...
Groeneveld, Iris F.; Solomons, Noel W.; Doak, Colleen M.
Life expectancy was well known to associate with lifestyle habits, socioeconomic condition, and three health-related dimensions (physical, mental and social health status). However, the causal effect relationship among these variables remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the causal relationships among health and life conditions, socioeconomic status, dietary and lifestyle habits and three health-related dimensions in elderly ur...
This article describes the measurement of socioeconomic status in the first follow-up of the KiGGS study (KiGGS Wave 1) conducted from 2009 to 2012. A multidimensional index score was used. The score is the sum of three metric components: Education and Occupational Qualification, Occupational Status, and Net Income. Compared with the approach in the KiGGS baseline study, some modifications were made in accordance with changes in the other components of the health-monitoring program at the Robert Koch Institute, i.e., the German Health Update (GEDA) and the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1). These changes facilitate the analysis of temporal developments and trends, ensure international comparability of the data, and support the transfer of the results into politics and practice. In order to demonstrate the application of the revised instrument, we report on exemplary results of KiGGS Wave 1 regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status and the general health status of children and adolescents aged 3-17 years. PMID:24950825
Lampert, Thomas; Müters, S; Stolzenberg, H; Kroll, L E
Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes-asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction-at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics-INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000-2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project.
Bard, D [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Laurent, O [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Filleul, L [CIRE Aquitaine, Bordeaux (France); Havard, S [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Deguen, S [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Segala, C [Sepia-Sante, Melrand (France); Pedrono, G [Sepia-Sante, Melrand (France); Riviere, E [ASPA, Schiltigheim (France); Schillinger, C [ASPA, Schiltigheim (France); Rouil, L [INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Arveiler, D [Registre des Cardiopathies Ischemiques du Bas-Rhin, Laboratoire d' epidemiologie et de sante publique-EA 1801, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Eilstein, D [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint Maurice (France)
There has been little evidence of a decline in the global burden of cholera in recent years as the number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to rise. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of socioeconomic development. Overall socioeconomic development is the ultimate solution for control of cholera as evidenced in developed countries. However, most research has focused on cross-county comparisons so that the role of individual- or small area-leve...
Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Rodd, Joshua; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael
Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with ...
Goesch Julia N; Schwarz Norbert G; Decker Marie-Luise; Oyakhirome Sunny; Borchert Lea B; Kombila Ulrich D; Poetschke Marc; Lell Bertrand; Issifou Saadou; Kremsner Peter G; Grobusch Martin P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6?years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.
Jansen Pauline W
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the socioeconomic status (SES of the community of residence has a substantial association with infant birth weight. We used multilevel models to examine associations of birth weight with family- and community-level SES in the Cape Cod Family Health Study. Data were collected retrospectively on births to women between 1969 and 1983 living on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The sample included siblings born in different residences with differing community-level SES. Methods We used cross-classified models to account for multiple levels of correlation in a non-hierarchical data structure. We accounted for clustering at family- and community-levels. Models included extensive individual- and family-level covariates. SES variables of interest were maternal education; paternal occupation; percent adults living in poverty; percent adults with a four year college degree; community mean family income; and percent adult unemployment. Results Residual correlation was detected at the family- but not the community-level. Substantial effects sizes were observed for family-level SES while smaller magnitudes were observed for community-level SES. Overall, higher SES corresponded to increased birth weight though neither family- nor community-level variables had significant associations with the outcome. In a model applied to a reduced sample that included a single child per family, enforcing a hierarchical data structure, paternal occupation was found to have a significant association with birth weight (p = 0.033. Larger effect sizes for community SES appeared in models applied to the full sample that contained limited covariates, such as those typically found on birth certificates. Conclusions Cross-classified models allowed us to include more than one child per family even when families moved between births. There was evidence of mild associations between family SES and birth weight. Stronger associations between paternal occupation and birth weight were observed in models applied to reduced samples with hierarchical data structures, illustrating consequences of excluding observations from the cross-classified analysis. Models with limited covariates showed associations of birth weight with community SES. In models adjusting for a complete set of individual- and family-level covariates, community SES was not as important.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES is known to be positively associated with breast cancer risk but its relationship with mammographic density, a marker of susceptibility to breast cancer, is unclear. This study aims to investigate whether mammographic density varies by SES and to identify the underlying anthropometric, lifestyle and reproductive factors leading to such variation. Methods In a cross-sectional study of mammographic density in 487 pre-menopausal women, SES was assessed from questionnaire data using highest achieved level of formal education, quintiles of Census-derived Townsend scores and urban/rural classification of place of residence. Mammographic density was measured on digitised films using a computer-assisted method. Linear regression models were fitted to assess the association between SES variables and mammographic density, adjusting for correlated variables. Results In unadjusted models, percent density was positively associated with SES, with an absolute difference in percent density of 6.3% (95% CI 1.6%, 10.5% between highest and lowest educational categories, and of 6.6% (95% CI -0.7%, 12.9% between highest and lowest Townsend quintiles. These associations were mainly driven by strong negative associations between these SES variables and lucent area and were attenuated upon adjustment for body mass index (BMI. There was little evidence that reproductive factors explained this association. SES was not associated with the amount of dense tissue in the breast before or after BMI adjustment. The effect of education on percent density persisted after adjustment for Townsend score. Mammographic measures did not vary according to urban/rural place of residence. Conclusions The observed SES gradients in percent density paralleled known SES gradients in breast cancer risk. Although consistent with the hypothesis that percent density may be a mediator of the SES differentials in breast cancer risk, the SES gradients in percent density were mainly driven by the negative association between SES and BMI. Nevertheless, as density affects the sensitivity of screen-film mammography, the higher percent density found among high SES women would imply that these women have a higher risk of developing cancer but a lower likelihood of having it detected earlier.
Moss Sue M
The potential of using land cover/use categories as a proxy for soil metal concentrations was examined by measuring associations between Anderson land cover category percentages and soil concentrations of As, Pb, and Ba in ten sampling areas. Land cover category and metal associations with ethnicity and socioeconomic status at the United States Census 2000 block and block group levels also were investigated. Arsenic and Pb were highest in urban locations; Ba was a function of geology. Consistent associations were observed between urban/built up land cover, and Pb and poverty. Land cover can be used as proxy for metal concentrations, although associations are metal-dependent. PMID:24914533
Davis, Harley T; Aelion, C Marjorie; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne
Full Text Available Examination malpractice has remained a serious challenge to public examinations. The paperexamined the influence of peer pressure and socioeconomic status and student’s attitudetoward examination malpractice. A survey design was employed using a sample size of 1000Junior Secondary two students. Questionnaire was used to elicit the right responses on peerpressure and students attitude toward examination malpractice. Simple regression statisticswas also used to establish the influence of peer pressure on students’ attitude towardsexamination malpractice. The result showed that peer pressure significantly predicts students’attitude to examination malpractice. The paper suggested some measures counsellors can useto reduce influence of peer pressure on students’ attitude toward examination malpractice.
Grace Nwamaka Okorodudu
This study investigates socioeconomic differences in patterns and trends of tobacco consumption over time among youth in India. Additionally, the distribution of tobacco use risk factors across social class was examined. The data were derived from a longitudinal study of adolescents, Project Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives.…
Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa H.; Erickson, Darin J.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Finnegan, Jonn R., Jr.; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%. Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days, medium (4-14 days and long (>14 days spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal". Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters. Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR or odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2 and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16 times for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, respectively, while the similar changes varied from 0.79 to 2.8 for the other absence outcomes. General health explained some of the social gradient. Work factors and personal factors did not. Conclusions The social gradient in sickness absence was different for absences of different duration and patterns. It was strongest for absences of medium length and "abnormal" absence. The social gradient was not explained by other factors.
Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days), medium (4-14 days) and long (>14 days) spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations) and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal"). Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds ratios (OR)) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2) and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16) times for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, respectively, while the similar changes varied from 0.79 to 2.8 for the other absence outcomes. General health explained some of the social gradient. Work factors and personal factors did not. Conclusions The social gradient in sickness absence was different for absences of different duration and patterns. It was strongest for absences of medium length and "abnormal" absence. The social gradient was not explained by other factors.
Kristensen, Trine RÃ¸nde; Jensen, Signe Marie
Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigations of the impact of ethnicity and socio-economic status on incidence and outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia are limited. Methods We prospectively identified all S. aureus bacteraemia episodes in the Australian New Zealand Cooperative on Outcomes in Staphylococcal Sepsis cohort study between 2007 and 2010. We calculated population level incidence rates using regional postcodes and stratified the analysis by ethnicity, age and socio-economic status indexes. Results There were 7539 episodes of S. aureus bacteraemia with an annual incidence of 11·2 episodes per 100,000 population. The age-adjusted incidence in the Indigenous population was 62·5 per 100,000 population with an age standardized incidence rate ratio of 5·9 compared to the non-Indigenous population and an incidence rate ratio of 29.2 for community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Populations in the lowest socio-economic status quintile had an increased S. aureus bacteraemia incidence compared to higher quintiles. However, there was a disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations across all socio-economic status quintiles. The lower 30-day mortality for Indigenous patients (7% compared to non-Indigenous patients (17% was explained by differences in age. Conclusions Indigenous Australians suffer from a higher rate of S. aureus bacteraemia than non-Indigenous Australians, particularly for community-associated MRSA. Ethnicity and socio-economic status had little impact on subsequent mortality, with other host factors contributing more significantly.
Tong Steven Y C
Full Text Available Differences in IQ have been offered as an explanation for socioeconomic gradients in morbidity and mortality. Previous research has largely relied on linking education and conscription testing data with later life health. As this early life testing was used to determine a person’s academic path it is difficult to disentangle the effects of IQ from education. This study used IQ and socioeconomic status (SES data collected concurrently in mid-life from men who did not experience IQ-test-driven career path direction in early life. If IQ is associated with SES generally then multiple domains of IQ it will be associated with all components of SES. In a subsample of men aged 35 - 80 (n = 287 from the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study, we evaluated relationships between each of four domains of cognitive ability (IQ domains: fluid (Gf; crystallised (Gc; visual/spatial (Gv and processing speed (Gs. SES was measured as standardized education, income, occupational prestige and deprivation score. Age-adjusted linear regression was used to test each SES-z-score individually against each IQ domain. Then all four SES measures were included in a single model for each IQ domain. This study found that a panel of standard IQ tests were positively associated with attained education but not with income or area-level deprivation score. Two IQ abilities, Gf and Gc, were also associated with occupational prestige score. These associations suggest that lesser levels of health associated with lower socioeconomic status is not accounted for by a lesser innate ability and that intervention may be possible.
Shona J. Kelly
This study examined the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices as mediators of the association between familial socioeconomic status (SES) and child mental health problems. The sample included 2,043 5th-7th graders (50.7 % female) participating in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study. Children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parents reported family economy and education level, emotional well-being (measured with the Everyday Feelings Questionnaire), and the use of negative disciplinary and affirmative parenting practices (measured using the Family Life Questionnaire). Path analyses were conducted to examine the associations between SES and externalizing and internalizing problems. Results supported a model where family economy was associated with externalizing problems through parental emotional well-being and parenting practices, whereas maternal education level was associated with externalizing problems through negative discipline. The direct association between paternal education level and externalizing problems was not mediated by parenting. For internalizing problems, we found both direct associations with family economy and indirect associations with family economy through parental emotional well-being and parenting. The results suggest that parental emotional well-being and parenting practices are two potential mechanisms through which low socioeconomic status is associated with child mental health problems. PMID:24150864
Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge; Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Robert; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari
The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms by which these macro factors might be related to Mexican-origin adolescents' participation in organized after-school activities. Qualitative data were collected through focus group interviews with 44 adolescents, 50 parents, and 18 activity leaders from 2 neighborhoods that varied in ethnic composition and average family income. Results indicated that family socioeconomic status might be related to adolescents' participation through financial resources and parents' work. Ethnicity was identified as a predictor of participation via experiences with ethnic discrimination, particularly in the neighborhood with a low percentage of Hispanic families. Cultural values and practices were related to participants' preferences for particular activities (e.g., bilingual, church-sponsored) and adolescents' participation in activities. Immigration seemed to be a factor in parents' familiarity with and beliefs about organized activities. PMID:22545831
Simpkins, Sandra D; Delgado, Melissa Y; Price, Chara D; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth
Full Text Available Lasalgaon is the largest onion market in Indian and perhaps in the entire continent. Lasalgaon town is located in the Nashik district of Maharashtra. In this paper, emphasis is given on the socio-economic status of the women workers who are engaged in the "Cleaning and Sorting" work of onion in the Lasalgaon market. After purchase of onion from the farmers the onion are cleaned and sorted in to various sizes like small, medium and large according to demand from various states of India and foreign countries. This cleaning and sorting of onion is done by women workers. The woman is born sincere and serious about the work and hence processing of onion is got done by woman instead of man. These women workers come to Lasalgaon market from nearby villages, with very poor family background. A study is made about their family background, saving habits education, transportation facilities etc. so as to find out their socio-economic status.
Abstract Background Although socioeconomic status (SES) has been focused on as a key determinant of cancer stage at diagosis in western countries, there has been no systemic study on the relationship of SES and breast cancer stage at diagnosis in China. Methods The medical charts of 4,211 eligible breast cancer patients from 7 areas across China who were diagnosed between 1999 and 2008 were reviewed. Four area-based socioeconomic indicators were used to calculat...
Abstract Background Potential links between eczema and obstructive pulmonary diseases have been postulated. Previously we have reported the prevalence of upper and lower respiratory diseases and the relation to environmental and socio-economic factors in a randomly selected adult population in southern Sweden using a postal questionnaire. In the present study we wanted to analyse the prevalence of eczema and its relation to socio-economic status, heredity factors and e...
Montnemery Peter; Nihlén Ulf; Göran Löfdahl Claes; Nyberg Per; Svensson Åke
The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hispanic ethnic concentration is associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and, if this relationship exists, whether it is affected by the socioeconomic environment. The study uses the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) linked to 2000 census data to access the relationship between prevalence of obesity, Hispanic ethnic concentration, poverty and level of education at a county-level. The findings suggest that the asso...
Salinas, Jennifer J.; Rocha, Elizabeth; Abdelbary, Bassent E.; Gay, Jennifer; Sexton, Ken
The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hispanic ethnic concentration is associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and, if this relationship exists, whether it is affected by the socioeconomic environment. The study uses the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) linked to 2000 census data to access the relationship between prevalence of obesity, Hispanic ethnic concentration, poverty and level of education at a county-level. The findings suggest that the asso...
Salinas, Jennifer J.; Elizabeth Rocha; Abdelbary, Bassent E.; Jennifer Gay; Ken Sexton
Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with 397 mothers or guardians of young children. Respondents were grouped according to their socio-economic situation, using scores. The condition of the bed nets was evaluated during a home visit. Results Socio-economic factors of wellbeing were negatively associated with bed net use, such as living in a stone house (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.48, running water in the house (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.92, shower/flush toilet in the house (OR 0.39/0.34, 95% CI 0.21–0.75/0.16–0.73, ownership of a freezer (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.67. In contrast, similar factors were positively associated with a good maintenance condition of the bed nets: higher monthly income (OR 5.64, 95% CI 2.41–13.19 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.19 – 5.45. Conclusion Among the poorest families in Lambaréné the coverage with untreated nets (UTNs is the highest, but the condition of these UTNs is the worst. To achieve a broad implementation of ITNs in Lambaréné, there is an urgent need for educational programmes as well as need-tailored marketing strategies for ITNs.
Borchert Lea B
Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with 397 mothers or guardians of young children. Respondents were grouped according to their socio-economic situation, using scores. The condition of the bed nets was evaluated during a home visit. Results Socio-economic factors of wellbeing were negatively associated with bed net use, such as living in a stone house (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.48), running water in the house (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.92), shower/flush toilet in the house (OR 0.39/0.34, 95% CI 0.21–0.75/0.16–0.73), ownership of a freezer (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96) and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.67). In contrast, similar factors were positively associated with a good maintenance condition of the bed nets: higher monthly income (OR 5.64, 95% CI 2.41–13.19) and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.19 – 5.45). Conclusion Among the poorest families in Lambaréné the coverage with untreated nets (UTNs) is the highest, but the condition of these UTNs is the worst. To achieve a broad implementation of ITNs in Lambaréné, there is an urgent need for educational programmes as well as need-tailored marketing strategies for ITNs.
Goesch, Julia N; Schwarz, Norbert G; Decker, Marie-Luise; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Borchert, Lea B; Kombila, Ulrich D; Poetschke, Marc; Lell, Bertrand; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G; Grobusch, Martin P
The energy expenditure of lower (group 1) and upper socioeconomic group females (group 2) from a marginal community in Guatemala City was determined by using the doubly labelled water method. Energy expenditure values were 1925 +/- 66 (mean, SEM) kcal/d (group 1) and 2253 +/- 145 kcal/d group 2 (p less than 0.03). About half of this difference can be attributed to size.
Stein, T.P.; Johnston, F.E.; Greiner, L.
The energy expenditure of lower (group 1) and upper socioeconomic group females (group 2) from a marginal community in Guatemala City was determined by using the doubly labelled water method. Energy expenditure values were 1925 +/- 66 (mean, SEM) kcal/d (group 1) and 2253 +/- 145 kcal/d group 2 (p less than 0.03). About half of this difference can be attributed to size
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the literature on racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in morbidity and mortality, focusing on substance use and abuse. OBSERVATIONS: In most populations and societies, people of higher social position live longer and remain healthier than those of lower position. Disparities in morbidity and mortality across ethnic groups also exist. Mortality rates for African Americans are about 1.6 times higher than those for white, with much higher disparities for...
Buka, Stephen L.
In a population sample of 1462 middle-aged women socioeconomic data were studied in relation to obesity, assessed by a body weight index. Education, annual income, and social class were negatively correlated with weight index (WI). Husband's social class was a stronger determinant of obesity in the woman than her own class. Age of husband and number of children were significantly correlated with WI. There was also a weak correlation between being single and WI. Sick leave was not correlated t...
Noppa, H.; Bengtsson, C.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate groups of patients with a relatively homogenous health status to evaluate the degree to which use of the Australian hospital system is affected by socio-economic status, locational accessibility to services and patient payment classification. Method Records of all deaths occurring in Western Australia from 1997 to 2000 inclusive were extracted from the WA mortality register and linked to records from the hospital morbidity data system (HMDS via the WA Data Linkage System. Adjusted incidence rate ratios of hospitalisation in the last, second and third years prior to death were modelled separately for five underlying causes of death. Results The independent effects of socioeconomic status on hospital utilisation differed markedly across cause of death. Locational accessibility was generally not an independent predictor of utilisation except in those dying from ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer. Private patient status did not globally affect utilisation across all causes of death, but was associated with significantly decreased utilisation three years prior to death for those who died of colorectal, lung or breast cancer, and increased utilisation in the last year of life in those who died of colorectal cancer or cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion It appears that the Australian hospital system may not be equitable since equal need did not equate to equal utilisation. Further it would appear that horizontal equity, as measured by equal utilisation for equal need, varies by disease. This implies that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach to further improvements in equity may be over simplistic. Thus initiatives beyond Medicare should be devised and evaluated in relation to specific areas of service provision.
Holman C D'Arcy J
Introduction HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. Methods A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. Results There was little urban–rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087), and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (p<0.05). For individuals, higher education was significantly associated with lower stigma (HIV and drug related) reported by both PWID and community members. Part-time employed PWID reported more experiences and perceptions of drug-related stigma, while conversely unemployed community members reported enacting lower drug-related stigma. Multi-level analysis revealed that the relationship between education inequality and HIV-related stigma is superseded by the effect of individual-level education. Conclusions The results of the study confirm that socioeconomic factors at both the individual level and community level affect different types of stigma in different ways. Attention should be paid to these differences when planning structural or educational interventions to reduce stigma, and additional research should investigate the mechanisms with which SES and inequality affect social relationships and, in turn, stigma.
Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian
Full Text Available Introduction: HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. Results: There was little urban–rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087, and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (p<0.05. For individuals, higher education was significantly associated with lower stigma (HIV and drug related reported by both PWID and community members. Part-time employed PWID reported more experiences and perceptions of drug-related stigma, while conversely unemployed community members reported enacting lower drug-related stigma. Multi-level analysis revealed that the relationship between education inequality and HIV-related stigma is superseded by the effect of individual-level education. Conclusions: The results of the study confirm that socioeconomic factors at both the individual level and community level affect different types of stigma in different ways. Attention should be paid to these differences when planning structural or educational interventions to reduce stigma, and additional research should investigate the mechanisms with which SES and inequality affect social relationships and, in turn, stigma.
Full Text Available Olatunde Aremu1,2, Stephen Lawoko1, Koustuv Dalal1,31Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Linköping University, SwedenBackground: High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of maternal healthcare services has been accepted as an important factor for reducing maternal deaths. This study investigates the effect of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic position on the utilization of different forms of place of delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.Methods: A population-based multilevel discrete choice analysis was performed using the most recent population-based 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years. The analysis was restricted to 15,162 ever-married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja.Results: The choice of place to deliver varies across the socioeconomic strata. The results of the multilevel discrete choice models indicate that with every other factor controlled for, the household wealth status, women's occupation, women's and partner's high level of education attainment, and possession of health insurance were associated with use of private and government health facilities for child birth relative to home delivery. The results also show that higher birth order and young maternal age were associated with use of home delivery. Living in a highly socioeconomic disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with home birth compared with the patronage of government health facilities. More specifically, the result revealed that choice of facility-based delivery is clustered around the neighborhoods.Conclusion: Home delivery, which cuts across all socioeconomic strata, is a common practice among women in Nigeria. Initiatives that would encourage the appropriate use of healthcare facilities at little or no cost to the most disadvantaged should be accorded the utmost priority.Keywords: delivery care, maternal health services utilization, multilevel discrete choice, Nigeria, socioeconomic disadvantaged, neigborhood, health policy
Full Text Available Teacher is an effective and dominating factor among the ones contributing to educational improvement. If the information and communication technology (ICT has to be successfully implemented and effectively transacted, then the teacher educators themselves should possess the knowledge of proper awareness towards teaching the subject of ICT in the teacher-training programme. In this regard NCERThas come out recently with a school curriculum framework where in it has been emphasized to integrated ICTin school education. It is not possible without the teacher being competed in techno-pedagogic dimensions of ICT. According to the regulations of University Grant Commission (UGC, the appointment of teachers and other staffs which was ordered on 28th June, 2010 are mentioned in clause No.4.4.7, as “Provided that at least one lecture should have specialization in information and communication technology and another is in special education”. The quality of teaching depends on the awareness of educational technology. The present study aims to investigate the SocioEconomic Status and Awareness of ICT among Teacher Trainees in Nagaland . The objectives of the study were to compare the mean scores of Awareness and SocioEconomic Status ICTamong Teacher Trainees of Nagaland when they are classified into gender, locality, type of management and Subject discipline. The sample of the study constitutes the selected Teacher Trainees of government and private colleges of Nagaland. A sample of 150 Teacher Trainees was selected using random sampling technique. The Awareness of ICT tool was developed by the investigator using the scientific procedure of tool construction. The tool consists of 65 objective type questions related to awareness of ICT. The respondent has to give the answer by marking either A, B, C, or D. The score varies in between 0-65 marks. The questionnaire in its initial stage of development was subjected to rationale logical analysis by some selected experts in tool construction after which, it was duly modified. The scale was tried out on a sample of 50 students and necessary item analysis for item selection employed. This scale was further treated for test-retest reliability and the reliability coefficient was found to be highly satisfactory. (r=0.75. All this procedure confirmed a high validity and reliability of the tool for collecting data for the purposes of present investigation. There is a significant difference in Awareness of ICT and Socio-Economic Status of Teacher Trainees of Nagaland.
Objectives To determine whether access to rapid access chest pain clinics of people with recent onset symptoms is equitable by age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and gender, according to need. Design Retrospective cohort study with ecological analysis. Setting Patients referred from primary care to five rapid access chest pain clinics in secondary care, across England. Participants Of 8647 patients aged ?35?years referred to chest pain clinics with new-onset stable chest pain but no known cardiac history, 7570 with documented census ward codes, age, gender and ethnicity comprised the study group. Patients excluded were those with missing date of birth, gender or ethnicity (n=782) and those with missing census ward codes (n=295). Outcome measures Effects of age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status on clinic attendance were calculated as attendance rate ratios, with number of attendances as the outcome and resident population-years as the exposure in each stratum, using Poisson regression. Attendance rate ratios were then compared with coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality ratios to determine whether attendance was equitable according to need. Results Adjusted attendance rate ratios for patients aged >65?years were similar to younger patients (1.1, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.16), despite population CHD mortality rate ratios nearly 15 times higher in the older age group. Women had lower attendance rate ratios (0.81, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.84) and also lower population CHD mortality rate ratios compared with men. South Asians had higher attendance rates (1.67, 95% CI 1.57 to 1.77) compared with whites and had a higher standardised CHD mortality ratio of 1.46 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.51). Although univariable analysis showed that the most deprived patients (quintile 5) had an attendance rate twice that of less deprived quintiles, the adjusted analysis showed their attendance to be 13% lower (0.87, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.94) despite a higher population CHD mortality rate. Conclusion There is evidence of underutilisation of chest pain clinics by older people and those from lower socioeconomic status. More robust and patient focused administrative pathways need to be developed to detect inequity, correction of which has the potential to substantially reduce coronary mortality.
Sekhri, Neha; Hemingway, Harry; Walsh, Niamh; Eldridge, Sandra; Junghans, Cornelia; Feder, Gene
Full Text Available Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI, socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII, and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates.Results: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks.Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing inequalities in socioeconomic conditions, availability of preventive health services, and women’s social status.
Gopal K. Singh, PhD
Full Text Available The objective was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous girls in the Araucanía Region of Chile, controlling for nutritional status and mother's age at menarche. A total of 8,624 randomly selected girls from 168 schools were screened, resulting in the selection of 207 indigenous and 200 non-indigenous girls who had recently experienced menarche. Age at menarche was 149.6±10.7 months in the indigenous group and 146.6±10.8 months in the non-indigenous group. Among the non-indigenous, the analysis showed no significant association between age at menarche and socioeconomic status. In the indigenous group, age at menarche among girls with low socioeconomic status was 5.4 months later than among those with higher socioeconomic status. There were no differences in nutritional status according to socioeconomic level. Obesity was associated with earlier menarche. Menarche occurred earlier than in previous generations. An inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche was seen in the indigenous group only; low socioeconomic status was associated with delayed menarche, regardless of nutritional status or mother's age at menarche.El objetivo fue analizar la relación entre nivel socioeconómico y edad de menarquia en adolescentes indígenas y no indígenas de la Región de la Araucanía, Chile, controlando el efecto del estado nutricional, y la edad de menarquia de las madres. Se estudiaron 8.624 niñas de 168 escuelas elegidas aleatoriamente, seleccionando 207 indígenas y 200 no indígenas que habían tenido recientemente la menarquia. La edad de menarquia ocurrió a los 149,6±10,7 meses en indígenas y a los 146,6±10,8 meses en no indígenas. En el grupo no indígena, hubo una relación significativa entre edad de menarquia y nivel socioeconómico. En el grupo indígena, edad de menarquia del nivel socioeconómico bajo fue de 5,4 meses más tarde que el nivel socioeconómico más alto. No se observaron diferencias de estado nutricional por nivel socioeconómico. La obesidad adelantó la menarquia y la edad de menarquia ocurrió antes que la de sus madres. Existe una relación inversa entre nivel socioeconómico y edad de menarquia sólo en el grupo indígena; en los niveles socioeconómicos más bajos la edad de menarquia se retrasa independiente del estado nutricional y de la edad de menarquia de la madre.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue analizar la relación entre nivel socioeconómico y edad de menarquia en adolescentes indígenas y no indígenas de la Región de la Araucanía, Chile, controlando el efecto del estado nutricional, y la edad de menarquia de las madres. Se estudiaron 8.624 niñas de 168 escuelas elegidas ale [...] atoriamente, seleccionando 207 indígenas y 200 no indígenas que habían tenido recientemente la menarquia. La edad de menarquia ocurrió a los 149,6±10,7 meses en indígenas y a los 146,6±10,8 meses en no indígenas. En el grupo no indígena, hubo una relación significativa entre edad de menarquia y nivel socioeconómico. En el grupo indígena, edad de menarquia del nivel socioeconómico bajo fue de 5,4 meses más tarde que el nivel socioeconómico más alto. No se observaron diferencias de estado nutricional por nivel socioeconómico. La obesidad adelantó la menarquia y la edad de menarquia ocurrió antes que la de sus madres. Existe una relación inversa entre nivel socioeconómico y edad de menarquia sólo en el grupo indígena; en los niveles socioeconómicos más bajos la edad de menarquia se retrasa independiente del estado nutricional y de la edad de menarquia de la madre. Abstract in english The objective was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous girls in the Araucanía Region of Chile, controlling for nutritional status and mother's age at menarche. A total of 8,624 randomly selected girls from 168 schools were s [...] creened, resulting in the selection of 207 indigenous and 200 non-indigenous girls who had recently experienced menarche. Age at menarche was 149.6±10.7 months in the indigenous group and 146.6±10.8 months in the non-indigenous group. Among the non-indigenous, the analysis showed no significant association between age at menarche and socioeconomic status. In the indigenous group, age at menarche among girls with low socioeconomic status was 5.4 months later than among those with higher socioeconomic status. There were no differences in nutritional status according to socioeconomic level. Obesity was associated with earlier menarche. Menarche occurred earlier than in previous generations. An inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche was seen in the indigenous group only; low socioeconomic status was associated with delayed menarche, regardless of nutritional status or mother's age at menarche.
Amigo, Hugo; Vásquez, Sofía; Bustos, Patricia; Ortiz, Guillermo; Lara, Macarena.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo fue analizar la relación entre nivel socioeconómico y edad de menarquia en adolescentes indígenas y no indígenas de la Región de la Araucanía, Chile, controlando el efecto del estado nutricional, y la edad de menarquia de las madres. Se estudiaron 8.624 niñas de 168 escuelas elegidas ale [...] atoriamente, seleccionando 207 indígenas y 200 no indígenas que habían tenido recientemente la menarquia. La edad de menarquia ocurrió a los 149,6±10,7 meses en indígenas y a los 146,6±10,8 meses en no indígenas. En el grupo no indígena, hubo una relación significativa entre edad de menarquia y nivel socioeconómico. En el grupo indígena, edad de menarquia del nivel socioeconómico bajo fue de 5,4 meses más tarde que el nivel socioeconómico más alto. No se observaron diferencias de estado nutricional por nivel socioeconómico. La obesidad adelantó la menarquia y la edad de menarquia ocurrió antes que la de sus madres. Existe una relación inversa entre nivel socioeconómico y edad de menarquia sólo en el grupo indígena; en los niveles socioeconómicos más bajos la edad de menarquia se retrasa independiente del estado nutricional y de la edad de menarquia de la madre. Abstract in english The objective was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous girls in the Araucanía Region of Chile, controlling for nutritional status and mother's age at menarche. A total of 8,624 randomly selected girls from 168 schools were s [...] creened, resulting in the selection of 207 indigenous and 200 non-indigenous girls who had recently experienced menarche. Age at menarche was 149.6±10.7 months in the indigenous group and 146.6±10.8 months in the non-indigenous group. Among the non-indigenous, the analysis showed no significant association between age at menarche and socioeconomic status. In the indigenous group, age at menarche among girls with low socioeconomic status was 5.4 months later than among those with higher socioeconomic status. There were no differences in nutritional status according to socioeconomic level. Obesity was associated with earlier menarche. Menarche occurred earlier than in previous generations. An inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche was seen in the indigenous group only; low socioeconomic status was associated with delayed menarche, regardless of nutritional status or mother's age at menarche.
Amigo, Hugo; Vásquez, Sofía; Bustos, Patricia; Ortiz, Guillermo; Lara, Macarena.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes survey. Road distances to the nearest service were calculated for each respondent using a GIS. Difficulty was related to geographic distance, health status and car ownership using logistic generalized linear models. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used to explore the spatial non-stationarity in the results. Results Respondent long term illness, reported bad health and non-car ownership were found to be significant predictors of difficulty in accessing GPs and hospitals. Geographic distance was not a significant predictor of difficulty in accessing hospitals but was for GPs. GWR identified the spatial (local variation in these global relationships indicating locations where the predictive strength of the independent variables was higher or lower than the global trend. The impacts of bad health and non-car ownership on the difficulties experienced in accessing health services varied spatially across the study area, whilst the impacts of geographic distance did not. Conclusions Difficulty in accessing different health facilities was found to be significantly related to health status and car ownership, whilst the impact of geographic distance depends on the service in question. GWR showed how these relationships were varied across the study area. This study demonstrates that the notion of access is a multi-dimensional concept, whose composition varies with location, according to the facility being considered and the health and socio-economic status of the individual concerned.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hispanic ethnic concentration is associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and, if this relationship exists, whether it is affected by the socioeconomic environment. The study uses the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS linked to 2000 census data to access the relationship between prevalence of obesity, Hispanic ethnic concentration, poverty and level of education at a county-level. The findings suggest that the association of Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity varies by socioeconomic environment. Although little influence was observed for % poverty, the relationship between Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity differed by county-level educational attainment. High proportion of residents with a bachelor’s degree is associated with a low prevalence of obesity; counties with both high % Hispanic and high % with Bachelor’s degrees had the lowest prevalence of obesity. Our results suggest that promoting and improving education, perhaps including training on healthful living, may serve as an effective means of curbing current obesity trends and associated health problems in Hispanic and possibly other ethnic communities.
Full Text Available This paper investigated the impact of the North Coast Highway development on the socio-economic well-being of residents living in Bogue Village, St. James, Jamaica. It points out the connection between the new road infrastructure development and the survey respondents’ socio-economic status, while investigating the impact of the North Coast Highway on family life. Time spent with families and creation of new economic opportunities were the main indicators of family life. The paper uses questionnaires and interview questions to test the hypothesis, “The North Coast Highway will improve the quality of life of the citizens through increased economic opportunities, reduced travel time and traffic congestion resulting in more time spent with families.” The study found that the majority of the survey respondents use the North Coast Highway. Two-fifths of the questionnaire respondents and just over two-thirds of the respondents interviewed reported that they spent the same amount of time with their families; one-quarter of the questionnaire and interview respondents reported that they spent more time with their families; three-tenths and one-eighth of the questionnaire and interview respondents respectively spent less time with their families after the construction of the North Coast Highway. There is greater transport mobility and connectivity with surrounding communities and Montego Bay, and hence increased access to the various economic opportunities and amenities of life.
Full Text Available Abstract Non-communicable diseases account for more than 50% of deaths in adults aged 15–59 years in most low income countries. Depression and diabetes carry an enormous public health burden, making the identification of risk factors for these disorders an important strategy. While socio-economic inequalities in chronic diseases and their risk factors have been studied extensively in high-income countries, very few studies have investigated social inequalities in chronic disease risk factors in low or middle-income countries. Documenting chronic disease risk factors is important for understanding disease burdens in poorer countries and for targeting specific populations for the most effective interventions. The aim of this review is to systematically map the evidence for the association of socio-economic status with diabetes and depression comorbidity in low and middle income countries. The objective is to identify whether there is any evidence on the direction of the relationship: do co-morbidities have an impact on socio-economic status or vice versa and whether the prevalence of diabetes combined with depression is associated with socio-economic status factors within the general population. To date no other study has reviewed the evidence for the extent and nature of this relationship. By systematically mapping the evidence in the broader sense we can identify the policy and interventions implications of existing research, highlight the gaps in knowledge and suggest future research. Only 14 studies were found to analyse the associations between depression and diabetes comorbidity and socio-economic status. Studies show some evidence that the occurrence of depression among people with diabetes is associated with lower socio-economic status. The small evidence base that considers diabetes and depression in low and middle income countries is out of step with the scale of the burden of disease.
Full Text Available Studies worldwide have established a close link between higher socioeconomic status (SES and demographic outcomes such as lower infant and child survival. This relationship has often been studied by utilizing information on ownership of household assets. Recently, we examined the effect of a proxy for SES on child survival in Malawi using the 1987 and 1998 census data. Results showed that in 1987 there was an increase in mortality for children belonging to poor households; in 1998 results were reversed: child mortality was higher among rich households and also among middle-aged women. Parallel analysis of the 1992 and 2000 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS data showed similar results. We replicate our earlier analyses and assess whether the results persist in the 2004 DHS. Results show that child mortality is higher in richer households but at lower levels than those observed earlier owing to modest improvement in the living standards of people.
Henry V. Doctor
The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES) in New Jersey (NJ), a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologists and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic) radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques
The present descriptive study investigated the impact of socio-economic status in meeting the human rights needs among randomly selected recovered psychiatric patients (n = 100) at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face to face interview, using structured Needs Assessment Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the participants from below poverty line were deprived of physical needs such as 'electricity facilities' (? (2) = 6.821, p physical appearance (? (2) = 8.337, p < .040), afraid of family members (? (2) = 17.809, p < .000). Thus, there is an urgent need to implement mental illness awareness campaigns and government should take active steps for providing employment, disability pension, free housing, free treatment and free transportation service for people with mental illness to attend hospital or rehabilitation centres. PMID:23288490
Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Ramachandra; Reddemma, Konduru; Math, Suresh Bada
This study explored the association of socioeconomic status with individuals' perception of their body image (BI) and body weight (BW) among adults in a sub-urban Nigerian population. The cross-sectional sample comprised 1521 residents (775 males and 746 females) of the town of Nnewi. Perceived BI was assessed using figural representations of different sizes for males and females. Perceived BW was determined by presenting participants with BW category options to choose from. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from objectively measured BW and height using standardized procedures. Actual BW categories were derived from participants' BMIs using WHO criteria. Perceived BI and BW differed from actual BW among unskilled and non-tertiary males (peducational categories perceived their BI differently but their BW similarly. Given the same BMI, age, perceived ideal BI and sex, only occupation is found to be associated with perception of BI. PMID:23721833
Maruf, Fatai A; Akinpelu, Aderonke O; Udoji, Nwannedimma V
Objective To assess verbal interactions related to television and other electronic media exposure among mothers and 6 month-old-infants. Design Cross-sectional analysis of 154 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development. Setting Urban public hospital. Participants Low socioeconomic status mothers of 6-month-old infants. Main Exposure Media exposure and content. Main Outcome Measures Mother-infant verbal interaction associated with media exposure and maternal coviewing. Results Of 154 low socioeconomic status mothers, 149 (96.8%) reported daily media exposure in their infants, with median exposure of 120 (interquartile range, 60-210) minutes in a 24-hour period. Among 426 program exposures, mother-infant interactions were reported during 101 (23.7%). Interactions were reported most frequently with educational young child–oriented media (42.8% of programs), compared with 21.3% of noneducational young child–oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.98) and 14.7% of school-age/teenage/adult–oriented programs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.3). Among coviewed programs with educational content, mothers reported interactions during 62.7% of exposures. Coviewing was not reported more frequently for educational young child–oriented programs. Conclusions We found limited verbal interactions during television exposure in infancy, with interactions reported for less than one-quarter of exposures. Although interactions were most commonly reported among programs with educational content that had been coviewed, programs with educational content were not more likely to be coviewed than were other programs. Our findings do not support development of infant-directed educational programming in the absence of strategies to increase coviewing and interactions.
Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Berkule, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Huberman, Harris S.; Alvir, Jose; Dreyer, Benard P.
Full Text Available Abstract Background While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES independent of body mass index. Methods Data were from two cohorts including 271 children (117 males; 154 females in study 1 and 131 children in study 2 (63 males; 68 females. The average age was 9.6 and 8.8 years respectively. Height and body mass were assessed according to standard procedures and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 was calculated. Parent-reported household income was used to determine SES. Habitual, free-living physical activity (PA was assessed by a pedometer (steps/day in study 1 and accelerometer (time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA in study 2. Self-reported time spent watching TV and on the computer was used as measure of sedentary behavior. Differences in PA and sedentary behavior by SES were initially tested using ANOVA. Further analyses used ANCOVA controlling for BMI, as well as leg length in the pedometer cohort. Results In study 1, mean daily steps differed significantly among SES groups with lower SES groups approximating 10,500 steps/day compared to about 12,000 steps/day in the higher SES groups. These differences remained significant (p Conclusions Children from a low SES show a trend of lower PA levels and spend more time in sedentary behavior than high SES children; however, differences in PA were influenced by BMI. The higher BMI in these children might be another factor contributing to increased health risks among low SES children compared to children from with a higher SES.
Full Text Available This study sets out to find out whether parental socioeconomic status, family structure and living environment are predictors of violence against children. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and the population of the study consisted of all the children in public primary schools and in junior secondary schools within Lagos state of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was adopted for the study. Random samples of twenty five children were picked from each of the sixteen schools selected. This gives a total 400 participants that were used for the study. Experts in Sociology, measurement and evaluation certified the content validity of the questionnaire, while the co-efficient of the reliability of the four sections of the questionnaire were ascertained to be 0.63; 0.68; 0.66 and 0.73, respectively for sections A,B,C and D. Chi-square statistical tools was used to test the hypotheses formulated. Major findings of the study include the fact that parental socioeconomic status significantly influence violence against children, family structure significantly influence violence against children and that living environment also significantly influence violence against children. This study conclude by recommending among others that the Lagos State government should put machinery in motion to improve the poverty level of individuals living in Lagos State of Nigeria and should also make available social services and amenities that are supportive of family well being in order to avoid any form of violence against children.
The primary objective of this study was to develop empirical generalizations regarding occupational status projections of non-metropolitan Southern youth. Using a standardized survey instrument, data were collected (1966 and 1967) from 5 Southern states (Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, South Carolina, and Texas). The sample consisted of…
Lever, Michael F.
Full Text Available In recent times, the global focus has been on food security and poverty alleviation. This is in response to increasing food insecurity and poverty in the world. The incidences of food insecurity and poverty are particularly devastating in the developing countries and a lot of resources are being channelled towards programmes aimed at eradicating food insecurity and poverty by various international organizations and government of the developing nations. In terms of food insecurity, 852 million people worldwide are still chronically undernourished. In Africa, an estimated 200 million or 27.4% of the people on the continent are undernourished. This figure is expected to increase to 30% by 2010. In Nigeria, over 40% of the estimated population of 133 million people are food insecure. To achieve the Millennium Development Goals of halving the proportion of hungry people by 2015, it was projected that 22 million people must achieve food security every year. In consonance of the above, this study examined the socio-economic characteristics and determinants of the food security status of rural farming households in Kwara State of Nigeria. The study utilized a three-stage random sampling technique to obtain a sample of 94 farm households and a cross sectional data in year 2005. Descriptive analysis was carried out to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the households. Econometric tools were used to determine factors affecting the food security status of household. Using the recommended calorie required approach; the study revealed that 36% and 64% of the households were food secure and food insecure respectively. The Shortfall/Surplus index showed that the food secure households exceeded the recommended calorie intake by 42%, while the food insecure households fell short of the recommended calorie intake by 38%. A logit regression model made up of eight regressors was specified. Household income, household size, educational status of household`s head and quantity of food obtained from own production were found to determine the food security status of farming households in the study area. It is concluded that the design of food security strategies should be multi-dimensional such that would focus on and address the identified determinants in order to achieve the target set by the Millennium Development Goals.
Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar o efeito do sexo, nível sócio-econômico (NSE e ordem de nascimento em ansiedade traço-estado. Participaram 437 estudantes do 1° e 2° graus, de ambos os sexos, de níveis sócio-econômicos médio-alto e baixo, primogênitos e não-primogênitos. No que se refere à ansiedade estado (AE, observaram-se efeitos principais de sexo e NSE. As mulheres apresentaram escores mais altos que os homens, e também os sujeitos de NSE baixo com relação aos de NSE médio-alto. Houve interação entre NSE e ordem de nascimento. Os estudantes primogênitos de NSE médio-alto evidenciaram menor AE que os primogênitos e não-primogênitos de NSE baixo. Em outra interação, as mulheres primogênitas de NSE baixo apresentaram maior AE que os homens de NSE médio-alto, primogênitos e não-primogênitos, e, também, que as mulheres primogênitas de NSE médio-alto. Nos resultados de ansiedade-traço, as mulheres obtiveram pontuação mais alta que os homens, e também os sujeitos de NSE baixo com relação aos de NSE médio-alto. Não houve interações. Discutem-se os resultados enfatizando-se a importância do sexo, nível sócio-econômico e ordem de nascimento nos níveis de ansiedade traço-estado.The objective of this study was to verify the effect of sex, socioeconomic status (SES and birth order on state-trait anxiety. The subjects were 437 primary and secondary school students of both sexes, firt-borns and non-first-borns, belonging to both upper-middle and lower socioeconomic levels. Regarding state-anxiety (SA, main effects of the variables sex and SES could be observed. Women presented higher scores than men, and so did the subjects from lower SES in relation to the subjects of upper-middle SES. There was an interaction between SES and birth order. Students who were first-borns of the upper-middle SES showed lower SA than first-borns and non first-borns of lower SES. In another interaction, female first-borns of lower SES showed higher SA than males of upper-middle SES, both first-borns and non-first-borns, and also higher than female first-borns of upper-middle SES. The results of trait-anxiety showed taht women obtained higher scores than men, as well as subjects of low SES did in relation to subjects of upper-middle SES. There were no significant interactions. The results are discussed by emphasizing the importance of sex, socioeconomic status and birth order on levels of state-trait anxiety.
Jorge La Rosa
Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced changes in economic conditions, educational levels, and labor markets at the same time as cultural changes have taken place in relation to processes of individualization and reflexivity. Based on empirical data the aim of this paper is to investigate whether and to what extent changes in the structural preconditions for volunteering have had an effect on factors that are commonly associated with volunteering. We use survey data from Denmark collected over a period from 1990 to 2008.
Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov
The use of variably self-reported measures of wellbeing may produce differing outcomes. This study examined the differences in association with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions (marital status, social capital) of two widely used cognitive subjective wellbeing measurements: Cantril’s ladder and Diener’s five-item Satisfaction with Life Scale. Methods: A stratified sampling design was used to collect data from representative households in the 20 neighborhoods of Rhini, a ...
Cramm, J. M.; Nieboer, A. P.
To estimate the odds of breast cancer subtypes in minority populations versus non-Hispanic (NH) whites stratified by socioeconomic status (SES) [a composite of individual-level SES (insurance status) and area-level SES (median household income quartile from 2000 U.S. Census data)] using a large nationwide cancer database. We used the National Cancer Data Base to identify breast cancer cases diagnosed in 2010 and 2011, the only 2 years since U.S. cancer registries uniformly began collecting HER2 results. Breast cancer cases were classified into five subtypes based on hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 status: HR+/HER2-, HR+/HER2+, HR-/HER2+ (HER2-overexpressing), HR-/HER2- (TN), and unknown. A polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) comparing the odds of non-HR+/HER2-subtypes to HR+/HER2- for racial/ethnic groups controlling for and stratifying by SES, using a composite of insurance status and area-level income. Compared with NH whites, NH blacks and Hispanics were 84 % (OR = 1.84; 95 % CI 1.77-1.92) and 17 % (OR = 1.17; 95 % CI 1.11-1.24) more likely to have TN subtype versus HR+/HER2-, respectively. Asian/Pacific Islanders (API) had 1.45 times greater odds of being diagnosed with HER2-overexpressing subtype versus HR+/HER2- compared with NH whites (OR = 1.45; 95 % CI 1.31-1.61). We found similar ORs for race in high and low strata of SES. In a large nationwide hospital-based dataset, we found higher odds of having TN breast cancer in black women and of HER2-overexpressing in API compared with white women in every level of SES. PMID:24794028
Sineshaw, Helmneh M; Gaudet, Mia; Ward, Elizabeth M; Flanders, W Dana; Desantis, Carol; Lin, Chun Chieh; Jemal, Ahmedin
Described is a training program to prepare teacher aides to tutor in a remedial reading program for children of low socioeconomic status. Instruction emphasized early childhood growth and development, visual motor perception training, language and auditory development, and emotional and social development. Trainee selection, the training program,…
Vigo County School Corp., Terre Haute, IN.
In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…
Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin
This study assessed how socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, and birth weight interacted to predict differential patterns of body mass index (BMI) growth among U.S. children born in the early 1990s. Three BMI growth trajectories emerged--one above the 50th percentile across the age range of 5 to 14, one in which children rapidly became…
Danner, Fred W.; Toland, Michael D.
This paper attempts to demonstrate the utility of an alternative strategy for providing evaluation data on preschool programs. Results of observational investigations of teacher-child interactions in three separate preschool settings provide evidence that the family income status, childs' sex and physical attractiveness determine to a significant…
Appleford, B.; and Others
Full Text Available Abstract Background In diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and microvascular complications. We evaluated cigarette smoking in people with diabetes mellitus in a socio-economically deprived area. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of people registered with diabetes mellitus at 29 general practices in inner London. Responses were analysed for 1,899 (64% respondents out of 2,983 eligible. Results There were 1,899 respondents of whom 968 (51% had never smoked, 296 (16% were current smokers and 582 (31% were ex-smokers. Smoking was more frequent in white Europeans (men 22%, women 20%, than in African Caribbeans (men 15%, women 10% or Africans (men 8%, women 2%. Smoking prevalence decreased with age. Smokers were more likely to be living in rented accommodation (odds ratio, OR 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 2.74. After adjusting for confounding, current smokers had lower SF-36 scores than subjects who had never smoked (mean difference in physical functioning score -5.6, 95% confidence interval -10.0 to -1.2; general health -6.1, -9.7 to -2.5. Current smokers were less likely to have attended a hospital diabetic clinic in the last year (OR 0.59, 0.44 to 0.79, and their hypertension was less likely to be treated (OR 0.47, 0.30 to 0.74. Conclusions Compared with non-smokers, smokers had lower socio-economic status and worse health status, but were less likely to be referred to hospital or treated for their hypertension. People with diabetes who smoke can be regarded as a vulnerable group who need more intensive support and treatment.
Full Text Available The association of socioeconomic status (SES with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266 who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05. After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, ? = ?0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, ? = ?0.046, P = 0.003. SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032. Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers.
Full Text Available A total of 462 patients living in varying socio-economic conditions were screened for tinea infection. 372/462 (70.7% were found to be culture positive for dermatophytes. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte. 35% of the infected cases were from the very low income group (group-I, 34.2% from low income group (group-II, 23.3% from middle income group (group-III and 1.8% from moderately rich group (group-IV. Recurrent, chronic and extensive dermatophytosis were found to be most common in group-I (20.3% and group-II (17.8%, whereas localized infections were common in group-IV (66.6% and group-III (65.7%. Recurrence chronicity were more frequent in tinea cruris and tinea corporis. The present study suggests that group-I and group-II may be the likely reservoirs of human ringworm infections in Madras
We assess (i) whether being married is a protective factor against socio-economic inequalities in suicide, and (ii) whether any such buffering effect varies between countries. We used the data from a European cross-national comparison project, a prospective follow-up of several European population censuses matched with vital statistics. The data encompass 99.5 million person-years aged 30 and above and 25,476 suicides in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Turin, Madrid, Norway and Switzerland. Standardised rates were computed and logistic regressions were used to assess educational inequalities. Among the non-married, the lower educational group had an increased risk of dying of suicide compared to the higher group (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.45). Inequalities among the married were lower (OR = 1.29). In all countries or regions except Austria, the lower educational group had a higher risk of suicide mortality among the non-married than among the married. The buffering effect of being married was not observed for elderly individuals (65 and over). Among younger individuals, the buffering effect of being married on relative inequalities in suicide was stronger in Madrid, Denmark, Norway and Switzerland (but significant only for Denmark and Norway). There was no indication that countries with stronger welfare policies or lower divorce rate had a lower buffering effect. We conclude that being married protects against inequalities in suicide and that this protective effect is not affected by the level of social capital at the country level. PMID:15814169
Lorant, V; Kunst, Anton E; Huisman, Martijn; Bopp, Matthias; Mackenbach, Johan
OBJECTIVE: To provide the evidence base for targeted nutrition policies to reduce the risk of micronutrient/diet-related diseases among disadvantaged populations in Europe, by focusing on: folate, vitamin B12, Fe, Zn and iodine for intake and status; and vitamin C, vitamin D, Ca, Se and Cu for intake. DESIGN: MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched to collect original studies that: (i) were published from 1990 to 2011; (ii) involved >100 subjects; (iii) had assessed dietary intake at the i...
Novakovic, R. N.; Cavelaars, A. J. E. M.; Geelen, A.; Nikolic, M.; Altaba, I. I.; Vinas, B. R.; Ngo, J.; Golsorkhi, M.; Medina, M.; Brzozowska, A.; Szczecinkska, A.; Cock, D.; Vansant, G.; Renkema, M.; Serra Majem, L.
The aim of the present nationwide Greek study is to assess whether survival from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is modified by socioeconomic status (SES) and area remoteness. Detailed precoded information derived from a personal interview conducted by specially trained health personnel with the child guardians was available for 883 ALL and 111 AML incident childhood cases registered in the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies during the period 1996-2010. Parental socioprofessional category was recorded on the basis of ISCO68 and ISCO88 codes; the exact traveling distance between residence and the treating hospital was ad hoc calculated. Multivariate Cox's proportional hazards models were applied to examine the mutually adjusted associations between survival and potential predictors. Children from a lower parental socioprofessional category experienced 40% worse survival (P=0.02) independent of age, sex, and ALL subtype, whereas those whose parents were married had better outcomes (rate ratio: 0.47, P=0.01). Urbanization of residence at diagnosis or 'residence to treating hospital' distance was not nominally associated with survival from ALL. By contrast, no noteworthy associations implicating SES were found for AML survival, probably because of the burden of the disease and small numbers. Lower SES indicators and a single-parenthood family milieu seem to be independently associated with unfavorable outcomes from childhood ALL. Area remoteness might not be a significant outcome predictor during recent years, following considerable improvements in the motorway infrastructures and care delivery patterns. This study may provide a valuable snapshot capturing the impact of socioeconomic covariates before the burst of the Greek financial crisis. PMID:23238585
Sergentanis, Theodoros; Dessypris, Nick; Kanavidis, Prodromos; Skalkidis, Ilias; Baka, Margarita; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Athanassiadou, Fani; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Frangandrea, Ioanna; Moschovi, Maria; Petridou, Eleni T
OBJECTIVE : To investigate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and reported perceptions of quality of life (QOL) in a cross-sectional population-based analysis of a representative sample of Australian men. METHODS : In 917 randomly recruited men aged 24-92 years, we measured QoL in the domains of physical health, psychological health, environment and social relationships, using the Australian World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL-BREF). Residential addresses were cross-referenced with Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006 census data to ascertain SES. Participants were categorised into lower, mid, or upper SES based on the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Advantage (IRSAD), the Index of Economic Resources (IER), and the Index of Education and Occupation (IEO). Lifestyle and health information was self-reported. RESULTS : Males of lower SES reported poorer satisfaction with physical health (OR=0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9, p=0.02), psychological health (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.3-0.7, p<0.001) and environment (OR=0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.7, p<0.001), although not social relationships (p=0.59). The poorest QOL for each domain was observed in the lower and upper SES groups, representing an inverse U-shaped pattern of association; however, statistical significance was only observed for psychological health (OR=0.5, 95%CI 0.4-0.7, p<0.001). These relationships were similar for IEO and IER. CONCLUSIONS : Men from lower and upper SES groups have lower QOL compared to their counterparts in the mid SES group. PMID:23731104
Brennan, Sharon L; Williams, Lana J; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find the prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Materials and Methods: A total of 813 children aged 2-6 years were screened for the present study from randomly selected three kindergarten schools each from Government, Government aided, and private managements. Clinical examination was done inside the respective schools. At the time of examination, a proforma was filled for each child comprising of DFS index. The questionnaire by Winter et al. was modified and used in this study. The completed proformas were statistically analyzed to find if any correlation existed between the nursing caries to the feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Results: Duration of breastfeeding increases the number of children with nursing caries and the mean DFS. There is a strong and significant relationship between the severity of nursing caries and the degree of feeding abuse. Children from low socioeconomic status have increased early childhood caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of nursing caries was 19.2% in Davangere preschool population. Nursing caries were more in children who were taking a feeding bottle to bed at night and were increasingly seen in large families and lower socioeconomic groups.
Full Text Available Adi Lahat,1 Yehudith Assouline-Dayan,1 Lior H Katz,1 Herma H Fidder2 1Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands Background and aim: The sex of the physician performing the endoscopic procedure is one of the parameters influencing patient satisfaction. Our aim was to characterize patients’ preferences according to their sex, socioeconomic status, and religious beliefs and according to procedure-related variables. Methods: All patients undergoing an endoscopic procedure at Sheba Hospital between April 2012 and September 2012 were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their sex, ethnic background, socioeconomic status, religious practice, and preference for an endoscopist of a specific sex. Questionnaires were included for analysis only when more than 95% of the items were addressed. Results: A total of 1,009 patients agreed to complete the questionnaires; of these 946 (94% [59% male] were eligible for inclusion. Most patients (675 [70%] expressed no preference for sex of the endoscopist, while 234 patients (25% preferred a same-sex endoscopist, and only 55 (6% preferred an other-sex endoscopist. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that in female patients, lower education (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28, non-Jewish religion (OR = 4.86, orthodox religious practice (OR = 2.28, African or Asian ethnic origin (OR = 2.44, scheduled for colonoscopy (OR = 1.90, and no previous endoscopy experience (OR = 1.88 were all associated with a preference for a same-sex endoscopist. Conclusion: One-quarter of patients preferred the physician performing their examination to be of particular sex. Most of these patients preferred a same-sex endoscopist. Education level, intensity of religious practice, ethnic origin, and type of endoscopic examination were associated with a preference for a same-sex endoscopist. Addressing patients’ preferences may improve the atmosphere in the clinical environment, reduce stress, and facilitate better treatment and adherence to endoscopic surveillance programs. Keywords: endoscopy, patients’ satisfaction, compliance, patient’s preference
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visou-se identificar o perfil psicomotor de crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico e verificar o efeito nelas de um programa de intervenção psicomotora. Participaram do estudo seis crianças do sexo masculino, na faixa de 10 a 12 anos (11,5±0,92). Os participantes foram avaliados utilizando-se uma ba [...] teria psicomotora que avalia sete fatores psicomotores: tonicidade, equilibração, lateralização, noção do corpo, estruturação espaço-temporal, praxia global e fina; de acordo com o desempenho da criança, os fatores são pontuados de 1 a 4; o escore 1 refere-se ao perfil apráxico, 2 ao dispráxico, 3 ao eupráxico e 4 ao hiperpráxico. Com base nas dificuldades detectadas foi elaborado um programa de intervenção psicomotora, aplicado durante três meses, em 16 sessões de uma hora de duração, duas vezes por semana. Ao término da intervenção os participantes foram reavaliados. Pela avaliação inicial, o perfil dos participantes foi predominantemente eupráxico nos fatores equilibração, lateralização, noção do corpo, praxia global e praxia fina; nos fatores tonicidade e estruturação espaço-temporal o perfil foi predominantemente dispráxico. Após o programa de intervenção houve aumento estatisticamente significativo (p Abstract in english This study aimed at outlining the psychomotor profile of socioeconomically disadvantaged children and at verifying the effect on them of an assessment-based psychomotor training program. Participants were six 10-to-12 year-old children (mean age 11.5±0.92), who were evaluated before and after the pr [...] ogram by means of a psychomotor battery which assesses seven categories: tonus, equilibrium, lateralisation, body perception, time-space orientation, gross and fine praxis; scores range from 1 to 4, determining the following profiles: 1, apraxic; 2, dyspraxic; 3, eupraxic; 4, hyperpraxic. By drawing on children's difficulties, a psychomotor playing program was applied during 3 months, in 16 one-hour sessions, twice a week. The initial evaluation showed participants profile to be predominantly eupraxic in equilibrium, lateralisation, body perception, gross and fine praxis; profile was mostly dyspraxic as to tonus and time-space orientation. After the program, scores significantly improved in tonus, equilibration, time-space orientation, gross, and fine praxis (p
Ana Carolina de, Campos; Luiz Henrique, Silva; Karina, Pereira; Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira, Rocha; Eloisa, Tudella.
Examining the Racial Crossover in Mortality between African American and White Older Adults: A Multilevel Survival Analysis of Race, Individual Socioeconomic Status, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context
We examine whether individual and neighborhood socioeconomic context contributes to black/white disparities in mortality among USA older adults. Using national longitudinal data from the Americans' Changing Lives study, along with census tract information for each respondent, we conduct multilevel survival analyses. Results show that black older adults are disadvantaged in mortality in younger old age, but older black adults have lower mortality risk than whites after about age 80. Both indiv...
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do estudo foi verificar o efeito do sexo, nível sócio-econômico (NSE) e ordem de nascimento em ansiedade traço-estado. Participaram 437 estudantes do 1° e 2° graus, de ambos os sexos, de níveis sócio-econômicos médio-alto e baixo, primogênitos e não-primogênitos. No que se refere à ansied [...] ade estado (AE), observaram-se efeitos principais de sexo e NSE. As mulheres apresentaram escores mais altos que os homens, e também os sujeitos de NSE baixo com relação aos de NSE médio-alto. Houve interação entre NSE e ordem de nascimento. Os estudantes primogênitos de NSE médio-alto evidenciaram menor AE que os primogênitos e não-primogênitos de NSE baixo. Em outra interação, as mulheres primogênitas de NSE baixo apresentaram maior AE que os homens de NSE médio-alto, primogênitos e não-primogênitos, e, também, que as mulheres primogênitas de NSE médio-alto. Nos resultados de ansiedade-traço, as mulheres obtiveram pontuação mais alta que os homens, e também os sujeitos de NSE baixo com relação aos de NSE médio-alto. Não houve interações. Discutem-se os resultados enfatizando-se a importância do sexo, nível sócio-econômico e ordem de nascimento nos níveis de ansiedade traço-estado. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to verify the effect of sex, socioeconomic status (SES) and birth order on state-trait anxiety. The subjects were 437 primary and secondary school students of both sexes, firt-borns and non-first-borns, belonging to both upper-middle and lower socioeconomic levels. Re [...] garding state-anxiety (SA), main effects of the variables sex and SES could be observed. Women presented higher scores than men, and so did the subjects from lower SES in relation to the subjects of upper-middle SES. There was an interaction between SES and birth order. Students who were first-borns of the upper-middle SES showed lower SA than first-borns and non first-borns of lower SES. In another interaction, female first-borns of lower SES showed higher SA than males of upper-middle SES, both first-borns and non-first-borns, and also higher than female first-borns of upper-middle SES. The results of trait-anxiety showed taht women obtained higher scores than men, as well as subjects of low SES did in relation to subjects of upper-middle SES. There were no significant interactions. The results are discussed by emphasizing the importance of sex, socioeconomic status and birth order on levels of state-trait anxiety.
La Rosa, Jorge.
Full Text Available Background . Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design . For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods . With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alaska's 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, we used stratified analysis and logistic regression models to describe the current use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT (including iq'mik, a unique Alaska Native SLT product among the 3 populations of interest. Results . “Population segments” were created with combinations of responses for Alaska Native race, SES and community type. We identified the highest prevalence and highest proportion of tobacco users for each type of tobacco by “segment.” For cigarette smoking, while the largest proportion (nearly one-third of the state's smokers are non-Native, high SES and live in urban settings, this group also has lower smoking prevalence than most other groups. Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents had both high smoking prevalence (48% and represented a large proportion of the state's smokers (nearly 10%. Patterns were similar for SLT, with non-Native high-SES urban residents making up the largest proportion of users despite lower prevalence, and Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents having high prevalence and making up a large proportion of users. For iq'mik use, Alaska Native people in rural settings were both the highest prevalence and proportion of users. Conclusion . While Alaska Native race, low SES status and community of residence can be considered alone when developing tobacco control interventions, creating “population segments” based on combinations of factors may be helpful for tailoring effective tobacco control strategies and messaging. Other countries or states may use a similar approach for describing and prioritizing populations.
Julia A. Dilley
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1% of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas.
Streichert Laura C
Full Text Available IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the California Health Interview Survey 2003, we estimated the prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight, combined as a single measure (AROW, body mass index ?85th percentile. We used logistic regression models to examine associations between AROW and risk factors.ResultsTwenty-nine percent of California adolescents were AROW. The prevalence of AROW differed significantly by sex and race. Boys were more likely than girls to be AROW (33% vs 25%. American Indians/Pacific Islanders/others (39% were at highest risk, followed by Hispanics (37%, blacks (35%, whites (23%, and Asians (15%. For boys, older age, Hispanic or American Indian/Pacific Islander/other race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and longer residence in the United States were significantly associated with AROW. For girls, Hispanic or black race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and poor dietary habits were significantly associated with AROW.ConclusionThe high prevalence of AROW among California adolescents in most racial/ethnic groups indicates the need for culturally specific and appropriate interventions to prevent and treat overweight.
Joel Gittelsohn, PhD
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) may influence cancer characteristics and behavior in several aspects. We analyzed PCa characteristics and behavior among low income uninsured men, and compare them to high income patients with health insurance in a developing country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retr [...] ospective case-control study was performed on 934 patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy between March, 1999 and July, 2009. Patients were divided in two groups, according to their SES. In group 1 (n=380), all had low income, low educational levels and couldn't afford medical insurance. In group 2 (n=554), all had higher income, higher education and had medical insurance. RESULTS: Patients from group 1 were older, had higher Gleason scores, higher rates of seminal vesicle and bladder neck involvement. The Kaplan Meier disease-free survival curve demonstrated that after a follow-up of four years, about 50% of uninsured patients had biochemical recurrence, versus 21% of insured patients (Log rank test: p
Victor, Srougi; Alberto A., Antunes; Sabrina, T; , Reis; Marcos F., Dall' Oglio; Adriano J., Nesrallah; Kátia R. M., Leite; Miguel, Srougi.
The influences of formal child care before age 4 on behavioral problems at 3, 5, and 7 years of age were assessed in 18,932 Dutch twins (3,878 attended formal child care). The effect of formal child care was studied on the average level of problem behavior and as moderator of genetic and non-genetic influences, while taking into account effects of sex and parental socio-economic status (SES). There was a small association between attending formal child care and higher externalizing problems, especially when SES was low. Heritability was lower for formal child care and in lower SES conditions. These effects were largest at age 7 and for externalizing problems. In 7 year-old boys and girls, the difference in heritability between the formal child care group of low SES and the home care group of high SES was 30 % for externalizing and ~20 % for internalizing problems. The decrease in heritability was explained by a larger influence of the environment, rather than by a decrease in genetic variance. These results support a bioecological model in which heritability is lower in circumstances associated with more problem behavior. PMID:24878694
Middeldorp, Christel M; Lamb, Diane J; Vink, Jacqueline M; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I
Male (n = 170) and female (n = 212) college students viewed photographs, which had been prerated for physical attractiveness, of three opposite-sex individuals. These photographs were paired with three levels of occupational status and income. Subjects indicated their willingness to engage in relationships of varying levels of sexual intimacy and marital potential with the portrayed individuals. Analyses of variance, correlations, and trend analyses supported the hypotheses. Compared to men, women are more likely to prefer or insist that sexual intercourse occur in relationships that involve affection and marital potential, and women place more emphasis than men do on partners' SES in such relationships. Consequently, men's SES and their willingness and ability to invest affection and resources in relationships may often outweigh the effects of their physical attractiveness in women's actual selection of partners. These results and the literature reviewed are more consistent with parental investment theory than with the view that these sex differences are solely the result of differential access to resources and differential socialization. PMID:2337380
Townsend, J M; Levy, G D
The socio-economic gradient in health remains a controversial topic in economics and other social sciences. In this paper we develop a new duration model that allows for unobserved persistent individual-specific health shocks and provides new evidence on the roles of socioeconomic characteristics in determining length of life using 19-years of high-quality panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel. We also contribute to the rapidly growing literature on life satisfaction by testing if m...
Frijters, Paul; Haisken-denew, John P.; Shields, Michael A.
We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relations...
Sharma, Gyan P.; Esler, Karen J.; Blignaut, James N.
Full Text Available The present research work intent to study the impact of socio-economic status on personality and life style of pupil teachers (B.Ed. trainee on the basis of gender. Hence the researchers aim at to find out the impact of socio-economic status (SES on the Personality of male and female pupil teachers and to study the life style of pupil teachers according to gender. Researchers selecting 1000 samples out of total population on the basis random sampling techniques with the help of standardized tools collected data and on the basis of normative survey method analysis and interpretation with required statistical technique like Mean, Standard Deviation, Critical Ratio, Degree of Freedom, Coefficient of Correlation, and ANOVA tested the hypotheses find out the purposive findings to focus on proper suggestive suggestion towards conclusion.
Sanjeet Kumar Tiwari
Tanzania has a generalised AIDS epidemic but the estimated adult HIV prevalence of 6% is much lower than in many countries in Southern Africa. HIV infection rates are reportedly higher in urban areas, among women and among those with more education. Stigma has been found to be more common in poorer, less-educated people, and those in rural areas. We examined associations between poverty and other variables and a stigmatising attitude (belief that HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning). The variables we examined in a multivariate model included: food sufficiency (as an indicator of poverty), age, sex, marital status, education, experience of intimate partner violence, condom-related choice disability, discussion about HIV/AIDS, sources of information about HIV/AIDS and urban or rural residence. Of the 1,130 men and 1,803 women interviewed, more than half (58%) did not disagree that "HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning". Taking other variables into account, people from the poorest households (without enough food in the last week) were more likely to believe HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.29, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.06-1.59). Others factors independently associated with this stigmatising attitude were: having less than primary education (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1.62); having experienced intimate partner violence in the last year (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.75); being choice disabled for condom use (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08-1.71); and living in rural areas (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.06-2.90). The level of HIV and AIDS stigma in Tanzania is high with independent associations with several disadvantages: poverty, less education and living in rural areas. Other vulnerable groups, such as survivors of intimate partner violence, are also more likely to have a stigmatising attitude. HIV prevention programmes should take account of stigma, especially among the disadvantaged, and take care not to increase it. PMID:21347901
Amuri, Mbaraka; Mitchell, Steve; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study', and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE Study'. Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES. The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29–1.98] in Germany. Conclusion In this comparative study, the effects of neighbourhood deprivation varied by country and risk factor; the strongest and most consistent effects were found for smoking. Results indicate that area level SES is associated with health related lifestyles, which might be a possible pathway linking social status and cardiovascular disease. Individual-level education had a considerable influence on the association between neighbourhood characteristics and risk factors.
Abstract Background The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Methods A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The s...
Paula Janice S; Cg, Leite Isabel; Almeida Anderso B; Mb, Ambrosano Glaucia; Pereira Antônio C; Mialhe Fábio L
Abstract Background Increases in the prevalence of child and adolescent obesity have accelerated since the mid 1980s. Socio-economic status (SES)-adiposity relationships appear less clear in adolescence than childhood, and evidence on whether increasing obesity is itself patterned according to SES is inconsistent. Increasing prevalence may have increased the tolerance, and reduced recognition of, or concern about, obesity. The aim of this study is to report the prevalence of ...
Sweeting Helen; West Patrick; Young Robert
Although significant associations between childhood socio-economic status (SES) and adult mental disorders have been widely documented, SES has been defined using several different indicators often considered alone. Little research has examined the relative importance of these different indicators in accounting for the overall associations of childhood SES with adult outcomes. Nor has previous research distinguished associations of childhood SES with first onsets of mental disorders in childh...
Mclaughlin, Katie A.; Breslau, Joshua; Green, Jennifer Greif; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome has a high prevalence in many countries and has been associated with socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components among Jamaican young adults and evaluate its association with parental SES. Methods A subset of the participants from the 1986 Jamaica Birth Cohort was evaluated at ages 18-20 years between 2005 and 2007. Trained research nurses obtained...
Chronic diseases are now among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in lower income countries. Although traditionally related to higher individual socioeconomic status (SES) in these contexts, the associations between SES and chronic disease may be actively changing. Furthermore, country-level contextual factors, such as economic development and income inequality, may influence the distribution of chronic disease by SES as well as how this distribution has changed over time. Using ov...
Jones-smith, Jessica C.; Gordon-larsen, Penny; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Popkin, Barry M.
This paper examines the relative importance of family socioeconomic status (SES) and school-based peer hierarchies for young people's psychoneuroendocrine response, represented by cortisol level. Data are drawn from a study of 2824, 15-year-olds in 22 Scottish secondary schools in 2006 who provided information on family SES (parental occupation, material deprivation and family affluence) and social position in school hierarchies, together with two morning salivary cortisol samples. School soc...
West, Patrick; Sweeting, Helen; Young, Robert; Kelly, Shona
Background Cancer registries in the 1970s showed that parts of Golestan Province in Iran had the highest rate of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the world. More recent studies have shown that while rates are still high, they are approximately half of what they were before, which might be attributable to improved socio-economic status (SES) and living conditions in this area. We examined a wide range of SES indicators to investigate the association between different SES component...
Islami, Farhad; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Aghcheli, Karim; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Abedi-ardekani, Behnoush; Merat, Shahin; Nasseri-moghaddam, Siavosh; Semnani, Shahryar; Sepehr, Alireza; Wakefield, Jon; Møller, Henrik; Abnet, Christian C.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Boffetta, Paolo
Objectives. We investigated temporal patterns from 1984 to 2006 in 6 weight-related health behaviors by using longitudinal data for multiple cohorts of young adults (aged 19–26 years) from the nationally representative Monitoring the Future Study. Methods. We used growth curve models to examine historical trends in 6 health behaviors: frequency of eating breakfast, eating green vegetables, eating fruit, exercising, watching television, and sleeping 7 hours each night. Variations across gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status were investigated. Results. Frequency of exercising was consistently lower among young adult women than young adult men over this 23-year period. Compared with White women, Hispanic women, and women from other race/ethnic groups, Black women showed declines in the frequency of exercise since 1984. In general, young adult women showed a marked increase in the frequency of eating breakfast over this period, although Black women did not show any net gains. Conclusions. Social disparities in body weight may increase because Black women, Hispanic women, and men with lower socioeconomic status show declining trends in positive weight-related health behaviors compared with White young adults with higher socioeconomic status.
O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.; Lantz, Paula
The objective was to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and age at menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous girls in the Araucanía Region of Chile, controlling for nutritional status and mother's age at menarche. A total of 8,624 randomly selected girls from 168 schools were screened, resulting in the selection of 207 indigenous and 200 non-indigenous girls who had recently experienced menarche. Age at menarche was 149.6±10.7 months in the indigenous group and 146.6±...
Hugo Amigo; Sofía Vásquez; Patricia Bustos; Guillermo Ortiz; Macarena Lara
Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems to apply for girls more than for boys and for parental occupation more than family affluence. For future studies it might be important to look at the effects of socio-economic status within the context of other peer, family and school related factors in order to assess to what extent those factors might mediate the effects of social class background.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to highlight the socio-economic status of the scheduled castes residing in border areas of the Jammu district. Among the various socially deprived classes, scheduled castes suffer from the dual disabilities of severe economic exploitation and social discrimination while they constitute near about 16 per cent of the total population in the country and about 7.37 per cent in the state of J&K. The present paper is based on primary as well as secondary data. Primary data is collected by using interview schedule. Secondary data is collected from the census of India, Annual Reports and Administrative guidelines of the Ministry, Government of India as well as from the classified data available with internet. Apart from these, books, journals, seminar papers, etc, formed the sources for the collection of secondary data for the present paper. It has been found that economic condition of the scheduled castes living in border areas is not satisfactory. Majority of SCs are living in inhuman conditions. They lack basic facilities. They suffer due to unavailability of safe drinking water, due to unavailability of proper sanitation facilities, lack of adequate health facilities and educational facilities and above all due to inadequate employment opportunities. Majority of SCs depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for the livelihood and their per capita income is found to be very low. The survey reveals that in spite of various development programmes running by the Central and State governments, SCs in the study areas remained socially and economically backward. So there is need of proper implementation of these programmes so that we can improve their social and economic backwardness.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB in developed countries has historically been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES. In the past quarter century, TB in the United States has changed from primarily a disease of native-born to primarily a disease of foreign-born persons, who accounted for more than 60% of newly-diagnosed TB cases in 2010. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of SES with rates of TB in U.S.-born and foreign-born persons in the United States, overall and for the five most common foreign countries of origin. Methods National TB surveillance data for 1996–2005 was linked with ZIP Code-level measures of SES (crowding, unemployment, education, and income from U.S. Census 2000. ZIP Codes were grouped into quartiles from low SES to high SES and TB rates were calculated for foreign-born and U.S.-born populations in each quartile. Results TB rates were highest in the quartiles with low SES for both U.S.-born and foreign-born populations. However, while TB rates increased five-fold or more from the two highest to the two lowest SES quartiles among the U.S.-born, they increased only by a factor of 1.3 among the foreign-born. Conclusions Low SES is only weakly associated with TB among foreign-born persons in the United States. The traditional associations of TB with poverty are not sufficient to explain the epidemiology of TB among foreign-born persons in this country and perhaps in other developed countries. TB outreach and research efforts that focus only on low SES will miss an important segment of the foreign-born population.
Olson Nicole A
Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES) on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7-12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a standardized question, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children. Multivariate logistic regression was applied, adjusting for age, gender, grade, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. It was found that high school-related stress and low family SES were associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms, respectively. The effect of school-related stress was particularly strong in low SES group. In adolescents with both high stress at school and low SES, the odds ratio was 9.18 (95% confidence interval = 6.53-12.89) compared to the reference group (low stress at school and high SES). A significant synergistic interaction effect was observed (synergy index = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.56-3.32). The findings indicated that perceived school-related stress, in terms of effort-reward imbalance, was related to depressive symptoms in this sample of Chinese adolescents. The strong interaction with family SES suggests that health promoting efforts in school settings should be targeted specifically at these socially deprived groups. PMID:24919130
Guo, Hongxiang; Yang, Wenjie; Cao, Ying; Li, Jian; Siegrist, Johannes
High school students who spend long hours in paid employment during the school year are at increased risk of lower grades and higher substance use, although questions remain about whether these linkages reflect causation or prior differences (selection effects). Questions also remain about whether such associations vary by socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. This study examines those questions using nationally representative data from two decades (1991-2010) of annual Monitoring the Future surveys involving about 600,000 students in 10th and 12th grades. White students are consistently more likely than minority students to hold paid employment during the school year. Among White and Asian American students, paid work intensity is negatively related to parental education and grade point averages (GPA) and is positively related to substance use. Also among Whites and Asian Americans, students with the most highly educated parents show the strongest negative relations between work intensity and GPA, whereas the links are weaker for those with less educated parents (i.e., lower SES levels). All of these relations are less evident for Hispanic students and still less evident for African American students. It thus appears that any costs possibly attributable to long hours of student work are most severe for those who are most advantaged--White or Asian American students with highly educated parents. Working long hours is linked with fewer disadvantages among Hispanic students and especially among African American students. Youth employment dropped in 2008-2010, but the relations described above have shown little change over two decades. PMID:23316768
Bachman, Jerald G; Staff, Jeremy; O'Malley, Patrick M; Freedman-Doan, Peter
Neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with numerous chronic diseases, yet little information exists on its association with lung cancer incidence. This outcome presents two key empirical challenges: a long latency period that requires study participants' residential histories and long-term neighbourhood characteristics; and adequate data on many risk factors to test hypothesized mediating pathways between neighbourhood SES and lung cancer incidence. Analysing data on urban participants of a large Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study, we investigate three issues pertaining to these challenges. First, we examine whether there is an association between long-term neighbourhood SES, derived from 20 years of residential histories and five national censuses, and lung cancer incidence. Second, we determine how this long-term neighbourhood SES association changes when using neighbourhood SES measures based on different latency periods or at time of study entry. Third, we estimate the extent to which long-term neighbourhood SES is mediated by a range of individual-level smoking behaviours, other health behaviours, and environmental and occupational exposures. Results of hierarchical logistic regression models indicate significantly higher odds of lung cancer cases residing in the most compared to the least deprived quintile of the long-term neighbourhood SES index (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.13-1.89) after adjustment for individual SES. This association remained significant (OR: 1.38; 1.01-1.88) after adjusting for smoking behaviour and other known and suspected lung cancer risk factors. Important differences were observed between long-term and study entry neighbourhood SES measures, with the latter attenuating effect estimates by over 50 percent. Smoking behaviour was the strongest partial mediating pathway of the long-term neighbourhood SES effect. This research is the first to examine the effects of long-term neighbourhood SES on lung cancer risk and more research is needed to further identify specific, modifiable pathways by which neighbourhood context may influence lung cancer risk. PMID:24161094
Hystad, Perry; Carpiano, Richard M; Demers, Paul A; Johnson, Kenneth C; Brauer, Michael
Background/objectives:Children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. We described country-specific dietary patterns among children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS study and assessed the association of dietary patterns with an additive SES indicator.Subjects/Methods:Children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Principal component analysis was applied to identify dietary country-specific patterns. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess their association with SES.Results:Two to four dietary patterns were identified in the participating regions. The existence of a 'processed' pattern was found in the eight regions. Also, a 'healthy' pattern was identified in seven of the eight regions. In addition, region-specific patterns were identified, reflecting the existing gastronomic and cultural differences in Europe. The 'processed' pattern was significantly inversely associated with the SES additive indicator in all countries except Sweden, whereas the 'healthy' pattern was positively associated with SES in the Belgian, Estonian, German and Hungarian regions, but was not significant in the Italian, Spanish and Swedish regions.Conclusions:A 'processed' pattern and a 'healthy' pattern were found in most of the participating countries in the IDEFICS study, with comparable food item profiles. The results showed a strong inverse association of SES with the 'processed' pattern, suggesting that children of parents with lower SES may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. Therefore, special focus should be given to parents and their children from lower SES levels when developing healthy eating promotion strategies. PMID:24824009
Fernández-Alvira, J M; Bammann, K; Pala, V; Krogh, V; Barba, G; Eiben, G; Hebestreit, A; Veidebaum, T; Reisch, L; Tornaritis, M; Kovacs, E; Huybrechts, I; Moreno, L A
Background and objectives: Variation in kidney transplant access across the United States may motivate relocation of patients with ability to travel to better-supplied areas. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We examined national transplant registry and U.S. Census data for kidney transplant candidates listed in 1999 to 2009 with a reported residential zip code (n = 203,267). Cox's regression was used to assess associations of socioeconomic status (SES), distance from residence to transplant center, and relocation to a different donation service area (DSA) with transplant access and outcomes. Results: Patients in the highest SES quartile had increased access to transplant compared with those with lowest SES, driven strongly by 76% higher likelihood of living donor transplantation (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70 to 1.83). Waitlist death was reduced in high compared with low SES candidates (aHR 0.86, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.89). High SES patients also experienced lower mortality after living and deceased donor transplant. Patients living farther from the transplant center had reduced access to deceased donor transplant and increased risk of post-transplant death. Inter-DSA travel was associated with a dramatic increase in deceased donor transplant access (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.88 to 2.00) and was predicted by high SES, white race, and longer deceased-donor allograft waiting time in initial DSA. Conclusions: Ongoing disparities exist in kidney transplantation access and outcomes on the basis of geography and SES despite near-universal insurance coverage under Medicare. Inter-DSA travel improves access and is more common among high SES candidates.
Axelrod, David A.; Dzebisashvili, Nino; Schnitzler, Mark A.; Salvalaggio, Paolo R.; Segev, Dorry L.; Gentry, Sommer E.; Tuttle-Newhall, Janet
Objectives: Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) can be associated with depression. We aimed to assess prevalence of depression amongst community-dwelling elderly in a multiethnic, urban, low-SES, Asian neighborhood, comparing against a higher SES neighborhood.Method: The study population involved all residents aged ?60 years in two Singaporean housing estates comprising owner-occupied public housing (higher SES) and public rental housing (low SES) in 2012. Having lifetime prevalence of depression was defined as having a score ?5 on the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 or a history of depression. Demographic/clinical details were collected via questionnaire. Those with depression were referred to local polyclinics. Multilevel multivariate logistic regression determined predictors of depression and depression screening.Results: Participation was 61.5% (559/909). In the low-SES community, 26.2% (104/397) had depression, compared with 14.8% (24/162) in the higher SES community. After adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, staying in a low-SES community (public rental housing) was independently associated with depression [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.84]. Within the low-SES community, not being married (aOR = 2.27, CI = 1.35-3.70), falls (aOR = 2.72, CI = 1.59-4.67), visual impairment (aOR = 2.37, CI = 1.28-4.39), and poorer social network (aOR = 3.70, CI = 1.96-7.14) were associated with depression.Conclusion: Residing in a low-SES community was independently associated with depression after controlling for individual SES. PMID:24392759
Wee, Liang En; Yong, Yan Zhen; Chng, Michelle Wan Xing; Chew, Shi Hao; Cheng, Lenard; Chua, Qi Han Aaron; Yek, Jacklyn Jia Lin; Lau, Linus Jian Fa; Anand, Pravin; Hoe, Joshua Tian Ming; Shen, Han Ming; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat
While the African-American community has disproportionate rates of morbidity and mortality from chronic diet-related diseases, few studies have examined demographically the spectrum of these outcomes in the population. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which published scientific literature has examined African-American samples with sufficient specificity to identify nutrition problems in subsets of the population. Age, gender, socioeconomic status, geographic location, and sample size are used to examine study questions. In addition, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Continuing Survey of Food Intakes for Individuals (CSFII) 1994-1996 is used to illustrate how evaluating nutrient variables by demographic indicators provides insights into the heterogeneity of nutrient intake patterns among African Americans. Relative to the adequacy of scientific investigation into these issues, a review of twenty-nine studies conducted from 1970 to the present demonstrates bias in gender, income, and sample size for African-Americans-only dietary research samples. Relative to identifying dietary patterns that do not meet US dietary guidelines, pervasive patterns that persist across income groups were found, indicating the need for nutrition education programs at all levels. Although there are science based diet information available, it does not seem to have reached the African-American community in numbers sufficient to be reflected in dietary changes as reported by surveys. This research demonstrates the need for detailed studies highlighting these issues, as well as the production of culturally appropriate nutrition education materials and methods that will be effective in reaching this population. PMID:11289234
Bronner, Y L; Harris, E; Ebede, T L; Hossain, M B; Nowverl, A
Full Text Available The study of socioeconomic status (SES and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research.
RajeevD S Raizada
Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs and other electroencephalographic (EEG evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc. and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc. may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in two matched-samples of fourteen lower-SES and higher-SES adolescents. ERP and EEG activation were measured during a task probing selective attention to sequences of tones. Pre- and post-task salivary cortisol and self-reported emotional states were also measured. At similar performance level, the higher-SES group showed a greater ERP differentiation between attended (relevant and unattended (irrelevant tones than the lower-SES group. EEG power analysis revealed a cross-over interaction, specifically, lower-SES adolescents showed significantly higher theta power when ignoring rather than attending to tones, whereas, higher-SES adolescents showed the opposite pattern. Significant theta asymmetry differences were also found at midfrontal electrodes indicating left hypo-activity in lower-SES adolescents. The attended vs. unattended difference in right midfrontal theta increased with individual SES rank, and (independently from SES with lower cortisol task reactivity and higher boredom. Results suggest lower-SES children used additional compensatory resources to monitor/control response inhibition to distracters, perceiving also more mental effort, as compared to higher-SES counterparts. Nevertheless, stress, boredom and other task-related perceived states were unrelated to SES. Ruling out presumed confounds, this study confirms the midfrontal mechanisms responsible for the SES effects on selective attention reported previously and here reflect genuine cognitive differences.
Full Text Available Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7–12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a standardized question, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children. Multivariate logistic regression was applied, adjusting for age, gender, grade, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. It was found that high school-related stress and low family SES were associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms, respectively. The effect of school-related stress was particularly strong in low SES group. In adolescents with both high stress at school and low SES, the odds ratio was 9.18 (95% confidence interval = 6.53–12.89 compared to the reference group (low stress at school and high SES. A significant synergistic interaction effect was observed (synergy index = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.56–3.32. The findings indicated that perceived school-related stress, in terms of effort-reward imbalance, was related to depressive symptoms in this sample of Chinese adolescents. The strong interaction with family SES suggests that health promoting efforts in school settings should be targeted specifically at these socially deprived groups.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children in households of lower socioeconomic status (SES are more likely to be overweight/obese. We aimed to determine if home physical activity (PA environments differed by SES and to explore home environment mediators of the relation of family SES to children’s PA and sedentary behavior. Methods Participants were 715 children aged 6 to 11 from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids (NIK Study. Household SES was examined using highest educational attainment and income. Home environment was measured by parent report on a survey. Outcomes were child’s accelerometer-measured PA and parent-reported screen time. Mediation analyses were conducted for home environment factors that varied by SES. Results Children from lower income households had greater media access in their bedrooms (TV 52% vs. 14%, DVD player 39% vs. 14%, video games 21% vs. 9% but lower access to portable play equipment (bikes 85% vs. 98%, jump ropes 69% vs. 83% compared to higher income children. Lower SES families had more restrictive rules about PA (2.5 vs. 2.0. Across SES, children watched TV/DVDs with parents/siblings more often than they engaged in PA with them. Parents of lower SES watched TV/DVDs with their children more often (3.1 vs. 2.5?days/week. Neither total daily and home-based MVPA nor sedentary time differed by SES. Children’s daily screen time varied from 1.7 hours/day in high SES to 2.4 in low SES families. Media in the bedroom was related to screen time, and screen time with parents was a mediator of the SES--screen time relationship. Conclusions Lower SES home environments provided more opportunities for sedentary behavior and fewer for PA. Removing electronic media from children’s bedrooms has the potential to reduce disparities in chronic disease risk.
Tandon Pooja S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity is a phenomenon with high burden and high prevalence in the elderly. Our previous research has shown that multimorbidity can be divided into the multimorbidity patterns of 1 anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders (ADS and pain, and 2 cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known, how these patterns are influenced by patient characteristics. The objective of this paper is to analyze the association of socio-demographic variables, and especially socio-economic status with multimorbidity in general and with each multimorbidity pattern. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of 3.189 multimorbid patients aged 65+ randomly selected from 158 GP practices. Data were collected in GP interviews and comprehensive patient interviews. Missing values have been imputed by hot deck imputation based on Gower distance in morbidity and other variables. The association of patient characteristics with the number of chronic conditions is analysed by multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results Multimorbidity in general is associated with age (+0.07 chronic conditions per year, gender (-0.27 conditions for female, education (-0.26 conditions for medium and -0.29 conditions for high level vs. low level and income (-0.27 conditions per logarithmic unit. The pattern of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders shows comparable associations with a higher coefficient for gender (-1.29 conditions for female, while multimorbidity within the pattern of ADS and pain correlates with gender (+0.79 conditions for female, but not with age or socioeconomic status. Conclusions Our study confirms that the morbidity load of multimorbid patients is associated with age, gender and the socioeconomic status of the patients, but there were no effects of living arrangements and marital status. We could also show that the influence of patient characteristics is dependent on the multimorbidity pattern concerned, i.e. there seem to be at least two types of elderly multimorbid patients. First, there are patients with mainly cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, who are more often male, have an older age and a lower socio-economic status. Second, there are patients mainly with ADS and pain-related morbidity, who are more often female and equally distributed across age and socio-economic groups. Trial registration ISRCTN89818205
There is little evidence on the relationship between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and built environment in Brazil, especially in areas of low socioeconomic status. The objective of this study was to describe indicators of built environment score related to LTPA for adults living in a region of low socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 767 adults living in Ermelino Matarazzo district in São Paulo, 2007. The dependent variable was the practice of LTPA (in minut...
Full Text Available In this study, efforts have been made to investigate the level of awareness in science and technology among selected adults in Lagos metropolis. A total of one hundred and twenty-five adults, seventy-eight males and forty-seven females randomly selected, formed the population sample. One composite questionnaire containing a hundred questions on different science areas vis-à-vis: health science, local food science, management and control of home hazards, gadgetry science, environmental science and basic facts in science and technology was the major instrument for collection of raw data. A supplementary interview schedule was drawn up based on the questionnaire and used for clarification of opinions. Both instruments were validated by experts. The data obtained were analyzed using ranking, percentage, correlation and chi-square computations. The major findings were that: all adults, irrespective of their socio-economic class need one form of science and technology or the other for self-realization; the nature of adult science and technology need for self-awareness is not related to one’s occupation and socio-economic status; there is a general desirability among adults of all classes to learn those aspects of science and technology they are deficient in; the majority of adults showed preference for distance education, that is learning through television, radio and newspapers to a more effective teacher-learner interaction or face-to-face learning process. A clarion call has therefore been made for the commencement of adult science and technology education in an informal setting, with the existing adult education centres expanded to accommodate this all important scheme for national development.
Key words: Cognitive potentials; Socio-economic status; Nigerian adults; Science; Technology; Population sample
Résumé: Dans cette étude, des efforts ont été faits pour enquêter sur le niveau de la sensibilisation en science et technologie chez les adultes sélectionnés dans la métropole de Lagos. Une somme de 125 adultes, 78 hommes et 47 femmes sélectionnées au hasard, ont formé l'échantillon de population de cette étude. Un questionnaire contenant une centaine de questions sur des différents domaines scientifiques, y compris la science de la santé, la science de l'alimentation locale, la gestion et le contrôle des dangers à la maison, la science des gadgets, la science de l'environnement et des faits de base en sciences et technologie ont été l'instrument majeur pour collectionner des données de première main. Un calendrier d'entrevue supplémentaire a été établi sur la base du questionnaire et utilisé pour la clarification des opinions. Ces deux instruments ont été validés par des experts. Les données obtenues ont été analysées en utilisant le classement, le pourcentage, la corrélation et le chi-carré calculs. Les conclusions principales étaient les suivantes: tous les adultes, indépendamment de leur classe socio-économique, ont besoin d'une forme de science et technologie pour la réalisation de soi; le besoin de conscience de soi des adultes n'est pas lié à sa profession ou son statut socio-économique; il y a un désir général chez les adultes de toutes les classes pour apprendre des aspects de la science et technologie dans lesquels ils sont déficients; la majorité des adultes a montré leur préférence pour l'enseignement à distance, c'est- à-dire l'apprentissage à travers la télévision, la radio et les journaux, à une interaction plus efficace de l'enseignant-apprenant ou un processus d'apprentissage face-à-face. Un appel a donc été fait pour le commencement de l'éducation en science et technologie des adultes dans un cadre informel, avec les centres existants d'éducation des adultes agrandis afin d'accueillir ce dispositif important pour le développement national.
Mots clés: Potentiels cognitifs; Statutx socio-
M. U. Ojuah
The National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), and the Japan Science and Technology Corporation are jointly developing a distributed database for advanced nuclear materials named Data-Free-Way. The main objective of the development is to share fresh and stimulating information as well as accumulated information for the development of advanced nuclear materials, for the design of structural components, etc. This paper describes the present status of the system and examples of utilization of the system. From such examples, it is demonstrated that the present distributed database system is attractive to evaluate materials performance in the fusion environment.
Tsuji, Hirokazu; Yokoyama, Norio; Fujita, Mitsutane; Kurihara, Yutaka; Kano, Shigeki; Tachi, Yoshiaki; Shimura, Kazuki; Nakajima, Ritsuko; Iwata, Shuichi
Relação entre níveis de fenilalanina, inteligência e condição socioeconômica de pacientes com fenilcetonúria / Relationships between phenylalanine levels, intelligence and socioeconomic status of patients with phenylketonuria
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Avaliar inteligência e relação com concentrações sanguíneas de fenilalanina e condição socioeconômica de fenilcetonúricos entre 6 e 12 anos em tratamento. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e três crianças, classificadas por níveis de fenilalanina e condição socioeconômica, realizaram Wechsler Intelligenc [...] e Scale for Children. Utilizou-se o programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) para analisar níveis de fenilalanina; testes ANOVA para avaliar quociente de inteligência (QI) e níveis de fenilalanina; e regressão logística ordinal para avaliar chances de melhor desempenho em QI. RESULTADOS: Classificaram-se entre limítrofe e nível muito superior em QI total, 90,5% das crianças; em QI verbal, 96,8%; em QI de execução, 92,1%. Tiveram avaliação socioeconômica entre níveis baixo e médio superior, 98,4% das famílias. As chances de apresentar QI superior e médio foram 4,29 vezes maiores nas crianças com controle adequado e 4,03 vezes maiores nas de níveis socioeconômicos melhores. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento preveniu o retardo mental em 90,5% dos pacientes. O controle dos níveis de fenilalanina e melhor nível socioeconômico se associaram aos melhores desempenhos em QI. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To assess intelligence and its relationship with blood phenylalanine concentrations and socioeconomic status in patients with phenylketonuria after 6 to 12 years of treatment. METHODS: Sixty-three children were classified according to phenylalanine levels and socioeconomic status and ass [...] essed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze phenylalanine; ANOVA was used to analyze intelligence quotients (IQ) and phenylalanine levels; and ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the likelihood of higher IQ. RESULTS: The overall IQ scores of 90.5% of the children were within a range from borderline intellectual deficiency to very high intelligence; for verbal IQ this proportion was 96.8% and 92.1% had performance IQ scores within this band. The categories from low to upper-medium socioeconomic status contained 98.4% of patients' families. The likelihood of having medium to high IQ was 4.29 times greater for children with good phenylalanine control and 4.03 greater for those from higher socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment prevented mental retardation in 90.5% of the patients. Control of phenylalanine levels and higher socioeconomic status were associated with higher IQ scores.
Isabel Pimenta Spínola, Castro; Juliana Martins, Borges; Heloísa Alves, Chagas; Jacqueline, Tibúrcio; Ana Lúcia Pimenta, Starling; Marcos José Burle de, Aguiar.
Relação entre níveis de fenilalanina, inteligência e condição socioeconômica de pacientes com fenilcetonúria Relationships between phenylalanine levels, intelligence and socioeconomic status of patients with phenylketonuria
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar inteligência e relação com concentrações sanguíneas de fenilalanina e condição socioeconômica de fenilcetonúricos entre 6 e 12 anos em tratamento. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e três crianças, classificadas por níveis de fenilalanina e condição socioeconômica, realizaram Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Utilizou-se o programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS para analisar níveis de fenilalanina; testes ANOVA para avaliar quociente de inteligência (QI e níveis de fenilalanina; e regressão logística ordinal para avaliar chances de melhor desempenho em QI. RESULTADOS: Classificaram-se entre limítrofe e nível muito superior em QI total, 90,5% das crianças; em QI verbal, 96,8%; em QI de execução, 92,1%. Tiveram avaliação socioeconômica entre níveis baixo e médio superior, 98,4% das famílias. As chances de apresentar QI superior e médio foram 4,29 vezes maiores nas crianças com controle adequado e 4,03 vezes maiores nas de níveis socioeconômicos melhores. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento preveniu o retardo mental em 90,5% dos pacientes. O controle dos níveis de fenilalanina e melhor nível socioeconômico se associaram aos melhores desempenhos em QI.OBJECTIVES: To assess intelligence and its relationship with blood phenylalanine concentrations and socioeconomic status in patients with phenylketonuria after 6 to 12 years of treatment. METHODS: Sixty-three children were classified according to phenylalanine levels and socioeconomic status and assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS was used to analyze phenylalanine; ANOVA was used to analyze intelligence quotients (IQ and phenylalanine levels; and ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the likelihood of higher IQ. RESULTS: The overall IQ scores of 90.5% of the children were within a range from borderline intellectual deficiency to very high intelligence; for verbal IQ this proportion was 96.8% and 92.1% had performance IQ scores within this band. The categories from low to upper-medium socioeconomic status contained 98.4% of patients' families. The likelihood of having medium to high IQ was 4.29 times greater for children with good phenylalanine control and 4.03 greater for those from higher socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment prevented mental retardation in 90.5% of the patients. Control of phenylalanine levels and higher socioeconomic status were associated with higher IQ scores.
Isabel Pimenta Spínola Castro
Studies suggest that students have difficulty connecting science to their own lives (Lee & Fradd, 1998; Aikenhead, 1996). This difficulty results in a decline in students' attitudes toward science, leading to low science achievement. These factors result in fewer students interested in careers related to science, specifically for urban, minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that a ten day informal learning immersion science camp had on the participants, both urban, low-socioeconomic status middle school students and teacher-leaders. The students were incoming seventh grade students involved in a community-based scholar program designed to recruit and support socioeconomically disadvantaged, academically talented students. The teacher-leaders were professional educators working toward an advanced degree. This ten day camp included seven visits to different sites and complementary classroom-based activities. The purpose of the camp was to immerse the students in informal learning environments that affect their daily lives. Students and teacher-leaders visited facilities that provide public utility services (i.e. power plant, sewage treatment facility, and water company), zoo, large commercial cave system, planetarium, university based electrooptics and nanotechnology center, and forest and arboretum. These site visits were supported by activities that were provided by teacher-leaders. A model used as a framework for studying learning in the context of this ten day camp as Falk and Dierking's (2000) Contextual Model for Learning. This model described three basic intersecting elements that contributed to learning within the given context. The three contexts (personal, sociocultural, and physical) intersect affecting the learning that takes place. A mixed methodology design was employed to determine the impact of the camp on students' content knowledge and attitudes toward science. Qualitative data were collected to determine the impact of the camp on teacher-leaders' content knowledge and pedagogy. A variety of data sources were used including data collected before, during, and immediately following the camp as well as data collected several months after the conclusion of the camp. Results of the study indicated that both students and teacher-leaders were positively impacted by their experience at the camp. Data from the content assessments, interviews, and student journals indicate that students' content knowledge was enhanced and expanded through the learning of factual knowledge as well as understanding of the importance of broad scientific processes. Through their new experiences, students developed an awareness of the natural world and a foundation for future learning. Students also developed an awareness of science as it applies to their own lives. Data from students' letters to themselves, student interviews, and parent focus groups indicated that students' attitudes toward science were positively impacted through development of an increased resource appreciation, positive social experiences, and experiential sharing with others. Teacher-leader experiences with the camp also had positive results. Teacher-leaders entered the camp with a variety of unique personal contexts, and in spite of this variability each reported that this was a value-added experience for their teaching. These personal contexts helped to enhance the sociocultural context which provided a rich environment to support teacher-leader learning. Among the pedagogical impacts, teacher-leaders expressed enhanced teaching capacity through acquisition of: new classroom activities; new connections among science content; new stories and experiences to share with future classes; and new contexts for situating the understanding of science principles. Along with the positive impacts, teacher-leaders also identified and articulated several barriers to implementing site visits in their own classrooms. This camp is unique in that it is an immersion experience within informal learning contexts where seven sites were visited with
Votaw, Nikki L.
Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women), the relationships between six risk behavio...
Fukuda Yoshiharu; Nakamura Keiko; Takano Takehito
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. Methods A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically examined for presence of caries lesions (DMFT and dmft index, dental trauma, enamel defects, periodontal status (presence/absence of bleeding, dental treatment and orthodontic treatment needs (DAI. The SiC index was calculated. The participants were asked to complete the Brazilian version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 and a questionnaire about home environment. Questions were asked about the presence of general diseases and children's self-perception of their general and oral health status. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to their parents inquiring about their socioeconomic status (family income, parents' education level, home ownership and perceptions about the general and oral health of their school-aged children. The chi-square test was used for comparisons between proportions. Poisson's regression was used for multivariate analysis with adjustment for variances. Results Univariate analysis revealed that school type, monthly family income, mother's education, family structure, number of siblings, use of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs in the family, parents' perception of oral health of schoolchildren, schoolchildren's self perception their general and oral health, orthodontic treatment needs were significantly associated with poor OHRQoL (p Conclusions It was concluded that the clinical, socioeconomic and home environment factors evaluated exerted a negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren, demonstrating the importance of health managers addressing all these factors when planning oral health promotion interventions for this population.
Paula Janice S
Full Text Available Post-secondary education is often seen as an important factor for individual success and is positively correlated with factors ranging from income to happiness. Unfortunately, access to higher-education varies greatly in the United States. In this paper, I examine the relationship between socioeconomic status and the post-secondary plans of current high-school students and recent high-school graduates. Through in-depth interviews, I explore the relationship between students’ socioeconomic backgrounds and their educational aspirations of students from Bay City School District in Michigan, USA. I conclude that both cultural and economic factors combine to influence the range of decisions that students make, not simply about whether or not to pursue post-secondary education, but also about how and where to pursue that education.
Brian J. Thomas
Full Text Available Abstract Council tax valuation bands (CTVBs are a categorisation of household property value in Great Britain. The aim of the study was to assess the CTVB as a measure of socio-economic status by comparing the strength of the associations between selected health and lifestyle outcomes and CTVBs with two measures of socio-economic status: the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC and the 2001 UK census-based Townsend deprivation index. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data on 12,092 respondents (adjusted response 62.7% to the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study, a postal questionnaire survey undertaken in Caerphilly county borough, south-east Wales, UK. The CTVB was assigned to each individual by matching the sampling frame to the local authority council tax register. Crude and age-gender adjusted odds ratios for each category of CTVB, NS-SEC and fifth of the ward distribution of Townsend scores were estimated for smoking, poor diet, obesity, and limiting long-term illness using logistic regression. Mean mental (MCS and physical (PCS component summary scores of the Short-Form SF-36 health status questionnaire were estimated in general linear models. Results There were significant trends in odds ratios across the CTVB categories for all outcomes, most marked for smoking and mental and physical health status. The adjusted odds ratio for being a smoker in the lowest versus highest CTVB category was 3.80 (95% CI: 3.06, 4.71, compared to 3.00 (95% CI: 2.30, 3.90 for the NS-SEC 'never worked and long-term unemployed' versus 'higher managerial and professional' categories, and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.42, 1.83 for the most deprived versus the least deprived Townsend fifth. The difference in adjusted mean MCS scores was 5.9 points on the scale for CTVB, 9.2 for NS-SEC and 3.2 for the Townsend score. The values for the adjusted mean PCS scores were 6.3 points for CTVB, 11.3 for NS-SEC, and 2.5 for the Townsend score. Conclusion CTVBs assigned to individuals were strongly associated with the health and lifestyle outcomes modelled in this study. CTVBs are readily available for all residential properties and deserve further consideration as a proxy for socio-economic status in epidemiological studies in Great Britain.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between urbanicity and adolescent health is a critical issue for which little empirical evidence has been reported. Although an association has been suggested, a dichotomous rural versus urban comparison may not succeed in identifying differences between adolescent contexts. This study aims to assess the influence of locality size on risk behaviors in a national sample of young Mexicans living in low-income households, while considering the moderating effect of socioeconomic status (SES. Methods This is a secondary analysis of three national surveys of low-income households in Mexico in different settings: rural, semi-urban and urban areas. We analyzed risk behaviors in 15-21-year-olds and their potential relation to urbanicity. The risk behaviors explored were: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual initiation and condom use. The adolescents' localities of residence were classified according to the number of inhabitants in each locality. We used a logistical model to identify an association between locality size and risk behaviors, including an interaction term with SES. Results The final sample included 17,974 adolescents from 704 localities in Mexico. Locality size was associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, showing a similar effect throughout all SES levels: the larger the size of the locality, the lower the risk of consuming tobacco or alcohol compared with rural settings. The effect of locality size on sexual behavior was more complex. The odds of adolescent condom use were higher in larger localities only among adolescents in the lowest SES levels. We found no statically significant association between locality size and sexual initiation. Conclusions The results suggest that in this sample of adolescents from low-income areas in Mexico, risk behaviors are related to locality size (number of inhabitants. Furthermore, for condom use, this relation is moderated by SES. Such heterogeneity suggests the need for more detailed analyses of both the effects of urbanicity on behavior, and the responses--which are also heterogeneous--required to address this situation.
Gutiérrez Juan Pablo
Full Text Available Aim: To study the socio-economic status, horse feeding and management adopted by horse owners of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: Primary data was collected through specially structured proforma by personal interview method from the horse owners of Hanumangarh (50, Churu (42, Jhunjhunu (30 and Jalore (40 districts of Rajasthan, India. Results: The district (Churu and Jhunjhunu is mostly rain fed, Hanumangarh is canal-irrigated whereas Jalore is tube well irrigated. Majority of respondents engaged in horse rearing were of other backward class (OBC & general category. Literacy (% among the horse owners was more than 80% in Hanumangarh and Jhunjhunu districts, whereas it was less than 50% in Churu and Jalore districts. Majority of the respondents were maintaining other livestock along with the horses. The average dry roughages provided were 4.82±0.22, 8.143±0.348, 5.267±0.69 and 6.105±0.196kg per horse in Hanumangarh, Churu, Jhunjhunu and Jalore, respectively. The average concentrate offered was 2.81±0.138, 2.452±0.145, 2.933±0.160 and 1.950±0.200kg per horse in Hanumangarh, Churu, Jhunjhunu and Jalore, respectively. It was observed that horse owners were providing green fodder, dry roughages and concentrate depending up on the availability/production of these items in that region. Majority of horse owners were allowing covering of estrus mares between 3rd and 5th day of estrus. Paucity of quality stallions for covering the mares was observed throughout the area surveyed. The respondents had to pay between Rs. 1100/- to 5100/- as covering fee with no guarantee of conception. Most of mares were rebred during foal heat and majority of the respondents were not aware about the symptoms of estrus mare. Vaccination, insurance and use of disinfectants were not adopted in the study indicating the least awareness among the horse owners about the importance of vaccination, insurance and disinfectants. Conclusion: Horses were being maintained for ceremonial purposes and breeding, their feeding in terms of fodder (green & dry and concentrate were observed area specific and were fulfilling the minimum nutrient requirements. There was paucity of true to breed stallions in the areas studied. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 470-475
P. A. Bala
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous literature has shown a divergence by age in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and substance use: adolescents with low SES are more likely to engage in substance use, as are adults with high SES. However, there is growing evidence that adolescents with high SES are also at high risk for substance abuse. The objective of this study is to examine this relationship longitudinally, that is, whether wealthier adolescents are more likely than those with lower SES to engage in substance use in early adulthood. Methods The study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (AddHealth, a longitudinal, nationally-representative survey of secondary school students in the United States. Logistic regression models were analyzed examining the relationship between adolescent SES (measured by parental education and income and substance use in adulthood, controlling for substance use in adolescence and other covariates. Results Higher parental education is associated with higher rates of binge drinking, marijuana and cocaine use in early adulthood. Higher parental income is associated with higher rates of binge drinking and marijuana use. No statistically significant results are found for crystal methamphetamine or other drug use. Results are not sensitive to the inclusion of college attendance by young adulthood as a sensitivity analysis. However, when stratifying by race, results are consistent for white non-Hispanics, but no statistically significant results are found for non-whites. This may be a reflection of the smaller sample size of non-whites, but may also reflect that these trends are driven primarily by white non-Hispanics. Conclusions Previous research shows numerous problems associated with substance use in young adults, including problems in school, decreased employment, increases in convictions of driving under the influence (DUI and accidental deaths. Much of the previous literature is focused on lower SES populations. Therefore, it is possible that teachers, parents and school administrators in wealthier schools may not perceive as great to address substance abuse treatment in their schools. This study can inform teachers, parents, school administrators and program officials of the need for addressing drug abuse prevention activities to this population of students.
Humensky Jennifer L
Full Text Available The relationship between home-based environment factors and the academic performance of students in selected secondary schools within a local government area in Kwara State is investigated. Samples were obtained with one hundred and eighty (180 students randomly selected from three secondary schools. The four factors that were examined and statistically analyses were: parental socio-economic background, parental educational background, parental educational qualification and students’ health statuses. Diverse statistical tests were performed on the various data collected to establish statistical significance of the effects on students’ academic performance. Parental socio-economic statuses and parental educational background did not have significance effect on the academic performance of the students. However, the parental educational qualification and health statuses of the students were identified tom have statistical significant effect o the academic performance of the students. The two variables that indicated significant influence do reflect nature of the student’ home environment and played notable role in the academic achievement of the respondents. Government could intervene to raise level of academic achievement among students in rural area.
Objectives: The main aim of the current study is to examine the influence of socio-economic status and environmental factors on serologically diagnosed Japanese encephalitis cases in the state of West Bengal, India during 2005-2010. Materials and methods: A total of 648 blood/CSF specimens were collected and/or referred from the suspected AES cases, admitted in the different medical colleges and hospitals of the state during the year of 2005-2010. These specimens were subjected to JE Mac ELIS...
Arindam Sarkar; Debjani Taraphdar; Mukhopadhyay, Bansi B.; Manish Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra K.; Shyamalendu Chatterjee
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Relacionar perímetro abdominal y condición socioeconómica con presión arterial (PA) en comunidad urbana de Concepción. Métodos: Se midió el perímetro abdominal (PeA) de 8472 residentes mayores de 15 años de edad, proporcionados por edad, género y nivel socioeconómico. La PA fue medida con [...] normas estandarizadas, realizando dos visitas en diferentes días, la segunda si la PA era mayor de 140/90 mm Hg. Los Pe A se distribuyeron en cuartiles, relacionando cada cuartil con los respectivos promedios de presión sistólica y diastólica y se establecieron coeficientes de correlación lineal mediante "r" de Pearson entre PeA y PA. Además, se estableció la frecuencia de cada cuartil de Pe A por nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: Los Pea tuvieron la siguiente distribución (cm): 1er cuartil, 96. La prevalencia de hipertensión para niveles socioeconómicos alto, medio y bajo fue 17,9%, 19,5% y 24,5%, respectivamente. La PA promedio (mmHg) en hombres y en mujeres del 1er cuartil de PeA fue 112 y 109; en el 2º cuartil 118 y 118; en el 3er cuartil 123 y 122 y en el 4º cuartil 129 y 129, respectivamente. Los coeficientes de correlación entre PeA y presión sistólica y presión diastólica resultaron significativos en ambos géneros: r = 0,343, p Abstract in english Aim: To correlate abdominal circumference (AC) and socio-economic status with blood pressure( BP) in an urban community of Concepción, Chile Methods: AC was measured in 8472 subjects above 15years of age, stratified by age, gender and socio-economic status. BP was measured by standard procedures, wi [...] th a repeat recording when the initial valué was > 140/90mmHg. BP was compared in quartiles of abdominal circumference and according to socio-economic status. Pearson "r" was used to correlate BP and AC Results: Cut points for quartiles of AC were 78, 87, and 96 cm. Prevalence of hypertension in high, médium and low socio-economic status was 17.9%, 19.5% and 24.5%, respectively Mean systolic BP was 112 - 109 mmHg (males - females) in the first AC quartile, 118 - 118, 123-122 and 129-129 in the second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively. A significant correlation between AC and BP (systolic and diastolic) was observed in both genders (r 0.345 and 0.281 for males and females, respectively, p
Eduardo, Fasce H; Fabrizio, Fasce V; Hernán, Zarate M; Ivone, Campos C; Maritza, Flores O; Pilar, Ibáñez G.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Potential links between eczema and obstructive pulmonary diseases have been postulated. Previously we have reported the prevalence of upper and lower respiratory diseases and the relation to environmental and socio-economic factors in a randomly selected adult population in southern Sweden using a postal questionnaire. In the present study we wanted to analyse the prevalence of eczema and its relation to socio-economic status, heredity factors and environmental factors in an adult population. Methods Self-reported eczema, upper and lower respiratory symptoms, asthma and Chronic Bronchitis Emphysema (CBE were examined in 12,071 adults, aged 20–59 years, living in southern Sweden by using a postal questionnaire. There were comparable numbers of males and females in all age groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis (forward conditional was applied to estimate the association between the proposed risk factors (heredity, self-reported asthma and CBE, nasal symptoms, socio-economic group, environmental factors, age, gender and smoking habits and self-reported eczema. Results The response rate was 70.1%. In all, 1240 subjects (14.6% stated that they had eczema. In all age cohorts self-reported eczema was more frequently reported by women than by men (p Conclusions In this epidemiological study we see that self-reported eczema is a common disease in an adult population especially among women. Eczema seems to be linked to environment factors, obstructive pulmonary diseases and rhinitis.
Full Text Available The current study focuses on the impact of parent’s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child’s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance- based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample comprised 10 students from Year Two, 10 students from Year Three, 10 students from Year Four and 10 students from Year Five. Those were the high achievement students identified based on the previous final year school examination results. Questionnaires were used by the researcher to obtain quantitative data related to the parent’s socioeconomic background and their involvement strategies in their children’s education at home from the students’ parent. In addition, in-depth interviews with twenty students, that is, five students from each Year were conducted to gather information on their parent’s involvement. The findings of this study indicate that most parents are from a higher socioeconomic background and they show a high degree of involvement in most of the involvement strategies at home to ensure their child’s educational success. Moreover, the economic and academic capital among the middle-class parents serve to enhance their understanding and knowledge on the actual values that need to be placed on their child’s education. As a result, these children gain in terms of good skills, behaviour and values, all of which are crucial to their academic success.
Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay
Utilizes language data from the 1940 Census Public Law Sample to measure the socioeconomic impact of a foreign mother tongue by comparing second-generation Germans who grew up speaking German and English, respectively. Results show that the disadvantages of a foreign mother tongue proved to be negligible for this group. (GR)
Kamphoefner, Walter D.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir as relações entre percepção da imagem corporal e fatores socioeconômicos como renda, grau de escolaridade e etnia em adolescentes. FONTES DE DADOS: Artigos selecionados nas bases PubMed e SciELO, sem limite de data de publicação, com amostras de adolescentes, nos idiomas inglês, espanhol, português ou francês, utilizando os descritores: "percepção da imagem corporal", "nível socioeconômico" e "adolescentes". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A influência do contexto socioeconômico na percepção da imagem corporal e satisfação/insatisfação com o corpo é tema relevante no entendimento da saúde dos adolescentes. Identificou-se que as relações entre imagem corporal e nível socioeconômico são complexas e os resultados dos estudos publicados não são conclusivos. As principais tendências observadas foram: jovens norte-americanos de classe baixa apresentaram maior chance de serem obesos ao contrário dos brasileiros; moças e rapazes apresentaram comportamentos diferenciados na percepção da imagem corporal, independentemente da etnia e do nível socioeconômico; moças brancas apresentaram maior insatisfação com a imagem corporal e maior busca por dietas do que moças negras, as quais parecem sofrer menos influência dos padrões de beleza em voga; jovens de menor nível socioeconômico apresentaram uma tendência a desejarem corpos maiores. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se amostras estrangeiras, houve uma tendência de maiores índices de insatisfação com o corpo em adolescentes de classe socioeconômica mais privilegiada. Em amostras brasileiras, análises sobre o assunto são escassas e pesquisas são necessárias, especialmente pelo fato de a população estar passando por modificações tanto econômicas como nutricionais.OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationships between body image perceptions and socioeconomic factors such as income, level of education, and ethnicity among adolescents. DATA SOURCE: Articles were selected from PubMed and SciELO databases, involving adolescents, without limits of publication dates, in English, Spanish, Portuguese, or French, with the following keywords: "body image perception", "socioeconomic status", and "adolescents". DATA SYNTHESIS: The influence of the socioeconomic context upon body image perceptions and satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body is a relevant subject in understanding adolescent's health. This study identified that relationships between body image and socioeconomic levels are complex and the results of published studies are not conclusive. The main findings are: North-American lower class youths present greater chances for obesity, but this is not true in Brazil; girls and boys have different behaviors concerning body image perceptions, despite ethnicity or socioeconomic status; Caucasian girls show more dissatisfaction with their body images and greater search for diets than African American girls, who seem to suffer less influence of the current beauty patterns; youth of lower socioeconomic status presents a tendency to desire larger bodies. CONCLUSIONS: Considering foreign samples, there was a tendency for greater levels of dissatisfaction with the body among adolescents of higher socioeconomic classes. In Brazilian samples, studies about this subject are scarce and further research is needed, especially because Brazilian population is experiencing economical and nutritional modifications.
Érico Felden Pereira
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Discutir as relações entre percepção da imagem corporal e fatores socioeconômicos como renda, grau de escolaridade e etnia em adolescentes. FONTES DE DADOS: Artigos selecionados nas bases PubMed e SciELO, sem limite de data de publicação, com amostras de adolescentes, nos idiomas inglês, e [...] spanhol, português ou francês, utilizando os descritores: "percepção da imagem corporal", "nível socioeconômico" e "adolescentes". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A influência do contexto socioeconômico na percepção da imagem corporal e satisfação/insatisfação com o corpo é tema relevante no entendimento da saúde dos adolescentes. Identificou-se que as relações entre imagem corporal e nível socioeconômico são complexas e os resultados dos estudos publicados não são conclusivos. As principais tendências observadas foram: jovens norte-americanos de classe baixa apresentaram maior chance de serem obesos ao contrário dos brasileiros; moças e rapazes apresentaram comportamentos diferenciados na percepção da imagem corporal, independentemente da etnia e do nível socioeconômico; moças brancas apresentaram maior insatisfação com a imagem corporal e maior busca por dietas do que moças negras, as quais parecem sofrer menos influência dos padrões de beleza em voga; jovens de menor nível socioeconômico apresentaram uma tendência a desejarem corpos maiores. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se amostras estrangeiras, houve uma tendência de maiores índices de insatisfação com o corpo em adolescentes de classe socioeconômica mais privilegiada. Em amostras brasileiras, análises sobre o assunto são escassas e pesquisas são necessárias, especialmente pelo fato de a população estar passando por modificações tanto econômicas como nutricionais. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationships between body image perceptions and socioeconomic factors such as income, level of education, and ethnicity among adolescents. DATA SOURCE: Articles were selected from PubMed and SciELO databases, involving adolescents, without limits of publication dates, in E [...] nglish, Spanish, Portuguese, or French, with the following keywords: "body image perception", "socioeconomic status", and "adolescents". DATA SYNTHESIS: The influence of the socioeconomic context upon body image perceptions and satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body is a relevant subject in understanding adolescent's health. This study identified that relationships between body image and socioeconomic levels are complex and the results of published studies are not conclusive. The main findings are: North-American lower class youths present greater chances for obesity, but this is not true in Brazil; girls and boys have different behaviors concerning body image perceptions, despite ethnicity or socioeconomic status; Caucasian girls show more dissatisfaction with their body images and greater search for diets than African American girls, who seem to suffer less influence of the current beauty patterns; youth of lower socioeconomic status presents a tendency to desire larger bodies. CONCLUSIONS: Considering foreign samples, there was a tendency for greater levels of dissatisfaction with the body among adolescents of higher socioeconomic classes. In Brazilian samples, studies about this subject are scarce and further research is needed, especially because Brazilian population is experiencing economical and nutritional modifications.
Pereira, Érico Felden; Teixeira, Clarissa Stefani; Gattiboni, Bruna Dalcin; Bevilacqua, Lidiane Amanda; Confortin, Susana Cararo; Silva, Tatiana Rodrigues da.
The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and the suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status of 18-month-old toddlers was investigated using a population-based sample in Japan, which has a universal healthcare system and a mandatory health checkup system for toddlers. Questionnaires including SES measurements and modified checklist for autism in toddlers were mailed to all families with 18-month-old toddlers in Chiba, a city near Tokyo (N = 6,061; response rate: 64 %). The results of logistic regression analysis (which were adjusted for potential confounders) indicated that low maternal education, but not paternal education or family income, were associated with having suspected ASD offspring. Lower maternal education was associated with an increased risk of autistic traits in Japan. PMID:24202730
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a great variability in licit prescription drug use in the population and among patients. Factors other than purely medical ones have proven to be of importance for the prescribing of licit drugs. For example, individuals with a high age, female gender and low socioeconomic status are more likely to use licit prescription drugs. However, these results have not been adjusted for multi-morbidity level. In this study we investigate the odds of using licit prescription drugs among individuals in the population and the rate of licit prescription drug use among patients depending on gender, age and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multi-morbidity level. Methods The study was carried out on the total population aged 20?years or older in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The Johns Hopkins ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for the individual level of multi-morbidity in the population to which we have related the odds ratio for individuals and incidence rate ratio (IRR for patients of using licit prescription drugs, defined daily doses (DDDs and total costs of licit prescription drugs after adjusting for age, gender and socioeconomic factors (educational and income level. Results After adjustment for multi-morbidity level male individuals had less than half the odds of using licit prescription drugs (OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.40-0.42 compared to female individuals. Among the patients, males had higher total costs (IRR 1.14 (95% CI 1.13-1.15. Individuals above 80?years had nine times the odds of using licit prescription drugs (OR 9.09 (95% CI 8.33-10.00 despite adjustment for multi-morbidity. Patients in the highest education and income level had the lowest DDDs (IRR 0.78 (95% CI 0.76-0.80, IRR 0.73 (95% CI 0.71-0.74 after adjustment for multi-morbidity level. Conclusions This paper shows that there is a great variability in licit prescription drug use associated with gender, age and socioeconomic status, which is not dependent on level of multi-morbidity.
Objectives To identify and evaluate the trend of meal-skipping rates among Korean adolescents with their contributing causes and the influence of household income level on meal skipping. Methods Using 2008, 2010, and 2012 data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 222 662 students, a cross-sectional study with subgroup analysis was performed. We calculated odds ratios for skipping each meal 5 or more times in a week by household socio-economic status using a multiple logistic regression model. The secular change in the meal-skipping rates by the students' family affluence scale was analyzed by comparing the meal-skipping students within each subgroup and odds ratios for the same event over time. Results Through 2008 to 2012, most of the meal-skipping rates generally showed a continuous increase or were almost unchanged in both sexes, except for breakfast skipping in several subgroups. Students in low-income households not living with both parents had the highest meal-skipping rates and odds ratios for frequent meal skipping. In a time-series subgroup analysis, the overall odds ratios for the same event increased during 2008 to 2012, with a slight reduction in the gap between low and higher income levels with regard to meal skipping during 2010 to 2012. Conclusions Household socio-economic status and several other factors had a significant influence on Korean adolescent meal-skipping rates. Although the gap in eating behavior associated with household socio-economic differences is currently decreasing, further study and appropriate interventions are needed.
Hong, Seri; Bae, Hong Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo
Full Text Available Due to the importance of initial schooling in the later reading and writing learning development, in this descriptive research, it is identified the maturity level of children literacy who attend the grade transition in three educational institutions in different socio-economic statuses of Barranquilla. The evaluation was conducted to 62 children (the entire population of the study. This was based, in one hand, on the maturity model in the application of ABC Filho L. Test, which assesses the maturity by means of 8 subtests that reference the necessary components for the acquisition of reading and writing. On the other hand, and from a constructivist perspective, it was appreciated the approach and recognition that children show while they face literacy through the application of a technique called “Hypothesis Testing” based on Teberosky and Ferreiro’s theoretical assumptions. The results indicate that half of the study population is at a medium level of literacy maturity and, between the third and fourth level of alphabetic writing system acquisition. In these results, children of institutions of middle and high socio-economic status predominated (45%.
Aim: To examine young peopleâ??s main motive for pre-drinking in the United Kingdom, how much they drink on an event-specific night out, and whether motives or socioeconomic status (particularly their income level) explain the alcohol quantities they drink. Methods: Multilevel logit and poisson models were used on a survey of 628 people (aged 18-35) conducted on-site in 26 bars, clubs and pubs in four cities and towns. Results: Young males drink on average 9.8 and females 7.4 standard units of alcohol before a night out. Saving money is the most prevalent motive for pre-drinking. Although lower income levels cannot explain whether a young person will pre-drink on an event-specific night out, young peopleâ??s income level and their motives explain the quantities they consume. Lower-earning males who pre-drank to save money consumed larger quantities of alcohol at home and lower-earning females also pre-drank larger quantities either because they wanted to get out of control or because they wanted to be social. Conclusions: Prevention strategies likely to be effective in reducing the alcohol quantities that young people pre-drink should take into account both socioeconomic status and motives for pre-drinking.
Ã?stergaard, Jeanette; Andrade, Stefan Bastholm
Full Text Available Studies show that the association between socio-economic status (SES and self-rated health (SRH varies in different countries, however there are not many country-comparisons that examine this relationship over time. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of three SES measures on SRH in 29 countries according to findings in European Social Surveys (2002–2008, in order to study how socio-economic inequalities can vary our subjective state of health. In line with previous studies, income inequalities seem to be greater not only in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian countries, but especially in Eastern European countries. The impact of education is greater in Southern countries, and this effect is similar in Eastern and Scandinavian countries, although occupational status does not produce significant differences in southern countries. This study shows the general relevance of socio-educational factors on SRH. Individual economic conditions are obviously a basic factor contributing to a good state of health, but education could be even more relevant to preserve it. In this sense, policies should not only aim at reducing income inequalities, but should also further the education of people who are in risk of social exclusion.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of subpopulations at high risk of overweight and obesity is crucial for prevention and management of obesity in different socioeconomic status (SES categories. The objective of the study was to describe disparities in the prevalence of overweight and obesity across socioeconomic status (SES groups in 18–74 year-old French adults. Methods Analyses were based on a multistage stratified random sample of non-institutionalized adults aged 18–74-years-old from the French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS, a cross-sectional national survey carried out in 2006/2007. Collected data included measured anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference (WC, demographic and SES data (occupation, education and frequency of holiday trips as a marker of family income. SES factors associated with overweight (BMI ? 25 and central obesity (WC above gender-specific references were identified using multiple logistic regression. Results Almost half (49.3% of French adults were overweight or obese and 16.9% were obese. In men, the risk of overall overweight or obesity was associated with occupation (p -3 and p -3 and frequency of holiday trips (respectively p -3. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be similar to that of several neighbouring western European countries, and lower than the UK and eastern Europe. Risk of being overweight or obese varied across SES groups both in men and women, but associations were different between men and women, indicating differing determinants.
In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998
Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe
Dental pain prevalence and association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in schoolchildren, Southern Brazil, 2002 Prevalência de dor de dente e associação com cárie e condições socioeconômicas em escolares, sul do Brasil, 2002
The objective of this study was to assess the relation between dental pain, dental caries and socioeconomic status among 12- and 13-year-old schoolchildren enrolled in a public school in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil in 2002. This study was a cross-sectional study involving 181 schoolchildren. Dental pain experience was the dependend variable analyzed. Socioeconomic data of the children's families were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMF...
Lincon Hideo Nomura; João Luiz Dornelles Bastos; Marco Aurélio Peres
Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil Dor de dente e sua relação com condições sócio-econômicas e cárie dentária em adultos jovens do sexo masculino no Sul do Brasil
The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414) selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registere...
In a gigantic step towards establishing Jordan's nuclear power program, Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) is building the first nuclear research and test reactor in the Kingdom. The new reactor will serve as the focal point for Jordan Center for Nuclear Research (JCNR), a comprehensive state of the art nuclear center not only for Jordan but for the whole region, the center will include in addition to the reactor a radioisotopes production plant, a nuclear fuel fabrication plant, a cold neutron source (CNS), a radioactive waste treatment facility, and education and training center. The JRTR reactor is the only research reactor new build worldwide in 2010, it is a 5 MW light water open pool multipurpose reactor, The reactor core is composed of 18 fuel assemblies, MTR plate type, with 19.75% enriched uranium silicide (U3Si2) in an aluminum matrix. It is reflected on all sides by beryllium and graphite blocks. Reactor power is upgradable to 10 MW with a maximum thermal flux of 1.45x1014 cm-2s-1. The reactor reactivity is controlled by four Hafnium Control Absorber Rods (CAR). Jordan Center for Nuclear Research is located in Ramtha city, it is owned by Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC), and is contracted to Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Daewoo E and C. The JCNR project is a 56 months EPC fixed price contract for the design engineering, construction, and commissioning the JCNR reactor, and other nuclear facilities. The project presents many challenges for both the owner and the contractor, being the first nuclear reactor for Jordan, and the first nuclear export for Korea. The driving forces, present status and the way ahead will be presented in this paper. (author)
Background: The onset of many chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes can be delayed or prevented by changes in diet, physical activity and obesity. Known predictors of successful behaviour change include psychosocial factors such as selfefficacy, action and coping planning, and social support. However, gender and socioeconomic differences in these psychosocial mechanisms underlying health behaviour change have not been examined, despite well-documented sociodemographic differences in lifest...
Since the early 1800s, studies have consistently demonstrated that people higher in the socioeconomic hierarchy live longer than people of lower rank. One hypothesis for the persistence of this association is that people who are relatively better off are more able to avoid risks by adopting currently available protective strategies. In a partial test of this idea, the social distributions of two cancer screening tests—Pap smears and mammography—were examined. A review of the literature an...
Link, Bruce G.; Northridge, Mary E.; Phelan, Jo C.; Ganz, Michael L.
Full Text Available We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI, the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.
James N. Blignaut
Nutritional status of urban schoolchildren of high and low socioeconomic status in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala Estado nutricional de escolares urbanos de niveles socioeconómicos alto y bajo en Quetzaltenango, Guatemala
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing in children in many developing countries, increasing chronic disease risk. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren 8 to 10 years old who were of high or low socioeconomic status (SES in Quetzaltenango, which is the second largest city in Guatemala METHODS: Between April and June 2005 we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 583 children in private and public elementary schools, in which we measured height and weight. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 2000 height-for-age z-scores, weight-for-age z-scores, and body mass index-for-age centiles were used to define stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity. RESULTS: Mean height, weight, and body mass index were significantly higher in the 327 children of high SES than in the 256 children of low SES, across sexes and age groups. The prevalence of stunting was significantly higher in low-SES children than in high-SES ones (27.0% vs. 7.3%, P OBJETIVO: En muchos países en desarrollo se elevan las prevalencias de sobrepeso y de obesidad en niños, con el incremento del riesgo de enfermedades crónicas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las prevalencias de retraso en el crecimiento, peso bajo, sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de 8 a 10 años de edad de niveles socioeconómicos (NSE alto o bajo en Quetzaltenango, la segunda mayor ciudad de Guatemala. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal entre abril y junio de 2005 en el que se midió el peso y la talla de 583 niños de escuelas primarias privadas y públicas. Para evaluar el retraso en el crecimiento, el peso bajo, el sobrepeso y la obesidad se utilizaron como referencias las puntuaciones z de la talla para la edad y del peso para la edad y los centiles de los índices de masa corporal para la edad, propuestos por los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de las Enfermedades (CDC de los Estados Unidos de América en 2000. RESULTADOS: La talla, el peso y el índice de masa corporal medios fueron significativamente mayores en los 327 niños de NSE alto que en los 256 niños de NSE bajo en todos los grupos de edad y sexo. La prevalencia de retraso en el crecimiento fue significativamente mayor en los niños con NSE bajo que en los de NSE alto (27,0% frente a 7,3%; P < 0,01, al igual que la prevalencia de peso bajo (14,1% frente a 4,6%, P < 0,01. En contraste, la prevalencia de sobrepeso fue mayor en los niños con NSE alto que en los de NSE bajo (17,7% frente a 10,5%, P < 0,01, al igual que la prevalencia de obesidad (14,4% frente a 2,3%, P < 0,01. Las prevalencias de retraso en el crecimiento en los niños de NSE bajo y de sobrepeso y obesidad en los de NSE alto fueron mucho mayores que las referencias establecidas por los CDC en el año 2000. CONCLUSIONES: Se encontraron elevadas prevalencias de retraso en el crecimiento y de peso corporal excesivo en esta población urbana de Guatemala, con notables contrastes entre las clases sociales. La obesidad en los niños de familias con ingresos elevados indica que la ciudad está experimentando la transición nutricional, con las implicaciones que con lleva para los riesgos de enfermedades crónicas en el futuro. Se requieren intervenciones nutricionales y de salud para reducir esos riesgos.
Iris F. Groeneveld
Two hundred and thirty-seven women, undergoing multimodality treatment for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), were retrospectively analyzed for age, menopausal status, socio-economic status (SES), tumor size, nodal involvement, tumor grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR) status and tumor stage. Primary purpose was to assess outcomes of these patients treated in a low-income country as defined by the World Bank and using limited-level treatment resources as defined by Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) guidelines. Secondary objectives included correlation of predictive and prognostic features with event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. Predictors of decreased EFS or OS included lower SES [P=0.05 (95%CI 0.34-1.0) and P=0.1 (CI 0.29-1.14)], larger tumor size [P=0.01 (95%CI 1.06-1.59) and P=0.3 (CI 0.86-1.50)] and positive lymph node status [P=0.04 (95% CI 1.0-1.55) and Pwomen diagnosed with LABC in Pakistan, patients with lower SES had larger, more aggressive tumors with worsened survival outcomes. Optimal breast cancer care warrants consideration for health care policies that address access to diagnostic and treatment services for financially disadvantaged women. PMID:19892552
Aziz, Zeba; Iqbal, Javaid; Akram, Muhammad; Anderson, Benjamin O
Associação entre prevalência de inatividade física e indicadores de condição socioeconômica em adolescentes Association between prevalence of physical inactivity and indicators of socio-economic status in adolescents
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A redução nos níveis de atividade física na população jovem tem sido amplamente descrita em vários países, sobretudo em alguns subgrupos dessa população. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de inatividade física em adolescentes escolares do ensino médio do município de João Pessoa - PB, e analisar sua associação com indicadores de condição socioeconômica. METODOLOGIA: Participaram do estudo 2.566 adolescentes (1.132 rapazes e 1.434 moças, de 14 a 18 anos de idade (16,5±1,17. Foram levantadas informações demográficas (sexo e idade, socioeconômicas (trabalho, tipo de escola, classe econômica, escolaridade dos pais, e mediu-se o nível de atividade física (kcal/kg/dia, mediante utilização de um diário de atividade física. Foram classificados como fisicamente inativos os adolescentes com demanda energética diária OBJECTIVE: The decrease in the levels of physical activity in the young population has been described thoroughly in several countries, above all in some subgroups of that population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity in high school adolescents from the João Pessoa city - PB and to analyze its association with indicators of socio-economic status. METHODOLOGY: 2,566 adolescents (1,132 boys and 1,434 girls, ages between 14-18 years (16.5±1.17 participated in this study. Demographic (sex and age and socio-economic data (work, school type, economic class, and parents' educational background were raised. Besides that, the level of physical activity (kcal/kg/day was measured through a diary of physical activity. The adolescents were classified as physically inactive when had daily energy demand <37kcal/kg/day. The ratio prevalence (RP, with respective reliability intervals of 95% (RI95%, was used as association measure. RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity positively associated with the socio-economic status, showing higher prevalence in the adolescents who did not work (boys RP=2.22; RI95%=1.62-3.04 and girls RP=1.52; RI95%=1.19-1.93, and in the girls whose parents presented higher educational background (girls RP=1.20; RI95%=1.05-1.35, compared with the adolescents who worked and the ones whose parents had lower educational background, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of physical inactivity was high, mainly in the girls. Adolescents who belonged to more priviledged socio-economic strata were more exposed to physical inactivity.
José Cazuza de Farias Júnior
Prevention of waterborne illness is of great concern all over the world. Waterborne diseases represent significant burden of diseases in the globe. Nearly 4% of diseases are attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene, and approximately 2.2 million people die every year due to diarrheal diseases worldwide. This study was carried out to find association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age groups and gender with prevalence of water borne diseases in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A research questionnaire was designed with questions related to demographic data, drinking water data and prevalence of water borne disease. The research questionnaire was interviewed to different respondents above 18 years of age randomly selected from different settings of Rawalpindi and Islamabad belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Data was analysed by employing cross tabulation and chi-square test with help of statistical software. The more frequent age group (47%) was 30 to 45 years. Proportion of diarrhea in females and males of middle age group were calculated as 36.11 % and 11.11 %, respectively. The second more frequent reported disease was jaundice with 15.9% of the target population being males and 16.7% females. Diarrhea was observed to be the major waterborne disease constituting 41 % of the population with poor hygiene practices. The hygienic practices were significantly associated with waterborne diseases (P = <0.001). Waterborne diseases were also, associated with financial status (P=0.02) and literacy rate (p=0.03). The current study concludes that improvement in the hygienic conditions and hygienic practices will playa pivotal role to prevent faeco-oral infections and reduce the waterborne disease burden. In targeted areas due to poor economic conditions, the population failed to achieve better hygienic practices and therefore there is a need to strengthen water filtration system and awareness of hygienic routine practices in these areas. (author)
Kerala State in India is the most advanced in terms of demographic and epidemiological transition and has the highest proportion of elderly population. The study examines the socio-demographic correlates of health status of elderly persons in Kerala in terms of three components: perceived health status, physical mobility and morbidity level. Overall health status was measured by combining the above three components of health status. Data from the 60th National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) on Condition and Health Care of the Aged in Kerala in 2004 was used for the study. Significant socio-demographic differentials in health status were noted. While women report less morbidity, perceived well-being and physical mobility was better for men. This anomaly can be explained by variations in the components of socio-demographic factors. The findings call for urgent health care strategies for elderly persons in different socio-demographic groups in transitional Indian states like Kerala. PMID:18647442
Mini, G K
Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of the current study is to examine the influence of socio-economic status and environmental factors on serologically diagnosed Japanese encephalitis cases in the state of West Bengal, India during 2005-2010. Materials and methods: A total of 648 blood/CSF specimens were collected and/or referred from the suspected AES cases, admitted in the different medical colleges and hospitals of the state during the year of 2005-2010. These specimens were subjected to JE Mac ELISA to determine the actual JE case amongst these AES. The association of the socio-economic status and environmental factors with the serologically diagnosed JE positive cases was studied by a statistical analysis through Normal Deviate test or Z test. Result: Out of 648 specimens, only 175 (27.0% specimens were reactive to JE IgM antibody, of which 60.0% were from the male individuals and 40.0% from the female population. Major cases were observed in the age group of 0 - 10 years; followed by 11 - 20 years. Regarding literacy, only 58.3% cases had no education and 41.7% were from the literate with varying level of education, i.e., from primary level to post gra- duate level. A total of 65.7% cases were from low income group where as only 34.3% cases were from high income group. Regarding house type, 62.3% cases lived in mud house and 37.7% cases lived in the brick house. In most of the cases (74.3%, persons were living in close proximity to rice fields/lakes/ponds. 69.7% cases were found to occur in the monsoon and post-monsoon period whereas 30.3% cases were reported in the pre-monsoon period. Conclusion: Our study concludes that socio-economic status and environmental conditions were statistically significant contextual risk factors for serologically diagnosed JE incidences in West Bengal where JE is proved to be endemic in nature and such study constitutes a new report of this kind in the region.
Subhra K. Mukhopadhyay
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of population health. Explanatory approaches on how SES determines health have so far included numerous factors, amongst them psychosocial factors such as social relationships. However, it is unclear whether social relationships can help explain socioeconomic differences in general subjective health. Do different aspects of social relationships contribute differently to the explanation? Based on a cohort study of middle and older aged residents (45 to 75 years from the Ruhr Area in Germany our study tries to clarify the matter. Methods For the analyses data from the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study is used. As indicators of SES education, equivalent household income and occupational status were employed. Social relations were assessed by including structural as well as functional aspects. Structural aspects were estimated by the Social Integration Index (SII and functional aspects were measured by availability of emotional and instrumental support. Data on general subjective health status was available for both baseline examination (2000–2003 and a 5-year follow-up (2006–2008. The sample consists of 4,146 men and women. Four logistic regression models were calculated: in the first model we controlled for age and subjective health at baseline, while in models 2 and 3, either functional or structural aspects of social relationships were introduced separately. Model 4 then included all variables. As former studies indicated different health effects of SES and social relations in men and women, analyses were conducted with the overall sample as well as for each gender alone. Results Prospective associations of SES and subjective health were reduced after introducing social relationships into the regression models. Percentage reductions between 2% and 30% were observed in the overall sample when all aspects of social relations were included. The percentage reductions were strongest in the lowest SES group. Gender specific analyses revealed mediating effects of social relationships in women and men. The magnitude of mediating effects varied depending on the indicators of SES and social relations. Conclusions Social relationships substantially contribute to the explanation of SES differences in subjective health. Interventions for improving social relations which especially focus on socially deprived groups are likely to help reducing socioeconomic disparities in health.
Background Population-based cancer registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) are mainly based on medical records and administrative information. Individual-level socioeconomic data are not routinely reported by cancer registries in the United States because they are not available in patient hospital records. The U.S. representative National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS) data provide self-reported, detailed demographic and socioeconomic data from the Social and Economic Supplement to the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS). In 1999, the NCI initiated the SEER-NLMS study, linking the population-based SEER cancer registry data to NLMS data. The SEER-NLMS data provide a new unique research resource that is valuable for health disparity research on cancer burden. We describe the design, methods, and limitations of this data set. We also present findings on cancer-related health disparities according to individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) and demographic characteristics for all cancers combined and for cancers of the lung, breast, prostate, cervix, and melanoma. Methods Records of cancer patients diagnosed in 1973–2001 when residing 1 of 11 SEER registries were linked with 26 NLMS cohorts. The total number of SEER matched cancer patients that were also members of an NLMS cohort was 26,844. Of these 26,844 matched patients, 11,464 were included in the incidence analyses and 15,357 in the late-stage diagnosis analyses. Matched patients (used in the incidence analyses) and unmatched patients were compared by age group, sex, race, ethnicity, residence area, year of diagnosis, and cancer anatomic site. Cohort-based age-adjusted cancer incidence rates were computed. The impact of socioeconomic status on cancer incidence and stage of diagnosis was evaluated. Results Men and women with less than a high school education had elevated lung cancer rate ratios of 3.01 and 2.02, respectively, relative to their college educated counterparts. Those with family annual incomes less than $12,500 had incidence rates that were more than 1.7 times the lung cancer incidence rate of those with incomes $50,000 or higher. Lower income was also associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of distant-stage breast cancer among women and distant-stage prostate cancer among men. Conclusions Socioeconomic patterns in incidence varied for specific cancers, while such patterns for stage were generally consistent across cancers, with late-stage diagnoses being associated with lower SES. These findings illustrate the potential for analyzing disparities in cancer outcomes according to a variety of individual-level socioeconomic, demographic, and health care characteristics, as well as by area measures available in the linked database.
Clegg, Limin X.; Reichman, Marsha E.; Miller, Barry A.; Hankey, Benjamin F.; Singh, Gopal K.; Lin, Yi Dan; Goodman, Marc T.; Lynch, Charles F.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Chen, Vivien W.; Bernstein, Leslie; Gomez, Scarlett L.; Graff, John J.; Lin, Charles C.; Johnson, Norman J.; Edwards, Brenda K.
Objectives. To evaluate the socio-economic correlates of overweight and obesity among Inuit undergoing rapid cultural changes. Study design. A cross-sectional health survey of 2,592 Inuit adults from 36 communities in the Canadian Arctic. Methods. Main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, respectively) and as characteristics were similar, groups were combined into an at-risk BMI category (BMI>25 kg/m2). Logistic regression was used to ...
Estrato Socioeconómico y Habilidades Cognitivas en Niños Escolarizados: Variables Predictoras y Mediadoras Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Skills in School-Age Children: Predicting and Mediating Variables
Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue analizar el efecto del estrato socioeconómico (ESE y de la edad sobre el desempeño en tareas de lenguaje, atención y memoria de niños escolarizados y examinar las variables socioeconómicas que predicen su ejecución. Se seleccionó una muestra intencionada de 228 niños argentinos de 8 a 11 años de edad de dos ESE (bajo y medio. Se empleó análisis multivariado de varianza y análisis de regresión jerárquica. Los resultados indicaron un efecto significativo del ESE y de la edad sobre las tareas cognitivas evaluadas. De las variables socioeconómicas analizadas, el nivel de instrucción de la madre (NIM fue el principal predictor del desempeño cognitivo del niño. Además, el NIM explicó un porcentaje de la varianza del desempeño obtenido por el niño, aun después de controlar su edad y nivel de lenguaje comprensivo. Se discuten los resultados en función de la influencia del ESE sobre el desempeño cognitivo y de los posibles factores predictores y mediadores de esta asociación.The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of socioeconomic status (SES and age on school-age children's performance in language, attention, and memory tasks and to examine the socioeconomic variables that predict their execution. An intentional sample of 228 Argentinean children aged 8-11 years from two SES (low and medium was used. Multivariate analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis were employed. Results revealed a significant effect of SES and age on the cognitive functions studied. Based on the socioeconomic variables analyzed, maternal instruction level (MIL was found to be the main predictor of the child's cognitive performance. In addition, MIL explained a percentage of variance in the child's performance, even after controlling for the child's age and receptive language level. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of SES on cognitive performance and the possible predicting and mediating factors of this association.
Vanessa Arán Filippetti