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Sample records for ways socioeconomic status

  1. Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani Kh

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionConnection of socioeconomic status measures (such as income and education and parental addiction to childhood leukemia are likely to vary with place and time. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between socioeconomic status and childhood leukemia.Materials and Methodsa case- control study conducted on 86 case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia age 0-14 years in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd and matched on age and sex to 188 healthy controls. Data was collected by interview using a questionnaire.Data analyzed by chi-square test. Odds ratio (Ors and 95% confidence intervals were used to measure the risk of childhood A.L.L associated with parental smoking, alcohol drinking & addiction.ResultsThere was a significant difference in parental education level (P-value=0, P-value=0.001, income status (P-value =0.001, father's job (0.002 between two groups. The risk of childhood A.L.L was associated with paternal smoking (P-value =0.001, OR=2.6, CI 95%, 1.5-4.5, alcohol drinking (P-value=0.003, OR=3.33, CI 95%, 2.7-3.9, addiction (P-value =0, OR=42.7, CI95%, 5.56-328.34.ConclusionThe results suggest that socioeconomic factors and paternal smoking and alcohol drinking are related to risk of childhood leukemia. It should be considered for planning support.

  2. Teacher Rankings, Readiness Tests, and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elijah, David; Legenza, Alice

    1980-01-01

    Reports correlations between scores on the Metropolitan Readiness Tests, teacher rankings of reading readiness, and socioeconomic (SES) status of 536 beginning first-grade pupils. Discusses results in terms of the effects SES may have on both a student's readiness scores and a teacher's view of student readiness. (FL)

  3. Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Bradley, Robert H., Ed.

    Noting that there is near universal agreement that children from families with higher socioeconomic status (SES) have access to more of the resources needed to support their positive development than do lower SES children, this monograph examines the myriad questions remaining regarding relations among SES, parenting, and child development from a…

  4. Socioeconomic Status, Family Processes, and Individual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine J.; Martin, Monica J.

    2010-01-01

    Research during the past decade shows that social class or socioeconomic status (SES) is related to satisfaction and stability in romantic unions, the quality of parent-child relationships, and a range of developmental outcomes for adults and children. This review focuses on evidence regarding potential mechanisms proposed to account for these…

  5. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status, health and working conditions of school teachers.

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, M.; Kivima?ki, M.; Elovainio, M.; Linna, A.; Pentti, J.; Vahtera, J.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the associations of workplace neighbourhood socioeconomic status with health behaviours, health and working conditions among school teachers. Method: The survey responses and employer records of 1862 teachers were linked to census data on school neighbourhood socioeconomic status. In the multilevel analysis, adjustments were made for demographics, work factors and the socioeconomic status of the teacher's own residential area.

  6. Socioeconomic Status, Family Processes, and Individual Development

    OpenAIRE

    Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine J.; Martin, Monica J.

    2010-01-01

    Research during the past decade shows that social class or socioeconomic status (SES) is related to satisfaction and stability in romantic unions, the quality of parent-child relationships, and a range of developmental outcomes for adults and children. This review focuses on evidence regarding potential mechanisms proposed to account for these associations. Research findings reported during the past decade demonstrate support for an interactionist model of the relationship between SES and fam...

  7. Breast Cancer and Socioeconomic Status in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Ursula; Bo?hm, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    With 28% of all cancers, breast cancer is the most common cancer in the Austrian female population (also worldwide), and incidence has shown a development similar to that in most of the Western European countries. Several studies reveal a higher incidence of breast cancer in women of higher socioeconomic status (SES) compared to women of lower SES. Later age of first childbearing, low total parity, significantly greater use of hormone replacement therapy, and a greater use of mammography scre...

  8. Associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade Socioeconomic status and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana CarolinaReiff e Vieira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos nacionais indicam comportamento epidêmico da obesidade, e ênfase tem sido dada sobre os determinantes sociais do excesso de peso. O status socioeconômico tem sido avaliado por ocupação, educação e renda. Vários fatores relacionados à obesidade, como atividade física, consumo alimentar e hábitos familiares sofrem também influência do status socioeconômico. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre a associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade e também foram apresentados dados de uma pesquisa de base populacional sobre obesidade em mulheres do município do Rio de Janeiro. A ocorrência da obesidade entre os diferentes níveis de status socioeconômico é influenciada pelo sexo e idade, e são discutidos fatores ambientais que determinam a possibilidade de acesso aos alimentos saudáveis e a oportunidade de prática de atividade física. Por fim, é discutido como os hábitos familiares influenciam nas escolhas dos alimentos e como o status socioeconômico pode modificar esse efeito, bem como a disponibilidade de alimentos e o preço destes, levando a um maior consumo de alimentos de alta densidade energética, fator de risco dietético para obesidade.An epidemic of obesity has been revealed by Brazilian nationwide surveys, and emphasis is being given to socioeconomic status as one of the main determinants of weight gain. Other factors also associated to obesity are influenced by socioeconomic status, such as physical activity, food consumption, and family habits. Socioeconomic status has been evaluated based on occupation, education, and income. A review of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity has been conducted, and data from a population-based survey regarding obesity among women in the city of Rio de Janeiro were also included. The occurrence of obesity among different levels of socioeconomic status as influenced by sex and age, and environmental factors that determine the possibility of access to healthy foods and to opportunities of practicing physical activity are also discussed. Finally, we discussed how family habits influence the choices of food, and how socioeconomic status can modify this effect, along with availability of foods and their prices, leading to a greater consumption of foods with high density of energy, a dietary risk factor for obesity.

  9. Associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade / Socioeconomic status and obesity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana CarolinaReiff e, Vieira; Rosely, Sichieri.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os estudos nacionais indicam comportamento epidêmico da obesidade, e ênfase tem sido dada sobre os determinantes sociais do excesso de peso. O status socioeconômico tem sido avaliado por ocupação, educação e renda. Vários fatores relacionados à obesidade, como atividade física, consumo alimentar e h [...] ábitos familiares sofrem também influência do status socioeconômico. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre a associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade e também foram apresentados dados de uma pesquisa de base populacional sobre obesidade em mulheres do município do Rio de Janeiro. A ocorrência da obesidade entre os diferentes níveis de status socioeconômico é influenciada pelo sexo e idade, e são discutidos fatores ambientais que determinam a possibilidade de acesso aos alimentos saudáveis e a oportunidade de prática de atividade física. Por fim, é discutido como os hábitos familiares influenciam nas escolhas dos alimentos e como o status socioeconômico pode modificar esse efeito, bem como a disponibilidade de alimentos e o preço destes, levando a um maior consumo de alimentos de alta densidade energética, fator de risco dietético para obesidade. Abstract in english An epidemic of obesity has been revealed by Brazilian nationwide surveys, and emphasis is being given to socioeconomic status as one of the main determinants of weight gain. Other factors also associated to obesity are influenced by socioeconomic status, such as physical activity, food consumption, [...] and family habits. Socioeconomic status has been evaluated based on occupation, education, and income. A review of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity has been conducted, and data from a population-based survey regarding obesity among women in the city of Rio de Janeiro were also included. The occurrence of obesity among different levels of socioeconomic status as influenced by sex and age, and environmental factors that determine the possibility of access to healthy foods and to opportunities of practicing physical activity are also discussed. Finally, we discussed how family habits influence the choices of food, and how socioeconomic status can modify this effect, along with availability of foods and their prices, leading to a greater consumption of foods with high density of energy, a dietary risk factor for obesity.

  10. Socioeconomic Status and Stress Rate during Pregnancy in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Shishehgar; Mahrokh Dolatian; Hamid Alavi Majd; Maryam Bakhtiary

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stress during pregnancy can have serious adverse outcomes on the mother, the fetus, newborn, children and even adolescents. Socioeconomic status has been recognized as a predictor of stress amongst pregnant women. Objectives: The first aim of this study was to investigate the role of socioeconomic status in pregnancy stress rates. The second aim was to examine the most important items of socioeconomic status including monthly family income, husband occupational status as well as m...

  11. SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND MICROSOCIAL STRUCTURE WITHIN FEMALE HANDBALL TEAM

    OpenAIRE

    Dodi Mihaljevi?; Joško Sindik

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 18 players, members of the senior major league handball team, the correlation between the micro structure of handball in relation to their socioeconomic status, using the sociometric procedure, was analyzed. The research results lead to the acceptance of the hypothesis that the players of the same socioeconomic status, have better mutual emotional acceptance. The hypothesis of a better mutual functional accepting players of the same socioeconomic status, may be only partially ...

  12. Socioeconomic status and smoking: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Bauld, Linda; Amos, Amanda; Fidler, Jennifer A; Munafò, Marcus

    2012-02-01

    Smoking prevalence is higher among disadvantaged groups, and disadvantaged smokers may face higher exposure to tobacco's harms. Uptake may also be higher among those with low socioeconomic status (SES), and quit attempts are less likely to be successful. Studies have suggested that this may be the result of reduced social support for quitting, low motivation to quit, stronger addiction to tobacco, increased likelihood of not completing courses of pharmacotherapy or behavioral support sessions, psychological differences such as lack of self-efficacy, and tobacco industry marketing. Evidence of interventions that work among lower socioeconomic groups is sparse. Raising the price of tobacco products appears to be the tobacco control intervention with the most potential to reduce health inequalities from tobacco. Targeted cessation programs and mass media interventions can also contribute to reducing inequalities. To tackle the high prevalence of smoking among disadvantaged groups, a combination of tobacco control measures is required, and these should be delivered in conjunction with wider attempts to address inequalities in health. PMID:22092035

  13. The Socioeconomic Status of 100 Renal Transplant Recipients in Shiraz

    OpenAIRE

    Roozbeh Jamshid; Jalaeian Hamed; Banihashemi Mohammad; Rais-Jalali Ghanbar; Sagheb Mohammad; Salehipour Mehdi; Faghihi Hajar; Malek-Hosseini Seyed

    2008-01-01

    Data regarding the socioeconomic status in Iranian kidney transplant (KT) recipients is lacking. In this cross sectional descriptive study we evaluated the socio-economic status of 100 KT recipients in Shiraz organ transplantation center. In a cross-sectional design, we randomly selected and interviewed 100 RT recipients (50 males and 50 females). Data regarding age, gender, martial status, occupation, level of education, number of children, type of insurance, monthly household income, place ...

  14. Evaluation of Nutritional Status in Turkish Adolescents as Related to Gender and Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    O?zgu?ven, Is??l; Ersoy, Betu?l; O?zgu?ven, Ali Aykan; Erbay, P?nar Du?ndar

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of Turkish high school adolescents using anthropometric indicators and to determine the relationship of nutritional status with gender and socioeconomic status (SES) in adolescents.

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Injury in a Cohort of Saskatchewan Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, William; Day, Andrew G.; Hagel, Louise; Sun, Xiaoqun; Day, Lesley; Marlenga, Barbara; Brison, Robert J.; Pahwa, Punam; Crowe, Trever; Voaklander, Donald C.; Dosman, James

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the strength of relationships between socioeconomic status and injury in a large Canadian farm population. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 4,769 people from 2,043 farms in Saskatchewan, Canada. Participants reported socioeconomic exposures in 2007 and were followed for the occurrence of injury through 2009…

  16. Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure

  17. Microbial 'old friends', immunoregulation and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, G A W; Raison, C L; Lowry, C A

    2014-07-01

    The immune system evolved to require input from at least three sources that we collectively term the 'old friends': (i) the commensal microbiotas transmitted by mothers and other family members; (ii) organisms from the natural environment that modulate and diversify the commensal microbiotas; and (iii) the 'old' infections that could persist in small isolated hunter-gatherer groups as relatively harmless subclinical infections or carrier states. These categories of organism had to be tolerated and co-evolved roles in the development and regulation of the immune system. By contrast, the 'crowd infections' (such as childhood virus infections) evolved later, when urbanization led to large communities. They did not evolve immunoregulatory roles because they either killed the host or induced solid immunity, and could not persist in hunter-gatherer groups. Because the western lifestyle and medical practice deplete the 'old' infections (for example helminths), immunoregulatory disorders have increased, and the immune system has become more dependent upon microbiotas and the natural environment. However, urbanization maintains exposure to the crowd infections that lack immunoregulatory roles, while accelerating loss of exposure to the natural environment. This effect is most pronounced in individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) who lack rural second homes and rural holidays. Interestingly, large epidemiological studies indicate that the health benefits of living close to green spaces are most pronounced for individuals of low SES. Here we discuss the immunoregulatory role of the natural environment, and how this may interact with, and modulate, the proinflammatory effects of psychosocial stressors in low SES individuals. PMID:24401109

  18. Socioeconomic Status and Other Characteristics in Childhood Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Msc, Noori R.; Msc, Hashemizadeh H.; Md, Darabian M.; Msc, Boroumand H.

    2013-01-01

    AbstractBackground Leukemia is the most prevalent childhood cancer, and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) constitutes 75% of all cases. Some epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and some childhood cancers. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess socioeconomical status in a case-control study.Materials and MethodsIn 2010, a case-control study was conducted on 100 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged 1 to14 years in Department o...

  19. Adolescent Expectations of Early Death Predict Young Adult Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quynh C.; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W.; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Poole, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Among adolescents, expectations of early death have been linked to future risk behaviors. These expectations may also reduce personal investment in education and training, thereby lowering adult socioeconomic status attainment. The importance of socioeconomic status is highlighted by pervasive health inequities and dramatic differences in life expectancy among education and income groups. The objectives of this study were to investigate patterns of change in perceived chances of living to age...

  20. The Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Working Memory Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Working memory is the temporary storage mechanism that underlies our ability to hold and process information over a brief period of time. It is a pre-requisite for the long-term storage of information, reading, problem-solving and language comprehension. Research examining the relationship between working memory and socioeconomic status remains inconclusive. The present study brings together educational, cognitive ageing, intelligence and socioeconomic status (SES) research in order to det...

  1. Danube - the Common Way between Great Socio-Economic Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Ionescu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the idea that a common river-Danube- can cover a lot of disparities connected to socio-economic, cultural, historical and religious approaches. As a result, the analysis in the paper is focused on economic disparities in all Danube countries, even that they are members or not of the EU27. The analysis is based on the latest official statistical data and is followed by a forecast for 2013-2014 in order to observe if the disparities will decrease or not. The main conclusion of the paper is that Danube can be a way and an instrument to solve regional disparities. The same Danube River can support a better socio-economic integration of the Danube countries, as well.

  2. Socioeconomic Status and Other Characteristics in Childhood Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori R MSc

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground Leukemia is the most prevalent childhood cancer, and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL constitutes 75% of all cases. Some epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and some childhood cancers. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess socioeconomical status in a case-control study.Materials and MethodsIn 2010, a case-control study was conducted on 100 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged 1 to14 years in Department of Pediatric Oncology of Dr.Sheikh Hospital in Mashhad – Iran and matched age and sex with 400 healthy controls. Data was collected by interview using a questionnaire. Ninety five percent confidence intervals were used to measure the relationship between childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and parental education, income status, father's job (Socioeconomic status, number of children, birth score and paternal smoking. ResultsThere was a significant difference in parental education level, income status, and number of children, birth score, father's job and paternal smoking between two groups. Regression analysis showed that the risk of childhood ALL associated with paternal smoking, and father's high risk job. Fifty percent cases and thirty five percent of control groups located in upper lower and lower middle class of socioeconomic status, respectively. There is a meaningful different between socioeconomic status in two groups. But the risk of childhood ALL did not associate with socioeconomic status.ConclusionThe results suggest that paternal smoking and father’s high risk job are related to risk of childhood leukemia. It should be considered for planning support.

  3. Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Emersion Adolescent Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Parsasirat; Amir Foroughi; Fatimah Yusooff; Nasrudin Subhi; Salina Nen; Hadi Farhadi

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has attempted to investigate creativity as a behavior resulting from the interaction between the cognitive abilities, social environment and personal characteristics, but very little research has look at the role of environment characteristics on Emersion Adolescent Creativity. Hence, this article focuses on the effect of socioeconomic status on emerging adolescent creativity. In other words, family economic status, father’s education and mother’s education are the three di...

  4. Parenting, Race, and Socioeconomic Status: Links to School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Pungello, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and school readiness, testing whether parenting (maternal sensitivity and negative behavior/intrusiveness) and financial stress mediated this association and if race moderated these paths. Participants included 164 mother-child dyads from African American and European American…

  5. Gameplay, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status in Two American High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    In a study of 195 high school students, differences by gender and socioeconomic status (SES) were found in their gaming habits and game literacy practices. Low-SES students generally preferred console video games, particularly those in the sports genre. They expressed frustration with the controls involved in long-form computer games such as those…

  6. Associations between socioeconomic status, aging and functionality among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Gladys; Cases, Tania; Bunout, Daniel; de la Maza, María Pía; Leiva, Laura; Rodriguez, Juan Manuel; Hirsch, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    To assess if there is an association between socioeconomic status and quality of life, functional status and markers of aging, we studied 86 women aged 73 ± 7 years, who answered the WHO Qol Bref quality of life survey. Mini mental state examination, timed up and go test, 12 minutes' walk, hand grip and quadriceps strength, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), carotid intima-media thickness and telomere length in peripheral leukocytes were measured. Successful aging was defined as a walking speed, handgrip strength, appendicular lean body mass, timed up and go and minimental values above cutoff points for disability. Participants with successful aging had a higher quality of life score and were more likely to live in rich municipalities. There was a positive correlation between telomere length, right handgrip strength and total fat free mass. Therefore, there is an association between socioeconomic status, successful aging and quality of life. PMID:25288053

  7. The Socioeconomic Status of 100 Renal Transplant Recipients in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Jamshid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data regarding the socioeconomic status in Iranian kidney transplant (KT recipients is lacking. In this cross sectional descriptive study we evaluated the socio-economic status of 100 KT recipients in Shiraz organ transplantation center. In a cross-sectional design, we randomly selected and interviewed 100 RT recipients (50 males and 50 females. Data regarding age, gender, martial status, occupation, level of education, number of children, type of insurance, monthly household income, place of residence, ownership of a personal transportation device, duration and frequency of pre-transplant dialysis, family history of CRF (Chronic renal failure, and etiology of renal disease were obtained. There were 50 (50% patients aged between 16 and 35 years, 55 had a family history of CRF, 60 had been on dialysis for more than a year, 61 were married, 47 did not have any children, 41 had more than 3 children, and 65 were unemployed due to physical and emotional impairment as a result of their disease. The majority (73% did not have a high school diploma, 15% were illiterate, 85% were below the poverty line, 52% were from rural areas, and 98% were covered by insurance. We conclude that patients with CKD in our study had acquired this condition possibly due to negligence and lack of basic health care in the lower socioeconomic class. In addition, KT is an available therapeutic modality to lower socio-economic level in Iran.

  8. Association between socioeconomic status and obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bili?-Kirin, Vesna; Gmajni?, Rudika; Burazin, Jelena; Milici?, Valerija; Buljan, Vesna; Ivanko, Marija

    2014-06-01

    The perception of obesity among people has not changed significantly regardless numerous public educational programs. Reasons for obesity pandemics are numerous and complex, but can be mostly resumed to life-style changes. The aim of this research was to determine connection between socioeconomic factors and obesity with children of our region. Study included pupils aged 7-8 from 19 first grades in 8 primary schools in Osijek-Baranya County. Body height and weight were measured and socioeconomic data status were collected. Socioeconomic status included data on marital status, educational level, employment, number of children in the family, kindergarten attendance and urban/rural location and also smoking habits of parents. BMI was calculated as a parameter for obesity assessment according to Croatian reference values. Total of 372 children were measured. There were 6.5% of overweight children (BMI between 90th and 97th percentile) and 2.4% of obese children (BMI above 97th percentile). The prevalence of obese children in our research was 8.9%. Obesity is not influenced by rural/urban residence, marital status of parents, number of children in the family, mother's education, or by parents' smoking habits. Positive correlation between obesity and father's education and parents' unemployment was found. Available literature data, same as our study, did not show consistent association between socioeconomic factors and obesity with children. Contradictory results of different studies can be a result of a small sample, difference in study design and different criteria for defining categories within investigated socioeconomic factor. PMID:25144987

  9. Sanctions for ethics violations: does licensure of socioeconomic status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Karlotta A; Noblin, Charles D

    1999-01-01

    Although sexual relationships between therapists and their clients are unethical, such beahviors still occur. This study investigated whether psychologists with applied versus nonapplied training differed in the severity of sanctions advocated for psychologists charged with sexual ethical violations toward high- or low-socioeconomic status victims. Licensed and Nonlicensed psychologists (N=48) viewed a 15-min videotape simulating the adjudication process about an alleged sexual involvement between client and psychologist, then prescribed either: Dismissal of Charges, Educative Advisory, Educative Warning, Reprimand, Censure, Stipulated Resignation, Permitted Resignation, or Expulsion. The alleged victim was described as a college professor of home economics or a hairdresser. Licensed psychologists chose more severe sanctions ("Stipulated or Permitted Resignation") than did Nonlicensed psychologists ("Censure"). Socioeconomic status made no significant difference in sanctions. Apparently, applied therapy training results in more severe judgements toward those who violate American Psychological Association ethical guidelines than other types of psychology training. PMID:11657202

  10. Socio-economic status of Muslim women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatty, Z

    1994-01-01

    The Indian sociological literature neglects the role of women in social relationships within the family system, their status in society, and the interactions between Indian minorities and the majority community. Indian institutions and cultural norms have perpetuated the role of Indian women as subservient. Orthodox Muslims uphold the low position of women as a symbol of cultural identity. Indian Muslims have tried to prevent conversion and integration of other views, but have failed to eliminate the Hindu influence on the general pattern of living, the system of social stratification, and customs and attitudes regarding women. Muslims hold conformist ideals and beliefs from the Quran and the Hadis. Although Indian women live under the Hindu Code Bill that gives equal rights to women, most Muslim women are restricted under the Muslim Personal Law. Muslims who are ignorant of the Quran are unaware of the allowances in the Shariat for social adjustment, change, and accommodation. In fact, Indian Muslim communities follow four different Shariats: the Hanafi, the Shaafi, the Hambali, and the Maliki. Islamic scholars state that the Shariat is not unchangeable. There is also disparity between the actual practice of polygamy and the Quran's strict provision that all wives must be treated equally. Islamic practices have been manipulated to suit male interests. Indian Muslims are either Ashrafs or nonAshrafs. Ashrafs are the upper social class and are made up of the Sayyads, the Sheikhs, the Mughals, and the Pathans, in descending order of hierarchy. There are differences in the treatment of women within this stratification. For instance, many nonAshraf women do not observe purdah, but the tendency among the Ashraf is to impose purdah. PMID:12347368

  11. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dinsa, Gd; Goryakin, Y.; Fumagalli, E.; Suhrcke, M.

    2012-01-01

    We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the association betw...

  12. Socioeconomic status and medical care expenditures in Medicare managed care

    OpenAIRE

    Kapur, Kanika; Escarce, Jose? J.; Rogowski, Jeannette; Freedman, Vicki A.; Wickstrom, Steven L.; Adams, John L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of education, income, and wealth on medical care expenditures in two Medicare managed care plans. The study also sought to elucidate the pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects expenditures, including preferences for health and medical care and ability to navigate the managed care system. We found that education, income, and wealth all affected medical care expenditures, although the effects of these variables differed across expenditure ca...

  13. Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ncho, Claudette D.; Wright, Susan C. D.

    2013-01-01

    The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates ofmorbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Dueto the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health ina low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gainan understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due totheir socio-economic status. The study wa...

  14. Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Emersion Adolescent Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Parsasirat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has attempted to investigate creativity as a behavior resulting from the interaction between the cognitive abilities, social environment and personal characteristics, but very little research has look at the role of environment characteristics on Emersion Adolescent Creativity. Hence, this article focuses on the effect of socioeconomic status on emerging adolescent creativity. In other words, family economic status, father’s education and mother’s education are the three dimensions of socioeconomic status. This exploratory correlational research study examines the relationship between family economic status, father’s education and mother’s education with adolescent creativity. The sampling method was employed to select the proportion of participants using stratified and multi-stage cluster random sampling. The population of the sample was 546 high school students in Education Region 4, Tehran. The participants, 249 males and 297 females, completed two questionnaires. The adolescents completed a Demographic Characteristics Questionnaire and Abedi Creativity Questionnaire, which were used as the measuring tools in this study. The results show a significant positive correlation between family economic status and creativity (p < .01, and between parent education and creativity (p < .01. Interestingly, the analyses revealed a strongly significant positive correlation between parent education and creativity (p < .01, although none was found between males and females on creativity. Conclusions were tempered by the limitations of small to moderate correlations and small effect sizes.

  15. Socioeconomic status and incidence of sudden cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinier, Kyndaron; Thomas, Elizabeth; Andrusiek, Douglas L.; Aufderheide, Tom P.; Brooks, Steven C.; Callaway, Clifton W.; Pepe, Paul E.; Rea, Thomas D.; Schmicker, Robert H.; Vaillancourt, Christian; Chugh, Sumeet S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low socioeconomic status is associated with poor cardiovascular health. We evaluated the association between socioeconomic status and the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest, a condition that accounts for a substantial proportion of cardiovascular-related deaths, in seven large North American urban populations. Methods: Using a population-based registry, we collected data on out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrests occurring at home or at a residential institution from Apr. 1, 2006, to Mar. 31, 2007. We limited the analysis to cardiac arrests in seven metropolitan areas in the United States (Dallas, Texas; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle–King County, Washington) and Canada (Ottawa and Toronto, Ontario; and Vancouver, British Columbia). Each incident was linked to a census tract; tracts were classified into quartiles of median household income. Results: A total of 9235 sudden cardiac arrests were included in the analysis. For all sites combined, the incidence of sudden cardiac arrestin the lowest socioeconomic quartile was nearly double that in the highest quartile (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–2.0). This disparity was greater among people less than 65 years old (IRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.5–3.0) than among those 65 or older (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.4). After adjustment for study site and for population age structure of each census tract, the disparity across socioeconomic quartiles for all ages combined was greater in the United States (IRR 2.0, 95% CI 1.9–2.2) than in Canada (IRR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6–2.0) (p < 0.001 for interaction). Interpretation: The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest at home or at a residential institution was higher in poorer neighbourhoods of the US and Canadian sites studied, although the association was attenuated in Canada. The disparity across socioeconomic quartiles was greatest among people younger than 65. The association between socioeconomic status and incidence of sudden cardiac arrest merits consideration in the development of strategies to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest, and possibly to identify opportunities for prevention. PMID:21911550

  16. Perceptions on healthy eating, physical activity and lifestyle advice: opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions to individuals with low socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Bukman, A. J.; Teuscher, D.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Baak, M. A.; Meershoek, A.; Renes, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) are generally less well reached through lifestyle interventions than individuals with higher SES. The aim of this study was to identify opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions in such a way that they are more appealing for individuals with low SES. To this end, the study provides insight into perspectives of groups with different socioeconomic positions regarding their current eating and physical activity behaviour; trigger...

  17. Socioeconomic status and health in the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Gaina, Alexandru; Nasermoaddeli, Ali

    2009-06-01

    There is growing interest in the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on health. Individual SES has been shown to be closely related to mortality, morbidity, health-related behavior and access to health care services in Western countries. Whether the same set of social determinants accounts for higher rates of mortality or morbidity in Japan is questionable, because over the past decade the magnitude of the social stratification within the society has increased due to economic and social circumstances. SES must be interpreted within the economic, social, demographic and cultural contexts of a specific country. In this report we discuss the impact of individuals' socioeconomic position on health in Japan with regard to educational attainment, occupational gradient/class, income level, and unemployment. This review is based mainly on papers indexed in Medline/PubMed between 1990 and 2007. We find that socioeconomic differences in mortality, morbidity and risk factors are not uniformly small in Japan. The majority of papers investigate the relationship between education, occupational class and health, but low income and unemployment are not examined sufficiently in Japan. The results also indicate that different socioeconomic contexts and inequality contribute to the mortality, morbidity, and biological and behavioral risk factors in Japan, although the pattern and direction of the relationships may not necessarily be the same in terms of size, pattern, distribution, magnitude and impact as in Western countries. In particular, the association between higher occupational status and lower mortality, as well as higher educational attainment and either mortality or morbidity, is not as strongly expressed among the Japanese. Japan is still one of the healthiest and most egalitarian nations in the world, and social inequalities within the population are less expressed. However, the magnitude of the social stratification has started to increase, and this is an alarming sign. PMID:19375838

  18. Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Habibollah Esmaeeli; Rana Amiri; Ahmadshah Farhat; Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on ...

  19. Effect of socioeconomic status on survival from cervical cancer in Sheffield.

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, P. C.; Watts, M.

    1987-01-01

    The relation between age at registration, socioeconomic status, and survival from cervical cancer for women resident in Sheffield was examined using the 556 such cases registered with the Trent Cancer Registry from 1971 to 1984. The address and electoral ward at registration were used to categorize the socioeconomic status of 99% of the women. Five year survival for all cases was 49%, increasing age having a predictable deleterious effect. Socioeconomic status seemed to have little effect on ...

  20. Socioeconomic status and blood pressure reactivity in healthy black adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D K; Kliewer, W; Plybon, L; Sica, D A

    2000-01-01

    Adolescents in low-socioeconomic-status environments are more susceptible to illnesses, such as hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. This study examined the influence of both neighborhood- and family-level socioeconomic status (SES) on blood pressure (BP) reactivity in a healthy sample of 76 black adolescents. It was hypothesized that a higher level of parental education and/or income would reduce the elevated BP reactivity associated with living in poorer neighborhoods. Census-derived data were obtained using each participant's address. Neighborhood level of SES was based on percentage of households below the poverty line, female-headed households, owner-occupied housing, percentage vacant housing, and average number of persons per household. Family level of SES was based on self-reported level of parental education and annual family income. Adolescents participated in a competitive video game to establish their BP reactivity scores. As predicted, adolescents who lived in poorer neighborhoods had lower diastolic BPs if their parents were more (versus less) educated (Peffect of family SES on the negative health consequences of living in low-SES neighborhoods in healthy black adolescents. PMID:10642348

  1. Socioeconomic Status and Women's Smoking Behavior: A Literature Review

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    Yan Huang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper presents a literature review that examines the relationship between socioeconomic statusand women’s smoking behavior in the United States.Methods: A literature search was conducted among national and international peer-reviewed literature in thefollowing databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Education Resource InformationCenter (ERIC, MEDLINE, and PsycARTICLES. A manual search was performed to obtain relevant articleswithin selected journals.Results: Of the 9 reviewed studies, 5 indicated that a low education level is a causal factor which has a significantrelationship with smoking behavior among women. 6 of the reviewed studies provided evidence that householdincome level plays an important role in women’s cigarette smoking. Finally, 2 of the reviewed studies indicatedthat women’s smoking behavior is influenced by their marital status.Conclusion: The findings from this literature review indicate that future smoking prevention efforts targetingwomen might benefit from incorporating education, household income, and marital situation intomulti-component programs that focus on the differences in socioeconomic status.

  2. Socioeconomic status and obesity in Abia State, South East Nigeria

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    Chukwuonye II

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye,1 Abali Chuku,2 Ikechi Gareth Okpechi,3 Ugochukwu Uchenna Onyeonoro,4 Okechukwu Ojoemelam Madukwe,5 Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka Okafor,6 Okechukwu Samuel Ogah5,71Division of Renal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 3Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, 5Ministry of Health, Nnamdi Azikiwe Secretariat, 6Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 7Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, NigeriaBackground and objectives: Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria.Material and method: This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity. Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance.Results: Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity in individuals with no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education was 6.3%, 14.9%, 10.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. Educational status was found to be significantly associated with obesity in women, but not in men, or in the combined group. However, level of income was observed to be significantly associated with obesity in men, women, and in the combined group.Conclusion: Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are important determinants of obesity in our study population, and therefore may be indirectly linked to the prevalence and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Nigeria.Keywords: obesity, body mass index, BMI, income, education, socioeconomic status, Naira (?

  3. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF HILL COMMUNITY– A FIELD STUDY ON RISHOP VILLAGE OF DARJEELING DISTRICT.

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    ARIJIT GHOSH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic status of plain and hill area differ to a large degree from each other. Such type of study is very much common for both the areas. Rishop village of Darjeeling is very much interesting from social as well as economic point of view. On one hand tourism is a part of their economic life, on the other hand they are exceptional in West Bengal in terms of language, religion, way of life style etc. All these are due to the especial category of physical, and atmospheric set up

  4. Reading Performances as Related to Race and Socio-economic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Theodore J.; And Others

    A study was conducted to explore the relationship of race and socioeconomic status to the learning of reading skills among ninth-grade black and white students in the Tuscaloosa, Alabama, city and county schools. Each student was given diagnostic reading tests by timed, untimed, and auditory administration. Socioeconomic status was measured by…

  5. Nutritional status of children in India: household socio-economic condition as the contextual determinant

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjilal Barun; Mazumdar Papiya; Mukherjee Moumita; Hafizur, Rahman M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite recent achievement in economic progress in India, the fruit of development has failed to secure a better nutritional status among all children of the country. Growing evidence suggest there exists a socio-economic gradient of childhood malnutrition in India. The present paper is an attempt to measure the extent of socio-economic inequality in chronic childhood malnutrition across major states of India and to realize the role of household socio-economic status (SES)...

  6. Childhood attention problems and socioeconomic status in adulthood: 18-year follow-up.

    OpenAIRE

    Gale?ra, Ce?dric; Bouvard, Manuel-pierre; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Michel, Gre?gory; Touchette, Evelyne; Fombonne, Eric; Melchior, Maria

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with socioeconomic difficulties later in life. Little research in this area has been based on longitudinal and community studies. AIMS: To examine the relationship between childhood attention problems and socioeconomic status 18 years later. METHOD: Using a French community sample of 1103 youths followed from 1991 to 2009, we tested associations between childhood attention problems and socioeconomic status between...

  7. Effect of socioeconomic status on surgery for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedin, Steven; Luu, Carrie; Stabile, Bruce E; Lee, Byrne

    2012-10-01

    Survival for pancreatic cancer remains poor. Surgical resection remains the only chance for cure. The intent of this study was to investigate the role of socioeconomic status (SES) on resection rates for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End results database was used to identify patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Disease was deemed resectable or unresectable based on the extent of disease code. Median family income was used as a SES variable to compare patients who underwent resection with those who did not. Median family income was organized into three categories based on definitions from the national census: less than $34,680 (low income), $34,680 to $48,650 (middle), and greater than $48,650 (high income). A total of 5,908 patients with potentially resectable disease were included. A total of 3,331 patients did not have a surgical resection despite having resectable disease. Subgroup analysis of income status revealed that patients with a low or middle income were less likely to have a resection when compared with those with high income (33.0 vs 39.9 vs 45.8%, P=0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that low and middle SES and race were significant predictors of resection. Ongoing study of access to health care may help define the means to eliminate the disparities in the care of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:23025956

  8. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients – risk and prognosis

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    Oml

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lars Haukali Omland,1 Merete Osler,2 Peter Jepsen,3,4 Henrik Krarup,5 Nina Weis,6 Peer Brehm Christensen,7 Casper Roed,1 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Niels Obel1 On behalf of the DANVIR Cohort Study1Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Research Center for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 6Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, DenmarkBackground and aims: It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection or a prognostic factor following infection.Methods: From Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on three markers of SES: employment, income, and education. In a case control design, we examined HCV infected patients and controls; conditional logistic regression was employed to obtain odds ratios (ORs for HCV infection for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity, and substance abuse. In a cohort design, we used Cox regression analysis to compute mortality rate ratios (MRRs for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity level, age, substance abuse, and gender.Results: When compared to employed persons, ORs for HCV infection were 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24–3.26 for disability pensioners and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.83–2.72 for the unemployed. When compared to persons with a high income, ORs were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.34–2.01 for low income persons and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.02–1.40 for medium income persons. The OR was 1.35 (95% CI: 1.20–1.52 for low education (no more than basic schooling. When compared to employed patients, MRRs were 1.71 (95% CI: 1.22–2.40 for unemployed patients and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.63–3.08 for disability pensioners. When compared to high income patients, MRRs were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.05–2.05 for medium income patients and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.13–2.34 for low income patients. Educational status was not associated with mortality.Conclusion: Low SES was associated with an increased risk of HCV infection and with poor prognosis in HCV infected patients.Keywords: survival, socioeconomic status, risk factor, prognosis

  9. Socio-economic status and overall and cause-specific mortality in Sweden

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    Sundquist Jan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported discrepancies in cause-specific mortality among groups of individuals with different socio-economic status. However, most of the studies were limited by the specificity of the investigated populations and the broad definitions of the causes of death. The aim of the present population-based study was to explore the dependence of disease specific mortalities on the socio-economic status in Sweden, a country with universal health care. Another aim was to investigate possible gender differences. Methods Using the 2006 update of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we identified over 2 million individuals with socio-economic data recorded in the 1960 national census. The association between mortality and socio-economic status was investigated by Cox's proportional hazards models taking into account the age, time period and residential area in both men and women, and additionally parity and age at first birth in women. Results We observed significant associations between socio-economic status and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, to cancer and to endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The influence of socio-economic status on female breast cancer was markedly specific: women with a higher socio-economic status showed increased mortality due to breast cancer. Conclusion Even in Sweden, a country where health care is universally provided, higher socio-economic status is associated with decreased overall and cause-specific mortalities. Comparison of mortality among female and male socio-economic groups may provide valuable insights into the underlying causes of socio-economic inequalities in length of life.

  10. Socioeconomic profile and nutritional status of children in rubber smallholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjan, Zamaliah Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Lin, Khor Geok; Siong, Tee E

    2002-01-01

    This paper will present the socioeconomic profile and nutritional status of children aged 1-6 years in the rubber smallholdings of Peninsula Malaysia. A total of 323 households were involved in this study. The sociodemographic data were obtained through interviews with heads of households using a set of questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were taken from 506 children aged 1-6 years from these households. The weight and height of the children were compared with the reference values of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the nutritional status was classified based on the recommendations of WHO. The average age of the fathers was 39.9+/-8.6 years and 34.4+/-7.0 years for the mothers. The mean household size was 6.67+/-2.27. The majority (49.7%) of the heads of households received 4-6 years of formal education and 7.9% received no formal education. Based on the monthly per capita income, 24.0% were found to be in the hardcore poor category, 38.3% fall into the poor category and 37.7% in the above poverty income group. The prevalence of stunting and underweight among children between the ages of 1-6 years were highest among children from the hardcore poor, followed by the poor category and above the poverty line income group. Wasting was present in all income groups, with a prevalence of 4.2% found among the hardcore poor, 9.4% among the poor group and 8.4% in the above poverty income group. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation showed significant relationships between household total income and height-for-age (r = 0.131, P = 0.05) and weight-for-age (r = 0.127, P = 0.05). There were also significant correlations between monthly per capita income with height-for-age (r = 0.16, P income (R2 = 0.03, P income and acreage of land utilised have been shown to be associated with nutritional status, it is recommended that intervention programs that focus on generation of income and diversification of land utilisation should be undertaken. A multidiscipline approach involving the family, community and government agencies should be applied to any type of intervention program. PMID:12074180

  11. Evaluation of the Interactionist Model of Socioeconomic Status and Problem Behavior: A Developmental Cascade across Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Dogan, Shannon J.; Widaman, Keith F.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2010-01-01

    The current multigenerational study evaluates the utility of the Interactionist Model of Socioeconomic Influence on human development (IMSI) in explaining problem behaviors across generations. The IMSI proposes that the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and human development involves a dynamic interplay that includes both social causation (SES influences human development) and social selection (individual characteristics affect SES). As part of the developmental cascade proposed ...

  12. Immunization Status of School Children of Indore Hailing from Different Socioeconomic Status

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    Madhuri inamdar, Saurabh Piparsania, Savita inamdar Kuldeep Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the immunization coverage has increased over the past few years, school age is still a neglected area and accounts for high number of unimmunized children in developing world including India. Objective: This study has been undertaken to determine the immunization status of school children in an urban locality of Indore, a district of central India; and to determine if parental socioeconomic status affect immunization coverage. Material and methods: The study was school based cross-sectional, conducted in 50 schools of Indore district selected by random sampling. Children were between the ages of 5-16 years. Information was collected from parents by providing pre-tested proforma to the students. Result: Only 54.3% of children included in the survey were fully immunized as UIP schedule, while the percentage of partially immunized and unimmunized children was 42.1 and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The percentage of vaccination was significantly proportionate to higher socioeconomic status (p –value <0.0001.

  13. Is there evidence for dual causation between malaria and socioeconomic status? Findings from rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somi, Masha F; Butler, James R G; Vahid, Farshid; Njau, Joseph; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim

    2007-12-01

    Malaria's relationship with socioeconomic status at the macroeconomic level has been established. This is the first study to explore this relationship at the microeconomic (household) level and estimate the direction of association. Malaria prevalence was measured by parasitemia, and household socioeconomic status was measured using an asset based index. Results from an instrumental variable probit model suggest that socioeconomic status is negatively associated with malaria parasitemia. Other variables that are significantly associated with parasitemia include age of the individual, use of a mosquito net on the night before interview, the number of people living in the household, whether the household was residing at their farm home at the time of interview, household wall construction, and the region of residence. Matching estimators indicate that malaria parasitemia is associated with reduced household socioeconomic status. PMID:18165515

  14. Socioeconomic status, achieving occupational aspirations and sickness absence: A population based longitudinal study of Norwegian youths

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    Cay Gjerustad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available  This paper examines whether the degree of convergence between occupational aspirations and actual occupational achievement can elucidate the relationship between socioeconomic status and sickness absence. The analyses draw on survey data from a longitudinal study following 1,552 respondents from adolescence through young adulthood linked to register data on sickness absence. Occupational aspirations in adolescence were contrasted with actual occupational achievement in young adulthood and used to predict sickness absence. In accordance with existing research, socioeconomic status significantly predicted sickness absence, even after controlling for several relevant variables. Including aspiration achievement in the analysis reduced the relationship between socioeconomic status and sickness absence, while aspiration achievement was significantly related to sickness absence. The findings indicate that aspiration achievement mediates the relationship between socioeconomic status and sickness absence

  15. Pediatric Pulmonologists' Perceptions of Family Socioeconomic Status in Asthma Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara B.; Gordon, Brian J.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Adler, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physicians' assumptions about patients' socioeconomic status (SES) have been shown to influence clinical decision making in adult patients. The goal of this study is to assess the factors associated with pediatric pulmonologists' (PPs') subjective ratings of their patients' SES, and whether these factors differ by patient race/ethnicity. Methods: Parents of children with asthma (n=171) presenting for pulmonary care reported their SES using the MacArthur Subjective SES 10-rung ladder. The PPs (n=7) also estimated each family's SES. Two-level linear regression models with random intercepts (level 1: PP's SES ratings; level 2: PPs) were used to assess the predictors of PP-estimated family SES. The analyses were then stratified by race/ethnicity. Results: Parental educational, insurance type, age, and race/ethnic background were associated with PPs' SES ratings. Black/African American families were rated lower than white families, accounting for other demographic factors (b=?0.60, p<0.01), but families of other races/ethnicities were not (b=?0.10, p=0.29). Even when comparing families with the same level of parental education, black/African American families, but not families of other backgrounds, were judged to have lower SES than white families (from 0.77 rungs lower among parents with some college, to 1.2 rungs lower among parents with high school or less; both p<0.05). Conclusions: Racial differences in PPs' ability to estimate families' subjective SES in asthma care may be a function of unconscious societal biases about race and class. Collecting subjective SES from families and PPs during the office visit could facilitate discussions about material and psychosocial needs and resources that influence treatment effectiveness. PMID:25276485

  16. The role of DCDC2 genetic variants and low socioeconomic status in vulnerability to attention problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Valentina; Marino, Cecilia; Giorda, Roberto; Molteni, Massimo; Nobile, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Both genetic and socio-demographic factors influence the risk for behavioral problems in the developmental age. Genetic studies indicate that shared genetic factors partially contribute to behavioral and learning problems, in particular reading disabilities (RD). For the first time, we explore the conjoint role of DCDC2 gene, an identified RD candidate gene, and socioeconomic status (SES) upon behavioral phenotypes in a general population of Italian children. Two of the most replicated DCDC2 markers [i.e., regulatory element associated with dyslexia 1 (READ1), rs793862] were genotyped in 631 children (boys = 314; girls = 317) aged 11-14 years belonging to a community-based sample. Main and interactive effects were tested by MANOVA for each combination of DCDC2 genotypes and socioeconomic status upon emotional and behavioral phenotypes, assessed by Child Behavior Check-List/6-18. The two-way MANOVA (Bonferroni corrected p value = 0.01) revealed a trend toward significance of READ1(4) effect (F = 2.39; p = 0.016), a significant main effect of SES (F = 3.01; p = 0.003) and interactive effect of READ1(4) × SES (F = 2.65; p = 0.007) upon behavioral measures, showing higher attention problems scores among subjects 'READ1(4+) and low SES' compared to all other groups (p values range 0.00003-0.0004). ANOVAs stratified by gender confirmed main and interactive effects among girls, but not boys. Among children exposed to low socioeconomic level, READ1 genetic variant targets the worst outcome in children's attention. PMID:25012462

  17. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MENTAL HEALTH AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL INCOME DYNAMICS STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Ardington, C.; Case, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between mental health and socioeconomic status and assesses the extent to which the correlates of depression change over the life cycle. Mean depression scores for South Africans are markedly higher than those found in other countries. There are large differences in depression between population groups. For both men and women, sixty percent of the gap between Africans and whites can be explained by their socioeconomic status. Household expenditure per m...

  18. Children’s Glycemic Control: Mother’s Knowledge and Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrahman Nasser Al-Odayani; Omar Zayyan Alsharqi; Alaeddin Mohammad Khalaf Ahmad; Ala`Eddin Mohammad Khalaf Ahmad; Hussein Mohammad Al-Borie; Qattan, Ameerah M. N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) of the mother’s knowledge about different aspects of diabetes and the glycemic control of type 1 children with diabetes. Samples were taken from successive admissions to the outpatient diabetes clinics in Prince Sultan Medical Military City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well designed questionnaire covering different aspects including demographic data, educational background, and socioeconomic status of the c...

  19. Socioeconomic Status and Health Communication Inequalities in Japan: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Hayashi, Hanae; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable evidence suggests that communication inequality is one potential mechanism linking social determinants, particularly socioeconomic status, and health inequalities. This study aimed to examine how dimensions of health communication outcomes (health information seeking, self-efficacy, exposure, and trust) are patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan. Methods: Data of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 2,455 people aged 15–75 years in Japan were us...

  20. Learning Motivation Mediates Gene-by-Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Mathematics Achievement in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker-drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children’s entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences on early achievement is by facilitating the processes by which children select, evoke, and attend to learning experiences that are consistent with...

  1. Community, Family, and Subjective Socioeconomic Status: Relative Status and Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Elizabeth C; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2014-09-15

    Objective: Relative socioeconomic status (SES) may be an important social determinant of health. The current study aimed to examine how relative SES, as measured by subjective SES, income inequality, and individual SES relative to others in the community, is associated with a wide range of adolescent health outcomes, after controlling for objective family SES. Method: Adolescents (13-16 years; N = 2,199) from the Quebec Child and Adolescent Health and Social Survey were included. Socioeconomic measures included adolescents' subjective SES; parental education and household income; community education/employment, income, and poverty rate; and community income inequality. Health outcomes included self-rated health, mental health problems, dietary and exercise health behaviors, substance-related health behaviors, reported physical health, and biomarkers of health. Best-fitting multilevel regression models (participants nested within schools) were used to test associations. Results: Findings indicated that lower subjective SES was associated with poorer health outcomes. After accounting for family SES, lower community education/employment had an additional negative effect on health, while lower community income had a protective effect for certain health outcomes. There was less evidence for an independent effect of income inequality. Conclusions: Findings highlight the importance of measures of relative SES that span across a number of levels and contexts, and provide further understanding into the socioeconomic gradient in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25222085

  2. Relationships between Family Levels of Socioeconomic Status and Distribution of Breast Cancer Risk Factors

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    Pegah Mohaghegh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Not only the expand development of knowledge for reducing risk factors, but also the improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and socioeconomic inequalities could affect cancer incidence, diagnosis stage, and mortality. The aim of this study was investigation the relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study has conducted on 526 patients who were suffering from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2008 to December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status has filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS19. Results: The mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41. According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between family socioeconomic status and patient's age at diagnosis of breast cancer (p value 0.001. In the multiple logistic regressions, the relationship between excellent socioeconomic status and number of abortions was significant (p value> 0.007. Furthermore, the relationships between moderate and good socioeconomic statuses and smoking were significant (p value=0.05 and p value=0.02, respectively. Conclusion: The results have indicated that among those patients having better socioeconomic status, age at cancer diagnosis, number of pregnancies and duration of breast feeding was lower, and then number of abortions was more than the others. According to the results of this study, it was really important to focus on family socioeconomic status as a critical and effective variable on breast cancer risk factors among the Iranian women.

  3. Relationships between Family Levels of Socioeconomic Status and Distribution of Breast Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Pegah; Yavari, Parvin; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Abadi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Shormeij, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Background Not only the expand development of knowledge for reducing risk factors, but also the improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and socioeconomic inequalities could affect cancer incidence, diagnosis stage, and mortality. The aim of this study was investigation the relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study has conducted on 526 patients who were suffering from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2008 to December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status has filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS19. Results The mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41). According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between family socioeconomic status and patient's age at diagnosis of breast cancer (p value 0.001). In the multiple logistic regressions, the relationship between excellent socioeconomic status and number of abortions was significant (p value> 0.007). Furthermore, the relationships between moderate and good socioeconomic statuses and smoking were significant (p value=0.05 and p value=0.02, respectively). Conclusion The results have indicated that among those patients having better socioeconomic status, age at cancer diagnosis, number of pregnancies and duration of breast feeding was lower, and then number of abortions was more than the others. According to the results of this study, it was really important to focus on family socioeconomic status as a critical and effective variable on breast cancer risk factors among the Iranian women.

  4. The relationship between body structure and the socio-economic status in Hungarian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsakai, Annamaria; Bodzsar, Eva B

    2014-06-01

    Among the numerous factors that influence the pattern of children's growth and development there are factors of the changeable socio-economic environment. The inequalities among the socio-economic strata in the Hungarian society have increased during last decades. The main objective of the study was to examine the body structure of children and adolescents living in different socio-economic backgrounds. The subjects of the present paper (9479 boys, 9304 girls) were examined in the 2nd Hungarian National Growth Study 2003-2006. Body structure was assessed by some absolute body dimensions, BMI, body composition and body shape indices. Children were grouped into relatively good, average and poor socio-economic subgroups by considering the education and occupation of the parents as well as the number of children in the family. Significant differences were found in the body structure of children varying in the socio-economic background: the better the socio-economic conditions the higher stature in both genders, while the lower relative fatness was found only in pubertal girls. The prevalence of unhealthy nutritional statuses (both underweight and overweight/ obese) was significantly lower in children living in better socio-economic conditions in both genders. Differences that were found in the body structure of children living in different socio-economic backgrounds emphasize the importance of using reference growth values layered also to socio-economic strata for screening nutritional status in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25144976

  5. Influence of socioeconomic status on the relationship between locus of control and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Shashidhar; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy; Singh, Sweta

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between Locus of Control (LoC) and oral health among a group of rural adolescent school children and to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between health, LoC and oral health status. A total of 318 children 15 years of age from a public and private school formed the study population. The children were administered following the Indian translation of the 18-item Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, and subsequently examined for caries and oral hygiene. T tests and correlation analyses showed a significant relationship between higher 'Internal' Locus of Control and dental caries. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on LoC and oral health using three interaction models which showed a statistically significant interaction between 'Internal' LoC and socioeconomic status on caries. Socioeconomic stratum-specific estimates of the relationship between the LoC and caries revealed a positive association between Internal LoC and caries in the middle socioeconomic group. The results demonstrated the relationship between Locus of Control and oral health, and the role of socioeconomic status having a strong bearing on this relationship. PMID:21594202

  6. Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh

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    Syed M. A. Hanifi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES. Objective: The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design: We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4. The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results: Analysing cause of death (CoD revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were the leading causes of deaths (37%, followed by communicable diseases (CDs (22%, perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%, and injury and accidents (6%; the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years, which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04. For adult and the elderly (15 years and older, NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%, followed by CDs (23%. For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005, and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0.001. Conclusions: Epidemiologic transition is taking place with a shift from the dominance of CDs to NCDs. SES inequity in mortality still persists – the poor suffer from CDs in all age groups, whereas those better off suffer more from NCDs than CDs. Policy makers thus need to consider the social distribution of diseases before developing any public health action targeted towards reducing mortality and the extent of disease burden in an equitable manner.

  7. Ethnic Background, Socioeconomic Status, and Problem Severity as Dropout Risk Factors in Psychotherapy with Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Anna M.; Boon, Albert E.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Hoeve, Machteld; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dropout from child and adolescent psychotherapy is a common phenomenon which can have negative consequences for the individual later in life. It is therefore important to gain insight on dropout risk factors. Objective: Several potential risk factors [ethnic minority status, a lower socioeconomic status (SES), and higher problem…

  8. Diabetes prevalence and socioeconomic status: a population based study showing increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in deprived areas

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, V.; Unwin, N.; Sherriff, P.; Bilous, R.; Kelly, W.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To establish the relation between socioeconomic status and the age-sex specific prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The hypothesis was that prevalence of type 2 diabetes would be inversely related to socioeconomic status but there would be no association with the prevalence of type 1 diabetes and socioeconomic status.?SETTING—Middlesbrough and East Cleveland, United Kingdom, district population 287 157.?PATIENTS—4313 persons with diabetes identified from...

  9. Household and community socioeconomic and environmental determinants of child nutritional status in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Pongou Roland; Ezzati Majid; Salomon Joshua A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Undernutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine the household and community level socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with child nutritional status in Cameroon, and changes in the effects of these factors during the 1990s economic crisis. We further consider age-specific effects of household economic status on child nutrition. Methods Child nutritional status was measured by weight-fo...

  10. Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensio...

  11. Socioeconomic Status and Subclinical Coronary Disease in the Whitehall II Epidemiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Steptoe, A.; Hamer, M.; O Donnell, K.; Venuraju, S.; Marmot, M. G.; Lahiri, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There are pronounced socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease, but the extent to which these primarily reflect gradients in underlying coronary artery disease severity or in the clinical manifestation of advanced disease is uncertain. We measured the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) as indexed by grade of employment and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort, and tested the contribution of lifestyle, biological and ...

  12. Family Socioeconomic Status and Consistent Environmental Stimulation in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Crosnoe, Robert; Leventhal, Tama; Wirth, R. J.; Pierce, Kim M.; Pianta, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The transition into school occurs at the intersection of multiple environmental settings. This study applied growth curve modeling to a sample of 1,364 American children, followed from birth through age six, who had been categorized by their exposure to cognitive stimulation at home and in preschool child care and first grade classrooms. Of special interest was the unique and combined contribution to early learning of these three settings. Net of socioeconomic selection into different setting...

  13. Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudette D., Ncho; Susan C.D., Wright.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situ [...] ation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch's approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.

  14. The Correlation between the Family Levels of Socioeconomic Status and Stage at Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

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    Pegah Mohaghegh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stage is one of the most important prognostic factors for the cancer diagnosis, including the breast cancer. Studies have found that the rate of breast cancer late-stage diagnosis, among the women with lower socioeconomic status, is more than the others. The aim of this study was investigation the relationship between family levels of socioeconomic status and stage at diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive study has conducted on 526 patients who have suffered from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti university of Medical science, from March 2008 till December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family status of socioeconomic status, have filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS 19. Results: The results have indicated that the mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41. There was a significant relationship between stage at diagnosis of breast cancer and family levels of socioeconomic status at the time of diagnosis (p=0.024. Also, the relationship between stage at diagnosis and living place (in or out of Tehran was significant (p=0.044. In the Multiple logistic regressions, these associations were significant. There wasn’t any significant relationship between stage of diagnosis of breast cancer and age, marital status and family history. Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study, deep paying attention to the family socioeconomic status as an important variable in stage at diagnosis of breast cancer, among Iranian women, was too important, and then providing the prevention plans related to this topic has seemed necessary.

  15. School Attendance in Nigeria: Understanding the Impact and Intersection of Gender, Urban-Rural Residence, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of…

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Asthma in Urban Minority Youths. The GALA II and SAGE II Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sam S.; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Martin, Melissa; Roth, Lindsey A.; Galanter, Joshua; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Eng, Celeste; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A.; Avila, Pedro C.; Farber, Harold J.; Serebrisky, Denise; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Williams, L. Keoki; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Thyne, Shannon; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Burchard, Esteban G.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The burden of asthma is highest among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations; however, its impact is differentially distributed among racial and ethnic groups. Objectives: To assess the collective effect of maternal educational attainment, annual household income, and insurance type on childhood asthma among minority, urban youth. Methods: We included Mexican American (n = 485), other Latino (n = 217), and African American (n = 1,141) children (aged 8–21 yr) with and without asthma from the San Francisco Bay Area. An index was derived from maternal educational attainment, annual household income, and insurance type to assess the collective effect of socioeconomic status on predicting asthma. Logistic regression stratified by racial and ethnic group was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further examined whether acculturation explained the socioeconomic-asthma association in our Latino population. Measurements and Main Results: In the adjusted analyses, African American children had 23% greater odds of asthma with each decrease in the socioeconomic index (aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09–1.38). Conversely, Mexican American children have 17% reduced odds of asthma with each decrease in the socioeconomic index (aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72–0.96) and this relationship was not fully explained by acculturation. This association was not observed in the other Latino group. Conclusions: Socioeconomic status plays an important role in predicting asthma, but has different effects depending on race and ethnicity. Further steps are necessary to better understand the risk factors through which socioeconomic status could operate in these populations to prevent asthma. PMID:24050698

  17. Inequalities in maternal care in Italy: the role of socioeconomic and migrant status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Lauria; Manila, Bonciani; Angela, Spinelli; Michele E., Grandolfo.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal care is affected by socioeconomic factors. This study analyses the effect of maternal education, employment and citizenship on some antenatal and postnatal care indicators in Italy. METHODS: Data are from two population-based follow-up surveys conducted to evaluate the quality [...] of maternal care in 25 Italian Local Health Units in 2008/9 and 2010/1 (6942 women). Logistic models were applied and interactions among independent variables were explored. RESULTS: Education and employment status affect antenatal and postnatal care indicators and migrant women are less likely to make use of health opportunities. Low education status exacerbates the initial social disadvantage of migrants. Migrant women are also more affected by socioeconomic pressure to restart working early, with negative impact on postnatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions focusing on women's empowerment may tackle inequalities in maternal care for those women, Italians or migrants, who have a worse initial maternal health literacy due to their lower socioeconomic conditions.

  18. Food Reinforcement Partially Mediates the Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Henry; Carr, Katelyn A.; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2013-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (low SES), as defined by income or educational attainment, has been associated with obesity in industrialized nations. Low SES persons have limited resources and may experience food insecurity that increases food reinforcement. Food reinforcement has been positively related to energy intake and weight status, and increased food reinforcement may explain the higher prevalence of obesity among low SES individuals who have restricted access to low-energy-dense foods and ...

  19. Reproductive behavior, ethnicity and socio-economic status a comparison of two Serbian Gypsy groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?vorovi? Jelena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on original fieldwork in Serbia, this paper elucidates and contrasts the reproductive behavior of typically poor Gypsies with a group of much wealthier Gypsies living in a Serbian village. This paper will test two hypotheses: 1 Gypsy reproductive behavior is a result of their ethnic traditional strategy, and/or 2 Gypsy reproduction is a result of low status and being poor. This paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic status, reproductive behavior and ethnicity.

  20. The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-10-01

    There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n?=?287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t?=?-2.7, P?=?.04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t?=?-2.04, P?=?.04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities. PMID:24879885

  1. Socio-economic status, cortisol and allostatic load: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dowd, Jennifer B.; Simanek, Amanda M.; Aiello, Allison E.

    2009-01-01

    Background The notion that chronic stress contributes to health inequalities by socio-economic status (SES) through physiological wear and tear has received widespread attention. This article reviews the literature testing associations between SES and cortisol, an important biomarker of stress, as well as the summary index of allostatic load (AL).

  2. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus H.; Kirkby, Nikolai; Twetman, Svante; Heitmann, Berit L.; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Paster, Bruce J.; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy) were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01). Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status. PMID:24765243

  3. Socio-economic status of Dog owners in Nagpur city of Maharashtra

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    A.D. Sawaimul

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey was carried out to study socioeconomic status of 50 dog owners in Nagpur of Maharashtra.The result revealed the businessmen (38% are more interested in dog keeping followed by government servants (16% and student (12%. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 229-229

  4. Adults Engaged in Lifelong Learning in Taiwan: Analysis by Gender and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Lin, Sung-Po

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the nature of adult engagement in lifelong learning in Taiwan. Previous studies have shown that gender and socioeconomic status (SES) are key variables related to equal access to education. Are these variables related to adults' engagement in lifelong learning in a specific country? This study analysed data from a survey of…

  5. Relations of Gender and Socioeconomic Status to Physics through Metacognition and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Pesman, Haki

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) predicted physics achievement as mediated by metacognition and physics self-efficacy. Data were collected from 338 high school students. The model designed for exploring how gender and SES-related differences in physics achievement were explained through metacognition and physics…

  6. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  7. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  8. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

  9. Exploring the Limitations of Measures of Students' Socioeconomic Status (SES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Emily R.; Adelson, Jill L.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a nationally representative student dataset to explore the limitations of commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES). Among the identified limitations are patterns of missing data that conflate the traditional conceptualization of SES with differences in family structure that have emerged in recent years and a lack of…

  10. Parenting, Family Socioeconomic Status, and Child Executive Functioning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…

  11. How Do Epistemological Beliefs Differ by Gender and Socio-Economic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…

  12. Under-reporting of socioeconomic status of patients in stroke trials: adherence to CONSORT principles.

    OpenAIRE

    Magin, P.; Victoire, A.; Zhen, Xm; Furler, J.; Pirotta, M.; Lasserson, Ds; Levi, C.; Tapley, A.; Driel, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The 2001 Revised Consolidated Standards of Reporting of Trials (CONSORT) statement requires reporting of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) to include participants' baseline demographics. This enables comparison of intervention and control groups on potential confounding variables as well as assessment of study generalizability. Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with access to care and outcomes (mortality, functional outcome, recurrent stroke, and hospital read...

  13. Children's Sleep and Cognitive Functioning: Race and Socioeconomic Status as Moderators of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Race and socioeconomic status (SES) moderated the link between children's sleep and cognitive functioning. One hundred and sixty-six 8- to 9-year-old African and European American children varying in SES participated. Sleep measures were actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-report; cognitive measures were from the Woodcock-Johnson III and reaction…

  14. Effects of Family Socioeconomic Status on Parents’ Views Concerning the Integration of Computers into Preschool Classrooms

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    Triantafillia Natsiopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid growth of ICT has led to an important increase in the use of computers in preschool age. However the benefits of this use are a debatable issue. Some focus on the positive effects of computers on learning and kids’ cognitive development while others believe that computers may negatively affect their social and motivational impact.Aim: The aim of this research was to study Greek parents’ views on preschools’ computer programs and how these views are influenced by the family’s socioeconomic level.Methodology: The survey involved 280 parents of children aged 3-5 years, of whom 140 were in the upper socioeconomic level and the other 140 in a lower one.Results: The upper socioeconomic level parents thought that the use of computers was appropriate for preschool children more than parents of lower socioeconomic status (P=0.01. and that its inclusion in the preschool center’s program would work in favor for children who have no computer at home (P=0.00. Parents with higher socioeconomic status felt more than the others that such a program can support the provision of knowledge (P=0.00, the development of mathematical (P=0.00 and linguistic skills (P=0.00 and entertain children (P=0.04. Furthermore, the upper socioeconomic level parents as opposed to the other group do not consider that the computer will remove preschool educator from their leading and teaching role (P=0.04 or reduce their communication with the preschoolers (P=0.00.Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that Greek parents, especially those of higher socioeconomic level, have a positive view on the integration of a computer program into the preschoolclassroom.

  15. Parental Involvement at Home: Analyzing the Influence of Parents’ Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The present study focuses on the relationship between parent’s socioeconomic status and parental involvement in their child’s education at home. Eighty Indian students who were studying in one the best performance-based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. It comprised 20 students from Year Two, 20 students from Year Three, 20 students from Year Four and 20 students from Year Five. Of these 80 students, 40 low-achieving students and 40 high-achieving students were identified based on the previous final year school examination results. A questionnaire was used to obtain quantitative data related to the parent’s socio-economic background and their ¬involvement strategies in their children’s education at home from the students’ parents. The findings of this study indicated that most parents, regardless of their socioeconomic background showed a high degree of involvement in most of the involvement strategies at home to ensure their child’s educational success. However, the parent’s education level, employment status, and income among the parents from the lower socioeconomic class affect their understanding and knowledge on the actual values that need to be placed on their child’s education. This causes their children to experience deprivation. As a result, the higher the parent’s socioeconomic status, the greater the parent’s involvement in their child’s education. As a result, the parents inculcate good skills, behaviour and values of education in their children which are extremely important for their academic success.

    Keywords: Parental involvement; Socioeconomic; Education; National Type Tamil School

  16. Socioeconomic Status, Youth’s Eating Patterns and Meals Consumed away from Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hejazi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was design to determine whether there is a difference in the number of meals consumed away from home (restaurant or fast food between low socioeconomic status (SES and high SES adolescents. Additionally, this study sought to determine if the nutrients and food group chosen differs among children who consume meals away from home versus those who do not. Eighty four adolescences (51 boys and 33 girls ages 12-16 years and their parents from Shiraz, Iran completed the three 24 h diet recalls (one weekend and two week days. The demographics questionnaire was also completed from each participant. Data analyzed using SPSS and hypothesis tested using one way ANOVA. There was no significant difference in the number of meals consumed away from home in low SES adolescents compared to high SES (p = 0.464. However, those who consumed meals away from home reported a higher percentage of calories from fat (p = 0.007 and serving of fried vegetables (p = 0.010 compared to those who consumed no meals away from home. These findings suggest that intervention for adolescents eating patterns should provide information on choosing healthy meals away from home.

  17. Socioeconomic status and health: education and income are independent and joint predictors of ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Uchino, Bert N; Smith, Timothy W; Birmingham, Wendy

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological research suggests that different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) such as income and education may have independent and/or interactive effects on health outcomes. In this study, we examined both simple and more complex associations (i.e., interactions) between different indicators of SES and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) during daily life. Our sample consisted of 94 married couples who completed a one-day ABP protocol. Both income and education were independently related to systolic blood pressure and only income was significantly related to diastolic blood pressure. There were also statistical interactions such that individuals with high levels of both income and education evidenced the lowest ABP. Gender moderated these findings. Three-way interactions revealed that, in general, women appear to benefit from either indicator of SES, whereas men appear to benefit more from income. The findings are consistent with epidemiological research and suggest one important physiological mechanism by which income and education may have independent and interactive effects on health. PMID:23645146

  18. Socio-economic status and health care utilization in rural Zimbabwe: findings from Project Accept (HPTN 043)

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Sweat; Morin, Stephen F.; Michal Kulich; Daniel Hlubinka; Basant Singh; Sebastian Kevany; Oliver Murima

    2012-01-01

    Zimbabwe’s HIV epidemic is amongst the worst in the world, and disproportionately effects poorer rural areas. Access to almost all health services in Zimbabwe includes some form of cost to the client. In recent years, the socio-economic and employment status of many Zimbabweans has suffered a serious decline, creating additional barriers to HIV treatment and care. We aimed to assess the impact of i) socio-economic status (SES) and ii) employment status on the utilization of health services ...

  19. Socioeconomic status and ethnicity of deceased donor kidney recipients compared to their donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, J T; Hyder, J A; Elias, N; Nguyen, L L; Markmann, J F; Delmonico, F L; Yeh, H

    2015-04-01

    Public perception and misperceptions of socioeconomic disparities affect the willingness to donate organs. To improve our understanding of the flow of deceased donor kidneys, we analyzed socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic gradients between donors and recipients. In a retrospective cohort study, traditional demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as an SES index, were compared in 56,697 deceased kidney donor and recipient pairs transplanted between 2007 and 2012. Kidneys were more likely to be transplanted in recipients of the same racial/ethnic group as the donor (p?Kidneys tended to go to recipients of lower SES index (50.5% of the time, p?kidneys do not appear to be transplanted from donors of lower SES to recipients of higher SES; this information may be useful in counseling potential donors and their families regarding the distribution of their organ gifts. PMID:25758952

  20. Child-Directed Speech: Relation to Socioeconomic Status, Knowledge of Child Development and Child Vocabulary Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine why American parents from different socioeconomic backgrounds communicate in different ways with their children. Forty-seven parent-child dyads were videotaped engaging in naturalistic interactions in the home for ninety minutes at child age 2 ; 6. Transcripts of these interactions provided measures of child-directed…

  1. Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina DIMA-COZMA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Systemic hypertension is a common disease in the population and is one of the most important risk factors whose prevalence reaches 28% in U.S.A, 44% in Europe, so that in 2025, it is estimated that hypertensive persons will reach 1.56 billion worldwide. In our country, the overall prevalence was 44.92%, mainly higher in males (50.17% than females (41.11%. We conducted an assessment of social and psychological factors in association with medical and biological routine quantification in a group of 80 hypertensives newly diagnosed, compared with a control group. Questionnaires were for studying the marital status, education level, quantifying the number of working hours per day, the level of physical training and professional socio-familial stress, smoking, alcohol consumption, after which patients were tested to assess the psychometric anxiety and depression using the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The results may support an increased risk of hypertension in individuals who are undergoing to social and family stress, working over 10 hours/day and who record mild or moderate levels of anxiety and depression at evaluation tests. These data support the implementation of complex programs to decrease the risk of hypertension by working professionals in the medical, social and psychological fields of expertise.

  2. Influence of the socioeconomic status on the prevalence of malocclusion in the primary dentition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiene Silva, Normando; Regina Fátima Feio, Barroso; David, Normando.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência da condição socioeconômica na prevalência de má oclusão na dentição decídua em uma população amazônica. MÉTODOS: esse estudo transversal compreendeu 652 crianças, de ambos os sexos, entre 3 e 6 anos de idade. Os indivíduos estavam matriculados na pré-escola na rede pr [...] ivada de ensino (alto nível socioeconômico; n = 312) ou, rede pública (baixo nível socioeconômico; n = 340), em Belém, no Pará. O teste chi-quadrado e estatística binominal foram usados para avaliar as diferenças entre os grupos socioeconômicos, com nível de significância considerado em p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of socioeconomic background on malocclusion prevalence in primary dentition in a population from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 652 children (males and females) aged between 3 to 6 years old. Subjects were enrolled in private p [...] reschools (higher socioeconomic status - HSS, n = 312) or public preschools (lower socioeconomic status - LSS, n = 340) in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Chi-square and binomial statistics were used to assess differences between both socioeconomic groups, with significance level set at P

  3. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Maple-Brown Louise; Cunningham Joan; Hodge Allison; Dunbar Terry; Dea Kerin, O.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES). Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous ...

  4. Association between weight perception and socioeconomic status among adults in the Seychelles

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Julita; Paccaud Fred; Viswanathan Bharathi; Alwan Heba; Bovet Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have examined the association between weight perception and socioeconomic status (SES) in sub-Saharan Africa, and none made this association based on education, occupation and income simultaneously. Methods Based on a population-based survey (n = 1255) in the Seychelles, weight and height were measured and self-perception of one's own body weight, education, occupation, and income were assessed by a questionnaire. Individuals were considered to have appropriate...

  5. Personality, socio-economic status and inflammation: cross-sectional, population-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Millar, Keith; Lloyd, Suzanne M.; Mclean, Jennifer S.; Batty, David G.; Burns, Harry; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Deans, Kevin A.; Ford, Ian; Mcconnachie, Alex; Mcginty, Agnes; Mottus, Re?ne; Packard, Chris J.; Sattar, Naveed; Shields, Paul G.; Nathan, Yoga

    2013-01-01

    Background: Associations between socio-economic status (SES), personality and inflammation were examined to determine whether low SES subjects scoring high on neuroticism or hostility might suffer relatively higher levels of inflammation than affluent subjects. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 666 subjects were recruited from areas of high (most deprived – “MD”) and low (least deprived – “LD”) deprivation. IL-6, ICAM-1, CRP and fibrinogen were measured along with ...

  6. Postresection survival outcomes of pancreatic cancer according to demographic factors and socio-economic status

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Y.; Koscielny, A.; Glowka, T.; Hirner, A.; Kalff, J. C.; Standop, J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim Aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of demographic factors (DGF) and socio-economic status (SES) on survival after pancreatic cancer resection in a German setting. Methods Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified from our pancreatic resection database (1989-2008). DGF, SES, survival and tumor-related information were obtained from hospital records, a registry office questionnaire, and t...

  7. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Melanoma, Ultraviolet Radiation, and Socioeconomic Status

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  8. Diet composition, socio-economic status and food outlets development in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Paola

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among the British population. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975-2000. Daily intakes-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing on young age groups, trends of consumption over the 25-year period of study a...

  9. Stage and delay in breast cancer diagnosis by race, socioeconomic status, age and year.

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, J. L.; Langholz, B.; Bernstein, L.; Burciaga, C.; Danley, K.; Ross, R. K.

    1992-01-01

    Information on 23,567 Non-Hispanic White, 2,539 Black, and 2,380 Hispanic breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1977 and 1985 was used to evaluate the risk of late stage diagnosis and long duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis in relation to ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age and year of diagnosis. All data were collected by the University of Southern California Cancer Surveillance Program, the comprehensive population-based incidence registry of Los Angeles County. The results indicate t...

  10. Socioeconomic Determinants of Nutritional Status of Children in Lao PDR: Effects of Household and Community Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-i...

  11. Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: results from The Netherlands Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, A. J.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Den Brandt, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means of a self administered questionnaire. SETTING: Population originating from 204 municipalities in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 58,279 men aged 55-69 years. After 4.3 years of follow up, 162 i...

  12. Onset and Persistence of Daily Smoking: The Interplay of Socioeconomic Status, Gender, and Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Eric O.; Novak, Scott P.

    2009-01-01

    Gains in reducing the prevalence of smoking observed over the past 40 years have been substantially lower among lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups and women. In parallel, there have been strong and consistent associations of psychiatric disorders with SES, gender, and smoking. Yet few studies have examined the interrelations among these factors to identify their unique and shared contributions. In this study we examine (1) to what degree SES and gender predict new onset of daily smoking ...

  13. Obesity among school children in a province of southern Thailand and its association with socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Mari; Kuropakornpong, Valaya; Funahara, Yoshinori; Kamae, Isao; Sato, Shigeaki

    1998-01-01

    The association of nutrition status of children aged 7–12 years (n=663) with socioeconomic factors in a province of southern Thailand in 1995 was investigated. Three type of schools were surveyed: a school with a higher educational standard (elite school) in the municipality of the province, a school with many children from low-income families (low-income school) in the same municipality, and five ordinary schools in rural areas of the province (district schools). The proportions of obese c...

  14. Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status in Relation to Breast Cancer Incidence in African-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Julie R.; Boggs, Deborah A.; Wise, Lauren A.; Adams-campbell, Lucile L.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) for both individuals and neighborhoods has been positively associated with incidence of breast cancer, although not consistently. The authors conducted an assessment of these factors among African-American women, based on data from the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 59,000 African-American women from all regions of the United States. Individual SES was defined as the participant's self-reported level of education, and neighborhood SES was ...

  15. Time series analysis of air pollution and mortality: effects by cause, age and socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, N.; Fletcher, T.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between outdoor air pollution and mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.?DESIGN—Time series study?METHODS—All causes, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality were analysed and the role of age and socioeconomic status in modifying associations between mortality and air pollution were investigated. Models used Poisson regression and included terms for temporal patterns, meteorology, and autocorrelation.?MAIN RESULTS—All causes all ages mortality...

  16. Socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Serra Consol; Garcia-Closas Reina; Tardon Adonina; Villanueva Cristina M; Cantor Kenneth P; Castaño-Vinyals Gemma; Carrato Alfredo; Malats Núria; Rothman Nathaniel; Silverman Debra; Kogevinas Manolis

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Disinfection by-products in drinking water are chemical contaminants that have been associated with cancer and other adverse effects. Exposure occurs from consumption of tap water, inhalation and dermal absorption. Methods We determined the relationship between socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in 1271 controls from a multicentric bladder cancer case-control study in Spain. Information on lifetime drinking water sources, swimming pool attendance...

  17. “A Study Of Socio-economic Status And Academic Achievement, kendriya Vidyalayas Of Dibrugarh District”

    OpenAIRE

    Haimya Gohain

    2012-01-01

    Educational achievement is only an aspect of development among many sides. Academic achievement may be influenced by various socio-economic factors like age, gender, family size, parent's education and occupation and also by economic status of the family. Without having opportunities it is not possible to achieve something in any sphere of life. The main objective of this study is to study the academic achievement of the students of Class X ,CBSE Examination, 2011-12 of the Kendriya Vidyalaya...

  18. Respiratory performance and grip strength tests in Indian school bodys of different socio-economic status.

    OpenAIRE

    A.K., De; Debnath, P. K.; Dey, N. K.; Nagchaudhuri, J.

    1980-01-01

    Physical efficiency tests were performed on urban school boys drawn from high socio-economic status in comparison to rural school boys. The height and weight records of the subjects indicating growing process showed that the rural boys attained less physical growth than their urban counterparts. The Vital Capacity and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate data expressed either per unit of height or body surface area were significantly lower in rual boys. these findings indicated a poor development of the...

  19. Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status in primary school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and sass. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)

  20. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MENTAL HEALTH AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL INCOME DYNAMICS STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardington, C; Case, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between mental health and socioeconomic status and assesses the extent to which the correlates of depression change over the life cycle. Mean depression scores for South Africans are markedly higher than those found in other countries. There are large differences in depression between population groups. For both men and women, sixty percent of the gap between Africans and whites can be explained by their socioeconomic status. Household expenditure per member and the number of assets owned by the household are significant negative correlates of depression, as is educational attainment. Reporting that one is on the lowest rung of the socioeconomic status ladder, or that children in the household are often hungry, is associated with reporting more depressive symptoms. Adults report more symptoms of depression and anxiety at older ages, with the most dramatic increase occurring between young adulthood and middle adulthood. For the African sub-sample, this can be explained in part by prime-age and older adults being more troubled by poverty. PMID:21915159

  1. Socioeconomic status and hospitalization in the very old: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belleudi Valeria

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status could affect the demand for hospital care. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of age, socioeconomic status and comorbidity on acute hospital admissions among elderly. Methods We retrospectively examined the discharge abstracts data of acute care hospital admissions of residents in Rome aged 75 or more years in the period 1997–2000. We used the Hospital Information System of Rome, the Tax Register, and the Population Register of Rome for socio-economic data. The rate of hospitalization, modified Charlson's index of comorbidity, and level of income in the census tract of residence were obtained. Rate ratios and 95% confidence limits were computed to assess the relationship between income deciles and rate of hospitalization. Cross-tabulation was used to explore the distribution of the index of comorbidity by deciles of income. Analyses were repeated for patients grouped according to selected diseases. Results Age was associated with a marginal increase in the rate of hospitalization. However, the hospitalization rate was inversely related to income in both sexes. Higher income was associated with lower comorbidity. The same associations were observed in patients admitted with a principal diagnosis of chronic condition (diabetes mellitus, heart failure, chron obstructive pulmonary disease or stroke, but not hip fracture. Conclusion Lower social status and associated comorbidity, more than age per se, are associated with a higher rate of hospitalization in very old patients.

  2. Socioeconomic status as determinant for participation in mammography screening: assessing the difference between using women's own versus their partner's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellén, Malin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2010-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that participation in mammography screening tends to vary across socioeconomic levels. We assessed the difference between using the woman's own socioeconomic status (SES) and using that of her household or partner as determinant of participation in mammography screening.

  3. A Comparison of Teacher Rankings of Reading Readiness, Metropolitan Readiness Test Score Rankings, and Socioeconomic Status Rankings of First Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elijah, David V., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine to what extent teacher rankings of reading readiness compare with reading readiness test results, (2) to determine to what extent teacher rankings of reading readiness compare with pupil socioeconomic status, and (3) to determine to what extent readiness test results compare with pupil socioeconomic

  4. Same-sex cohabitors and health: the role of race-ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin

    2013-03-01

    A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120

  5. [Magnitude of food insecurity in Mexico: Its relationship with nutritional status and socioeconomic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the distribution of food insecurity (FI) in Mexico, from the perspective of food access and consumption, and its relationship with diverse socioeconomic factors and nutritional status. Materials and methods. Information from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (Ensanut 2012), National Income - Expense in Households Survey 2008 (ENIGH 2008), and from the National Council for Poverty Evaluation (Coneval) was gathered for this study. Food insecurity (FI) measurement was conducted by applying the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) and its relation with socioeconomic, dietetic, and nutritional variables. Results. In Mexico one out of three households suffers food insecurity in moderate or severe degree. FI not only increases the malnutrition risk in children but also contributes to the great incidence of diabetes, overweight and obesity in adults, principally in women. Conclusion. To improve structural agents and factors that impact in FI in Mexico is imperative, due to the consequences that it has in the country's development. PMID:25649457

  6. Subclinical psychopathology and socio-economic status in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg Christensen, Maj; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most potent risk factor for affective disorders is a family history of affective disorder but the specific factors that are transmitted in families are unknown. It is possible to investigate the relation between risk factors and affective disorder by using a high-risk design e.g.: a study of the healthy relatives of patients with affective disorders. AIM: To compare psychopathology and socio-economic status between twins with a co-twin history of affective disorder and twins without. METHODS: In a cross-sectional high-risk case-control study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nation-wide registers. Participants were assessed using semi-structured psychiatric interviews and self-rating of psychopathology. RESULTS: High-Risk twins had a lower education level, a lower work position and tendency towards being more often unemployed and early retired than the Low-Risk twins. Furthermore, they presented higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and were more likely to experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Healthy twins with a high genetic liability to affective disorder seem to present lower socio-economic status, higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and more often experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis than twins with no familial history of affective disorder. It is not possible from the present cross-sectional data to determine the causality of these findings, thus genetic liability to affective disorder, socio-economic status and minor psychopathology seem to have a complex interrelation.

  7. Does socioeconomic status affect mortality subsequent to hospital admission for community acquired pneumonia among older persons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moineddin Rahim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality for various health conditions. The purpose of this study was twofold: to examine the mortality experience of older persons admitted to hospital with community acquired pneumonia and to test the hypothesis of whether an association exists between socioeconomic status and mortality subsequent to hospital admission for community-acquired pneumonia. Methods A population based retrospective cohort study was conducted including all older persons patients admitted to Ontario hospitals with community acquired pneumonia between April 1995 and March 2001. The main outcome measures were 30 day and 1 year mortality subsequent to hospital admission for community-acquired pneumonia. Results Socioeconomic status for each patient was imputed from median neighbourhood income. Multivariate analyses were undertaken to adjust for age, sex, co-morbid illness, hospital and physician characteristics. The study sample consisted of 60,457 people. Increasing age, male gender and high co-morbidity increased the risk for mortality at 30 days and one year. Female gender and having a family physician as attending physician reduced mortality risk. The adjusted odds of death after 30-days for the quintiles compared to the lowest income quintile (quintile 1 were 1.02 (95% CI: 0.95–1.09 for quintile 2, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97–1.12 for quintile 3, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.94–1.08 for quintile 4 and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.96–1.12 for the highest income quintile (quintile 5. For 1 year mortality, compared to the lowest income quintile the adjusted odds ratios were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.96–1.06 for quintile 2, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.94–1.04 for quintile 3, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.93–1.05 for quintile 4 and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.97–1.10 for the highest income quintile. Conclusion Socioeconomic status is not associated with mortality in the older persons from community-acquired pneumonia in Ontario, Canada.

  8. Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general practice. METHODS: We enrolled 184 general practices and 5260 hypertensive patients. The general practitioners reported information about BP and diagnosis of diabetes. Information about education, income, antihypertensive drug treatment and other co-morbidity was retrieved from relevant registers from Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP

  9. Socioeconomic Status, Youth’s Eating Patterns and Meals Consumed away from Home

    OpenAIRE

    Hejazi, N.; Mazloom, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study was design to determine whether there is a difference in the number of meals consumed away from home (restaurant or fast food) between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high SES adolescents. Additionally, this study sought to determine if the nutrients and food group chosen differs among children who consume meals away from home versus those who do not. Eighty four adolescences (51 boys and 33 girls) ages 12-16 years and their parents from Shiraz, Iran completed the three 24 h die...

  10. A Study on Socio-Economic Status of Maid-Servant in Purulia Town

    OpenAIRE

    SHYAMAL KUMAR BISWAS

    2012-01-01

    Over last few decades, there have been rapid growths in the number of women employee in India and majority of them being engaged in informal sector of the economy where jobs are often low paid and repetitive. An attempt has been made in this study to trace out the socio-economic status of maid-servant as well as the manner in which they lives in the informal sector in Purulia Municipal area of the same district of West Bengal. The study has been carried out through personal interview and obse...

  11. Childhood socioeconomic status and risk of cardiovascular disease in middle aged US women: a prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Gliksman, M. D.; Kawachi, I.; Hunter, D.; Colditz, G. A.; Manson, J. E.; Stampfer, M. J.; Speizer, F. E.; Willett, W. C.; Hennekens, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine prospectively the relationship of childhood socioeconomic status and risk of cardiovascular disease in middle aged women. DESIGN--A prospective cohort of women with 14 years follow up data (1976-90). SUBJECTS--A total of 117,006 registered female nurses aged 30 to 55 years in 1976 and free of diagnosed coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Incident fatal coronary heart disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and stroke (fatal an...

  12. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes and socio-economic status: a prospective study in Duque de Caxias, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, M T C T; Luiz, R R; Teixeira, E G; Hanson, C; Trajman, A

    2011-07-01

    A prospective study was conducted to evaluate tuberculosis treatment outcomes according to socio-economic status (SES) using different classification criteria. Patients aged ?18 years under treatment for ?8 weeks were interviewed. Outcomes were classified as successful (cure/completed) or unsuccessful (default/failure/death). The overall treatment default ratio was 20.9% and the unsuccessful outcome rate was 24.1%. Unsuccessful treatment was associated with SES according to any criteria used, except for the definition of poverty line. Poverty seems to be hampering the achievement of the World Health Organization targeted 90% cure rate in developing settings. PMID:21682975

  13. Simple versus composite indicators of socioeconomic status in resource allocation formulae: the case of the district resource allocation formula in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Kuyeli Sanderson; Nkhoma Dominic; Manthalu Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The district resource allocation formula in Malawi was recently reviewed to include stunting as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status. In many countries where the concept of need has been incorporated in resource allocation, composite indicators of socioeconomic status have been used. In the Malawi case, it is important to ascertain whether there are differences between using single variable or composite indicators of socioeconomic status in allocations made to districts...

  14. Influence of socioeconomic status on lifestyle behavior modifications among survivors of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond H M; Gordon, Neil F; Chong, Alice; Alter, David A

    2008-12-15

    The impact of secondary prevention initiatives on survival in higher-risk socioeconomically disadvantaged patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may depend on behavioral adaptive responsiveness, uptake, and adherence to healthier lifestyles. From December 1999 to February 2003, 1,801 patients in Ontario, Canada were interviewed regarding their lifestyle behaviors at 30 days after their index AMI hospitalization. Data were obtained using self-reported surveys, medical chart abstraction, and administrative data linkage. Multivariate analyses were adjusted for baseline sociodemographic, cardiac risk severity, and co-morbid conditions. Socioeconomically disadvantaged patients had greater cardiac risk severity at baseline than did their wealthier better-educated counterparts. Compared with lower-income patients, patients with higher incomes were less likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for highest vs lowest income tertiles 0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21 to 0.63, p <0.001), more likely to participate in exercise (adjusted OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.85, p = 0.02), and more likely to decrease or discontinue alcohol use (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.34, p = 0.06). The relation between education and lifestyle behaviors was less pronounced for education than for income. After adjustment for baseline factors, patients who acknowledged participation in regular physical exercise at 1 month had a significantly lower long-term mortality than those who did not. In conclusion, socioeconomically disadvantaged patients were sicker at baseline and less behaviorally responsive to embarking on healthy lifestyle changes after AMI than were those of higher socioeconomic status. PMID:19064009

  15. The associations between socioeconomic status and obesity in Korean children from 1998 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Young Nam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing interests have been shown in associations between socioeconomic status (SES and obesity in relation to health inequality. The research objectives were 1 to examine associations between SES and child obesity (including overweight in Korea over 10 years and 2 to explore possible underlying mechanisms of relationships between SES and obesity. This study used the nationally representative data (KNHA-NES from 1998, 2005, to 2009. Children (10-18 year-old were grouped by household income (low, middle-low, middle-high and high adjusted for the number of family members. Z-scores of height, weight, and BMI for each child were calculated from measured anthropometric data using the 2007 Korean national growth charts. No statistically significant associations were found, however, changes in association patterns were noted. The lower SES group showed shorter height as well as lighter weight among Korean children. More research should be conducted to understand the effects of socioeconomic status on child obesity.  

  16. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-06-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668

  17. The Relationship between Emotional Quotients, Socioeconomic Status and Performance in Reading Comprehension: A Case Study of Iranian High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Talebinejad, Mohammad R.; Zahra Rezai Fard

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional quotient (EQ) and socioeconomic status and their effect on the performance of EFL learners in reading comprehension at high school. To this end, 80 homogenous EFL female students were selected from different high schools in Eghlid with the age range of 14-17. The participants were asked to complete Quick Placement Test, the "Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire", and the "Socioeconomic Questionnaire". Moreove...

  18. Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”) had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13–15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408

  19. Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions ("SSS-peer", "SSS-scholastic" and "SSS-sports") had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13-15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408

  20. A STUDY OF IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ON THE PERSONALITY AND LEVEL OF ASPIRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeet Kumar Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research work intents to study the impact of socio-economic status on personality and level of aspiration of secondary school students. Hence the researchers aim at to find out the impact of socio-economic status (SES on the Personality and level of aspiration of secondary school students according socio-economic status. Researchers selecting 1000 samples out of total population on the basis random sampling techniques with the help of standardized tools collected data and on the basis of normative survey method analysis and interpretation with required statistical technique like Mean, F-ratio and level of significance tested the hypotheses find out the purposive findings to focus on proper suggestive suggestion towards conclusion.

  1. Psychiatric illness, socioeconomic status, and marital status in people committing suicide: a matched case-sibling-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping

    2006-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls. MAIN RESULTS: The suicide rate ratios obtained from the case-sibling and the case-control analysis, respectively, were of similar magnitude. For example, in the case-sibling analysis the adjusted suicide rate ratios associated with discharge from a psychiatric hospital within the previous 365 days, being unemployed the previous year, having a postgraduate degree and being single were 42.13 (95% CI 17.75 to 100.02), 1.78 (1.35 to 2.36), 0.51 (0.21 to 1.26), and 2.69 (1.91 to 3.79), respectively. The corresponding rate ratios obtained from the case-control analysis were 47.91 (35.41 to 64.83), 1.76 (1.49 to 2.08), 0.45 (0.26 to 0.76), and 2.39 (1.87 to 3.07). Moreover, the analogous ratios when comparing siblings and controls were 1.98 (1.08 to 3.63), 1.22 (1.06 to 1.41), 0.65 (0.44 to 0.95), and 0.89 (0.75 to 1.06). CONCLUSIONS: People who commit suicide deviate similarly from siblings and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides.

  2. Socioeconomic Status and Obesity Relationship in Non-Menopause Women Aged 15-49 Years in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, K.; Golestan, B.; Majdzadeh, R.; Chaman, R.; Nedjat, S.; Karimloo, M.

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: To investigate the association between socio-economic status and obesity in non-menopause women aged 15-49 years in Tehran, Iran."nMethods: This study was based on Iran National Health Survey conducted in 1999. Obesity is defined as a Body Mass In­dex over ?30. Constructed area (per-person), educational level and job are considered as factors indicating the socioeconomic status. The results have been adjusted for age and mental health using univariate an...

  3. Socioeconomic status, family background and other key factors influence the management of head lice in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Birkemoe, Tone

    2014-05-01

    How head lice infestations are managed by households is an important but generally neglected issue in head lice research. In the present study, we investigate actions taken against head lice by Norwegian households in association with socioeconomic status, family background, school-related variables and other key factors. Repeat questionnaires distributed to caretakers of the same elementary school children during a 2-year period enabled us to study both previous head lice management and any changes in this management through time. Households from 12 schools spanning the main socioeconomic variation found in Norway participated in the study. All students with active head lice infestation were treated in the four investigated periods. Most caretakers used a thorough head lice checking technique and informed others of own infestation. Checking frequency was low as most children were inspected less than monthly. The best determinant of increased checking frequency and thoroughness was personal experience with head lice. The increased awareness, however, seemed to be somewhat short-lived, as there was a decrease in checking frequency and thoroughness within 1 year after infestation. Personal experience with head lice also increased general knowledge related to the parasite. Parents born in developing countries checked their children for head lice more frequently, although less thoroughly, informed fewer contacts when infested, used pediculicides preventively more often and knew less about head lice than parents born in developed countries. Households with highly educated mothers had a lower checking frequency, but their knowledge and willingness to inform others was high. Single parents were more concerned about economic costs and kept children home from school longer while infested than other parents. As head lice management varied among socioeconomic groups and with parental background, differentiated advice should be considered in the control of head lice. The biannual focus on head lice during the 2 years of investigation increased checking thoroughness, while checking frequency remained unchanged. Based on the results, we suggest new head lice management guidelines for health authorities. PMID:24609236

  4. Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyland Alastair H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56 and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68, respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.

  5. Individual and Community Socioeconomic Status: Impact on Mental Health in Individuals with Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingo, Chivon A.; Martin, Kathryn R.; Schoster, Britta; Callahan, Leigh F.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the impact of individual and community socioeconomic status (SES) measures on mental health outcomes in individuals with arthritis, participants with self-reported arthritis completed a telephone survey assessing health status, health attitudes and beliefs, and sociodemographic variables. Regression analyses adjusting for race, gender, BMI, comorbidities, and age were performed to determine the impact of individual and community level SES on mental health outcomes (i.e., Medical Outcomes Study SF-12v2 mental health component, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life Healthy Days Measure, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression [CES-D] scale). When entered singly, lower education and income, nonmanagerial occupation, non-homeownership, and medium and high community poverty were all significantly associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Income, however, was more strongly associated with the outcomes in comparison to the other SES variables. In a model including all SES measures simultaneously, income was significantly associated with each outcome variable. Lower levels of individual and community SES showed most consistent statistical significance in association with CES-D scores. Results suggest that both individual and community level SES are associated with mental health status in people with arthritis. It is imperative to consider how interventions focused on multilevel SES factors may influence existing disparities. PMID:25152816

  6. Antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in South America: history, current dissemination status and associated socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Raquel Regina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Picão, Renata Cristina

    2014-04-01

    South America exhibits some of the higher rates of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobactericeae worldwide. This continent includes 12 independent countries with huge socioeconomic differences, where the ample access to antimicrobials, including counterfeit ones, coexists with ineffective health systems and sanitation problems, favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant strains. This work presents a literature review concerning the evolution and current status of antimicrobial resistance threats found among Enterobacteriaceae in South America. Resistance to ?-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides was emphasized along with description of key epidemiological studies that highlight the success of specific resistance determinants in different parts of the continent. In addition, a discussion regarding political and socioeconomic factors possibly related to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains in clinical settings and at the community is presented. Finally, in order to assess the possible sources of resistant bacteria, we compile the current knowledge about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates in South American' food, food-producing animals and off-hospitals environments. By addressing that intensive intercontinental commerce and tourism neutralizes the protective effect of geographic barriers, we provide arguments reinforcing that globally integrated efforts are needed to decelerate the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains. PMID:24618111

  7. Adult Food Intake Patterns Are Related to Adult and Childhood Socioeconomic Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. Dietary data were collected at follow-up using a 195-item FFQ. Food patterns were derived from principal component analysis. Two food patterns labeled "traditional-western food pattern" and "green food pattern" were identified. In men, adult SES was inversely associated with adherence to the traditional-western food pattern. High adherence to the green food pattern was positively related to high adult SES in both sexes. Among women, those with high SES in childhood had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low childhood SES, regardless of adult SES. Among men, those with high adult SES had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low adult SES, regardless of childhood SES. In conclusion, socioeconomic position is important for the development of adult food intake patterns. However, childhood SES seems more important for adult female food intake patterns, whereas adult SES seems more important for adult male food intake patterns.

  8. Assessing the Association between the Degree of Pain and Socioeconomic Status among Older Persons in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Annin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current study sought to examine the association between the degree of pain and socioeconomic status among older male and female Ghanaians. Method: Data were drawn from the 2007–08 World Health Organization Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE survey conducted in Ghana (Young adults=803, Adults=1689 and Older adults=2616. This includes bodily aches Ghanaians experienced in the last 30 days. Analyses of the association of pain with predisposing and enabling factors were carried out by means of ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results: In the age-adjusted model, pain was statistically significantly associated with the cohabitating group as its marginal effect suggests that respondents in that category were less likely to experience pain as related to the others in women. Conclusion: This study established that Ghanaian men go through more pain than their women counterparts. This article is premier to our knowledge to apply ordered logistic for the degree of pain.

  9. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor. PMID:24374020

  10. The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Spence, John C; Raine, Kim D; Amrhein, Carl; Cameron, Nairne; Yasenovskiy, Vladimir; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Hemphill, Eric; Healy, Julia

    2008-12-01

    This study examines whether exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets varies with neighborhood-level socioeconomic status in Edmonton, Canada. Only market area and fast food proximity predicted supermarket exposure. For fast food outlets, the odds of exposure were greater in areas with more Aboriginals, renters, lone parents, low-income households, and public transportation commuters; and lower in those with higher median income and dwelling value. Low wealth, renter-occupied, and lone parent neighborhoods had greater exposure to fast food outlets, which was not offset by better supermarket access. The implications are troubling for fast food consumption among lone parent families in light of growing obesity rates among children. PMID:18234537

  11. Aging Expectations are Associated With Physical Activity and Health Among Older Adults of Low Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults. PMID:24700305

  12. Low Socioeconomic Status Is a Risk Factor for CPAP Acceptance Among Adult OSAS Patients Requiring Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Reuveni, Haim; Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Oksenberg, Arie; Tal, Asher; Tarasiuk, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: To evaluate whether socioeconomic status (SES) has a role in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients' decision to accept continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. Design: Cross-sectional study; patients were recruited between March 2007 and December 2007. Setting: University-affiliated sleep laboratory. Patients: 162 consecutive newly diagnosed (polysomnographically) adult OSAS patients who required CPAP underwent attendant titration and a 2-week adaptation period. Results: 40% (n = 65) of patients who required CPAP therapy accepted this treatment. Patients accepting CPAP were older, had higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and higher income level, and were more likely to sleep in a separate room than patients declining CPAP treatment. More patients who accepted treatment also reported receiving positive information about CPAP treatment from family or friends. Multiple logistic regression (after adjusting for age, body mass index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and AHI) revealed that CPAP purchase is determined by: each increased income level category (OR, 95% CI) (2.4; 1.2–4.6), age +1 year (1.07; 1.01–1.1), AHI ( ? 35 vs. < 35 events/hr) (4.2, 1.4–12.0), family and/or friends with positive experience of CPAP (2.9, 1.1–7.5), and partner sleeps separately (4.3, 1.4–13.3). Conclusions: In addition to the already known determinants of CPAP acceptance, patients with low SES are less receptive to CPAP treatment than groups with higher SES. CPAP support and patient education programs should be better tailored for low SES people in order to increase patient treatment initiation and adherence. Citation: Simon-Tuval T; Reuveni H; Greenberg-Dotan S; Oksenberg A; Tal A; Tarasiuk A. Low socioeconomic status is a risk factor for CPAP acceptance among adult OSAS patients requiring treatment. SLEEP 2009;32(4):545–552. PMID:19413149

  13. The Assessment of Relations between Socioeconomic Status and Number of Complications among Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Mohebbi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Iranian aged 25-64 estimated to be about 7.7%.The aim of current study was the assessment of socioeconomic status of diabetic patients and their complications.Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted on type 2 diabetic patients with complications in four major teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS during July 2009 to March 2010. All patients (530 were interviewed through a questionnaire with 85% response rate (450 patients. Skilled nurses were assigned as responsible for data collection. Collected data analyzed by Exact Fisher and ?2 tests using SPSS version 11.5.Results: The majority of patients had experienced one or more complications. Findings revealed that 50%, 33.6% and 16.4% of the patients suffered from one, two, and three complications of type 2 diabetes, respectively. Patients with cardiovascular complications included 22.2%, with both cardiovascular and eye complications (12.7%, and with cardiovascular, eye and foot ulcer together 14% of the respondents. Frequency of complications demonstrated significant relation with sex,age,educational level,type of occupation, duration of diabetes (P<0.001 and social class (P=0.002.The majority of patients (54.2% belonged to low income group.Conclusion: It seems patients with low socioeconomic status face more challenges in their social environment together with less psychological support. Health care systems are responsible to empower them to control their illness and feel a better life to live.

  14. Tuberculin status, socioeconomic differences and differences in all-cause mortality: experience from Norwegian cohorts born 1910–49

    OpenAIRE

    Liestøl, Knut; Tretli, Steinar; Tverdal, Aage; Mæhlen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background From 1948 to 1975, Norway had a mandatory tuberculosis (TB) screening programme with Pirquet testing, X-ray examinations and BCG vaccination. Electronic data registration in 1963–75 enabled the current study aimed at revealing (i) the relations between socioeconomic factors and tuberculosis infection and (ii) differences in later all-cause mortality according to TB infection status.

  15. The Importance of Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood for Adulthood Socioeconomic Status, Mental Health, and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Leon; Bynner, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status

  16. Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Feeding and Childhood Obesity among Mothers of Lower Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…

  17. The Association Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Violence Onset: Does it Vary by Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2005-01-01

    The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…

  18. Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

  19. The Relationship between Parents' Socioeconomic Status and Education Level, and Adult Occupational and Educational Achievement of Children with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Shelly C.; Spreen, Otfried

    1988-01-01

    The longitudinal study of 226 learning disabled (LD) subjects found a significant correlation (28 percent) between parents' educational level/socioeconomic status (SES) and subjects' occupational and academic outcome. Fathers' SES was the major contributing parent variable. SES should be carefully controlled in studies of LD students' achievement.…

  20. Hispanic Immigrant Children's English Language Acquisition: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Early Care Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgarner, Erin; Lin, Meiko

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort, this study investigates whether socioeconomic status (SES) moderates the association between center-based early childhood education (ECE) and English proficiency at kindergarten entry for 1st- and 2nd-generation Hispanic…

  1. Socioeconomic Status and Health across the Life Course: A Test of the Social Causation and Health Selection Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the merits of the "social causation" and "health selection" explanations for associations between socioeconomic status and self-reported overall health, musculoskeletal health and depression. Using data that include information about individuals' SES and health from childhood through late adulthood, I employ structural…

  2. Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, Culture, and Immigration: Examining the Potential Mechanisms Underlying Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Organized Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Price, Chara D.; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms…

  3. Contribution of ethnic group and socioeconomic status to degree of disability in rheumatoid arthritis in Chilean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Ana M; Muñoz, Sergio; Kaufman, Jay S; Martínez, Carlos; Riedemann, Pablo; Kaliski, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the contributions of ethnic group and socioeconomic status as social determinants related to disability and disease activity in Chilean Mapuche and non-Mapuche patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Descriptive cross-sectional study with a stratified hospital-based sample of 189 patients in treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. We assessed disability as categorical variable with the Health Assessment Questionnaire, disease activity with the Disease Activity Score instrument, and socioeconomic status with a standard questionnaire used by the Chilean government. Measures of association, stratified analyses and a multiple logistic regression model were used to analyze the data using the Stata 12.1 software package. Low socioeconomic status (annual income below US$ 7,200) is associated with disability (OR 3.87 CI 1.68-9.20) and Mapuche ethnic identity also contributes to disability (OR 2.48, CI 1.09-5.89). Relevant but not statistically significant in multivariable models were variables such as age, gender and place of residence. RA patients with a low socioeconomic status have almost three times the odds of having a moderate to high disability, independent of their ethnic group, gender or place of residence. Therefore, healthcare efforts should be aimed at promoting early diagnosis and prompt treatment among populations with high levels of poverty, which in the region of the Araucanía means primarily indigenous rural areas. PMID:25178741

  4. Effect Of Stress On The Academic Achievement Of Students In Relation To Socio-economic Status And Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Sharma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Children feel stress long before they grow up. Many children have to cope with family conflict, divorce, constant changes in schools, neighbourhood and child care arrangements, peer pressure and sometimes even violence in their homes or communities. The impact of a stressor depends on the academic achievement of students. It is the stress which does not allow students to perform well in classroom situation, the study objectives The objectives tested in this part of the study are as under 1. To study the differences in scores of academic achievement between the students possessing different levels of stress belonging to different socio-economic status and sex. 2. To study the nature of interaction between stress and socio-economic status, stress and sex, and among stress, socioeconomic status and sex when academic achievement was taken as a dependent variable. The study reveals that students belonging to High Socio-economic Status are academically sound as compared to their counterparts while as when male and female students compared together they have an equal chance of being academically sound or poor. This reveals that when stress and sex, and SES and Sex taken jointing they do effect on dependent variable i.e. academic achievement.

  5. Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy of Vietnamese Adolescents: The Role of Acculturation, Social Support, Socioeconomic Status, and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sheetal G.; Salahuddin, Nazish M.; O'Brien, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Individual (gender and acculturation), microsystem (social support), exosystem (socioeconomic status), and macrosystem (racism) variables were examined as predictors of career decision-making self-efficacy in a sample of 85 Vietnamese adolescents in the Washington, D.C., area. English language acculturation and peer support accounted for unique…

  6. Cumulative Socioeconomic Status Risk, Allostatic Load, and Adjustment: A Prospective Latent Profile Analysis with Contextual and Genetic Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Evans, Gary W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental…

  7. Brief Report: Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescents in Belgrade--Association with Socioeconomic Status and Family Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Dejana S.; Bjegovic, Vesna M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and family structure with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A total of 1782 15-year-old Belgrade schoolchildren (47.5% boys and 52.5% girls) completed a questionnaire from the WHO study, "Health behavior of schoolchildren." Results:…

  8. Sub-optimal birth weight in newborns of a high socioeconomic status population

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    Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sub-optimal birth weight (2,500 to 2,999 g term newborns to appropriate for gestational age (birth weight ? 3,000 g term newborns, regarding maternal data and newborn morbidity and mortality. Methods: Single term newborns, appropriate for gestational age from a high socioeconomic population (n = 1,242 with birth weight ranging from 2,500 to 2,999 g (Group I were compared to 4,907 newborns with birth weight ? than 3,000 g (Group II. Maternal and newborn characteristics were compared between the groups. The Mann-Whitney test, ?2 test and multivariate analysis were used. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Rresults: The frequency of sub-optimal birth weight newborns in the population studied was 20.2%. There was a significant association between sub-optimal birth weight and maternal weight before pregnancy and body mass index, maternal weight gain, height, smoking habit and hypertension. Newborns’ 1-minute Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia and hospital stay were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05. A significant relationship could not be established with the 5-minute Apgar score and pulmonary hypertension in both groups. Neonatal mortality did not differ between the groups. Cconclusions: Socioeconomic status was not a risk factor for sub-optimal birth weight in the studied population. Genetic and environmental factors were associated to sub-optimal weight and neonatal diseases. According to these data, this group of newborns should receive special attention from the health team.

  9. Family socioeconomic status and the provision of motor affordances in the home

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresa C. B., Freitas; Carl, Gabbard; Priscila, Caçola; Maria I. L., Montebelo; Denise C. C., Santos.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) and stimulation provided in the home environment are influential factors in aspects of child well-being including motor development. Little is known regarding the influence of SES on specific aspects of the home environment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ava [...] ilability of affordances in the home to promote infant motor development and family SES. METHOD : The sample consisted of 300 families with infants aged 3 to 18 months. SES was assessed according to family socioeconomic class, income and parental level of education. To evaluate motor affordances found at home, the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS) was used. The AHEMD-IS was designed to assess dimensions of the home environment including Physical Space (outside and inside space), Daily Activities and Play Materials (fine-motor and gross-motor toys). RESULTS: SES indicators significantly influenced the availability of Physical Space and Play Materials. The Physical Space dimension was influenced by family economic class and income. The Play Materials dimension was influenced by all SES indicators. Daily Activities were not influenced by any of the SES indicators. Daily activities and play material were influenced by the infant's age. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that SES indicators are influential with regard to the provision of motor affordances in the home environment for infants. However, daily activities, which represent an aspect of the environment that is highly dependent on parental generation of situations that are conducive to motor skill development, are independent of family SES.

  10. Impact of socioeconomic status on the use of inhaled corticosteroids in young adult asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper RØmhild; SØndergaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based longitudinal study was to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and anti-asthmatic treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) among young Danish adult asthmatics, and to investigate whether these associations were consistent over time. METHODS: We extracted data on prescription drug use, education, and income in 97 665 users of anti-asthmatic drugs, aged 18-44 years, identified in Statistics Denmark during 1997-2005. Individual information on education and income was used as measures of SES. Education was categorised into basic school/high school, vocational training, and higher education, and income was categorised into low, middle, and high income. Associations between ICS use and SES were estimated by logistic regression models. RESULTS: High levels of education and income were independently associated with ICS use, education demonstrating the strongest association. Using basic school/high school and low income as baselines, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ICS use for higher education were 1.46 (95% CI 1.40-1.51) and 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.14) for high income. Higher education was a nearly constant factor associated with ICS use throughout the observation period, but high income did not demonstrate any association before 2001 with increasing ORs observed each year hereafter. All associations became more pronounced when restricting to 35-44 year-olds. CONCLUSION: High levels of SES were positively associated with ICS use in young adult asthmatics. To encourage ICS use, special attention should be paid to asthmatics with low educational level and low income. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for this socioeconomic inequality.

  11. Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan

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    Takano Takehito

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.

  12. A national cohort study of parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour-the mediating role of school performance

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    Jablonska Beata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A link between low parental socioeconomic status and mental health problems in offspring is well established in previous research. The mechanisms that explain this link are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether school performance was a mediating and/or moderating factor in the path between parental socioeconomic status and the risk of hospital admission for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Methods A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-1977 was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the end of their ninth and final year of compulsory school until 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and linear regression analyses were performed to test whether the association between parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour was mediated or moderated by school performance. Results The results of a series of multiple regression analyses, adjusted for demographic variables, revealed that school performance was as an important mediator in the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and risk of non-fatal suicidal behaviour, accounting for 60% of the variance. The hypothesized moderation of parental socioeconomic status-non-fatal suicidal behaviour relationship by school performance was not supported. Conclusions School performance is an important mediator through which parental socioeconomic status translates into a risk for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Prevention efforts aimed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among young people will need to consider socioeconomic inequalities in school performance.

  13. Socioeconomic status, blood pressure progression, and incident hypertension in a prospective cohort of female health professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conen, David; Glynn, Robert J.; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Albert, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to examine the association between socioeconomic status, blood pressure (BP) progression, and incident hypertension. Methods and results We included 27 207 female health professionals free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Participants were classified into five education and six income categories. The main outcome variables were BP progression at 48 months of follow-up and incident hypertension during the entire study period. At 48 months, 48.1% of women had BP progression. The multivariable adjusted relative risks [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for BP progression were 1.0 (referent), 0.96 (0.92–1.00), 0.92 (0.88–0.96), 0.90 (0.85–0.94), and 0.84 (0.78–0.91) (P for trend <0.0001) across increasing education categories and 1.0 (referent), 1.01 (0.94–1.08), 0.99 (0.93–1.06), 0.97 (0.91–1.04), 0.96 (0.90–1.03), and 0.89 (0.83–0.96) across increasing income categories (P for trend = 0.0001). During a median follow-up of 9.8 years, 8248 cases of incident hypertension occurred. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) were 1.0 (referent), 0.92 (0.86–0.99), 0.85 (0.79–0.92), 0.87 (0.80–0.94), and 0.74 (0.65–0.84) (P for trend <0.0001) across increasing education categories and 1.0 (referent), 1.07 (0.95–1.21), 1.07 (0.95–1.20), 1.06 (0.94–1.18), 1.04 (0.93–1.16), and 0.93 (0.82–1.06) (P for trend 0.08) across increasing income categories. In joint analyses, education but not income remained associated with BP progression and incident hypertension. Conclusion Socioeconomic status, as determined by education but not by income, is a strong independent predictor of BP progression and incident hypertension in women. PMID:19297384

  14. Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study

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    Crawford David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.

  15. Socioeconomic status and the risk for being diagnosed with spondyloarthritis and chronic pain: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöud, Anna; Petersson, Ingemar F; Jordan, Kelvin P; Löfvendahl, Sofia; Grahn, Birgitta; Englund, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Socioeconomic status could potentially impact on which type of rheumatic diagnosis a patient receives. We determined whether different socioeconomic status is a risk factor for being diagnosed with spondyloarthritis (SpA) or chronic pain. In a nested case-control study, we identified two sets of adult cases diagnosed with (i) SpA (n = 1,194) and (ii) chronic pain (n = 3,730) during 2010-2012 in Skåne region, Sweden. We randomly sampled controls matched for age and sex. Level of education, marital status, and income were identified in national registers 4 years before inclusion. We also studied health-care utilization, prescribed pharmaceuticals, and work status. We used conditional logistic regressions and included socioeconomic variables and geographic area in the models. Low (odds ratio [OR] 1.69 95 % CI 1.50-1.91) or moderate education (OR 1.43 95 % CI 1.30-1.57), and low (OR 1.40 95 % CI 1.25-1.57) or moderate income (OR 1.24 95 % CI 1.10-1.38) were associated with a chronic pain diagnosis. For a SpA diagnosis, moderate income (OR 1.25 95 % CI 1.04-1.50) was the only significant factor identified. Both case groups had a larger proportion that did not work (P pain diagnosis. This association may reflect a true higher incidence of chronic pain and/or increased consultation propensity for such pain in people with socioeconomic status. We found no such association for SpA. PMID:24825253

  16. Socioeconomic status and children's health: Evidence from a low-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Ardeshir; Guliani, Harminder

    2015-04-01

    There has been a growing empirical literature on the relationship between household socioeconomic status (SES) and children's health, and in particular, whether this SES gradient is constant or varies in strength across different life stages. Much of this literature focuses on the developed countries and less evidence has been presented for developing countries. Using Vietnam's rich National Health Survey (2001-02) and appropriate multilevel modeling this study empirically assesses the SES gradient in health and whether it varies in strength across different life stages of children aged 15 and younger (N = 45,448). The results for the interaction terms between the natural logarithm of household consumption and age groups indicate no evidence of a steeper health gradient for older children. However, health-consumption gradients are found to be sensitive to the functional form of the regression model as well as the model specification. The results for the interaction terms between consumption expenditure quintiles and age groups indicate that gradients vary in strength across ages. Not only are children from the poorest households worse off, compared to those from the richest households, but this relative disadvantage is greater among the 0-3 year olds. The inclusion of parental health status in the regression model weakens the gradients for all age groups as does the inclusion of household sources of drinking water. However, poorer children are still relatively worse off, specially the 0-3 year olds. This suggests that absolute deprivation may help explain the relative health disadvantage of younger children. Better measures of poverty alleviation are hence needed to improve children's health in a low-income country such as Vietnam. PMID:25658625

  17. Improving physical fitness and emotional well-being in adolescents of low socioeconomic status in Chile: results of a school-based controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhauser, Marco; Fernandez, Gonzalo; Püschel, Klaus; Yañez, Fernando; Montero, Joaquín; Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria

    2005-06-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality, and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Among adolescents, physical activity is associated with benefits in the prevention and control of emotional distress, and improvement of self-esteem. Countries in transitional epidemiological scenarios, such as Chile, need to develop effective strategies to improve physical activity as a way to face the epidemic of chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity program on physical fitness and mental health status of adolescents living in a low socioeconomic status area in Santiago, Chile. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the program over one academic year. The study included 198 students aged 15 years old. Two ninth grade classes were randomly selected as the intervention group, with two classes of the same grade as controls. A social planning approach was used to develop the intervention. The program was designed and implemented based on student preferences, teachers' expertise and local resources. Changes in physiological and mental health status were assessed. After the intervention, maximum oxygen capacity achieved a significant increase of 8.5% in the intervention versus 1.8% in the control group (p 0.01). Anxiety score decreased 13.7% in the intervention group versus 2.8% in the control group (p Student participation and compliance with the program was > 80%. To conclude, a school-based program to improve physical activity in adolescents of low socioeconomic status, obtained a high level of participation and achieved significant benefits in terms of physical fitness and mental health status. PMID:15788528

  18. Socioeconomic correlates of iodine status among school children in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah-Yun Low; Siti Norazah Zulkifli; Rajeswari Karuppiah

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is recognized as a public health problem. This paper assesses iodine status by socioeconomic factors in school children in Sarawak, East Malaysia. Kuching, Bau and Simunjan districts were chosen based on advice from the Sarawak's Medical and Health Authority. 803 school children, aged eight years, were selected from 19 schools via proportionate systematic sampling. About half the proportion of the school children were from Kuching, 24% from Simunjan and 22% from Bau. Almost all were equally distributed by sex. By mother's race, almost half were Malays, followed by Bidayuh, Iban, Chinese and other races. Mean urinary iodine concentration was 3.36 microg/ 100ml, mean creatinine level was 111.10 mg/100ml and mean creatinine/iodine ratio was 39.45 microg/ gram. Four female children (0.5%) were found to have enlarged thyroid. Urinary iodine levels were significantly different by district, mother's race and household income. It was highest in Kuching, among children with Malay mothers, and with household incomes more than RM500 per month. Conversely, it was lowest in Bau, among children of Iban/Dayak and Chinese mothers, and incomes of RM500 or less per month. Based on the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD classification, the Sarawak school children in the present study fall into the moderate IDD category. The low prevalence of goitre is a positive finding indicating that iodine deficiency is corrected over time. PMID:12862416

  19. Socio-Economic Status and the Structural Change of Dietary Intake in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakucs Zoltán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Typically, big changes in the economic system lead to alterations on families’ disposable income and thus on their spending for different types of products, including food. These may imply in the long run a structural modification of the population’s diet quality. After the fall of the socialist system, in the past two decades, Central and Eastern European countries, including Hungary, went through a profound and sometimes difficult transition of their political and economic systems, shifting from a centralized plan to an open-market economy, and, perhaps more importantly, the European Union integration. Economic change in lower-income and transitional economies of the world appears to coincide with increasing rapid social change. With respect to nutrition, there is evidence that these countries are changing their diets and that changes seem to happen at a faster pace than ever before (e.g. Ivanova et al., 2006. In this paper, we analyse the evolution of Hungarian dietary patterns based on socio-economic status (SES data between 1993 and 2007. Data allows defining and profiling several clusters based on aggregated consumption data, and then inspecting the influence of SES variables using OLS and multinomial logit estimations

  20. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

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    Maple-Brown Louise

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.

  1. Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Singh Parihar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

  2. Dietary Intakes by Different Markers of Socioeconomic Status: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, Patricia A.; Scragg, Robert R. K.; Jackson, Rod T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that diet quality varies by socioeconomic gradient. We compared the influence of individual- and area-level socioeconomic characteristics on food choice behavior and dietary nutrient intakes in a cross-sectional survey. Daily nutrient intakes were calculated from a food frequency questionnaire. Participants comprised 4007 people (1915 men, 2092 women) aged 35 to 74 years. Socioeconomic measures included the area-based deprivation NZDep2001, gross household income, educat...

  3. Socioeconomic Status and the Health of Youth: A Multi-level, Multi-domain Approach to Conceptualizing Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Chen, Edith

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has clearly established associations between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor youth physical health outcomes. This article provides an overview of the main pathways through which low SES environments come to influence youth health. We focus on two of the most prevalent chronic health problems in youth today, asthma and obesity. We review and propose a model that encompasses (1) multiple levels of influence, including the neighborhood, family and person level, (2) both...

  4. Association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and screen time among pre-school children: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Cutumisu Nicoleta; Spence John C; Carson Valerie; Cargill Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and we...

  5. Socioeconomic status is an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence among patients with prostate cancer who undergo radical prostatectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Srougi; Antunes, Alberto A.; Sabrina T; Reis; Dall Oglio, Marcos F.; Nesrallah, Adriano J.; Leite, Ka?tia R. M.; Miguel Srougi

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) may influence cancer characteristics and behavior in several aspects. We analyzed PCa characteristics and behavior among low income uninsured men, and compare them to high income patients with health insurance in a developing country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was performed on 934 patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy between March, 1999 and July, 2009. Patients were divided in two groups,...

  6. Socio-economic status of horse owners vis-a-vis horse feeding and management in Rajasthan

    OpenAIRE

    Bala, P. A.; Dedar, R. K.; Legha, R. A.; Yash Pal

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To study the socio-economic status, horse feeding and management adopted by horse owners of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: Primary data was collected through specially structured proforma by personal interview method from the horse owners of Hanumangarh (50), Churu (42), Jhunjhunu (30) and Jalore (40) districts of Rajasthan, India. Results: The district (Churu and Jhunjhunu) is mostly rain fed, Hanumangarh is canal-irrigated whereas Jalore is tube well irrigated. Majority of responden...

  7. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level

    OpenAIRE

    Issler Roberto M.S.; Giugliani Elsa R.J.; Kreutz Guilherme T.; Meneses Clarice F.; Justo Elisa B.; Kreutz Valerie M.; Pires Milton

    1996-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile) were found to ha...

  8. Socioeconomic status and lung cancer incidence in men in The Netherlands: is there a role for occupational exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, A. J.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Kant, I. J.; Swaen, G. M.; Kremer, A. M.; Den Brandt, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of occupational exposure to carcinogens in explaining the association between socioeconomic status and lung cancer. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. Data on diet, other lifestyle factors, sociodemographic characteristics and job history were collected by means of a self administered questionnaire. Follow up for incident cancer was established by record linkage with a national pathology register and with regional cancer registries. SETTING: Populat...

  9. Home environment relationships with children’s physical activity, sedentary time, and screen time by socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon Pooja S; Zhou Chuan; Sallis James F; Cain Kelli L; Frank Lawrence D; Saelens Brian E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Children in households of lower socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to be overweight/obese. We aimed to determine if home physical activity (PA) environments differed by SES and to explore home environment mediators of the relation of family SES to children’s PA and sedentary behavior. Methods Participants were 715 children aged 6 to 11 from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids (NIK) Study. Household SES was examined using highest educational attainment and income. Hom...

  10. Association of Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Environmental Factors with Risk of Overweight Among Adolescents in California, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Gittelsohn, Phd; Min Kyung Ahn, Mhs; Hee-soon Juon, Phd

    2008-01-01

    IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the Californ...

  11. Early origins of health disparities: burden of infection, health, and socioeconomic status in U.S. children

    OpenAIRE

    Dowd, Jennifer Beam; Zajacova, Anna; Aiello, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in biodemography has suggested that life-time exposure to infection and inflammation may be important determinants of later-life morbidity and mortality. Early exposure to infections during critical periods can predispose individuals to chronic disease, in part through the reallocation of energy away from development needed for immune and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, markers of inflammation are known to vary by socioeconomic status in adults and may contribute to overall s...

  12. The Association between Disturbed Eating Behavior and Socioeconomic Status: The Online Korean Adolescent Panel Survey (OnKAPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun Jung; Park, Sangshin; Kim, Cho-il; Choi, Doo-won; Lee, Jung Sun; Oh, Sun Min; Cho, Eunyoung; Park, Hye Kyung; Kwon, Kwang-il; Oh, Sang Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background: A limited amount of research, primarily conducted in Western countries, has suggested that higher socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher risk of eating disorders (EDs). However, little is known about this association in Asian countries. We examined the association of SES with disturbed eating behavior (DEB) and related factors in Korean adolescents. Subjects A nationwide online panel survey was conducted in a sample of adolescents (n = 6,943, 49.9% girls). DEB was me...

  13. Effects of socioeconomic status on brain development, and how cognitive neuroscience may contribute to leveling the playing field

    OpenAIRE

    Raizada, Rajeevd S.; MarkM Kishiyama

    2010-01-01

    The study of socioeconomic status (SES) and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a...

  14. Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Brain Development, and How Cognitive Neuroscience May Contribute to Levelling the Playing Field

    OpenAIRE

    Raizada, Rajeev D. S.; Kishiyama, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    The study of socioeconomic status (SES) and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a...

  15. Discipline Responses: Influences of Parents' Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, Beliefs About Parenting, Stress, and Cognitive–Emotional Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Zelli, Arnaldo; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2000-01-01

    Direct and indirect precursors to parents' harsh discipline responses to hypothetical vignettes about child misbehavior were studied with data from 978 parents (59% mothers; 82% European American and 16% African American) of 585 kindergarten-aged children. SEM analyses showed that parents' beliefs about spanking and child aggression and family stress mediated a negative relation between socioeconomic status and discipline. In turn, perception of the child and cognitive–emotional processes (...

  16. Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    AmedeoD'angiulli; JoanneWeinberg; TimOberlander; StefaniaMaggi

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) and other electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES) children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort) emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc.) and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc.) may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in tw...

  17. Effort-Reward Imbalance at School and Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Adolescents: The Role of Family Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxiang Guo; Wenjie Yang; Ying Cao; Jian Li; Johannes Siegrist

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES) on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7–12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by ...

  18. A re-examination of the effect of socioeconomic status on childhood survival in Malawi, 1987-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Doctor, Henry V.

    2012-01-01

    Studies worldwide have established a close link between higher socioeconomic status (SES) and demographic outcomes such as lower infant and child survival. This relationship has often been studied by utilizing information on ownership of household assets. Recently, we examined the effect of a proxy for SES on child survival in Malawi using the 1987 and 1998 census data. Results showed that in 1987 there was an increase in mortality for children belonging to poor households; in 1998 results we...

  19. Relationship between household socio-economic status and under-five mortality in Rufiji DSS, Tanzania

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    Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disparities in health outcomes between the poor and the better off are increasingly attracting attention from researchers and policy makers. However, policies aimed at reducing inequity need to be based on evidence of their nature, magnitude, and determinants. Objectives: The study aims to investigate the relationship between household socio-economic status (SES and under-five mortality, and to measure health inequality by comparing poorest/least poor quintile mortality rate ratio and the use of a mortality concentration index. It also aims to describe the risk factors associated with under-five mortality at Rufiji Demographic Surveillance Site (RDSS, Tanzania. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study included 11,189 children under-five residing in 7,298 households in RDSS in 2005. Principal component analysis was used to construct household SES. Kaplan–Meier survival incidence estimates were used for mortality rates. Health inequality was measured by calculating and comparing mortality rates between the poorest and least poor wealth quintile. We also computed a mortality concentration index. Risk factors of child mortality were assessed using Poisson regression taking into account potential confounders. Results: Under-five mortality was 26.9 per 1,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI (23.7–30.4]. The poorest were 2.4 times more likely to die compared to the least poor. Our mortality concentration index [?0.16; 95% CI (?0.24, ?0.08] indicated considerable health inequality. Least poor households had a 52% reduced mortality risk [incidence rate ratio (IRR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.30–0.80]. Furthermore, children with mothers who had attained secondary education had a 70% reduced risk of dying compared to mothers with no education [IRR = 0.30; 95% CI (0.22–0.88]. Conclusion: Household socio-economic inequality and maternal education were associated with under-five mortality in the RDSS. Targeted interventions to address these factors may contribute towards accelerating the reduction of child mortality in rural Tanzania.

  20. Condições socioeconômicas em saúde: discussão de dois paradigmas Socioeconomic status and health: a discussion of two paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Condição socioeconômica e seu impacto em saúde são objeto de grande interesse para pesquisadores e gestores de saúde. O artigo discute dois paradigmas de aferição da condição socioeconômica e revisa estudos epidemiológicos em que eles foram aplicados. Um dos paradigmas é referenciado por medidas de prestígio e diferenciação positiva entre os estratos sociais, como classificações baseadas em capital social e no acesso a bens e serviços. O outro é referenciado por classificações envolvendo privação material e diferenciação negativa entre os estratos sociais, e envolve a proposta de reposição aos segmentos populacionais mais afetados pela privação pelo Estado. A reflexão sobre opções metodológicas para se aferir condição socioeconômica em estudos epidemiológicos pode contribuir para a promoção de saúde e justiça social.Socioeconomic status and its impact on health are in the mainstream of public health thinking. This text discusses two paradigms utilized in assessing socioeconomic status in epidemiologic studies. One paradigm refers to prestige-based measurements and positive differentiation among social strata. This paradigm is characterized by classifications assessing social capital and the access to goods and services. The other paradigm refers to the classification of social deprivation and negative differentiation among social strata. The proposal of State-funded reposition to the mostly deprived social strata is acknowledged as characteristic of this paradigm. The contrast between these paradigms, and their potential interaction and debate are discussed. Fostering reflection on methodological strategies to assess socioeconomic status in epidemiologic studies can contribute to the promotion of health and social justice.

  1. Socioeconomic and demographic factors for spousal resemblance in obesity status and habitual physical activity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Jen; Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006-2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients) in body mass index (BMI) and HPA were estimated by couples' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses' BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI???30, overweight: 30?>?BMI???25) was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women's husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women's husbands (OR?=?0.69 (95% CI?=?0.53-0.89)). Men's unemployment status was associated with wives' greater odds of obesity (OR?=?1.31 (95% CI?=?1.01-1.71)). HPA was associated with men's employment status and income level, but not with women's. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors. PMID:25332834

  2. Duração do sono em adolescentes de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos Sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status

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    Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a duração de sono na adolescência em diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODO: Foram investigados 863 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em duas escolas de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas por meio de questionários para identificação de informações sobre os hábitos de sono e nível socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: A duração média de sono nos dias da semana foi de 8,83(1,87 horas e a prevalência de adolescentes com duração de sono de oito ou menos horas diárias foi de 39,0% nos dias com aula. Adolescentes da classe baixa apresentaram menor duração do sono (p = 0,043. Na análise ajustada, a idade, o nível socioeconômico e o hábito de tirar a sesta foram os principais fatores associados a poucas horas de sono. Os participantes de 18 a 19 anos apresentaram maior prevalência de poucas horas de sono em comparação aos de 10 a 11 anos (PR = 4,78; CI95%: 1,98-11,53, assim como os adolescentes da classe alta em comparação com a classe baixa (PR = 1,48; CI95%: 1,20-1,83. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram associações entre o nível socioeconômico e os hábitos de sono de adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status. METHOD: We investigated 863 adolescents from 10 to 19 years in two schools in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Sleep habits data and socioeconomic status were obtained by questionnaires. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration on days of the week was 8.83(1.87 hours and the prevalence of adolescents with eight or fewer hours/day was 39.0% on school days (p = 0.043. On adjusted analysis, age, socioeconomic status and taking a nap habit were the main factors associated with few hours of sleep. Older students (aged 18 to 19 years showed higher prevalence of few hours of sleep when compared to younger students (10 to 11 years (RP = 4.78; IC95%: 1.98-11.53, as well as for upper class adolescents when compared to those with lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Results showed the association between socioeconomic status and adolescents' sleep/wake habits.

  3. Duração do sono em adolescentes de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos / Sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite, Bernardo; Érico Felden, Pereira; Fernando Mazzilli, Louzada; Vânia, D' Almeida.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a duração de sono na adolescência em diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODO: Foram investigados 863 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em duas escolas de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas por meio de questionários para identificação de informações sobre os hábitos [...] de sono e nível socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: A duração média de sono nos dias da semana foi de 8,83(1,87) horas e a prevalência de adolescentes com duração de sono de oito ou menos horas diárias foi de 39,0% nos dias com aula. Adolescentes da classe baixa apresentaram menor duração do sono (p = 0,043). Na análise ajustada, a idade, o nível socioeconômico e o hábito de tirar a sesta foram os principais fatores associados a poucas horas de sono. Os participantes de 18 a 19 anos apresentaram maior prevalência de poucas horas de sono em comparação aos de 10 a 11 anos (PR = 4,78; CI95%: 1,98-11,53), assim como os adolescentes da classe alta em comparação com a classe baixa (PR = 1,48; CI95%: 1,20-1,83). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram associações entre o nível socioeconômico e os hábitos de sono de adolescentes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status. METHOD: We investigated 863 adolescents from 10 to 19 years in two schools in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Sleep habits data and socioeconomic status were obtained by questionnaires. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration [...] on days of the week was 8.83(1.87) hours and the prevalence of adolescents with eight or fewer hours/day was 39.0% on school days (p = 0.043). On adjusted analysis, age, socioeconomic status and taking a nap habit were the main factors associated with few hours of sleep. Older students (aged 18 to 19 years) showed higher prevalence of few hours of sleep when compared to younger students (10 to 11 years) (RP = 4.78; IC95%: 1.98-11.53), as well as for upper class adolescents when compared to those with lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Results showed the association between socioeconomic status and adolescents' sleep/wake habits.

  4. Country-Specific Dietary Patterns and Associations with Socioeconomic Status in European Children : The IDEFICS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives:Children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. We described country-specific dietary patterns among children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS study and assessed the association of dietary patterns with an additive SES indicator.Subjects/Methods:Children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Principal component analysis was applied to identify dietary country-specific patterns. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess their association with SES. Results:Two to four dietary patterns were identified in the participating regions. The existence of a 'processed' pattern was found in the eight regions. Also, a 'healthy' pattern was identified in seven of the eight regions. In addition, region-specific patterns were identified, reflecting the existing gastronomic and cultural differences in Europe. The 'processed' pattern was significantly inversely associated with theSES additive indicator in all countries except Sweden, whereas the 'healthy' pattern was positively associated with SES in the Belgian, Estonian, German and Hungarian regions, but was not significant in the Italian, Spanish and Swedish regions.Conclusions:A 'processed' pattern and a 'healthy' pattern were found in most of the participating countries in the IDEFICS study, with comparable food item profiles. The results showed a strong inverse association of SES with the 'processed' pattern, suggesting that children of parents with lower SES may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. Therefore, special focus should be given to parents and their children from lower SES levels when developing healthy eating promotion strategies

  5. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations: Differences between Families Differing in Socio-Economic Status

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    SarahRobins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009 that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provides preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child’s name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms, but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams. Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child’s name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children’s early literacy skills and school readiness.

  6. Lower Socioeconomic Status Is Associated with Worse Outcomes in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Hui; Yang, Lu; Peng, Fu-Hua; Yao, Jing; Zou, Li-Ling; Liu, Dong; Jiang, Xin; Li, Jue; Gao, Lan; Qu, Jie-Ming; Kawut, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) confers a heightened risk of common cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases and increased mortality. The association of SES with outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is less clear. Objectives: To determine the association between SES and outcomes in patients with PAH. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study at a national referral center for patients with PAH in China. Two hundred sixty-two consecutive incident patients aged 18 to 65 years with a diagnosis of idiopathic PAH were recruited between January 2007 and June 2011 and followed up until November 2011. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. An SES score for each patient was derived from their educational level, annual household income, occupation, and medical reimbursement rate. Measurements and Main Results: Patients with a lower SES had higher unadjusted mortality rates, with 3-year survival estimates of 50.1, 70.8, and 86.0% in increasing tertiles of SES (P for trend < 0.001). After adjustment for clinical features, hemodynamics, and type of PAH treatment, the hazard ratios for death were 2.98 (95% confidence interval, 1.51–5.89) in the lowest tertile of SES and 1.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.89–3.63) in the middle tertile of SES compared with the upper tertile (P for trend = 0.006). Conclusions: A lower SES is strongly associated with a higher risk of death in idiopathic PAH. This association was independent of clinical characteristics, hemodynamics, and treatment. Addressing the health disparities associated with a lower SES may improve the outcomes of patients with PAH. PMID:23220911

  7. Distance to hospital and socioeconomic status influence secondary health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Andrzej; Borgquist, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate how distance to hospital and socioeconomic status (SES) influence the use of secondary health care (SHC) when taking comorbidity into account. Design and setting. A register-based study in Östergötland County. Subjects. The adult population of Östergötland County. Main outcome measures. Odds of SHC use in the population and rates of SHC use by patients were studied after taking into account comorbidity level assigned using the Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) Case-Mix System. The baseline for analysis of SES was individuals with the lowest education level (level 1) and the lowest income (1st quartile). Results. The study showed both positive and negative association between SES and use of SHC. The risk of incurring SHC costs was 12% higher for individuals with education level 1. Individuals with income in the 2nd quartile had a 4% higher risk of incurring SHC costs but a 17% lower risk of emergency department visits. Individuals with income in the 4th quartilehad 9% lower risk of hospitalization. The risk of using SHC services for the population was not associated with distance to hospital. Patients living over 40 km from hospital and patients with higher SES had lower use of SHC services. Conclusions. It was found that distance to hospital and SES influence SHC use after adjusting for comorbidity level, age, and gender. These results suggest that GPs and health care managers should pay a higher degree of attention to this when planning primary care services in order to minimize the potentially redundant use of SHC.

  8. Association between weight perception and socioeconomic status among adults in the Seychelles

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    Williams Julita

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the association between weight perception and socioeconomic status (SES in sub-Saharan Africa, and none made this association based on education, occupation and income simultaneously. Methods Based on a population-based survey (n = 1255 in the Seychelles, weight and height were measured and self-perception of one's own body weight, education, occupation, and income were assessed by a questionnaire. Individuals were considered to have appropriate weight perception when their self-perceived weight matched their actual body weight. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35% and 28%, respectively. Multivariate analysis among overweight/obese persons showed that appropriate weight perception was directly associated with actual weight, education, occupation and income, and that it was more frequent among women than among men. In a model using all three SES indicators together, only education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-4.8 and occupation (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.5 were independently associated with appropriate perception of being overweight. The OR reached 6.9 [95% CI: 3.4-14.1] when comparing the highest vs. lowest categories of SES based on a score including all SES indicators and 6.1 [95% CI: 3.0-12.1] for a score based on education and occupation. Conclusions Appropriately perceiving one's weight as too high was associated with different SES indicators, female sex and being actually overweight. These findings suggest means and targets for clinical and population-based interventions for weight control. Further studies should examine whether these differences in weight perception underlie differences in cognitive skills, healthy weight norms, or body size ideals.

  9. Socioeconomic status and non-fatal injuries among Canadian adolescents: variations across SES and injury measures

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    Koval John J

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While research to date has consistently demonstrated that socioeconomic status (SES is inversely associated with injury mortality in both children and adults, findings have been less consistent for non-fatal injuries. The literature addressing SES and injury morbidity among adolescents has been particularly inconclusive. To explore potential explanations for these discrepant research findings, this study uniquely compared the relationship across different measures of SES and different causes of injury (recreation versus non-recreation injuries within a sample of Canadian adolescents. Methods The sample included adolescent participants (aged 12 to 19 years in the Canadian 1996–1997 cross-sectional National Population Health Survey (n = 6967. Five SES measures (household income, two neighbourhood-level proxy measures, two parental indicators were examined in relation to three injury outcomes (total, recreation, and non-recreation injuries using multivariable logistic regression. Results Among males, a clear relationship with injury was observed only for a parental SES index, which was positively associated with total and recreation injuries (odds ratios for the highest versus lowest SES category of 1.9 for total and 2.5 for recreation injuries. Among females, there was some evidence of a positive relationship between SES and injuries, particularly for a neighbourhood-level education measure with total and recreation injuries (odds ratios of 1.7 for total and 2.0 for recreation injuries. Conclusion The results suggest that differences related to the measures of SES chosen and the causes of injury under study may both contribute to discrepancies in past research on SES and non-fatal injuries among adolescents. To clarify the potential SES-injury relationship among youth, the findings emphasize a need for a greater understanding of the meaning and relevance of different SES measures for adolescents, and for an exploration of the pathways through which SES may be related to injury risk.

  10. Differences in prevalence of tobacco use among Indian urban youth: the role of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa H; Perry, Cheryl L; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K Srinath

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the distribution of tobacco use and related psychosocial risk factors among youth in urban India vary by socioeconomic status (SES). Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of students enrolled in the 6th and 8th grades in 32 schools in Delhi and Chennai (N = 11,642). The survey was conducted in 2004, before the implementation of a program designed to prevent and reduce tobacco use (MYTRI). Mixed-effect regression models were used (a) to determine the prevalence of tobacco use among private (higher SES) and government (lower SES) school students, (b) to investigate whether certain psychosocial factors were associated with increased tobacco use, and (c) to determine how these factors varied by school type. Ever-use of multiple forms of tobacco (e.g., gutkha, bidis, and cigarettes) was more prevalent among government school students than private school students. After adjusting for city, gender, grade, and age, we found the prevalence rate for ever-use of any tobacco product to be 18.9% for government school students, compared with 12.2% for private school students (pstudied here, indicating higher risk. Government school students scored the lowest for refusal skills, self-efficacy, and reasons not to use tobacco. Social susceptibility to chewing tobacco and social susceptibility to smoking were strong correlates of current tobacco use among government school students. Exposure to tobacco advertising was also a strong correlate of current tobacco use for government school students but not private school students. In two large cities of India, students attending government schools are using many forms of tobacco at higher rates than private school students. The psychosocial risk profile of government school students suggests they are more vulnerable to initiation and use and to outside influences that encourage use. PMID:18188751

  11. Do agreements between adolescent and parent reports on family socioeconomic status vary with household financial stress?

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    Chou Yiing-Jenq

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies compared the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parents' reports on family socioeconomic status (SES. However, none of these studies analyzed whether the degree of concordance varies by different levels of household financial stress. This research examines whether the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parent reports for the three traditional SES measures (parental education, parental occupation and household income varied with parent-reported household financial stress and relative standard of living. Methods 2,593 adolescents with a mean age of 13 years, and one of their corresponding parents from the Taiwan Longitudinal Youth Project conducted in 2000 were analyzed. Consistency of adolescents' and parents' reports on parental educational attainment, parental occupation and household income were examined by parent-reported household financial stress and relative standard of living. Results Parent-reported SES variables are closely associated with family financial stress. For all levels of household financial stress, the degree of concordance between adolescent's and parent's reports are highest for parental education (? ranging from 0.87 to 0.71 followed by parental occupation (? ranging from 0.50 to 0.34 and household income (? ranging from 0.43 to 0.31. Concordance for father's education and parental occupation decreases with higher parent-reported financial stress. This phenomenon was less significant for parent-reported relative standard of living. Conclusions Though the agreement between adolescents' and parents' reports on the three SES measures is generally judged to be good in most cases, using adolescents reports for family SES may still be biased if analysis is not stratified by family financial stress.

  12. The association between socioeconomic status and traditional chinese medicine use among children in Taiwan

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    Shih Chun-Chuan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM utilization is common in Asian countries. Limited studies are available on the socioeconomic status (SES associated with TCM use among the pediatric population. We report on the association between SES and TCM use among children and adolescents in Taiwan. Methods A National Health Interview Survey was conducted in Taiwan in 2001 that included 5,971 children and adolescents. We assessed the children's SES using the head of household's education, occupation and income. This information was used to calculate pediatric SES scores, which in turn were divided into quartiles. Children and adolescents who visited TCM in the past month were defined as TCM users. Results Compared to children in the second SES quartile, children in the fourth SES quartile had a higher average number of TCM visits (0.12 vs. 0.06 visits, p = 0.027 and higher TCM use prevalence (5.0% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.024 within the past month. The adjusted odds ratio (OR for TCM use was higher for children in the fourth SES quartile than for those in the first SES quartile (OR 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.17. The corresponding OR was 2.17 for girls (95% CI 1.24-3.78. The highest-SES girls (aged 10-18 years were most likely to visit TCM practices (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.25-4.90. Conclusions Children and adolescents with high SES were more likely to use TCM and especially girls aged 10-18 years. Our findings point to the high use of complementary and alternative medicine among children and adolescents.

  13. Psychosocial correlates of leisure-time walking among Australian adults of lower and higher socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; Sugiyama, Takemi; Winkler, Elisabeth; de Vries, Hein; te Poel, Fam; Owen, Neville

    2010-04-01

    Adults of lower socio-economic status (SES) participate less in physical activity than those of higher SES. Understanding the correlates of physical activity participation and how these may differ between socio-economic groups can inform policies and physical activity promotion strategies. The psychosocial correlates of leisure-time walking (the most common voluntary physical activity of adults) were assessed using a survey of 2488 randomly sampled Australian adults (response rate = 74.2%). Among respondents of higher SES, there were higher levels of positive cognitions towards physical activity, and walking for leisure was more prevalent than among those of lower SES. Relationships of psychosocial attributes with leisure-time walking differed by SES. The strongest correlate of leisure-time walking was perceived barriers for lower SES adults and enjoyment for those of higher SES. Social support from friends was associated with walking for both groups, while the effect of support from family was significant only for adults of lower SES. Strategies influencing leisure-time walking may have to target the specific needs of different socio-economic groups. For example, removing perceived barriers may be more appropriate to promote walking among lower SES adults. Interventions tailored for lower SES groups may help close the socio-economic gap in physical activity participation. PMID:19307317

  14. Exploring the joint effect of atmospheric pollution and socioeconomic status on selected health outcomes: an overview of the PAISARC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes-asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction-at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics-INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000-2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project

  15. Aircraft Carriers : China's way to Great Power Status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NØdskov, Kim; KværnØ, Ole

    2008-01-01

    There are many indications that China is actively researching the design of an aircraft carrier. It is unknown whether China will initiate the actual acquisition of a carrier, but the indications that are available of their research into aircraft carriers and carrier-capable aircraft, as well as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status as a great power in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy, with potentially far-reaching consequences for the countries of the region. The Chinese have bought several retired carriers, which they have studied in great detail. The largest is the Russian-built carrier Varyag of the Kuznetsov class, which today is anchored in the Chinese Naval Base at Dalian. If they decide to acquire a carrier, they can either buy one or build it themselves. The easiest way would be to buy a carrier, and if that is the chosen option, then Russia would be the most likely country to build it. Technologically, it will be a major challenge for them to build one themselves and it is likely that they would have to obtain the assistance of another country. But there are indications, that China may choose this more diffi cult path, since it has bought four Russian carrier landing systems. China is very secretive about this, but when all the information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for China to complete, especially if they develop the complex catapult with which to launch the fi ghter aircraft, not to mention the possible development of a nuclear power plant for the ship. The Russian press has indicated that China is negotiating to buy SU-33 fi ghters, which Russia uses on the Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an alternative China may chose to modify the domestically produced J-10 or J-11 multirole fi ghter. If China does decide to acquire carriers, it would be operationally logical to acquire a minimum of two to three carriers to ensure an adequate and continually available combat capability. A Chinese carrier group, with the associated protection and support vessels, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new carriers. All these carriers could potentially infl uence Chinese interests in the future, and this could be a

  16. Socio-economic status and health care utilization in rural Zimbabwe: findings from Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Murima, Oliver; Singh, Basant; Hlubinka, Daniel; Kulich, Michal; Morin, Stephen F; Sweat, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Zimbabwe's HIV epidemic is amongst the worst in the world, and disproportionately effects poorer rural areas. Access to almost all health services in Zimbabwe includes some form of cost to the client. In recent years, the socio-economic and employment status of many Zimbabweans has suffered a serious decline, creating additional barriers to HIV treatment and care. We aimed to assess the impact of i) socio-economic status (SES) and ii) employment status on the utilization of health services in rural Zimbabwe. Data were collected from a random probability sample household survey conducted in the Mutoko district of north-western Zimbabwe in 2005. We selected variables that described the economic status of the respondent, including: being paid to work, employment status, and SES by assets. Respondents were also asked about where they most often utilized healthcare when they or their family was sick or hurt. Of 2,874 respondents, all forms of healthcare tended to be utilized by those of high or medium-high SES (65%), including private (65%), church-based (61%), traditional (67%), and other providers (66%) (P=0.009). Most respondents of low SES utilized government providers (74%) (P=0.009). Seventy-one percent of respondents utilizing health services were employed. Government (71%), private (72%), church (71%), community-based (78%) and other (64%) health services tended to be utilized by employed respondents (P=0.000). Only traditional health services were equally utilized by unemployed respondents (50%) (P=0.000). A wide range of health providers are utilized in rural Zimbabwe. Utilization is strongly associated with SES and employment status, particularly for services with user fees, which may act as a barrier to HIV treatment and care access. Efforts to improve access in low-SES, high HIV-prevalence settings may benefit from the subsidization of the health care payment system, efforts to improve SES levels, political reform, and the involvement of traditional providers. PMID:22962629

  17. Socio-economic status and health care utilization in rural Zimbabwe: findings from Project Accept (HPTN 043

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sweat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe’s HIV epidemic is amongst the worst in the world, and disproportionately effects poorer rural areas. Access to almost all health services in Zimbabwe includes some form of cost to the client. In recent years, the socio-economic and employment status of many Zimbabweans has suffered a serious decline, creating additional barriers to HIV treatment and care. We aimed to assess the impact of i socio-economic status (SES and ii employment status on the utilization of health services in rural Zimbabwe. Data were collected from a random probability sample household survey conducted in the Mutoko district of north-western Zimbabwe in 2005. We selected variables that described the economic status of the respondent, including: being paid to work, employment status, and SES by assets. Respondents were also asked about where they most often utilized healthcare when they or their family was sick or hurt. Of 2,874 respondents, all forms of healthcare tended to be utilized by those of high or medium-high SES (65%, including private (65%, church-based (61%, traditional (67%, and other providers (66% (P=0.009. Most respondents of low SES utilized government providers (74% (P=0.009. Seventy-one percent of respondents utilizing health services were employed. Government (71%, private (72%, church (71%, community-based (78% and other (64% health services tended to be utilized by employed respondents (P=0.000. Only traditional health services were equally utilized by unemployed respondents (50% (P=0.000. A wide range of health providers are utilized in rural Zimbabwe. Utilization is strongly associated with SES and employment status, particularly for services with user fees, which may act as a barrier to HIV treatment and care access. Efforts to improve access in low-SES, high HIVprevalence settings may benefit from the subsidization of the health care payment system, efforts to improve SES levels, political reform, and the involvement of traditional providers.

  18. Distance and socioeconomic status as a health service predictor on the periphery in the southern region of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetzky, Hasia; Friger, Michael; Warshawsky-Livne, Lora; Shvarts, Shifra

    2011-05-01

    This research focuses on the accessibility of health-services to the population in the southern region of Israel, comparing accessibility within the periphery. The objective was to study whether there is a correlation between the number of patient visits to specialist-clinics to the geographical distance from the patient's home and the patient's socioeconomic-status. The population of the study was patients insured by the Clalit HMO, the major health-provider on the periphery in Israel's southern region who visited the Soroka University Medical Center's (SUMC) out-patient specialist-clinics between 2000 and 2005. The specialist-clinics in the study were divided into five categories: (1) pediatrics (2) orthopedics (3) audio lab (4) sleep lab; (5) geriatrics. The dependent-variable-the number of patients' visits to clinics was analyzed (parametric and non-parametric) according to a set of independent variables: (1) population size, (2) age-distribution (3) gender (4) size of family, (5) vehicles per household, (6) socioeconomic level (by percentiles) (7) distance from the Beer-Sheva (site of the SUMC clinics) in terms of concentric geographical rings (distance and time-travel). Results show that the distance from Beer-Sheva and the socioeconomic level of patients' town (by percentiles) has a negative correlation to the number of visits. That is, patients who live further away or are from higher socio-economical percentiles, frequent specialist-clinics less. In order to be effective (equality of availability and accessibility), a health system in the periphery must build programs that take into consideration the needs of specific localities, such as distance to the health services, and the patient's socioeconomic level. PMID:20951460

  19. Contemporary female smokers in the us are younger and of lower socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Jarvie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the most common cause of prema-ture cardiovascular disease in women, but con-temporary data is lacking. We sought to inves-tigate the differences between female smokers and nonsmokers in the US. Methods: Using a registry of almost 19,000 women who attended free public heart screenings sponsored by Sis-ter to Sister between 2008 and 2009 in 17 large US cities, we compared the means for lipid val-ues, cardiometabolic measures, and differences in sociodemographic information between smok-ers and nonsmokers. Secondary outcomes were age and race-adjusted odds for obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, a non-HDL > 160 mg/dl, and a serum glucose ? 126 mg/dl between smoking and nonsmoking women. Results: The final sample included 18,892 women (49.8 ± 14.3 years, 37% black, and 32% white, 14% Hispanic, with 1,216 (6.4% current smokers. Smokers were younger than non-smokers (45.6 ± 13.0 vs 50.1 ± 14.4 years, p < 0.001, with lower HDL levels (55.5 ± 17.4 vs 58.6 ± 17.4, p < 0.001, and higher triglycerides (148.8 ± 103.7 vs 145.5 ± 93, p = 0.4082. There were no significant differences in LDL between smokers versus nonsmokers. There were more black and white women in the smoking group. Smoking women were more likely to meet criteria for the metabolic syndrome (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.00 - 1.49 and have a non-HDL > 160 mg/dl (OR 1.19; 1.01 - 1.39. Insurance and income data showed a sig-nificant inverse relationship between smoking prevalence and increasing household income. Conclusions: In this richly diverse sample of women, female smokers were younger and of lower socioeconomic status than nonsmokers with significant differences in cardiometabolic risk factors.

  20. Socio-economic status and oral health-related behaviours in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Se-Hwan; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Ryu, Jae-In; Watt, Richard G

    2010-06-01

    The principle objective of this study was to assess the association between socio-economic status (SES) and oral health-related behaviours in Korean adolescents aged 13-18, using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). The secondary objective was to assess the influences of other factors (pocket money, school type, family structure and psychological factors) on this association. Cross-sectional data were from the national 2007 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Oral health-related behaviours included health-enhancing behaviours (frequency of toothbrushing and dental visits) and health-compromising behaviours (smoking and frequency of intake of soft drinks and confections). Logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. To assess the influence of other factors, additional models adjusting for sex, school grade and each of the other factors were compared to the initial model, which adjusted for sex and school grade only. We found that family affluence had a linear association with health-enhancing behaviours and a roughly U-shaped association with health-compromising behaviours. After adjusting for a number of variables, the linear association with health-enhancing behaviours persisted. The U-shaped association with health-compromising behaviours remained but was partly attenuated and flattened. In addition, we found a marked influence of school type and family structure and pocket money on the association between FAS and oral health-compromising behaviours. The findings indicate that the health-enhancing behaviours of adolescents were strongly associated with family affluence, but the health-compromising behaviours were more strongly linked to factors other than family affluence. However, it is difficult to determine which factors contribute most in relation to family affluence because of other confounding factors, such as the education system, peer group, youth culture, part-time work and advertising. Therefore, further studies are needed to assess factors that interact with family SES to better understand the association between the SES and the oral health-compromising behaviours of adolescents. PMID:20359807

  1. Socio-economic status and adherence to tuberculosis treatment : a case-control study in a district of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, P; Hansen, E H

    2005-01-01

    SETTING: A western hill district in Nepal, where tuberculosis (TB) treatment under DOTS was offered by the regional tuberculosis centre, two primary health centres, eight health posts, three sub-health posts and one ward of sub-metropolitan Pokhara. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the contribution of socioeconomic status to non-adherence to DOTS. DESIGN: Case-control study. Data were collected by questionnaire-based face-to-face interviews. The study sample consisted of 50 cases and 100 controls. The participation rate was 80% for cases (non-adherents) and 95% for controls. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of non-adherence to TB treatment was significantly associated with unemployment (odds ratio [OR] 9.2), low status occupation (OR 4.4), low annual income (OR 5.4), and cost of travel to the TB treatment facility (OR 3.0). Factors significant in the bivariate analyses--living conditions, literacy and difficulty in financing treatment--were not found to be significantly associated with non-adherence when adjusted for other risk factors in the multivariate regression model. CONCLUSION: Low socio-economic status and particularly lack of money are important risk factors for non-adherence to TB treatment in a poor country such as Nepal.

  2. Nutritional status, socio-economic and hygienic condition of school aged children of a village of Pune District, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puranik SS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The field of anthropometry encompasses a variety of human body measurements, such as weight, height and size; including skin fold thickness, circumference, lengths, and breadths. Anthropometry is a key component of nutritional status assessment in children and adults. Anthropometric data for children reflect general health status, dietary adequacy and growth and development over time. The main objective of the study was to diagnose and analyze the magnitude and causes of nutritional and health problems of the village. Method: Anthropometric reference data of 100 children between 7-14 years of age from a small village situated 30 km from Pune. Using this data BMI i.e. Body Mass Index was calculated which helps in determining whether an individual is overweight or underweight. Result: The overall study helped us to find out the socioeconomic condition, hygienic condition as well as nutritional status of children. All the anthropometric measurements of the girls and boys in 7-14 years age group was found to be significantly normal. Conclusion: The hygienic condition of the village was good enough and in turn BMI data shows that the socioeconomic condition of the village was also good.

  3. Investigation into the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Stellenberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive non-experimental approach was applied to investigate and describe the prevalence of factors influencing the health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting as a dissertation for a doctorate degree. For the purpose of this article the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting are described. The study only included economically active persons < 21 ^ 50 years. The objective was to determine the relationship between the health status and the socio-economic status of economically active Coloured people in an urban area as defined. The objectives set for the study were reached through a cross sectional study. The hypothesis, an association between the health status and the socio-economic status of the Coloured people of an urban area in the Western Cape was tested using the chi square statistical test. A purposeful stratified sample of 353 participants was drawn from the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were well represented in the suburbs. Statistical associations on a 95% confidence interval were shown between the socio-economic status (i.e. educational level, income and occupation social habits, diet, and money available for food, exercise and the health status of the respondents. Recommendations were made based on the scientific evidence obtained through the study.

  4. Prevalence of chronic headache with and without medication overuse : Associations with socioeconomic position and physical and mental health status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Near-daily intake of acute symptomatic medication for frequent headache increases the risk for medication-overuse headache (MOH). Chronic headache (CH) and MOH prevalences are inversely related to socioeconomic position (SEP). It is not known how SEP influences the health status of people with these headaches. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of CH in Denmark; possible associations between CH and education, work status, and income; and the health status of people with CH across socioeconomic strata. A total of 129,150 individuals aged ?16years were invited to the 2010 Danish National Health Survey. Data on SEP indicators and purchases of prescription drugs in 2009 were retrieved from national registers. Respondents with headache ?15days per month over 3months were classified as having CH. Those with concurrent over-the-counter analgesic intake of ?15days per month or prescription medication overuse (?20 or ?30 defined daily doses per month depending on the drug or drugs) were classified as having MOH. Associations between headache and SEP were analyzed by logistic regression, and associations between headache and health status scores, by linear regression. Physical and mental health composite scores (SF-12) were summarized per headache group, stratified by SEP, and compared to the sample mean. Analyses were adjusted for stratified sampling and nonresponse. The response rate was 53.1%. CH prevalence was 3.3% with 53.0% of cases having concurrent medication overuse (MOH prevalence 1.8%). CH was more prevalent among those individuals with low SEP. Health status scores were significantly lower among persons with CH in all SEP categories. The burden of CH can be reduced by preventing and treating MOH.

  5. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OFWOMEN WORKERS IN ONION MARKET: A CASE STUDY OF LASALGAON , TAL- NIPHAD (NASHIK)

    OpenAIRE

    Dayama, N. A.; Arote, S. T.

    2013-01-01

    Lasalgaon is the largest onion market in Indian and perhaps in the entire continent. Lasalgaon town is located in the Nashik district of Maharashtra. In this paper, emphasis is given on the socio-economic status of the women workers who are engaged in the "Cleaning and Sorting" work of onion in the Lasalgaon market. After purchase of onion from the farmers the onion are cleaned and sorted in to various sizes like small, medium and large according to demand from various states of ...

  6. Drugs prescribed by general practitioners according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundAge, gender and socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with the use of prescription drugs, even after adjustment for multimorbidity. General practitioners have a holistic and patient-centred perspective and our hypothesis is that this may reflect on the prescription of drugs. In Sweden the patient may seek secondary care without a letter of referral and the liability of the prescription of drugs accompanies the patient, which makes it suitable for this type of research. In this study we examine the odds of having prescription drug use in the population and the rates of prescription drugs among patients, issued in primary health care, according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level.MethodData were collected on all individuals above 20 years of age in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The John Hopkins ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for multimorbidity level. Odds ratio (OR) of having prescription drugs issued inprimary health care in the population and rates of prescription drug use among patients in primary health care, stated as incidence rate ratio (IRR), according to age, gender and socioeconomic status were calculated and adjusted for multimorbidity.ResultsAfter adjustment for multimorbidity, individuals 80 years or older had higher odds ratio (OR 3.37 (CI 95% 3.22-3.52)) and incidence rate ratio (IRR 6.24 (CI 95% 5.79-6.72)) for prescription drug use. Male individuals had a lower odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 0.66 (CI 95% 0.64-0.69)), but among patients males had a slightly higher incidence rate of drug use (IRR 1.06 (CI 95% 1.04-1.09)). Individuals with the highest income had the lowest odds ratio of having prescription drugs and individuals with the second lowest income had the highest odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 1.10 (CI 95% 1.07-1.13)). Individuals with the highest education had the lowest odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 0.61 (CI 95% 0.54-0.67)).ConclusionAge, gender and socioeconomic status are associated with large differences in the use of prescribed drugs in primary health care, even after adjustment for multimorbidity level.

  7. Hypertension and determinants of blood pressure with special reference to socioeconomic status in a rural south Indian community.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberts, E. C.; Arnold, M. J.; Grobbee, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The objective of the study was to establish the prevalence of hypertension and to assess determinants of blood pressure with special reference to socioeconomic status in a rural south Indian community. DESIGN--This was a door to door, cross sectional survey. SETTING--A rural south Indian community, KV Kuppam panchayat, North Arcot District, Tamil Nadu. SUBJECTS--The area has a total population of 3500 people. Those aged over 20 years who were available at the time of measurement w...

  8. Ways of perfection of socio-economic bases of development of physical culture and sport in Republic Lebanon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michuda Y.P.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Consisting of economy of physical culture and sport is certain of Republic Lebanon. Opinions of the Lebanese specialists are presented on questions of perfection of socio-economic bases of development of physical culture and sport. The necessity of decision of complex of tasks of socio-economic character is grounded for a country taking into account experience of foreign countries. It is offered to develop and realize a target comprehensive programme under the title « Lebanon - sports country ».

  9. Influence of Maternal Work Patterns and Socioeconomic Status on Gen Y Lifestyle Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Susan M.; Bianco, Candy A.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the lifestyle balance between career and family desired by the next generation of workers and whether these desires have been influenced by socioeconomic variables and maternal work patterns. The individuals who will enter the workforce in the next several years are the first generation in which most mothers worked outside…

  10. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Trine RØnde; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2010-01-01

    Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days), medium (4-14 days) and long (>14 days) spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations) and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal"). Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds ratios (OR)) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2) and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16) times for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, respectively, while the similar changes varied from 0.79 to 2.8 for the other absence outcomes. General health explained some of the social gradient. Work factors and personal factors did not. Conclusions The social gradient in sickness absence was different for absences of different duration and patterns. It was strongest for absences of medium length and "abnormal" absence. The social gradient was not explained by other factors.

  11. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkelsen Sigurd

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%. Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days, medium (4-14 days and long (>14 days spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal". Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters. Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR or odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2 and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16 times for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, respectively, while the similar changes varied from 0.79 to 2.8 for the other absence outcomes. General health explained some of the social gradient. Work factors and personal factors did not. Conclusions The social gradient in sickness absence was different for absences of different duration and patterns. It was strongest for absences of medium length and "abnormal" absence. The social gradient was not explained by other factors.

  12. The influence of antismoking television advertisements on cessation by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M; Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N?=?53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor mental health. PMID:25033449

  13. Implications of Parents’ Socio-Economic Status in the Choice of English Language Learning Strategies among Nigeria’s Secondary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mallam Adamu Babikkoi; Noor Zainab binti Abdul Razak

    2014-01-01

    Studies have indicated that, less affluent families are less likely to have the financial and or time availability to provide their children with academic support compared to affluent families.This study investigated the relationship between Language Learning Strategies used by secondary school students in Nigeria and their Parents Socio-economic Status. The data for this research was provided by 559 respondents who study English as a second language and belonging to three varied socio-econom...

  14. Dental caries-related quality of life and socioeconomic status of preschool children, Bauru, SP

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angela, Xavier; Fábio Silva de, Carvalho; Roosevelt da Silva, Bastos; Magali de Lourdes, Caldana; José Roberto de Magalhães, Bastos.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate oral health-related quality of life of preschool children of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, and associate it with socioeconomic profile of households. METHODS: The sample consisted of 229 preschool children between 3 and 5 years and the dmft (decayed, missing due to caries, fill [...] ed teeth) index was adopted for assessment children's dental caries in accordance with the standards recommended by the World Health Organization. Questionnaires were used for evaluation oral health-related quality of life (Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale) and socioeconomic profile of parents or guardians of the preschool children. Statistical analysis was performed descriptively by relative and absolute frequencies and by Spearman's correlation and Kruskal-Wallis test (p

  15. Socioeconomic status and the expectation of disability in old age: estimates for England

    OpenAIRE

    Melzer, D.; Mcwilliams, B.; Brayne, C.; Johnson, T.; Bond, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The longer life expectancy in old age of more privileged socioeconomic groups is well established, but less clear is whether the net effect of additional years of life is a lengthened, stable or reduced duration of disability. Estimates of healthy and disabled life expectancy (using definitions including dependency in activities of daily living and cognitive impairment) were made, contrasting occupational classes I and II (professional and managerial) with the rest.?DESIGN—Di...

  16. Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country's socio-economic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gyan P., Sharma; Karen J., Esler; James N., Blignaut.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with v [...] arious socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI), the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP) among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.

  17. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, individual wealth status and patterns of delivery care utilization in Nigeria: a multilevel discrete choice analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aremu O

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Olatunde Aremu1,2, Stephen Lawoko1, Koustuv Dalal1,31Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Linköping University, SwedenBackground: High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of maternal healthcare services has been accepted as an important factor for reducing maternal deaths. This study investigates the effect of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic position on the utilization of different forms of place of delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.Methods: A population-based multilevel discrete choice analysis was performed using the most recent population-based 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years. The analysis was restricted to 15,162 ever-married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja.Results: The choice of place to deliver varies across the socioeconomic strata. The results of the multilevel discrete choice models indicate that with every other factor controlled for, the household wealth status, women's occupation, women's and partner's high level of education attainment, and possession of health insurance were associated with use of private and government health facilities for child birth relative to home delivery. The results also show that higher birth order and young maternal age were associated with use of home delivery. Living in a highly socioeconomic disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with home birth compared with the patronage of government health facilities. More specifically, the result revealed that choice of facility-based delivery is clustered around the neighborhoods.Conclusion: Home delivery, which cuts across all socioeconomic strata, is a common practice among women in Nigeria. Initiatives that would encourage the appropriate use of healthcare facilities at little or no cost to the most disadvantaged should be accorded the utmost priority.Keywords: delivery care, maternal health services utilization, multilevel discrete choice, Nigeria, socioeconomic disadvantaged, neigborhood, health policy

  18. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI, socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII, and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates.Results: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks.Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing inequalities in socioeconomic conditions, availability of preventive health services, and women’s social status.

  19. Hepatic vein obstruction is the most common type of hepatic venous outflow obstruction regardless of socioeconomic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Akash; Parikh, Hardik; Modi, Tejas; Abraham, Philip; Kamble, Swati; Majumder, Dipendu; Bhatia, Shobna

    2015-01-01

    Background Data regarding role of socioeconomic status (SES) as etiology and site of involvement of veins in hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction (HVOTO) is scarce and only described from Nepal. We prospectively evaluated the role of SES in patients with HVOTO. Methods 70 consecutive patients (41 females; mean age 29, range 3-65 years) with HVOTO were studied. Their clinical history, socioeconomic factors (income, education, and occupation), birth history, dietary factors, living standards, baseline characteristics, liver function, and clinical parameters were evaluated. Results Of the 70 patients analyzed, 48 (68.5%) had hepatic vein (HV) obstruction, 7 (10%) had isolated inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction, and 15 (21.5%) had combined HV and IVC obstruction. Of the 10 patients belonging to the upper SES, 7 had isolated HV obstruction, and 3 had combined IVC and HV obstruction; no patient had isolated IVC obstruction. Of the 60 patients belonging to the lower SES, 41(68.4%) had HV obstruction, and 19 (31.6%) had IVC involvement with (n=12) or without (n=7) HV involvement. HV/IVC involvement did not correlate with setting of delivery (hospital vs. home), birth weight, birth complications, immunization in childhood, ventilation in house, water storage facilities, history of diarrhea, or diet. Patients with HVOTO living in a mud house had IVC obstruction more commonly than HV (6/22 vs. 4/48; P=0.04). Conclusion Isolated hepatic vein obstruction is the most common site of obstruction in patients with HVOTO in India, even among those belonging to low SES. Patients with HVOTO living in a mud house have IVC obstruction more commonly. Other socioeconomic factors studied do not appear to correlate with the site of obstruction. PMID:25609002

  20. Council tax valuation band predicts breast feeding and socio-economic status in the ALSPAC study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrick David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economic status but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band – a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a breast-feeding (b personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. Methods Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. Results Study sample: 1360 women divided across the CTVBs – at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude – that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. Conclusion CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion.

  1. Quality of life of older Chilean subjects living in metropolitan Santiago, Chile. Influence of socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Bunout; Paulina Osorio; Gladys Barrera; María José Torrejón; Cynthia Meersohn; María Sol Anigstein; Juan Pablo Miranda; Iris Espinoza; Sandra Hirsch; María Pía de la Maza

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) of older people is becoming an important public health concern and should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate socioeconomic and individual determinants of QOL of older subjects living in metropolitan Santiago, Chile. We first carried out a qualitative phase with focus groups of older people. According to the conclusions of the focus groups, a questionnaire about QOL was devised and added to the WhoQoL (World Health Organization Quality of Life) and WHOQoL...

  2. A spatial analysis of variations in health access: linking geography, socio-economic status and access perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunsdon Chris

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes survey. Road distances to the nearest service were calculated for each respondent using a GIS. Difficulty was related to geographic distance, health status and car ownership using logistic generalized linear models. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used to explore the spatial non-stationarity in the results. Results Respondent long term illness, reported bad health and non-car ownership were found to be significant predictors of difficulty in accessing GPs and hospitals. Geographic distance was not a significant predictor of difficulty in accessing hospitals but was for GPs. GWR identified the spatial (local variation in these global relationships indicating locations where the predictive strength of the independent variables was higher or lower than the global trend. The impacts of bad health and non-car ownership on the difficulties experienced in accessing health services varied spatially across the study area, whilst the impacts of geographic distance did not. Conclusions Difficulty in accessing different health facilities was found to be significantly related to health status and car ownership, whilst the impact of geographic distance depends on the service in question. GWR showed how these relationships were varied across the study area. This study demonstrates that the notion of access is a multi-dimensional concept, whose composition varies with location, according to the facility being considered and the health and socio-economic status of the individual concerned.

  3. Learning from Success: How Original Research on Academic Resilience Informs what College Faculty Can do to Increase the Retention of Low Socioeconomic Status Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. Morales

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing resilience theory and original research conducted on fifty academically resilient low socioeconomic status students of color, this article presents specific objectives and values institutions of higher learning can adopt and emphasize to increase the retention and graduation of their most statistically at-risk students. Major findings and suggestions include: constantly build students’ self-efficacy; help students realistically appraise their own strengths and weaknesses; encourage help seeking tendencies; and provide clear linkages between academic success and future economic security. According to a recent report from National Center for Education Statistics, by the year 2022, White and Asian students will increase their attendance on college campuses by 7%, whereas the rate will be 26% for African American students and 27% for Hispanics, two groups with disproportionately higher poverty rates (Hussar & Bailey, 2014. These students will continue to make up larger and larger percentages of students on college campuses nationwide. While these can be viewed as positive and exciting forecasts, they bring with them new sets of challenges. Given the changing racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic demographics of the United States, as well as shifts in expectations as to who seeks a college degree, a majority of institutions of higher education are struggling with one essential question: How do we retain and graduate greater numbers of ethnic minorities and students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds? The consequences of not meeting this challenge can be viewed on both a macro and micro level.  From a societal perspective, unemployment rates, reliance on public social service agencies, incarceration rates, and America’s place in the global hierarchy are all either directly or indirectly linked with the successful education of working class and poor students, many of whom are ethnic minorities. On a more local level, as more and more first generation college students enter colleges across the country (Jehangir, 2010, institutions are increasingly recognizing the value of effectively meeting their needs (Bastedo & Gumport, 2003, for if they don’t, current and future enrollment targets may not be met.  Furthermore, those with the most influence over the potential success of these students, college faculty, already acknowledge the need for, and desire, effective ways of meeting their needs (Erisman & Looney 2007. The difficulties colleges face in effectively teaching and graduating lower socioeconomic status students, often from ethnic minority backgrounds, continues to be a pressing issue. However, the issue is not a new one. Back in the early 1970s K. Patricia Cross (1971 famously talked specifically of the inability of colleges to adjust to the needs of the changing student bodies of the time. Since then, the numbers of poorer and first generation college students have only increased. Furthermore, many noted researchers in the field still acknowledge that not enough is known about how low socioeconomic college students experience and manage college life (Pascarella, Pierson, Wolniak, & Terenzini, 2004;  Pike & Kuh, 2005. The rest of this paper will further define and explore the parameters of these issues and then utilize original research on academically resilient students to provide specific approaches faculty can adopt to increase the degree of resilience and persistence among first generation college students. These suggestions will be categorized and explained, then justified through related research literature.

  4. The association between socioeconomic status, oral hygiene practice, denture stomatitis and oral status in elderly people living different residential homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Buket Akalin; Uludamar, Altay; I?eri, Ufuk; Ozkan, Yasemin Kulak

    2011-01-01

    Oral hygiene practices and denture status of elderly people living in residential homes are different depending on the type of residential homes. In this study the elderly people living in three different residential homes were investigated for this purpose. A total of 269 subjects, 119 males (mean age 73.9±8.8) and 150 females (mean age 78.5±7.2) were involved in this study. All subjects were interviewed and clinically examined. Age, sex, educational status, financial status, general health, dental visiting, overnight denture wearing, brushing habits and frequency were recorded using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of edentulism, the presence and type of dental prostheses, denture cleanliness and the presence of denture stomatitis were evaluated. Forty-one percent of subjects were non-educated. Fifty-one percent of subjects had low income. The majority of people (66.6%) were edentulous. Among the edentulous subjects 32% had full denture and 16% had no denture. Forty three percent of the subjects reported cleaning their dentures with water and 40% with a toothbrush only. Denture hygiene was good for 14% of the subjects. Denture stomatitis was observed in 44% of the subjects wearing dentures. There was statistically significant difference between residential homes and educational status, level of income, dental visiting, denture status, brushing methods and brushing frequency (pdenture hygiene habits and the presence of denture-related stomatitis. The most important need within the residents of the residential home was the enhancement of oral care social insurance. PMID:21269712

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk factors among children of different socioeconomic status in Istanbul, Turkey: Directions for public health and nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskin Yasar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES districts in Istanbul. Participants 510 randomly selected children aged 12 and 13 years old (257 boys, 253 girls. Results The prevalence of overweight (15.2% and the energy intake (p Conclusion The findings of the current study revealed a coexistence of both overweight and higher energy intake in middle/ high SES children, as well as a coexistence of underweight and lower physical activity levels in low SES children. These observations should guide the public health policy in developing appropriate intervention strategies to efficiently tackle these health and social issues early in life.

  6. Utilization of psychiatric services by postpartum women in a predominantly minority, low-socioeconomic-status, urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seplowitz, Rhoda; Miller, Harold; Ostermeyer, Britta; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Silver, Elana; Kunik, Mark E

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the utilization of health care services related to psychiatric diagnoses in an inner city community health organization with a largely Hispanic population of low socioeconomic status. We reviewed the frequency and timing of postpartum mental health diagnoses among 5,731 patients who delivered babies and were followed-up for postpartum care. 286 women (5 %) had at least one mental health diagnosis. The rates in white, black, and Hispanic women were 12, 8, and 5 % respectively (p mental health diagnosis, respectively, compared to Hispanic women. The most common diagnoses were mood disorders (64 %) followed by anxiety disorders (29 %). 87 % of cases were diagnosed after 4 weeks postpartum. The postpartum mental health diagnosis rate seen here is lower than might be expected, particularly among Hispanic women. Possible explanations are discussed. PMID:25535052

  7. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issler Roberto M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.

  8. Discipline responses: influences of parents' socioeconomic status, ethnicity, beliefs about parenting, stress, and cognitive-emotional processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinderhughes, E E; Dodge, K A; Bates, J E; Pettit, G S; Zelli, A

    2000-09-01

    Direct and indirect precursors to parents' harsh discipline responses to hypothetical vignettes about child misbehavior were studied with data from 978 parents (59% mothers; 82% European American and 16% African American) of 585 kindergarten-aged children. SEM analyses showed that parents' beliefs about spanking and child aggression and family stress mediated a negative relation between socioeconomic status and discipline. In turn, perception of the child and cognitive-emotional processes (hostile attributions, emotional upset, worry about child's future, available alternative disciplinary strategies, and available preventive strategies) mediated the effect of stress on discipline. Similar relations between ethnicity and discipline were found (African Americans reported harsher discipline), especially among low-income parents. Societally based experiences may lead some parents to rely on accessible and coherent goals in their discipline, whereas others are more reactive. PMID:11025931

  9. Attentional processes in low-socioeconomic status bilingual children: are they modulated by the amount of bilingual experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladas, Aristea I; Carroll, Daniel J; Vivas, Ana B

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that bilingual children are more proficient in resolving cognitive conflict than monolinguals. However, the replicability of such findings has been questioned, with poor control of participants' socioeconomic status (SES) as a possible confounding factor. Two experiments are reported here, in which the main attentional functions and pragmatic ability of 54 bilingual and 56 monolingual low-SES children were assessed (Experiment 1: 6- to 12-year-olds; Experiment 2: 6- to 8-year-olds). A language-switching task was also employed, to measure bilingual proficiency. Overall, the monolingual and bilingual groups did not differ significantly in any of the tasks employed, although the ability to resolve conflict was related to children's level of bilingual experience. PMID:25571905

  10. Prospective English Language Teachers’ Perceptions of the Target Language and Culture in Relation to their Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Arikan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Prospective foreign language teachers need to have an accurate knowledge and a positive perception of the target language and target culture so that they can help their students gain further insight on culture by and large. Hence, by means of a questionnaire, prospective English language teachers’ (n= 412 perceptions of the target language and culture are sought to be answered in relation to their present knowledge of the target language and culture and their socioeconomic status. The results indicate that the participants see themselves knowledgeable in target language, but insufficient in target culture. Similarly, target culture is much less appreciated than the language. It is also shown that attitudes toward target language, knowledge of target culture, parental use of target language, family income, and father’s job have significant influence on prospective teachers’ perceptions.

  11. Parental Socio-Economic Status, Family Structure and Living Environment as Predictors of Violence against Children in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Oni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to find out whether parental socioeconomic status, family structure and living environment are predictors of violence against children. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and the population of the study consisted of all the children in public primary schools and in junior secondary schools within Lagos state of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was adopted for the study. Random samples of twenty five children were picked from each of the sixteen schools selected. This gives a total 400 participants that were used for the study. Experts in Sociology, measurement and evaluation certified the content validity of the questionnaire, while the co-efficient of the reliability of the four sections of the questionnaire were ascertained to be 0.63; 0.68; 0.66 and 0.73, respectively for sections A,B,C and D. Chi-square statistical tools was used to test the hypotheses formulated. Major findings of the study include the fact that parental socioeconomic status significantly influence violence against children, family structure significantly influence violence against children and that living environment also significantly influence violence against children. This study conclude by recommending among others that the Lagos State government should put machinery in motion to improve the poverty level of individuals living in Lagos State of Nigeria and should also make available social services and amenities that are supportive of family well being in order to avoid any form of violence against children.

  12. Differences in the association of subjective wellbeing measures with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions among residents of an Eastern Cape township

    OpenAIRE

    Cramm, J. M.; Nieboer, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of variably self-reported measures of wellbeing may produce differing outcomes. This study examined the differences in association with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions (marital status, social capital) of two widely used cognitive subjective wellbeing measurements: Cantril’s ladder and Diener’s five-item Satisfaction with Life Scale. Methods: A stratified sampling design was used to collect data from representative households in the 20 neighborhoods of Rhini, a ...

  13. Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder are associated with lower socio-economic status: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Laura L.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.; Ben-shlomo, Yoav

    2013-01-01

    Aim Only a few studies have examined the relationship between Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder and socio-economic status (SES). Existing studies are primarily cross-sectional, arise from specialty clinics, and use single measures of SES. In this study we examine this relationship in a longitudinal, population-based sample.

  14. Differences in Student Information and Communication Technology Literacy Based on Socio-Economic Status, Ethnicity, and Gender: Evidence of a Digital Divide in Florida Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…

  15. Can Racial Disparity in Health between Black and White Americans Be Attributed to Racial Disparities in Body Weight and Socioeconomic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Sang Kyoung

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined to what extent racial disparities in chronic health conditions (CHCs) are attributable to racial differences in body weight (measured as body mass index [BMI]) and socioeconomic status (SES) among older adults. To address this gap, using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, the current study examined…

  16. Nutritional Quality of Breakfast and Physical Activity Independently Predict the Literacy and Numeracy Scores of Children after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Mugridge, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Health-related behaviors [physical activity (PA), nutritional quality of breakfast and sleep]; personal variables (self-esteem, attitudes to PA and gender) and socioeconomic status (SES) (school SES and parental education), were examined in relation to literacy and numeracy scores of 824 grade 3-7 children. Participants completed a questionnaire,…

  17. The prevalence and distribution of dental caries in four early medieval non-adult populations of different socioeconomic status from Central Europe.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stránská, Petra; Velemínský, P.; Polá?ek, Lumír

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 60, ?. 1 (2015), s. 62-76. ISSN 0003-9969 R&D Projects: GA ?R GB14-36938G Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : bioarchaeology * early medieval population * Great Moravia * non-adult individuals * dental caries * socio-economic status Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2013

  18. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  19. Improving the Measurement of Socioeconomic Status for the National Assessment of Educational Progress: A Theoretical Foundation--Recommendations to the National Center for Education Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2012

    2012-01-01

    At the request of the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB, 2003), the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) convened a panel of experts to provide recommendations concerning socioeconomic status (SES) as a construct, with the understanding that their recommendations might ultimately lead to a new measure of SES that could be used…

  20. The Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships and Achievement Motivation on Students' Intentions to Dropout According to Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…

  1. Cohort Size, Sex and Socio-Economic Status as Predictors of Success in Year 12 Physics in Perth, 1987-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, David; Louden, William; Wildy, Helen

    2013-01-01

    A variety of factors are associated with students' achievement in secondary school physics, including cohort size--the total number of students studying Physics in the school--and socioeconomic status. Earlier studies also showed boys achieving better in Physics, while more recent research has shown better results for girls. Statistical…

  2. Quantitative stability, qualitative change? Changing socio-economic status and value perceptions of Danish volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov

    2013-01-01

    Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced changes in economic conditions, educational levels, and labor markets at the same time as cultural changes have taken place in relation to processes of individualization and reflexivity. Based on empirical data the aim of this paper is to investigate whether and to what extent changes in the structural preconditions for volunteering have had an effect on factors that are commonly associated with volunteering. We use survey data from Denmark collected over a period from 1990 to 2008.

  3. Characteristics of pregnant women in Mozambique--parity, child survival and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijestrand, J; Bergström, S

    1984-01-01

    As a basis for improvement of maternal health care programmes in Mozambique, 1051 pregnant women were interviewed at 10 sites in 8 of the country's 10 provinces. Two-thirds of the women lived in rural areas. The average number of previous births ranged from 2.4 to 4.7 and was significantly correlated to the proportion of children lost before 5 years of age. Child survival was significantly higher when the woman had received some education, possessed a radio, or the woman or her husband had paid employment. In the most underprivileged rural area, 56% of the children had died before the age of 5 and 35% of the pregnant women had undergone 6 childbirths or more. It is concluded that in order to improve maternal and child health it is necessary to increase socioeconomic development as well as improve maternal and child health care. PMID:6464241

  4. The Influence of Antismoking Television Advertisements on Cessation by Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Mental Health Status

    OpenAIRE

    Nonnemaker, James M.; Allen, Jane A.; Davis, Kevin C.; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C.; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation ...

  5. Socioeconomic Status is Significantly Associated with Dietary Salt Intakes and Blood Pressure in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiko Kurioka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The association of socioeconomic status (SES with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266 who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05. After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, ? = ?0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, ? = ?0.046, P = 0.003. SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032. Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers.

  6. Race, socioeconomic status, and the subjective well-being of older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, B; Campbell, J

    1987-01-01

    Causal examination of factors influencing life satisfaction among older Americans can provide knowledge important to social policy development. Using rotated factor analysis, this study isolates two dimensions of life satisfaction, labeled happiness and morale, using data from the 1981 Harris survey on aging. Race, SES characteristics, and the two intervening variables of self-assessed health status and problems experienced are tested through path analysis on the two attributes of life satisfaction. Most of the effects of race and SES are mediated by self-assessed health status and problems experienced, and these two intervening variables are the strongest direct predictors of happiness and morale. Of particular significance are results which demonstrate that racial background has a strong influence on problems experienced, and that education is more influential than income on the life satisfaction factors tested in this study. PMID:3429039

  7. Quality of life of older Chilean subjects living in metropolitan Santiago, Chile. Influence of socioeconomic status

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    Daniel Bunout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life of older people is becoming an important public health concern and should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality of life of older subjects living in Metropolitan Santiago, Chile. A qualitative phase with focus groups of older subjects was carried out first. According to the conclusions of the Focus groups, a questionnaire about quality of life was devised and added to the WHOQoLOld and WhoQoL brief questionnarires. The final document with 85 questions was applied to healthy older subjects living in the community.A total of 1676 subjects aged 71.8 ± 7.4 years (1189 women, were surveyed. A multiple stepwise regression model showed that a higher socioeconomic level, a better educational level, performing voluntary work, having a partner, participating in groups with other older people and having a lower age, were factors independently associated with a higher quality of life. A principal components analysis showed that psychological health and social relationships were the main domains explaining the total quality of life score. Psychological health and social relationships were the main determinants of quality of life in this sample of Chilean older people living in Metropolitan Santiago.

     

  8. Dietary plant food and socioeconomic determinants of vitamin A status : study in rural lactating woman during crisis in Central Java

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    Mohammad Sulchan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available For the Longer term food-based approaches for controlling vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, become increasingly important. A nutrition survailance system in Central-Java, Indonesia assessed vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentration of lactating women with a child ?36 mo old during crisis. Median vitamin A intake was 319 RE/d and night blindness 0,34%. Serum retinol concentration (mean : 1,23 µmol/L was related to vitamin A intake in a dose-concentration manner. The multiple logistic regression model for predicting the chance for a serum retinol concentration > observed median of the population (?1,27 µ mol/L included determinant factors, vitamin A intake from plant foods (OR [95% CI] per quartile, 1st : 1.00, 2nd: 1,63 [0,99-2,80], 3rd: 1,99 [1,58-2,99], and 4th: 2,62 [1,68-4,04], from, animal foods (1st and 2nd: 1,00. 3rd: 1,37 [0,89-2,09] and 4th: 2,86 [1,59-3,98] . Homegardening (no 1,00, yes 1,88 [1,08-2,68] and woman’s education level (? primary school : 1,00 ? secondary school : 1,46 [1,00-2,16] . Thus, although contributing 16 times more to total vitamin A intake plant foods were as important for vitamin A status as animal foods. Homegardening and woman’s education level seem to reflect longer-term consumption of plant and animal foods respectively. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:259-66Keywords: Vitamin A intake, plant foods, animal foods, vitamin A status, homegardening, socio-economic status, crisis, Indonesia

  9. Is malaria illness among young children a cause or a consequence of low socioeconomic status? evidence from the united Republic of Tanzania

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    de Castro Marcia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is commonly considered a disease of the poor, but there is very little evidence of a possible two-way causality in the association between malaria and poverty. Until now, limitations to examine that dual relationship were the availability of representative data on confirmed malaria cases, the use of a good proxy for poverty, and accounting for endogeneity in regression models. Methods A simultaneous equation model was estimated with nationally representative data for Tanzania that included malaria parasite testing with RDTs for young children (six-59?months, and accounted for environmental variables assembled with the aid of GIS. A wealth index based on assets, access to utilities/infrastructure, and housing characteristics was used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Model estimation was done with instrumental variables regression. Results Results show that households with a child who tested positive for malaria at the time of the survey had a wealth index that was, on average, 1.9 units lower (p-value? Conclusion If malaria is indeed a cause of poverty, as the findings of this study suggest, then malaria control activities, and particularly the current efforts to eliminate/eradicate malaria, are much more than just a public health policy, but also a poverty alleviation strategy. However, if poverty has no causal effect on malaria, then poverty alleviation policies should not be advertised as having the potential additional effect of reducing the prevalence of malaria.

  10. Socioeconomic status, area remoteness, and survival from childhood leukemia: results from the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros; Dessypris, Nick; Kanavidis, Prodromos; Skalkidis, Ilias; Baka, Margarita; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Athanassiadou, Fani; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Frangandrea, Ioanna; Moschovi, Maria; Petridou, Eleni T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present nationwide Greek study is to assess whether survival from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is modified by socioeconomic status (SES) and area remoteness. Detailed precoded information derived from a personal interview conducted by specially trained health personnel with the child guardians was available for 883 ALL and 111 AML incident childhood cases registered in the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies during the period 1996-2010. Parental socioprofessional category was recorded on the basis of ISCO68 and ISCO88 codes; the exact traveling distance between residence and the treating hospital was ad hoc calculated. Multivariate Cox's proportional hazards models were applied to examine the mutually adjusted associations between survival and potential predictors. Children from a lower parental socioprofessional category experienced 40% worse survival (P=0.02) independent of age, sex, and ALL subtype, whereas those whose parents were married had better outcomes (rate ratio: 0.47, P=0.01). Urbanization of residence at diagnosis or 'residence to treating hospital' distance was not nominally associated with survival from ALL. By contrast, no noteworthy associations implicating SES were found for AML survival, probably because of the burden of the disease and small numbers. Lower SES indicators and a single-parenthood family milieu seem to be independently associated with unfavorable outcomes from childhood ALL. Area remoteness might not be a significant outcome predictor during recent years, following considerable improvements in the motorway infrastructures and care delivery patterns. This study may provide a valuable snapshot capturing the impact of socioeconomic covariates before the burst of the Greek financial crisis. PMID:23238585

  11. Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Attainment of Clinical Practice Guideline Standards in Dialysis Patients in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayaraj, Udaya P.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Roderick, Paul; Steenkamp, Retha; Ansell, David; Tomson, Charles R.V.; Caskey, Fergus J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The role of socioeconomic status (SES) and its contribution to ethnic differences in standards attainment among dialysis patients is not known. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We examined associations between area- level SES (Townsend index) and ethnicity (white, black, South Asian) and standards attainment in 14,117 incident dialysis patients (1997–2004) in the UK. Results: Deprived patients were less likely to achieve hemoglobin (Hb) ? 10g/dl (trend P < 0.001) but not after controlling for patient and center characteristics (trend P = 0.1). There was no association with hemodialysis dose and parathyroid hormone (PTH) standard but deprived patients had better attainment of phosphate (PO4) <5.6 mg/dl, calcium (Ca) and Calcium-phosphate (CaPO4) standard (e.g., most deprived versus least deprived adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.25, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.12, 1.38). There was no association with SES using a lower limit for PO4 (3.5 ? 5.5 mg/dl). Compared with Whites, Blacks had lower attainment of Hb (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45, 0.71) and PTH standards (adjusted OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.22, 0.33) but better attainment of PO4 and CaPO4, while South Asians experienced better or comparable outcomes for most standards except Ca and PTH. Conclusions: There was no evidence of socioeconomic inequity in standards attainment or a consistent pattern of inequity by ethnic group. The lower attainment of some standards in ethnic minorities may reflect biologic differences rather than ethnicity-related inequity of care. PMID:19357243

  12. [Effect of the pregnant woman's socioeconomic status on serum immunoglobulin levels in the neonate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coli?-Hadzi?, Belkisa; Tahirovi?, Husref

    2003-01-01

    Serum concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) of new-born child, at the birth, which reach the concentration of an adult persons, are the origin of mother and transferred by active and passive transport, by placenta. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin A (IgA), do not pass the placenta because of their structure. Main condition for passing of IgG are normal period of pregnancy and regular function of placenta. Social-economic status (SES), and also immunologic status of a pregnant woman, an affect on the immunological status of new-born child. 120 pregnant woman and 120 of their new-born children were studied. Pregnant woman were at age of 18-34 years, and during the pregnancy they were healthy. Gestational age of new-born children was from 38 to 40 weeks, and birth weight was from 3000 grams to 4000 grams. The new-born children were from monofertile pregnancies, without visible anomalies and signs of intrauterine suffer. They were divided into 2 groups, 60 patients in every group, in comparison of SES families of a mother, in which she lived during the pregnancy. From every new-born child at the birth, from the blood of a navel it was determined the concentration of serum IgG, IgM and IgA. The values of IgG from the group with bad SES, were significantly lower (p children were below the level of determination or just above it, so they could not be analysed anymore. Immunoglobulins A were not found in both groups, A and B groups. PMID:12858651

  13. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in children and adolescents : Incidences, outcomes, and household socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is insufficient knowledge of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the very young. OBJECTIVES: This nationwide study sought to examine age-stratified OHCA characteristics and the role of parental socioeconomic differences and its contribution to mortality in the young population. METHODS: All OHCA patients in Denmark, ?21 years of age, were identified from 2001 to 2010. The population was divided into infants (<1 year); pre-school children (1-5 years); school children (6-15 years); and high school adolescents/young adults (16-21 years). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between pre-hospital factors and study endpoints: return of spontaneous circulation and survival. RESULTS: A total of 459 individuals were included. Overall incidence of OHCA was 3.3 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The incidence rates for infants, pre-school children, school children and high school adolescents were 11.5, 3.5, 1.3 and 5.3 per 100,000 inhabitants. Overall bystander CPR rate was 48.8%, and for age groups: 55.4%, 41.2%, 44.9% and 63.0%, respectively. Overall 30-day survival rate was 8.1%, and for age groups: 1.4%, 4.5%, 16.1% and 9.3%, respectively. High parental education was associated with improved survival after OHCA (OR 3.48, CI 1.27-9.41). Significant crude difference in survival (OR 3.18, CI 1.22-8.34) between high household incomes vs. low household incomes was found. CONCLUSION: OHCA incidences and survival rates varied significantly between age groups. High parental education was found to be associated with improved survival after OHCA.

  14. The Influence of Dual Enrollment on Academic Performance and College Readiness: Differences by Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    I examine the influence of dual enrollment, a program that allows students to take college courses and earn college credits while in high school, on academic performance and college readiness. Advocates consider dual enrollment as a way to transition high school students into college, and they further claim that these programs benefit students…

  15. The preference for an endoscopist specific sex: a link between ethnic origin, religious belief, socioeconomic status, and procedure type

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    Lahat A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Adi Lahat,1 Yehudith Assouline-Dayan,1 Lior H Katz,1 Herma H Fidder2 1Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands Background and aim: The sex of the physician performing the endoscopic procedure is one of the parameters influencing patient satisfaction. Our aim was to characterize patients’ preferences according to their sex, socioeconomic status, and religious beliefs and according to procedure-related variables. Methods: All patients undergoing an endoscopic procedure at Sheba Hospital between April 2012 and September 2012 were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their sex, ethnic background, socioeconomic status, religious practice, and preference for an endoscopist of a specific sex. Questionnaires were included for analysis only when more than 95% of the items were addressed. Results: A total of 1,009 patients agreed to complete the questionnaires; of these 946 (94% [59% male] were eligible for inclusion. Most patients (675 [70%] expressed no preference for sex of the endoscopist, while 234 patients (25% preferred a same-sex endoscopist, and only 55 (6% preferred an other-sex endoscopist. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that in female patients, lower education (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28, non-Jewish religion (OR = 4.86, orthodox religious practice (OR = 2.28, African or Asian ethnic origin (OR = 2.44, scheduled for colonoscopy (OR = 1.90, and no previous endoscopy experience (OR = 1.88 were all associated with a preference for a same-sex endoscopist. Conclusion: One-quarter of patients preferred the physician performing their examination to be of particular sex. Most of these patients preferred a same-sex endoscopist. Education level, intensity of religious practice, ethnic origin, and type of endoscopic examination were associated with a preference for a same-sex endoscopist. Addressing patients’ preferences may improve the atmosphere in the clinical environment, reduce stress, and facilitate better treatment and adherence to endoscopic surveillance programs. Keywords: endoscopy, patients’ satisfaction, compliance, patient’s preference

  16. Association of socioeconomic status measured by education, and cardiovascular health: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovi?, Slavenka; Stojisavljevi?, Dragana; Jankovi?, Janko; Eri?, Miloš; Marinkovi?, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular health (CVH) is a relatively new concept defined by the American Heart Association (AHA). The aim of the present study was to assess whether the indices of CVH were discriminators of socioeconomic status (SES) in the adult population of the Republic of Srpska (RS). Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting RS, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Participants The study involved 4165 adults aged ?18?years (mean age 50.2; 54% women) who participated in the National Health Survey performed from September to November 2010 in the RS. Study variables Participant's education was a proxy for SES. Potential discriminators of SES were indices of CVH presented according to AHA as: ideal health behaviours index (non-smoking, body mass index <25?kg/m2, physical activity at goal level and healthy diet); ideal health factors index (untreated total cholesterol <200?mg/dL, untreated blood pressure <120/<80?mm?Hg, untreated fasting glucose <100?mg/dL and non-smoking); and ideal CVH status (defined as all seven ideal health metrics present) versus intermediate and poor CVH status. Results Participants with high educational levels had a significantly greater number of ideal CVH metrics, and ideal health factor metrics compared with those with low or medium educational level (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.77 to 0.99 and OR 0.88 95% CI 0.80 to 0.96; OR 0.81 95% CI 0.69 to 0.96 and OR 0.77 95% CI 0.68 to 0.87; respectively). The number of ideal behaviour metrics was not a discriminator of educational groups. Concerning the categories of CVH status the poor CVH was a discriminator for low and medium education compared with those with high education (OR 1.93 95% CI 1.24 to 3.01 and OR 1.54 95% CI 1.08 to 2.19, respectively). Conclusions Our findings emphasise the large potential for preventing cardiovascular disease, showing a low proportion with a favourable CVH profile, especially among low-educated people. It is necessary to consider prevention strategies aimed at improving CVH in RS, targeting primarily low educational groups. PMID:25031193

  17. Tobacco use prevalence – disentangling associations between Alaska Native race, low socio-economic status and rural disparities

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    Julia A. Dilley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design . For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods . With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alaska's 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, we used stratified analysis and logistic regression models to describe the current use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT (including iq'mik, a unique Alaska Native SLT product among the 3 populations of interest. Results . “Population segments” were created with combinations of responses for Alaska Native race, SES and community type. We identified the highest prevalence and highest proportion of tobacco users for each type of tobacco by “segment.” For cigarette smoking, while the largest proportion (nearly one-third of the state's smokers are non-Native, high SES and live in urban settings, this group also has lower smoking prevalence than most other groups. Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents had both high smoking prevalence (48% and represented a large proportion of the state's smokers (nearly 10%. Patterns were similar for SLT, with non-Native high-SES urban residents making up the largest proportion of users despite lower prevalence, and Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents having high prevalence and making up a large proportion of users. For iq'mik use, Alaska Native people in rural settings were both the highest prevalence and proportion of users. Conclusion . While Alaska Native race, low SES status and community of residence can be considered alone when developing tobacco control interventions, creating “population segments” based on combinations of factors may be helpful for tailoring effective tobacco control strategies and messaging. Other countries or states may use a similar approach for describing and prioritizing populations.

  18. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

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    Streichert Laura C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1% of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas.

  19. Independent effect of physical workload and childhood socioeconomic status on low back pain among health care workers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Marie Birk; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent effect of physical workload and childhood socioeconomic status (CSES) on low back pain (LBP) and LBP-related sickness absence among female health care workers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The role of physical workload on LBP independently from CSES is still subject to controversy. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 1661 female social and health care workers responding to a questionnaire in 2004, 2005, and 2006. We collected information on CSES (parental occupation), physical workload, and LBP-prevalence (no LBP, subchronic LBP, and frequent LBP), and LBP-related sickness absence. The participants were categorized into 5 groups according to CSES (I = highest, V = lowest). Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Irrespective of CSES, high physical workload increased the odds ratio (OR) of future subchronic LBP (OR = 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.61-2.57) and frequent LBP (OR = 2.20; 95% CI, 1.65-3.00), but not LBP-related sickness absence. The odds of subchronic LBP were lower in CSES groups II (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.93) and III (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.86) referencing CSES group I, irrespective of physical workload. The odds of short-term LBP-related sickness absence were higher in CSES groups III (OR = 2.78; 95% CI, 1.41-5.47) and IV (OR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.11-4.27) referencing CSES group I, irrespective of physical workload. We found no interaction between physical workload and CSES. CONCLUSION: Physical workload and CSES are independently associated with future LBP within a group with similar occupational status. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A.

  20. Socioeconomic status in Brazilian psychological research: I. validity, measurement, and application / Status socioeconômico na pesquisa psicológica brasileira: I. validade, mensuração e aplicação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo de Castro, Ribas Jr.; Maria Lucia Seidl de, Moura; Isabela Dias, Soares; Alessandra Aparecida do Nascimento, Gomes; Marc H., Bornstein.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Esta revisão teve os seguintes objetivos: descrever e discutir concepções teóricas acerca do constructo status socioeconômico (SSE) e argumentar no sentido de seu papel vital na pesquisa psicológica; apresentar e analisar procedimentos empregados para medir SSE e tendências em sua utilização; rever [...] e discutir a utilização de medidas de SSE na literatura psicológica brasileira. A posição relativa de indivíduos, famílias e grupos em uma determinada hierarquia (freqüentemente convertida em um escore produzido por uma escala) é o que tem sido freqüentemente chamado de status socioeconômico. Os principais indicadores de SSE são discutidos em relação a suas vantagens e desvantagens. Uma avaliação sistemática de artigos da base de dados PsycARTICLES foi conduzida e revelou que a percentagem de artigos publicados anualmente que empregou o status socioeconômico aumentou sistemática e substancialmente de 1988 a 2000. No entanto, SSE é consistentemente mais aplicado em certas áreas de pesquisa do que em outras (e.g., psicologia do desenvolvimento, clínica e social). Uma análise de conteúdo do uso do SSE em artigos publicados de 1981 até 2001 em três periódicos de psicologia brasileiros qualificados foi realizada. O principal resultado dessa análise é de que medidas confiáveis de SSE não são comumente utilizadas na literatura psicológica brasileira. Os resultados das revisões e análises são discutidos em termos de implicações para o aprimoramento da literatura psicológica com relação a essa variável (SSE), especialmente no Brasil. Abstract in english This review has several objectives: To describe and discuss theoretical conceptions of the construct of socioeconomic status (SES) and to argue for its vital role in psychological research; to present and analyze procedures employed to measure SES and trends in their utilization; and to review and d [...] iscuss the use of SES measures in Brazilian psychological literature. The relative position of individuals, families, and groups in a given hierarchy (frequently converted into a score produced by a scale) is what has usually been called SES. The main indicators and procedures used to measure SES are discussed in regard to its advantages and disadvantages. A review of the literature offers evidence of the importance of the SES in different psychological processes. A systematic evaluation of articles from the PsycARTICLES database was conducted and revealed that the percentage of articles published annually that employed socioeconomic status increased steadily and substantially from 1988 through 2000 and that SES has been consistently applied more in some research areas (e.g., developmental, clinical, social psychology). A content analysis of the use of SES in articles published from 1981 through 2001 in three prominent Brazilian psychology journals was conducted showing that reliable SES measures are not commonly used in the Brazilian psychological literature. The results of these reviews and analyses are discussed in terms of their implications for further progress of psychological literature, especially in Brazil, with regard SES.

  1. Socioeconomic status in Brazilian psychological research: I. validity, measurement, and application Status socioeconômico na pesquisa psicológica brasileira: I. validade, mensuração e aplicação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo de Castro Ribas Jr.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This review has several objectives: To describe and discuss theoretical conceptions of the construct of socioeconomic status (SES and to argue for its vital role in psychological research; to present and analyze procedures employed to measure SES and trends in their utilization; and to review and discuss the use of SES measures in Brazilian psychological literature. The relative position of individuals, families, and groups in a given hierarchy (frequently converted into a score produced by a scale is what has usually been called SES. The main indicators and procedures used to measure SES are discussed in regard to its advantages and disadvantages. A review of the literature offers evidence of the importance of the SES in different psychological processes. A systematic evaluation of articles from the PsycARTICLES database was conducted and revealed that the percentage of articles published annually that employed socioeconomic status increased steadily and substantially from 1988 through 2000 and that SES has been consistently applied more in some research areas (e.g., developmental, clinical, social psychology. A content analysis of the use of SES in articles published from 1981 through 2001 in three prominent Brazilian psychology journals was conducted showing that reliable SES measures are not commonly used in the Brazilian psychological literature. The results of these reviews and analyses are discussed in terms of their implications for further progress of psychological literature, especially in Brazil, with regard SES.Esta revisão teve os seguintes objetivos: descrever e discutir concepções teóricas acerca do constructo status socioeconômico (SSE e argumentar no sentido de seu papel vital na pesquisa psicológica; apresentar e analisar procedimentos empregados para medir SSE e tendências em sua utilização; rever e discutir a utilização de medidas de SSE na literatura psicológica brasileira. A posição relativa de indivíduos, famílias e grupos em uma determinada hierarquia (freqüentemente convertida em um escore produzido por uma escala é o que tem sido freqüentemente chamado de status socioeconômico. Os principais indicadores de SSE são discutidos em relação a suas vantagens e desvantagens. Uma avaliação sistemática de artigos da base de dados PsycARTICLES foi conduzida e revelou que a percentagem de artigos publicados anualmente que empregou o status socioeconômico aumentou sistemática e substancialmente de 1988 a 2000. No entanto, SSE é consistentemente mais aplicado em certas áreas de pesquisa do que em outras (e.g., psicologia do desenvolvimento, clínica e social. Uma análise de conteúdo do uso do SSE em artigos publicados de 1981 até 2001 em três periódicos de psicologia brasileiros qualificados foi realizada. O principal resultado dessa análise é de que medidas confiáveis de SSE não são comumente utilizadas na literatura psicológica brasileira. Os resultados das revisões e análises são discutidos em termos de implicações para o aprimoramento da literatura psicológica com relação a essa variável (SSE, especialmente no Brasil.

  2. Family socioeconomic status, household tobacco smoke, and asthma attack among children below 12 years of age: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carol; Chang, Ly-Yun

    2014-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated the negative impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or parental cigarette smoking on pediatric asthma. Little is known, however, regarding whether there is a gender difference in the effect of household ETS on pediatric asthma. Using a nationwide survey in Taiwan, we examined the relationship between asthma prevalence in the past year and household ETS among children below 12 years of age (N = 3761). We used multivariate regression models to assess odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of household ETS and asthma attacks by gender. In about 3% of the sample, parents reported that their children had an asthma attack in the past year, confirmed by physicians. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that household ETS predicted asthma attacks for girls (OR = 3.11, 95%CI = 1.24-7.76) but not for boys. Father's education was significantly associated with asthma attack for both girls (OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.04-1.47) and boys (OR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.05-1.26). Girls with lower family income were more likely to have had an asthma attack in the last year (OR = .48, 95%CI = .27-.87). The impact of household ETS and family socioeconomic status on asthma attacks differs by gender among children below 12 years. PMID:23908368

  3. The Relative Impact of Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Trauma on Black-White Differences in Paranoid Personality Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovino, Juliette M.; Jackson, Joshua J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines mechanisms of racial differences in symptoms of paranoid personality disorder (PPD) in a sample of adults ages 55–64 from the St. Louis, MO area. Socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood trauma were tested as intervening variables in the association between race and PPD symptoms using structural equation modeling. PPD symptoms were modeled as a latent variable composed of items from the PPD scales of the Multi-Source Assessment of Personality Pathology self and informant reports and the Structured Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM–IV) Personality. Childhood trauma was measured using the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, and SES was a composite of parent education, participant education, and annual household income. Blacks exhibited higher levels of PPD symptoms across the 3 personality measures, reported significantly lower SES, and reported greater childhood trauma. The proposed model was a good fit to the data, and the effect of race on PPD symptoms operated mainly through SES. The indirect effect through SES was stronger for males. Findings suggest that racial differences in PPD symptoms are partly explained by problems more commonly experienced by Black individuals. PMID:24661172

  4. School- and Family-Level Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors: Multilevel Analysis of a National Survey in Wales, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Graham F; Littlecott, Hannah J

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions to address inequalities in adolescent health behaviors often target children from less affluent families, or schools in poorer areas. Few studies have examined whether school- or family-level affluence predicts health behaviors independently, or in combination. Methods This article reports secondary analysis of the Welsh Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. Mixed-effects logistic regression models test associations of school and family socioeconomic status (SES) with smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Results Higher family SES was associated with healthier behaviors, except in relation to alcohol consumption. For all behaviors except physical activity, school-level SES was independently associated with healthier behaviors. In higher SES schools, a stronger association of family SES with health behavior was observed, particularly in relation to smoking and physical activity. Conclusions School and family SES may exert independent and combined influences upon adolescent health behaviors. Targeting interventions toward deprived schools may fail to address substantial inequalities within more affluent schools. Targeting deprived families may fail to address behaviors of children from affluent families, attending more deprived schools. Identifying universal health improvement interventions which have greater effects among children from poorer backgrounds may be a more effective means of reducing inequalities. PMID:25731201

  5. Impact of Socio-Economic Status on the Hospital Readmission of Congestive Heart Failure Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Noori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of multiple indicators of Socio-economic Status (SES on Congestive Heart Failure (CHF related readmission. Methods A prospective study consisting of 315 patients without the history of admission due to CHF was carried out in Tehran during 2010 and 2011. They were classified into quartiles based on their SES applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and followed up for one year. Using stratified Cox regression analysis, Hazard Ratios (HRs were computed to assess the impact of SES on the readmission due to CHF. Results During the 12 months follow-up, 122 (40% were readmitted at least once. HR of lowest SES patients vs. the highest SES patients (the fourth versus first quartile was 2.66 (95% CI= 1.51–4.66. Variables including abnormal ejection fraction (<40%, poor physical activity, poor drug adherence, and hypertension were also identified as significant independent predictors of readmission. Conclusion The results showed low SES is a significant contributing factor to increased readmission due to CHF. It seems that the outcome of CHF depends on the SES of patients even after adjusting for some of main intermediate factors.

  6. Socioeconomic status is an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence among patients with prostate cancer who undergo radical prostatectomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Victor, Srougi; Alberto A., Antunes; Sabrina, T; , Reis; Marcos F., Dall' Oglio; Adriano J., Nesrallah; Kátia R. M., Leite; Miguel, Srougi.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) may influence cancer characteristics and behavior in several aspects. We analyzed PCa characteristics and behavior among low income uninsured men, and compare them to high income patients with health insurance in a developing country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retr [...] ospective case-control study was performed on 934 patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy between March, 1999 and July, 2009. Patients were divided in two groups, according to their SES. In group 1 (n=380), all had low income, low educational levels and couldn't afford medical insurance. In group 2 (n=554), all had higher income, higher education and had medical insurance. RESULTS: Patients from group 1 were older, had higher Gleason scores, higher rates of seminal vesicle and bladder neck involvement. The Kaplan Meier disease-free survival curve demonstrated that after a follow-up of four years, about 50% of uninsured patients had biochemical recurrence, versus 21% of insured patients (Log rank test: p

  7. The relationship among sense of coherence, socio-economic status, and oral health-related behaviours among Finnish dentate adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Kivimäki, Mika; Tsakos, Georgios; Suominen-Taipale, Anna L; Nordblad, Anne; Savolainen, Jarno; Uutela, Antti; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the independent and interactive associations between sense of coherence (SOC) and socio-economic status (SES) with oral health-related behaviours. Data from 5,399 dentate adults regarding their demographic characteristics, years of education, SOC score, and oral health-related behaviours were analysed. Household income was obtained from tax authorities. Logistic regression was used to test the adjusted association of SOC with each behaviour and to test the statistical interaction between each SES indicator and the SOC score. Subjects were 1.20 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.11-1.28] and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.12-1.32) times more likely to visit dentists regularly for check-ups and to brush their teeth twice daily or more often, respectively, and were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03-1.20) and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.12-1.32) times less likely to be daily smokers and to consume sugar-added products on a daily basis, respectively, for every unit increase in SOC score. The findings provide strong support for an association between higher levels of SOC and more favourable oral health-related behaviours, independently of current SES and demographic characteristics of the participants and across the four behaviours assessed. By contrast, the findings give limited support for the moderating role of SOC on the relationship between SES and oral health-related behaviours. PMID:19627353

  8. Food insecurity, socioeconomic status, and HIV-related risk behavior among women in farming households in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sandra I; Ralph, Lauren J; Njau, Prosper F; Msolla, Mbette Mshindo; Padian, Nancy S

    2014-07-01

    Food insecurity (FI) is associated with higher-risk sexual behavior in some studies. However, the overlap between FI and socioeconomic status (SES) has been poorly described. The study objectives were to: (1) determine the relationship between household FI and four dimensions of SES among sexually active Tanzanian women in farming households: expenditures, assets, flooring material of the home, and land ownership; and (2) determine whether FI is associated with higher-risk sexual behavior and relationship power. In male-headed households, FI was associated with assets, flooring material, and land ownership but not expenditures. There was no association between FI and the four dimensions of SES in female-headed households. Among women in male-headed households, but not female household heads themselves, severe FI was associated with a non-significant increase in the likelihood of being in a relationship because of material goods [adjusted prevalence ratio (PRa) = 1.76, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.81, 3.81] and was inversely associated with being able to ask partners to use condoms (PRa = 0.47, 95 % CI 0.25, 0.88). There was not a strong association between food security and relationship power. Our findings suggest that the association between FI and HIV risk behavior may differ depending on the type of household. PMID:24097335

  9. Family influences on the cognitive development of profoundly deaf children: exploring the effects of socioeconomic status and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Catrin E; Ford, Ruth M

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the cognitive development of 48 profoundly deaf children from hearing families (born 1994-2002, mean age M = 8.0 years at time of test, none of whom had received early auditory-verbal therapy) as a function of family socioeconomic status and number of siblings. Overall, the deaf children matched a younger group of 47 hearing controls (M = 4.6 years) on verbal ability, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition. Partial correlations (controlling for age) revealed positive relations in the hearing group between maternal education and inhibition, between number of younger siblings and references to emotions, and between number of close-in-age siblings and references to desires and false beliefs. In the deaf group, there were positive relations between household income and memory span, between maternal education and references to false beliefs, and between number of younger siblings and nonverbal ability. In contrast, deaf children with a greater number of older siblings aged ?12 years showed inferior memory span, inhibition, belief understanding, picture-sequencing accuracy, and mental-state language, suggesting that they failed to compete successfully with older siblings for their parents' attention and material resources. We consider the implications of the findings for understanding birth-order effects on deaf and language-impaired children. PMID:23614903

  10. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbel Raimund

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study', and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE Study'. Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES. The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29–1.98] in Germany. Conclusion In this comparative study, the effects of neighbourhood deprivation varied by country and risk factor; the strongest and most consistent effects were found for smoking. Results indicate that area level SES is associated with health related lifestyles, which might be a possible pathway linking social status and cardiovascular disease. Individual-level education had a considerable influence on the association between neighbourhood characteristics and risk factors.

  11. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Delisle Hélène; Agueh Victoire; Fayomi Benjamin; Sodjinou Roger

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES), urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference), blood pressure, fasting plasma glu...

  12. Self-reported hearing difficulties, main income sources, and socio-economic status; a cross-sectional population-based study in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Pernilla; Fridberger Anders; Wikman Anders; Alexanderson Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hearing difficulties constitute the most common cause of disability globally. Yet, studies on people with hearing difficulties regarding socio-economic status (SES), work, long-term unemployment, sickness absence, and disability pension are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the main income sources of men and women of working ages with and without self-reported hearing difficulties and associations with gender, age, SES, type of living area, and countr...

  13. Motivation for a Health-Literate Health Care System—Does Socioeconomic Status Play a Substantial Role? Implications for an Irish Health Policymaker

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlan, Diarmuid; Turner, Brian; Trujillo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the association between socioeconomic status and motivation for a health-literate health care system has implications for health policymakers. As Ireland now undergoes health care reform, the authors pose the question, “Should policymakers invest in health literacy as predominately a health inequalities or a public health issue?” Data from 2 cohorts of the Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (1998 and 2002) were used to construct a motivati...

  14. The influence of oral health conditions, socioeconomic status and home environment factors on schoolchildren's self-perception of quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Janice S; Cg, Leite Isabel; Almeida Anderso B; Mb, Ambrosano Glaucia; Pereira Antônio C; Mialhe Fábio L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Methods A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically e...

  15. The Impact of Parent’s Socioeconomic Status on Parental Involvement at Home: A Case Study on High Achievement Indian Students of a Tamil School in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Vellymalay, Suresh Kumar N.

    2012-01-01

    The current study focuses on the impact of parent’s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child’s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance- based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample comprised 10 students from Year Two, 10 students from Year Three, 10 students from Year Four and 10 students from Year Five. Those were the high achievement students identified based...

  16. Cross-Location Analysis of the Impact of Household Socioeconomic Status on Participation in Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dossa, Luc; Buerkert, Andreas; Schlecht, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relation between household socioeconomic status (SES) and participation in urban and periurban agriculture (UPA) in three West African cities. We used a structured questionnaire to survey 700 randomly selected households: 250 in Kano, Nigeria, 250 in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, and 200 in Sikasso, Mali. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied on household asset variables to create an index of assets which was used as a proxy for household SES. The results showed...

  17. A Qualitative Study of Socioeconomic Status, Post-secondary Education Plans, and Educational Aspirations of Students from a Michigan Public School

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Post-secondary education is often seen as an important factor for individual success and is positively correlated with factors ranging from income to happiness. Unfortunately, access to higher-education varies greatly in the United States. In this paper, I examine the relationship between socioeconomic status and the post-secondary plans of current high-school students and recent high-school graduates. Through in-depth interviews, I explore the relationship between students’ socioeconomi...

  18. Motor coordination: influence of age, sex, socio-economic status and levels of adiposity, in peruvian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André F. Teixeira Seabra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe motor coordination (CoM levels, in addition to the infl uence of age, socioeconomic status (SES, sex and subcutaneous adiposity on the CoM of Peruvian children aged six to eleven years. The sample size was 4007 children (n=1889 females; n=2118 males from several schools in the metropolitan area of Lima, Peru. CoM was assessed with the KTK (Kiphard and Schilling, 1974 test battery that includes 4 tests: balancing backward (BB, hopping on one leg (HO, jumping sideways (JS and shifting platforms (SP. Subcutaneous adiposity included the sum of several skinfolds: triceps, subscapular and calf. Socioeconomic status (SES was evaluated according to the physical location of each school (type of neighborhood. Exploratory, descriptive and inferential statistical analyses (ANOVA II as well as regression linear models were performed using SPSS 15. Signifi cant increases in mean values of CoM were observed in both sexes and across age. Children with high adiposity exhibited lower performance in all tests. Boys outperformed girls. High SES has a greater infl uence only on HO, and a low SES proved relevant to BB performance. It can be concluded that CoM is highly specifi c to each gender. Body fat levels have a negative infl uence on each coordination test, as well as on overall coordination. SES does not seem to be a conclusive predictor of motor coordination in children. resumo Caracterizar el nivel de la coordinación motora (CoM y determinar la infl uencia de la edad, sexo, estatus socioeconómico y de la adiposidad subcutánea en la CoM de escolares peruanos de seis a los once años de edad. El tamaño de la muestra comprendió a 4,007 niños (mujeres= 1889; varones= 2118 de escuelas del área metropolitana de Lima, Perú. La CoM fue determinado a través de la batería de pruebas KTK (Kiphard y Schilling, 1974 que comprende cuatro pruebas: equilibrio a la retaguardia (ER, saltos laterales (SL, saltos monopedales (SM y transposición lateral (TL. La adiposidad subcutánea fue establecida a partir de la suma de los pliegues cutáneos del tríceps, subescapular y pantorrilla. El estatuto socioeconómico (ESE fue evaluado según la localización física de cada escuela (tipo de vecindad. Los análisis estadísticos exploratorios, descriptivos e inferenciales (ANOVA II así como modelos lineales de regresión fueron realizados en SPSS 15. Existen incrementos signifi cativos de valores medios de las pruebas de KTK en ambos sexos y a lo largo de la edad. Los niños con adiposidad elevada presentan rendimientos inferiores en todas las pruebas. Los niños superan a las niñas. El ESE alto presenta una infl uencia mayor sólo en la prueba de SM, y el ESE bajo ha demostrado ser relevante en la ejecución de ER. Conclusiones - La CoM es altamente específi ca a cada género. El nivel de adiposidad presenta una infl uencia negativa en cada prueba de coordinación, también en la coordinación total. El ESE no parece ser un predictor concluyente de la coordinación motora en niños.

  19. The influence of age, gender and socio-economic status on multimorbidity patterns in primary care. first results from the multicare cohort study

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    Schäfer Ingmar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity is a phenomenon with high burden and high prevalence in the elderly. Our previous research has shown that multimorbidity can be divided into the multimorbidity patterns of 1 anxiety, depression, somatoform disorders (ADS and pain, and 2 cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. However, it is not yet known, how these patterns are influenced by patient characteristics. The objective of this paper is to analyze the association of socio-demographic variables, and especially socio-economic status with multimorbidity in general and with each multimorbidity pattern. Methods The MultiCare Cohort Study is a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of 3.189 multimorbid patients aged 65+ randomly selected from 158 GP practices. Data were collected in GP interviews and comprehensive patient interviews. Missing values have been imputed by hot deck imputation based on Gower distance in morbidity and other variables. The association of patient characteristics with the number of chronic conditions is analysed by multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results Multimorbidity in general is associated with age (+0.07 chronic conditions per year, gender (-0.27 conditions for female, education (-0.26 conditions for medium and -0.29 conditions for high level vs. low level and income (-0.27 conditions per logarithmic unit. The pattern of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders shows comparable associations with a higher coefficient for gender (-1.29 conditions for female, while multimorbidity within the pattern of ADS and pain correlates with gender (+0.79 conditions for female, but not with age or socioeconomic status. Conclusions Our study confirms that the morbidity load of multimorbid patients is associated with age, gender and the socioeconomic status of the patients, but there were no effects of living arrangements and marital status. We could also show that the influence of patient characteristics is dependent on the multimorbidity pattern concerned, i.e. there seem to be at least two types of elderly multimorbid patients. First, there are patients with mainly cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, who are more often male, have an older age and a lower socio-economic status. Second, there are patients mainly with ADS and pain-related morbidity, who are more often female and equally distributed across age and socio-economic groups. Trial registration ISRCTN89818205

  20. Home environment relationships with children’s physical activity, sedentary time, and screen time by socioeconomic status

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    Tandon Pooja S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children in households of lower socioeconomic status (SES are more likely to be overweight/obese. We aimed to determine if home physical activity (PA environments differed by SES and to explore home environment mediators of the relation of family SES to children’s PA and sedentary behavior. Methods Participants were 715 children aged 6 to 11 from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids (NIK Study. Household SES was examined using highest educational attainment and income. Home environment was measured by parent report on a survey. Outcomes were child’s accelerometer-measured PA and parent-reported screen time. Mediation analyses were conducted for home environment factors that varied by SES. Results Children from lower income households had greater media access in their bedrooms (TV 52% vs. 14%, DVD player 39% vs. 14%, video games 21% vs. 9% but lower access to portable play equipment (bikes 85% vs. 98%, jump ropes 69% vs. 83% compared to higher income children. Lower SES families had more restrictive rules about PA (2.5 vs. 2.0. Across SES, children watched TV/DVDs with parents/siblings more often than they engaged in PA with them. Parents of lower SES watched TV/DVDs with their children more often (3.1 vs. 2.5?days/week. Neither total daily and home-based MVPA nor sedentary time differed by SES. Children’s daily screen time varied from 1.7 hours/day in high SES to 2.4 in low SES families. Media in the bedroom was related to screen time, and screen time with parents was a mediator of the SES--screen time relationship. Conclusions Lower SES home environments provided more opportunities for sedentary behavior and fewer for PA. Removing electronic media from children’s bedrooms has the potential to reduce disparities in chronic disease risk.

  1. Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmedeoD'angiulli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs and other electroencephalographic (EEG evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc. and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc. may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in two matched-samples of fourteen lower-SES and higher-SES adolescents. ERP and EEG activation were measured during a task probing selective attention to sequences of tones. Pre- and post-task salivary cortisol and self-reported emotional states were also measured. At similar performance level, the higher-SES group showed a greater ERP differentiation between attended (relevant and unattended (irrelevant tones than the lower-SES group. EEG power analysis revealed a cross-over interaction, specifically, lower-SES adolescents showed significantly higher theta power when ignoring rather than attending to tones, whereas, higher-SES adolescents showed the opposite pattern. Significant theta asymmetry differences were also found at midfrontal electrodes indicating left hypo-activity in lower-SES adolescents. The attended vs. unattended difference in right midfrontal theta increased with individual SES rank, and (independently from SES with lower cortisol task reactivity and higher boredom. Results suggest lower-SES children used additional compensatory resources to monitor/control response inhibition to distracters, perceiving also more mental effort, as compared to higher-SES counterparts. Nevertheless, stress, boredom and other task-related perceived states were unrelated to SES. Ruling out presumed confounds, this study confirms the midfrontal mechanisms responsible for the SES effects on selective attention reported previously and here reflect genuine cognitive differences.

  2. A national study of socioeconomic status and tuberculosis rates by country of birth, United States, 1996–2005

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    Olson Nicole A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB in developed countries has historically been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES. In the past quarter century, TB in the United States has changed from primarily a disease of native-born to primarily a disease of foreign-born persons, who accounted for more than 60% of newly-diagnosed TB cases in 2010. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of SES with rates of TB in U.S.-born and foreign-born persons in the United States, overall and for the five most common foreign countries of origin. Methods National TB surveillance data for 1996–2005 was linked with ZIP Code-level measures of SES (crowding, unemployment, education, and income from U.S. Census 2000. ZIP Codes were grouped into quartiles from low SES to high SES and TB rates were calculated for foreign-born and U.S.-born populations in each quartile. Results TB rates were highest in the quartiles with low SES for both U.S.-born and foreign-born populations. However, while TB rates increased five-fold or more from the two highest to the two lowest SES quartiles among the U.S.-born, they increased only by a factor of 1.3 among the foreign-born. Conclusions Low SES is only weakly associated with TB among foreign-born persons in the United States. The traditional associations of TB with poverty are not sufficient to explain the epidemiology of TB among foreign-born persons in this country and perhaps in other developed countries. TB outreach and research efforts that focus only on low SES will miss an important segment of the foreign-born population.

  3. Effects of socioeconomic status on brain development, and how cognitive neuroscience may contribute to levelling the playing field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizada, Rajeev D S; Kishiyama, Mark M

    2010-01-01

    THE STUDY OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES) AND THE BRAIN FINDS ITSELF IN A CIRCUMSTANCE UNUSUAL FOR COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research. PMID:20161995

  4. Effects of socioeconomic status on brain development, and how cognitive neuroscience may contribute to leveling the playing field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RajeevD S Raizada

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of socioeconomic status (SES and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research.

  5. Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Oberlander, Tim F.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Hertzman, Clyde; Maggi, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) and other electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES) children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort) emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc.) and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc.) may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in two matched-samples of fourteen lower-SES and higher-SES adolescents. ERP and EEG activation were measured during a task probing selective attention to sequences of tones. Pre- and post-task salivary cortisol and self-reported emotional states were also measured. At similar behavioural performance level, the higher-SES group showed a greater ERP differentiation between attended (relevant) and unattended (irrelevant) tones than the lower-SES group. EEG power analysis revealed a cross-over interaction, specifically, lower-SES adolescents showed significantly higher theta power when ignoring rather than attending to tones, whereas, higher-SES adolescents showed the opposite pattern. Significant theta asymmetry differences were also found at midfrontal electrodes indicating left hypo-activity in lower-SES adolescents. The attended vs. unattended difference in right midfrontal theta increased with individual SES rank, and (independently from SES) with lower cortisol task reactivity and higher boredom. Results suggest lower-SES children used additional compensatory resources to monitor/control response inhibition to distracters, perceiving also more mental effort, as compared to higher-SES counterparts. Nevertheless, stress, boredom and other task-related perceived states were unrelated to SES. Ruling out presumed confounds, this study confirms the midfrontal mechanisms responsible for the SES effects on selective attention reported previously and here reflect genuine cognitive differences. PMID:23181016

  6. Association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and screen time among pre-school children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutumisu Nicoleta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES. Results Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Conclusions Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship.

  7. Effort-Reward Imbalance at School and Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Adolescents: The Role of Family Socioeconomic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7–12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a standardized question, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children. Multivariate logistic regression was applied, adjusting for age, gender, grade, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. It was found that high school-related stress and low family SES were associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms, respectively. The effect of school-related stress was particularly strong in low SES group. In adolescents with both high stress at school and low SES, the odds ratio was 9.18 (95% confidence interval = 6.53–12.89 compared to the reference group (low stress at school and high SES. A significant synergistic interaction effect was observed (synergy index = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.56–3.32. The findings indicated that perceived school-related stress, in terms of effort-reward imbalance, was related to depressive symptoms in this sample of Chinese adolescents. The strong interaction with family SES suggests that health promoting efforts in school settings should be targeted specifically at these socially deprived groups.

  8. Effort-reward imbalance at school and depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents: the role of family socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxiang; Yang, Wenjie; Cao, Ying; Li, Jian; Siegrist, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES) on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7-12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a standardized question, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children. Multivariate logistic regression was applied, adjusting for age, gender, grade, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. It was found that high school-related stress and low family SES were associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms, respectively. The effect of school-related stress was particularly strong in low SES group. In adolescents with both high stress at school and low SES, the odds ratio was 9.18 (95% confidence interval = 6.53-12.89) compared to the reference group (low stress at school and high SES). A significant synergistic interaction effect was observed (synergy index = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.56-3.32). The findings indicated that perceived school-related stress, in terms of effort-reward imbalance, was related to depressive symptoms in this sample of Chinese adolescents. The strong interaction with family SES suggests that health promoting efforts in school settings should be targeted specifically at these socially deprived groups. PMID:24919130

  9. Health status and socio-economic factors associated with health facility utilization in rural and urban areas in Zambia

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    Zyaambo Cosmas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background With regards to equity, the objective for health care systems is “equal access for equal needs”. We examined associations of predisposing, enabling and need factors with health facility utilization in areas with high HIV prevalence and few people being aware of their HIV status. Methods The data is from a population-based survey among adults aged 15years or older conducted in 2003. The current study is based on a subset of this data of adults 15–49 years with a valid HIV test result. A modified Health behaviour model guided our analytical approach. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals from logistic regression analyses. Results Totals of 1042 males and 1547 females in urban areas, and 822 males and 1055 females in rural areas were included in the study. Overall, 53.1% of urban and 56.8% of rural respondents utilized health facilities past 12 months. In urban areas, significantly more females than males utilized health facilities (OR=1.4 (95% CI [1.1, 1.6]. Higher educational attainment (10+ years of schooling was associated with utilization of health facilities in both urban (OR=1.7, 95% CI [1.3, 2.1] and rural (OR=1.4, 95% CI [1.0, 2.0] areas compared to respondents who attained up to 7 years of schooling. Respondents who self-rated their health status as very poor/ poor/fair were twice more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who rated their health as good/excellent. Respondents who reported illnesses were about three times more likely to utilize health facilities compared to those who did not report the illnesses. In urban areas, respondents who had mental distress were 1.7 times more likely to utilize health facilities compare to those who had no mental distress. Compared to respondents who were HIV negative, respondents who were HIV positive were 1.3 times more likely to utilize health facilities. Conclusion The health care needs were the factors most strongly associated with health care seeking. After accounting for need differentials, health care seeking differed modestly by urban and rural residence, was somewhat skewed towards women, and increased substantially with socioeconomic position.

  10. The Influence of Patient Race and Socioeconomic Status and Resident Physician Gender and Specialty on Preventive Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Arshiya A; Heisler, Michele

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Health care disparities remain largely unexplained and need to be better understood to be addressed. Little is known about whether resident physicians screen patients differently based on race or socioeconomic status (SES). The objective of this study was to assess whether residents' preventive screening practices are influenced by patient race or SES or by resident gender, specialty, minority status, or years of training. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Residents from 6 specialties at a large academic medical center participated in an online survey to gauge their knowledge, attitudes, and practices pertaining to primary care screening. The survey consisted of 1 of 4 clinical vignettes that varied by patient race and SES (African-American or Caucasian; high income or low income), followed by questions pertaining to 9 routine screening areas. Resident demographics and patient race and SES were compiled, and bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess associations between patient and/or resident characteristics and residents' reported importance of screening as well as intention to screen the vignette patient for the 9 specified health risks. RESULTS: Of 309 residents sent the online survey, 167 responded (response rate, 54%). Four of the 9 screening areas (sexual behavior, physical activity, depression, diet) were reported by residents as both "very important" (versus "not very important") and "would definitely ask about during an office visit" (versus "would not definitely ask about"). In the adjusted odds models, residents showed no racial preference in intention to screen for depression, diet, physical activity, or sexual behavior. Residents were less likely to report that they would screen the high-income patient for sexual behavior compared with the low-income patient (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.46 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.21-0.99]). Female residents were more likely than male residents to report that they would screen for sexual behavior (adjusted OR, 3.79 [95% CI, 1.69-8.52]). Emergency medicine residents were less likely to screen for sexual behavior (adjusted OR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.14-0.95]) and for physical activity (adjusted OR, 0.27 [95% CI, 0.10-0.73]) than residents from all other specialties. CONCLUSION: Intention to screen for high-risk sexual behavior varied significantly by patient SES and by resident gender and specialty. Future research should examine how preventive screening is addressed in the curriculum of each residency program to ensure that patients will receive appropriate and consistent screening when evaluated by resident physicians. PMID:20871739

  11. Does the FTO Gene Interact with the Socio?Economic Status on the Obesity Development Among Young European Children? : Results from the IDEFICS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Frauke

    Various twin studies revealed that the influence of genetic factors on psychological diseases or behavior is more expressed in socio?economically advantaged environments. Other studies predominantly show an inverse relation between socio?economic status (SES) and childhood obesity in western developed countries. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the FTO gene interacts with the socio?economic status (SES) on childhood obesity in a subsample of the IDEFICS cohort (N=4406). A structural equation model (SEM) is applied with the latent constructs obesity, dietary habits, physical activity and fitness habits, and parental SES to estimate the main effects of the latter three variables and a FTO polymorphism on obesity. Further, a multiple group SEM is used to explore whether an interaction effect between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 within the FTO gene and SES exists. Overall model fit was inconsistent (RMSEA=0.05; CFI=0.79). Significant main effects are shown for SES (standardized ?s=?0.057), the FTO homozygous risk genotype AA (?s=0.177) and physical activity and fitness habits (?s=?0.113). The explained variance of obesity is about 9%. The multiple group SEM shows that SES and FTO interact in their effect on childhood obesity (??2=7.3, df=2, p=0.03) insofar as children carrying the protective TT genotype are more susceptible to a favorable social environment.

  12. Relação entre níveis de fenilalanina, inteligência e condição socioeconômica de pacientes com fenilcetonúria Relationships between phenylalanine levels, intelligence and socioeconomic status of patients with phenylketonuria

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    Isabel Pimenta Spínola Castro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar inteligência e relação com concentrações sanguíneas de fenilalanina e condição socioeconômica de fenilcetonúricos entre 6 e 12 anos em tratamento. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e três crianças, classificadas por níveis de fenilalanina e condição socioeconômica, realizaram Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Utilizou-se o programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS para analisar níveis de fenilalanina; testes ANOVA para avaliar quociente de inteligência (QI e níveis de fenilalanina; e regressão logística ordinal para avaliar chances de melhor desempenho em QI. RESULTADOS: Classificaram-se entre limítrofe e nível muito superior em QI total, 90,5% das crianças; em QI verbal, 96,8%; em QI de execução, 92,1%. Tiveram avaliação socioeconômica entre níveis baixo e médio superior, 98,4% das famílias. As chances de apresentar QI superior e médio foram 4,29 vezes maiores nas crianças com controle adequado e 4,03 vezes maiores nas de níveis socioeconômicos melhores. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento preveniu o retardo mental em 90,5% dos pacientes. O controle dos níveis de fenilalanina e melhor nível socioeconômico se associaram aos melhores desempenhos em QI.OBJECTIVES: To assess intelligence and its relationship with blood phenylalanine concentrations and socioeconomic status in patients with phenylketonuria after 6 to 12 years of treatment. METHODS: Sixty-three children were classified according to phenylalanine levels and socioeconomic status and assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS was used to analyze phenylalanine; ANOVA was used to analyze intelligence quotients (IQ and phenylalanine levels; and ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the likelihood of higher IQ. RESULTS: The overall IQ scores of 90.5% of the children were within a range from borderline intellectual deficiency to very high intelligence; for verbal IQ this proportion was 96.8% and 92.1% had performance IQ scores within this band. The categories from low to upper-medium socioeconomic status contained 98.4% of patients' families. The likelihood of having medium to high IQ was 4.29 times greater for children with good phenylalanine control and 4.03 greater for those from higher socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment prevented mental retardation in 90.5% of the patients. Control of phenylalanine levels and higher socioeconomic status were associated with higher IQ scores.

  13. Relação entre níveis de fenilalanina, inteligência e condição socioeconômica de pacientes com fenilcetonúria / Relationships between phenylalanine levels, intelligence and socioeconomic status of patients with phenylketonuria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Pimenta Spínola, Castro; Juliana Martins, Borges; Heloísa Alves, Chagas; Jacqueline, Tibúrcio; Ana Lúcia Pimenta, Starling; Marcos José Burle de, Aguiar.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Avaliar inteligência e relação com concentrações sanguíneas de fenilalanina e condição socioeconômica de fenilcetonúricos entre 6 e 12 anos em tratamento. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e três crianças, classificadas por níveis de fenilalanina e condição socioeconômica, realizaram Wechsler Intelligenc [...] e Scale for Children. Utilizou-se o programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) para analisar níveis de fenilalanina; testes ANOVA para avaliar quociente de inteligência (QI) e níveis de fenilalanina; e regressão logística ordinal para avaliar chances de melhor desempenho em QI. RESULTADOS: Classificaram-se entre limítrofe e nível muito superior em QI total, 90,5% das crianças; em QI verbal, 96,8%; em QI de execução, 92,1%. Tiveram avaliação socioeconômica entre níveis baixo e médio superior, 98,4% das famílias. As chances de apresentar QI superior e médio foram 4,29 vezes maiores nas crianças com controle adequado e 4,03 vezes maiores nas de níveis socioeconômicos melhores. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento preveniu o retardo mental em 90,5% dos pacientes. O controle dos níveis de fenilalanina e melhor nível socioeconômico se associaram aos melhores desempenhos em QI. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To assess intelligence and its relationship with blood phenylalanine concentrations and socioeconomic status in patients with phenylketonuria after 6 to 12 years of treatment. METHODS: Sixty-three children were classified according to phenylalanine levels and socioeconomic status and ass [...] essed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze phenylalanine; ANOVA was used to analyze intelligence quotients (IQ) and phenylalanine levels; and ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the likelihood of higher IQ. RESULTS: The overall IQ scores of 90.5% of the children were within a range from borderline intellectual deficiency to very high intelligence; for verbal IQ this proportion was 96.8% and 92.1% had performance IQ scores within this band. The categories from low to upper-medium socioeconomic status contained 98.4% of patients' families. The likelihood of having medium to high IQ was 4.29 times greater for children with good phenylalanine control and 4.03 greater for those from higher socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment prevented mental retardation in 90.5% of the patients. Control of phenylalanine levels and higher socioeconomic status were associated with higher IQ scores.

  14. Importance of socioeconomic status and tree holes in distribution of Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vinod; Sharma, R C; Sharma, Yogesh; Adha, Sandeep; Sharma, Keerti; Singh, Himmat; Purohit, Anil; Singhi, Manju

    2006-03-01

    Immature Aedes mosquitoes were found in domestic, peridomestic, and tree hole habitats within three socioeconomic strata of Jodhpur, a city within an arid area of Rajasthan, India, endemic for dengue. Peridomestic habitats served as a persistent source of Aedes vectors, especially those used for watering cows for religious reasons that were located within high socioeconomic areas. Domestic (indoor) containers within low socioeconomic strata showed a higher container index (27.0%) than periurban areas with cattle sheds (14.3%) or high socioeconomic areas (18.1%). Mosquitoes were collected in tree holes at zoos and gardens supporting several species of monkeys. Six of 67 Aedes albopictus Skuse reared from immatures collected in tree holes tested positive for dengue antigen acquired through vertical transmission, possibly indicating a persistence mechanism for dengue virus within an urban environment. PMID:16619619

  15. Impact of an informal learning science camp on urban, low socioeconomic status middle school students and participating teacher-leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votaw, Nikki L.

    Studies suggest that students have difficulty connecting science to their own lives (Lee & Fradd, 1998; Aikenhead, 1996). This difficulty results in a decline in students' attitudes toward science, leading to low science achievement. These factors result in fewer students interested in careers related to science, specifically for urban, minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that a ten day informal learning immersion science camp had on the participants, both urban, low-socioeconomic status middle school students and teacher-leaders. The students were incoming seventh grade students involved in a community-based scholar program designed to recruit and support socioeconomically disadvantaged, academically talented students. The teacher-leaders were professional educators working toward an advanced degree. This ten day camp included seven visits to different sites and complementary classroom-based activities. The purpose of the camp was to immerse the students in informal learning environments that affect their daily lives. Students and teacher-leaders visited facilities that provide public utility services (i.e. power plant, sewage treatment facility, and water company), zoo, large commercial cave system, planetarium, university based electrooptics and nanotechnology center, and forest and arboretum. These site visits were supported by activities that were provided by teacher-leaders. A model used as a framework for studying learning in the context of this ten day camp as Falk and Dierking's (2000) Contextual Model for Learning. This model described three basic intersecting elements that contributed to learning within the given context. The three contexts (personal, sociocultural, and physical) intersect affecting the learning that takes place. A mixed methodology design was employed to determine the impact of the camp on students' content knowledge and attitudes toward science. Qualitative data were collected to determine the impact of the camp on teacher-leaders' content knowledge and pedagogy. A variety of data sources were used including data collected before, during, and immediately following the camp as well as data collected several months after the conclusion of the camp. Results of the study indicated that both students and teacher-leaders were positively impacted by their experience at the camp. Data from the content assessments, interviews, and student journals indicate that students' content knowledge was enhanced and expanded through the learning of factual knowledge as well as understanding of the importance of broad scientific processes. Through their new experiences, students developed an awareness of the natural world and a foundation for future learning. Students also developed an awareness of science as it applies to their own lives. Data from students' letters to themselves, student interviews, and parent focus groups indicated that students' attitudes toward science were positively impacted through development of an increased resource appreciation, positive social experiences, and experiential sharing with others. Teacher-leader experiences with the camp also had positive results. Teacher-leaders entered the camp with a variety of unique personal contexts, and in spite of this variability each reported that this was a value-added experience for their teaching. These personal contexts helped to enhance the sociocultural context which provided a rich environment to support teacher-leader learning. Among the pedagogical impacts, teacher-leaders expressed enhanced teaching capacity through acquisition of: new classroom activities; new connections among science content; new stories and experiences to share with future classes; and new contexts for situating the understanding of science principles. Along with the positive impacts, teacher-leaders also identified and articulated several barriers to implementing site visits in their own classrooms. This camp is unique in that it is an immersion experience within informal learning contexts where seven sites were visited with

  16. "The way I am is the way you ought to be": perceiving one's relational status as unchangeable motivates normative idealization of that status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Kristin; Kille, David R; Eibach, Richard P

    2013-08-01

    People often become evangelists for their own lifestyles. When it comes to relational status, people are rarely content to simply say "being single works for me" or "being in a relationship suits my disposition." Results from four studies suggested that this tendency to view one's own relational status as the universal ideal emerges in part from a desire to rationalize one's own relational status. Building on existing evidence that people are motivated to rationalize circumstances they perceive as likely to persist, we predicted that participants' perceptions of the stability of their own relational status would lead them to rationalize that status. In Studies 1 and 2, we found evidence for an association between perceptions of stability and idealizations and ruled out an alternative explanation. In Studies 3 and 4, we found evidence of the effect of stability on people's judgments of same- and different-status others in contexts in which relational status should carry little objective weight. PMID:23804959

  17. A Qualitative Study of Socioeconomic Status, Post-secondary Education Plans, and Educational Aspirations of Students from a Michigan Public School

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    Brian J. Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-secondary education is often seen as an important factor for individual success and is positively correlated with factors ranging from income to happiness. Unfortunately, access to higher-education varies greatly in the United States. In this paper, I examine the relationship between socioeconomic status and the post-secondary plans of current high-school students and recent high-school graduates. Through in-depth interviews, I explore the relationship between students’ socioeconomic backgrounds and their educational aspirations of students from Bay City School District in Michigan, USA. I conclude that both cultural and economic factors combine to influence the range of decisions that students make, not simply about whether or not to pursue post-secondary education, but also about how and where to pursue that education.

  18. Cross-Location Analysis of the Impact of Household Socioeconomic Status on Participation in Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Buerkert, Andreas; Schlecht, Eva

    2011-10-01

    This study explores the relation between household socioeconomic status (SES) and participation in urban and periurban agriculture (UPA) in three West African cities. We used a structured questionnaire to survey 700 randomly selected households: 250 in Kano, Nigeria, 250 in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, and 200 in Sikasso, Mali. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied on household asset variables to create an index of assets which was used as a proxy for household SES. The results showed no significant differences in households' rate of participation in UPA across socioeconomic groups. Participation in UPA was rather significantly (P?

  19. Socioeconomic status, urbanicity and risk behaviors in Mexican youth: an analysis of three cross-sectional surveys

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    Gutiérrez Juan Pablo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between urbanicity and adolescent health is a critical issue for which little empirical evidence has been reported. Although an association has been suggested, a dichotomous rural versus urban comparison may not succeed in identifying differences between adolescent contexts. This study aims to assess the influence of locality size on risk behaviors in a national sample of young Mexicans living in low-income households, while considering the moderating effect of socioeconomic status (SES. Methods This is a secondary analysis of three national surveys of low-income households in Mexico in different settings: rural, semi-urban and urban areas. We analyzed risk behaviors in 15-21-year-olds and their potential relation to urbanicity. The risk behaviors explored were: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual initiation and condom use. The adolescents' localities of residence were classified according to the number of inhabitants in each locality. We used a logistical model to identify an association between locality size and risk behaviors, including an interaction term with SES. Results The final sample included 17,974 adolescents from 704 localities in Mexico. Locality size was associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, showing a similar effect throughout all SES levels: the larger the size of the locality, the lower the risk of consuming tobacco or alcohol compared with rural settings. The effect of locality size on sexual behavior was more complex. The odds of adolescent condom use were higher in larger localities only among adolescents in the lowest SES levels. We found no statically significant association between locality size and sexual initiation. Conclusions The results suggest that in this sample of adolescents from low-income areas in Mexico, risk behaviors are related to locality size (number of inhabitants. Furthermore, for condom use, this relation is moderated by SES. Such heterogeneity suggests the need for more detailed analyses of both the effects of urbanicity on behavior, and the responses--which are also heterogeneous--required to address this situation.

  20. Association between small area socioeconomic deprivation and sedentary behaviour, independent of individual level socioeconomic status: A large cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Rikke Lynge; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recently it has been documented that sedentary behaviour (SB) is a risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mortality, independent of level of physical activity. It is important to understand the determinants of sedentary behaviours, in particular the role of the neighbourhood, since health behaviour may be shaped by the contextual characteristics. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of small area socioeconomic deprivation (neighbourhood SES) on SB, independent of individuals’ characteristics. Furthermore to examine the cross level interaction between individual and neighbourhood SES in relation to sedentary behaviour, to show whether the effect differ among individuals of different SES. Methods: The study was based on a random sample of 49,806 adults aged 16 + who answered a questionnaire in 2010, including SB. This was combined with data on SES from national registers used at the individual level and aggregated within small neighbourhoods created to suit our investigation.This was done by use of Geographical Information System (GIS). A multilevel logistic regression including cross level interaction was performed. Results: 72 % of respondents from low SES neighbourhoods were sedentary during leisure time, corresponding to 60 % in high SES neighbourhoods. Decreasing neighbourhood SES was associated with larger OR being sedentary (OR 1.45 (1.35-1.54)), after adjusting for individual characteristics. The interaction analysis showed that individuals of low SES, being unemployed, early retired and retired, have a higher likelihood of sedentary behaviour if living in high SES neighbourhoods. Conclusions: Neighbourhood SES contribute to unhealthy behaviour. Low SES individuals living in high SES neighbourhoods are particularly at risk of unhealthy behaviour.Our findings demonstrate the importance of politicians and planners to understand health behaviour within a context.

  1. Relación entre perímetro abdominal, nivel socioeconómico y presión arterial Relation of abdominal circumference and socio-economic status to blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fasce H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Relacionar perímetro abdominal y condición socioeconómica con presión arterial (PA en comunidad urbana de Concepción. Métodos: Se midió el perímetro abdominal (PeA de 8472 residentes mayores de 15 años de edad, proporcionados por edad, género y nivel socioeconómico. La PA fue medida con normas estandarizadas, realizando dos visitas en diferentes días, la segunda si la PA era mayor de 140/90 mm Hg. Los Pe A se distribuyeron en cuartiles, relacionando cada cuartil con los respectivos promedios de presión sistólica y diastólica y se establecieron coeficientes de correlación lineal mediante "r" de Pearson entre PeA y PA. Además, se estableció la frecuencia de cada cuartil de Pe A por nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: Los Pea tuvieron la siguiente distribución (cm: 1er cuartil, 96. La prevalencia de hipertensión para niveles socioeconómicos alto, medio y bajo fue 17,9%, 19,5% y 24,5%, respectivamente. La PA promedio (mmHg en hombres y en mujeres del 1er cuartil de PeA fue 112 y 109; en el 2º cuartil 118 y 118; en el 3er cuartil 123 y 122 y en el 4º cuartil 129 y 129, respectivamente. Los coeficientes de correlación entre PeA y presión sistólica y presión diastólica resultaron significativos en ambos géneros: r = 0,343, pAim: To correlate abdominal circumference (AC and socio-economic status with blood pressure( BP in an urban community of Concepción, Chile Methods: AC was measured in 8472 subjects above 15years of age, stratified by age, gender and socio-economic status. BP was measured by standard procedures, with a repeat recording when the initial valué was > 140/90mmHg. BP was compared in quartiles of abdominal circumference and according to socio-economic status. Pearson "r" was used to correlate BP and AC Results: Cut points for quartiles of AC were 78, 87, and 96 cm. Prevalence of hypertension in high, médium and low socio-economic status was 17.9%, 19.5% and 24.5%, respectively Mean systolic BP was 112 - 109 mmHg (males - females in the first AC quartile, 118 - 118, 123-122 and 129-129 in the second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively. A significant correlation between AC and BP (systolic and diastolic was observed in both genders (r 0.345 and 0.281 for males and females, respectively, p<0.00001. 22% of low socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile compared to 28.8% in the 4th quartile. In contrast 38.9% of high socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile while 15.5% did so in the 4th quartile (p<0001. Conclusion: A positive correlation ofAC and blood pressure was shown in both genders. A greater AC in low socio-economic subjects maybe related to a higher prevalence of hypertension in this group.

  2. Relación entre perímetro abdominal, nivel socioeconómico y presión arterial / Relation of abdominal circumference and socio-economic status to blood pressure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Fasce H; Fabrizio, Fasce V; Hernán, Zarate M; Ivone, Campos C; Maritza, Flores O; Pilar, Ibáñez G.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Relacionar perímetro abdominal y condición socioeconómica con presión arterial (PA) en comunidad urbana de Concepción. Métodos: Se midió el perímetro abdominal (PeA) de 8472 residentes mayores de 15 años de edad, proporcionados por edad, género y nivel socioeconómico. La PA fue medida con [...] normas estandarizadas, realizando dos visitas en diferentes días, la segunda si la PA era mayor de 140/90 mm Hg. Los Pe A se distribuyeron en cuartiles, relacionando cada cuartil con los respectivos promedios de presión sistólica y diastólica y se establecieron coeficientes de correlación lineal mediante "r" de Pearson entre PeA y PA. Además, se estableció la frecuencia de cada cuartil de Pe A por nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: Los Pea tuvieron la siguiente distribución (cm): 1er cuartil, 96. La prevalencia de hipertensión para niveles socioeconómicos alto, medio y bajo fue 17,9%, 19,5% y 24,5%, respectivamente. La PA promedio (mmHg) en hombres y en mujeres del 1er cuartil de PeA fue 112 y 109; en el 2º cuartil 118 y 118; en el 3er cuartil 123 y 122 y en el 4º cuartil 129 y 129, respectivamente. Los coeficientes de correlación entre PeA y presión sistólica y presión diastólica resultaron significativos en ambos géneros: r = 0,343, p Abstract in english Aim: To correlate abdominal circumference (AC) and socio-economic status with blood pressure( BP) in an urban community of Concepción, Chile Methods: AC was measured in 8472 subjects above 15years of age, stratified by age, gender and socio-economic status. BP was measured by standard procedures, wi [...] th a repeat recording when the initial valué was > 140/90mmHg. BP was compared in quartiles of abdominal circumference and according to socio-economic status. Pearson "r" was used to correlate BP and AC Results: Cut points for quartiles of AC were 78, 87, and 96 cm. Prevalence of hypertension in high, médium and low socio-economic status was 17.9%, 19.5% and 24.5%, respectively Mean systolic BP was 112 - 109 mmHg (males - females) in the first AC quartile, 118 - 118, 123-122 and 129-129 in the second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively. A significant correlation between AC and BP (systolic and diastolic) was observed in both genders (r 0.345 and 0.281 for males and females, respectively, p

  3. Relation of Low Socioeconomic Status to C-Reactive Protein in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease (from the Heart and Soul Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Lubbock, Lindsey A.; Goh, Anne; Ali, Sadia; Ritchie, James; Whooley, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with poor health outcomes in patients who have coronary heart disease (CHD). Inflammation is a potential mechanism by which low SES may lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but it is not known whether low SES is associated with inflammation in patients who have CHD. We measured high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in a cross-sectional study of 985 adults who had CHD. Income and education were determined by self-report. We used ordin...

  4. Patterns of cumulative abuse among female survivors of intimate partner violence: links to women's health and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lorraine; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Willson, Andrea; Varcoe, Colleen; Wuest, Judith; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Scott-Storey, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the Women's Health Effects Study, a community sample of women (N = 309) who recently left an abusive partner, this study examines patterns of cumulative abuse experiences over the life course, their socioeconomic correlates, and associations with a range of health outcomes. Latent class analysis identified four groups of women with differing cumulative abuse profiles: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Dominant, Child Abuse and IPV, All Forms, and All Forms Extreme. We find a relationship pattern between cumulative abuse and socioeconomic circumstances, and significantly worse health outcomes among women with the All Forms Extreme profile. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25576314

  5. The Impact of Parent’s Socioeconomic Status on Parental Involvement at Home: A Case Study on High Achievement Indian Students of a Tamil School in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the impact of parent’s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child’s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance- based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample comprised 10 students from Year Two, 10 students from Year Three, 10 students from Year Four and 10 students from Year Five. Those were the high achievement students identified based on the previous final year school examination results. Questionnaires were used by the researcher to obtain quantitative data related to the parent’s socioeconomic background and their involvement strategies in their children’s education at home from the students’ parent. In addition, in-depth interviews with twenty students, that is, five students from each Year were conducted to gather information on their parent’s involvement. The findings of this study indicate that most parents are from a higher socioeconomic background and they show a high degree of involvement in most of the involvement strategies at home to ensure their child’s educational success. Moreover, the economic and academic capital among the middle-class parents serve to enhance their understanding and knowledge on the actual values that need to be placed on their child’s education. As a result, these children gain in terms of good skills, behaviour and values, all of which are crucial to their academic success.

  6. Prevalence of self-reported eczema in relation to living environment, socio-economic status and respiratory symptoms assessed in a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyberg Per

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potential links between eczema and obstructive pulmonary diseases have been postulated. Previously we have reported the prevalence of upper and lower respiratory diseases and the relation to environmental and socio-economic factors in a randomly selected adult population in southern Sweden using a postal questionnaire. In the present study we wanted to analyse the prevalence of eczema and its relation to socio-economic status, heredity factors and environmental factors in an adult population. Methods Self-reported eczema, upper and lower respiratory symptoms, asthma and Chronic Bronchitis Emphysema (CBE were examined in 12,071 adults, aged 20–59 years, living in southern Sweden by using a postal questionnaire. There were comparable numbers of males and females in all age groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis (forward conditional was applied to estimate the association between the proposed risk factors (heredity, self-reported asthma and CBE, nasal symptoms, socio-economic group, environmental factors, age, gender and smoking habits and self-reported eczema. Results The response rate was 70.1%. In all, 1240 subjects (14.6% stated that they had eczema. In all age cohorts self-reported eczema was more frequently reported by women than by men (p Conclusions In this epidemiological study we see that self-reported eczema is a common disease in an adult population especially among women. Eczema seems to be linked to environment factors, obstructive pulmonary diseases and rhinitis.

  7. Percepção da imagem corporal e nível socioeconômico em adolescentes: revisão sistemática Adolescent body image perceptions and socioeconomic status: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Felden Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir as relações entre percepção da imagem corporal e fatores socioeconômicos como renda, grau de escolaridade e etnia em adolescentes. FONTES DE DADOS: Artigos selecionados nas bases PubMed e SciELO, sem limite de data de publicação, com amostras de adolescentes, nos idiomas inglês, espanhol, português ou francês, utilizando os descritores: "percepção da imagem corporal", "nível socioeconômico" e "adolescentes". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A influência do contexto socioeconômico na percepção da imagem corporal e satisfação/insatisfação com o corpo é tema relevante no entendimento da saúde dos adolescentes. Identificou-se que as relações entre imagem corporal e nível socioeconômico são complexas e os resultados dos estudos publicados não são conclusivos. As principais tendências observadas foram: jovens norte-americanos de classe baixa apresentaram maior chance de serem obesos ao contrário dos brasileiros; moças e rapazes apresentaram comportamentos diferenciados na percepção da imagem corporal, independentemente da etnia e do nível socioeconômico; moças brancas apresentaram maior insatisfação com a imagem corporal e maior busca por dietas do que moças negras, as quais parecem sofrer menos influência dos padrões de beleza em voga; jovens de menor nível socioeconômico apresentaram uma tendência a desejarem corpos maiores. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se amostras estrangeiras, houve uma tendência de maiores índices de insatisfação com o corpo em adolescentes de classe socioeconômica mais privilegiada. Em amostras brasileiras, análises sobre o assunto são escassas e pesquisas são necessárias, especialmente pelo fato de a população estar passando por modificações tanto econômicas como nutricionais.OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationships between body image perceptions and socioeconomic factors such as income, level of education, and ethnicity among adolescents. DATA SOURCE: Articles were selected from PubMed and SciELO databases, involving adolescents, without limits of publication dates, in English, Spanish, Portuguese, or French, with the following keywords: "body image perception", "socioeconomic status", and "adolescents". DATA SYNTHESIS: The influence of the socioeconomic context upon body image perceptions and satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body is a relevant subject in understanding adolescent's health. This study identified that relationships between body image and socioeconomic levels are complex and the results of published studies are not conclusive. The main findings are: North-American lower class youths present greater chances for obesity, but this is not true in Brazil; girls and boys have different behaviors concerning body image perceptions, despite ethnicity or socioeconomic status; Caucasian girls show more dissatisfaction with their body images and greater search for diets than African American girls, who seem to suffer less influence of the current beauty patterns; youth of lower socioeconomic status presents a tendency to desire larger bodies. CONCLUSIONS: Considering foreign samples, there was a tendency for greater levels of dissatisfaction with the body among adolescents of higher socioeconomic classes. In Brazilian samples, studies about this subject are scarce and further research is needed, especially because Brazilian population is experiencing economical and nutritional modifications.

  8. Percepção da imagem corporal e nível socioeconômico em adolescentes: revisão sistemática / Adolescent body image perceptions and socioeconomic status: a systematic review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Érico Felden, Pereira; Clarissa Stefani, Teixeira; Bruna Dalcin, Gattiboni; Lidiane Amanda, Bevilacqua; Susana Cararo, Confortin; Tatiana Rodrigues da, Silva.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Discutir as relações entre percepção da imagem corporal e fatores socioeconômicos como renda, grau de escolaridade e etnia em adolescentes. FONTES DE DADOS: Artigos selecionados nas bases PubMed e SciELO, sem limite de data de publicação, com amostras de adolescentes, nos idiomas inglês, e [...] spanhol, português ou francês, utilizando os descritores: "percepção da imagem corporal", "nível socioeconômico" e "adolescentes". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A influência do contexto socioeconômico na percepção da imagem corporal e satisfação/insatisfação com o corpo é tema relevante no entendimento da saúde dos adolescentes. Identificou-se que as relações entre imagem corporal e nível socioeconômico são complexas e os resultados dos estudos publicados não são conclusivos. As principais tendências observadas foram: jovens norte-americanos de classe baixa apresentaram maior chance de serem obesos ao contrário dos brasileiros; moças e rapazes apresentaram comportamentos diferenciados na percepção da imagem corporal, independentemente da etnia e do nível socioeconômico; moças brancas apresentaram maior insatisfação com a imagem corporal e maior busca por dietas do que moças negras, as quais parecem sofrer menos influência dos padrões de beleza em voga; jovens de menor nível socioeconômico apresentaram uma tendência a desejarem corpos maiores. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se amostras estrangeiras, houve uma tendência de maiores índices de insatisfação com o corpo em adolescentes de classe socioeconômica mais privilegiada. Em amostras brasileiras, análises sobre o assunto são escassas e pesquisas são necessárias, especialmente pelo fato de a população estar passando por modificações tanto econômicas como nutricionais. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationships between body image perceptions and socioeconomic factors such as income, level of education, and ethnicity among adolescents. DATA SOURCE: Articles were selected from PubMed and SciELO databases, involving adolescents, without limits of publication dates, in E [...] nglish, Spanish, Portuguese, or French, with the following keywords: "body image perception", "socioeconomic status", and "adolescents". DATA SYNTHESIS: The influence of the socioeconomic context upon body image perceptions and satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body is a relevant subject in understanding adolescent's health. This study identified that relationships between body image and socioeconomic levels are complex and the results of published studies are not conclusive. The main findings are: North-American lower class youths present greater chances for obesity, but this is not true in Brazil; girls and boys have different behaviors concerning body image perceptions, despite ethnicity or socioeconomic status; Caucasian girls show more dissatisfaction with their body images and greater search for diets than African American girls, who seem to suffer less influence of the current beauty patterns; youth of lower socioeconomic status presents a tendency to desire larger bodies. CONCLUSIONS: Considering foreign samples, there was a tendency for greater levels of dissatisfaction with the body among adolescents of higher socioeconomic classes. In Brazilian samples, studies about this subject are scarce and further research is needed, especially because Brazilian population is experiencing economical and nutritional modifications.

  9. Present status of Data-Free-Way - Distributed database for advanced nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the status of the pilot system on the distributed database for advanced nuclear materials named Data-Free-Way. Trials of utilization of the system focused on the issues relating to fusion materials are mentioned. A relational database management system was utilized to unify useful data of material properties into the distributed database. The other software such as operating system, network utilities, etc. were also incorporated. To make retrieval rationally and promptly, a menu for selecting data items was expanded for the system. High-temperature tensile properties of type 316 stainless steel irradiated in various reactors were analyzed. The results indicated that correlation between postirradiation total elongation versus amounts of displacement damage was better than that between postirradiation total elongation versus helium accumulation in the alloys. Furthermore, correlation coefficients of the data between those two variables were better at higher temperature ranges. ((orig.))

  10. Is socioeconomic status a risk factor for stiffness after total knee arthroplasty? A multicenter case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Bryan D; Odum, Susan M; Nagpal, Vijay S; Lombardi, Adolph V; Berend, Keith R; Kim, Raymond H; Dennis, Douglas A

    2012-11-01

    Socioeconomic factors may play a role in the development of arthrofibrosis following total knee arthroplasty. Using manipulation following total knee arthroplasty as a surrogate for stiffness, this multicenter case-control study found that African American and young patients (<45 years of age) had twice the odds for manipulation compared with Caucasian and older-age patients. PMID:23102415

  11. Predicting Mother/Father-Child Interactions: Parental Personality and Well-Being, Socioeconomic Variables and Child Disability Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Laraine M.; Bamberger, Katharine T.; Turek, Kevin C.; Hill, Kelli L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Child and parent characteristics as well as socioeconomic family variables can influence the quality of parent-child interactions. Methods: Coders rated parent behaviour from a video-taped 30-min family interaction in 91 families rearing children who were either typically developing or had intellectual/developmental disabilities. In…

  12. Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Joan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence.

  13. Who pre-drinks before a night out and why? : Socioeconomic status and motives behind young people’s pre-drinking in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jeanette; Andrade, Stefan Bastholm

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine young people’s main motive for pre-drinking in the United Kingdom, how much they drink on an event-specific night out, and whether motives or socioeconomic status (particularly their income level) explain the alcohol quantities they drink. Methods: Multilevel logit and poisson models were used on a survey of 628 people (aged 18-35) conducted on-site in 26 bars, clubs and pubs in four cities and towns. Results: Young males drink on average 9.8 and females 7.4 standard units of alcohol before a night out. Saving money is the most prevalent motive for pre-drinking. Although lower income levels cannot explain whether a young person will pre-drink on an event-specific night out, young people’s income level and their motives explain the quantities they consume. Lower-earning males who pre-drank to save money consumed larger quantities of alcohol at home and lower-earning females also pre-drank larger quantities either because they wanted to get out of control or because they wanted to be social. Conclusions: Prevention strategies likely to be effective in reducing the alcohol quantities that young people pre-drink should take into account both socioeconomic status and motives for pre-drinking.

  14. The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Self-Rated Health: Study of 29 Countries Using European Social Surveys (2002–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garcia-Alonso

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that the association between socio-economic status (SES and self-rated health (SRH varies in different countries, however there are not many country-comparisons that examine this relationship over time. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of three SES measures on SRH in 29 countries according to findings in European Social Surveys (2002–2008, in order to study how socio-economic inequalities can vary our subjective state of health. In line with previous studies, income inequalities seem to be greater not only in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian countries, but especially in Eastern European countries. The impact of education is greater in Southern countries, and this effect is similar in Eastern and Scandinavian countries, although occupational status does not produce significant differences in southern countries. This study shows the general relevance of socio-educational factors on SRH. Individual economic conditions are obviously a basic factor contributing to a good state of health, but education could be even more relevant to preserve it. In this sense, policies should not only aim at reducing income inequalities, but should also further the education of people who are in risk of social exclusion.

  15. Correlation between aflatoxin M1 content of breast milk, dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 and socioeconomic status of lactating mothers in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejumo, Oloyede; Atanda, Olusegun; Raiola, Assunta; Somorin, Yinka; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Ritieni, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AF M1), a hydroxylated metabolite of AF B1, is an important toxin that can contaminate the milk of lactating mothers. A correlation study was conducted to determine the relationship between AF M1 content of breast milk, dietary exposure to AF B1 and socioeconomic status of lactating mothers in the three Senatorial districts of Ogun State, Nigeria. Equal amounts of breast milk (20 ml) and food rations (40 kg) obtained from 50 volunteer lactating mothers and eighty-two frequently consumed food commodities in the preceding month were used for the study. The level of contamination of the foods by AF B1 was low (0.16-0.33 ?g/kg) and differed significantly (pmilk was contaminated with AF M1 (3.49-35 ng/l) and 16% exceeded the EU limit of 25 ng/l while a 100% occurrence risk was recorded in Ogun Central Senatorial district. The socioeconomic status of the mothers also significantly influenced their dietary exposure and exposure risk of the sucklings to AF M1. PMID:23462105

  16. Niveles de actividad física de la población colombiana: desigualdades por sexo y condición socioeconómica / Physical activity levels among Colombian adults: Inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia, González; Óscar, Lozano; Andrea, Ramírez.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Las desigualdades en los niveles de actividad física son evidentes a nivel mundial. En Colombia, uno de los países más desiguales de Latinoamérica, la información es limitada; por tal razón, es imperativo conocer las disparidades en actividad física en el país para orientar el diseño d [...] e programas y políticas públicas encaminadas a promoverla. Objetivos. Estimar las prevalencias del cumplimiento de recomendaciones sobre actividad física y sus factores asociados, identificar desigualdades por sexo y condición socioeconómica en el cumplimiento de estas recomendaciones en el año 2010 y evaluar la tendencia de las prevalencias de actividad física en un período de cinco años. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un análisis secundario de la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional, 2005-2010. La muestra total incluyó 27.243 adultos. Los niveles de actividad física se midieron con el cuestionario internacional de actividad física. La condición socioeconómica se midió por el nivel del Sisbén. Resultados. La prevalencia del cumplimiento de las recomendaciones de actividad física en todos los dominios fue menor entre las mujeres. Los adultos de menor nivel socioeconómico tuvieron la menor prevalencia en "tiempo libre" y la mayor en "uso de la bicicleta como medio de transporte". Los factores asociados con el cumplimiento de las recomendaciones difirieron según el sexo y el dominio de actividad física. Las variables individuales y del hogar explicaron 13,6 % de las desigualdades por sexo y 23,2 % de las desigualdades por nivel socioeconómico. En un período de cinco años la prevalencia de "actividad física en el tiempo libre" disminuyó y aumentó en "caminar como medio de transporte". Conclusiones. Son preocupantes las bajas prevalencias de cumplimiento de las recomendaciones sobre actividad física en el tiempo libre en las mujeres y las personas de menor nivel socioeconómico. En futuras intervenciones para incrementar los niveles de actividad física deberán considerarse las desigualdades por sexo y condición socioeconómica, así como sus factores asociados. Abstract in english Introduction: Worldwide studies show inequalities in physical activity levels related to socio-demographic characteristics. In Colombia, among the countries in Latin America with the highest inequality, the evidence related to inequalities in physical activity is limited. It is imperative to identif [...] y disparities in physical activity in the country, to guide the design of public policies aimed at promoting physical activity. Objectives: 1) To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of meeting physical activity recommendations; 2) to assess inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status in meeting physical activity recommendations, and 3) to assess the trends in physical activity prevalence within a five-year period. Materials and methods: A secondary analysis of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey was conducted. The sample included 27,243 adults. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure leisure time and transport domains. Socioeconomic status was measured by the Sisben level. Results: Compared to men, women were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations in all domains. Compared to adults from high socioeconomic-status households, low socioeconomic-status adults had a lower prevalence of meeting physical activity recommendations during leisure time and the highest prevalence of using a bicycle for transport. The factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations differed by gender and physical activity domain. Household and individual variables explained 13.6% of the inequalities observed by gender, and 23.2% of the inequalities by socioeconomic status. In a five-year period, the prevalence of physical activity in leisure time decreased, while the physical activity of walking for transport increased and biking for transport did not change. Conclu

  17. The influence of socioeconomic status on women's preferences for modern contraceptive providers in Nigeria: a multilevel choice modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aremu O

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Olatunde Aremu School of Health, Sport, and Bioscience, Health Studies Field, University of East London, London, United Kingdom Background: Contraceptives are one of the most cost effective public health interventions. An understanding of the factors influencing users' preferences for contraceptives sources, in addition to their preferred methods of contraception, is an important factor in increasing contraceptive uptake. This study investigates the effect of women’s contextual and individual socioeconomic positions on their preference for contraceptive sources among current users in Nigeria. Methods: A multilevel modeling analysis was conducted using the most recent 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years old. The analysis included 1,834 ever married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation, including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. Three outcome variables, private, public, and informal provisions of contraceptive sources, were considered in the modeling. Results: There was variability in women's preferences for providers across communities. The result shows that change in variance accounted for about 31% and 19% in the odds of women's preferences for both private and public providers across communities. Younger age and being from the richest households are strongly associated with preference for both private and public providers. Living in rural areas and economically deprived neighborhoods were the community level determinants of women's preferences. Conclusion: This study documents the independent association of contextual socioeconomic characteristics and individual level socioeconomic factors with women's preferences for contraceptive commodity providers in Nigeria. Initiatives that seek to improve modern contraceptive uptake should jointly consider users’ preferences for sources of these commodities in addition to their preference for contraceptive type.Keywords: abortion, contraceptive, multilevel choice, Nigeria, preference, socioeconomic disadvantaged

  18. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal K Singh, Phd; Romuladus E Azuine, Drph; Mohammad Siahpush, Phd

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regre...

  19. Social Epidemiology and the Fundamental Cause Concept: On the Structuring of Effective Cancer Screens by Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Link, Bruce G.; Northridge, Mary E.; Phelan, Jo C.; Ganz, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    Since the early 1800s, studies have consistently demonstrated that people higher in the socioeconomic hierarchy live longer than people of lower rank. One hypothesis for the persistence of this association is that people who are relatively better off are more able to avoid risks by adopting currently available protective strategies. In a partial test of this idea, the social distributions of two cancer screening tests—Pap smears and mammography—were examined. A review of the literature an...

  20. Associations of Organic Produce Consumption with Socioeconomic Status and the Local Food Environment: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    OpenAIRE

    Curl, Cynthia L.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Joel D.; Moore, Kari; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Diez-roux, Ana V.

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics, such as healthy food availability, have been associated with consumption of healthy food. Little is known about the influence of the local food environment on other dietary choices, such as the decision to consume organic food. We analyzed the associations between organic produce consumption and demographic, socioeconomic and neighborhood characteristics in 4,064 participants aged 53–94 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using log-binomial regression ...

  1. Nutritional status of urban schoolchildren of high and low socioeconomic status in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala Estado nutricional de escolares urbanos de niveles socioeconómicos alto y bajo en Quetzaltenango, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris F. Groeneveld

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing in children in many developing countries, increasing chronic disease risk. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren 8 to 10 years old who were of high or low socioeconomic status (SES in Quetzaltenango, which is the second largest city in Guatemala METHODS: Between April and June 2005 we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 583 children in private and public elementary schools, in which we measured height and weight. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 2000 height-for-age z-scores, weight-for-age z-scores, and body mass index-for-age centiles were used to define stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity. RESULTS: Mean height, weight, and body mass index were significantly higher in the 327 children of high SES than in the 256 children of low SES, across sexes and age groups. The prevalence of stunting was significantly higher in low-SES children than in high-SES ones (27.0% vs. 7.3%, P OBJETIVO: En muchos países en desarrollo se elevan las prevalencias de sobrepeso y de obesidad en niños, con el incremento del riesgo de enfermedades crónicas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las prevalencias de retraso en el crecimiento, peso bajo, sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de 8 a 10 años de edad de niveles socioeconómicos (NSE alto o bajo en Quetzaltenango, la segunda mayor ciudad de Guatemala. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal entre abril y junio de 2005 en el que se midió el peso y la talla de 583 niños de escuelas primarias privadas y públicas. Para evaluar el retraso en el crecimiento, el peso bajo, el sobrepeso y la obesidad se utilizaron como referencias las puntuaciones z de la talla para la edad y del peso para la edad y los centiles de los índices de masa corporal para la edad, propuestos por los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de las Enfermedades (CDC de los Estados Unidos de América en 2000. RESULTADOS: La talla, el peso y el índice de masa corporal medios fueron significativamente mayores en los 327 niños de NSE alto que en los 256 niños de NSE bajo en todos los grupos de edad y sexo. La prevalencia de retraso en el crecimiento fue significativamente mayor en los niños con NSE bajo que en los de NSE alto (27,0% frente a 7,3%; P < 0,01, al igual que la prevalencia de peso bajo (14,1% frente a 4,6%, P < 0,01. En contraste, la prevalencia de sobrepeso fue mayor en los niños con NSE alto que en los de NSE bajo (17,7% frente a 10,5%, P < 0,01, al igual que la prevalencia de obesidad (14,4% frente a 2,3%, P < 0,01. Las prevalencias de retraso en el crecimiento en los niños de NSE bajo y de sobrepeso y obesidad en los de NSE alto fueron mucho mayores que las referencias establecidas por los CDC en el año 2000. CONCLUSIONES: Se encontraron elevadas prevalencias de retraso en el crecimiento y de peso corporal excesivo en esta población urbana de Guatemala, con notables contrastes entre las clases sociales. La obesidad en los niños de familias con ingresos elevados indica que la ciudad está experimentando la transición nutricional, con las implicaciones que con lleva para los riesgos de enfermedades crónicas en el futuro. Se requieren intervenciones nutricionales y de salud para reducir esos riesgos.

  2. Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country’s socio-economic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Blignaut

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI, the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.

  3. Association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age group and gender with prevalence of waterborne diseases in rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention of waterborne illness is of great concern all over the world. Waterborne diseases represent significant burden of diseases in the globe. Nearly 4% of diseases are attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene, and approximately 2.2 million people die every year due to diarrheal diseases worldwide. This study was carried out to find association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age groups and gender with prevalence of water borne diseases in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A research questionnaire was designed with questions related to demographic data, drinking water data and prevalence of water borne disease. The research questionnaire was interviewed to different respondents above 18 years of age randomly selected from different settings of Rawalpindi and Islamabad belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Data was analysed by employing cross tabulation and chi-square test with help of statistical software. The more frequent age group (47%) was 30 to 45 years. Proportion of diarrhea in females and males of middle age group were calculated as 36.11 % and 11.11 %, respectively. The second more frequent reported disease was jaundice with 15.9% of the target population being males and 16.7% females. Diarrhea was observed to be the major waterborne disease constituting 41 % of the population with poor hygiene practices. The hygienic practices were significantly associated with waterborne diseases (P = <0.001). Waterborne diseases were also, associat). Waterborne diseases were also, associated with financial status (P=0.02) and literacy rate (p=0.03). The current study concludes that improvement in the hygienic conditions and hygienic practices will playa pivotal role to prevent faeco-oral infections and reduce the waterborne disease burden. In targeted areas due to poor economic conditions, the population failed to achieve better hygienic practices and therefore there is a need to strengthen water filtration system and awareness of hygienic routine practices in these areas. (author)

  4. Influence of socioeconomic and demographic status on spirometry testing in patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease : a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Mette M; SØndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status is known to influence the prevalence, severity and mortality of obstructive lung diseases, but it is uncertain whether it affects the use of diagnostic spirometry in patients initiating treatment for these conditions. The objective of this paper was to examine a possible association between education, income, labour market affiliation, cohabitation status and having spirometry performed when initiating medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study. Danish national registers were linked, retrieving data on prescriptions, spirometry testing, socioeconomic and demographic variables in all first time users of medication targeting obstructive lung disease in 2008. RESULTS: A total of 37,734 persons were included and approximately half of the cohort had spirometry performed. Among medication users under 65 years of age, being unemployed was significantly associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed, the strongest association was seen in men (OR = 0.82, CI = 0.73-0.91). Medium income was associated with increased odds of having spirometry performed in men (OR = 1.18, CI = 1.06-1.30) and high educational level (>12 years) was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed in women (OR = 0.86, CI = 0.78-0.94). Cohabitation status was not associated with having spirometry performed. Among medication users over 65 years of age, living alone was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed among men (OR = 0.78, CI = 0.69-0.88). CONCLUSION: Social inequity in spirometry testing among patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease was confirmed in this study. Increased focus on spirometry testing among elderly men living alone, among the unemployed and among women with higher education is required when initiating medication.

  5. The mediating effect of social relationships on the association between socioeconomic status and subjective health – results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonneilich Nico

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of population health. Explanatory approaches on how SES determines health have so far included numerous factors, amongst them psychosocial factors such as social relationships. However, it is unclear whether social relationships can help explain socioeconomic differences in general subjective health. Do different aspects of social relationships contribute differently to the explanation? Based on a cohort study of middle and older aged residents (45 to 75 years from the Ruhr Area in Germany our study tries to clarify the matter. Methods For the analyses data from the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study is used. As indicators of SES education, equivalent household income and occupational status were employed. Social relations were assessed by including structural as well as functional aspects. Structural aspects were estimated by the Social Integration Index (SII and functional aspects were measured by availability of emotional and instrumental support. Data on general subjective health status was available for both baseline examination (2000–2003 and a 5-year follow-up (2006–2008. The sample consists of 4,146 men and women. Four logistic regression models were calculated: in the first model we controlled for age and subjective health at baseline, while in models 2 and 3, either functional or structural aspects of social relationships were introduced separately. Model 4 then included all variables. As former studies indicated different health effects of SES and social relations in men and women, analyses were conducted with the overall sample as well as for each gender alone. Results Prospective associations of SES and subjective health were reduced after introducing social relationships into the regression models. Percentage reductions between 2% and 30% were observed in the overall sample when all aspects of social relations were included. The percentage reductions were strongest in the lowest SES group. Gender specific analyses revealed mediating effects of social relationships in women and men. The magnitude of mediating effects varied depending on the indicators of SES and social relations. Conclusions Social relationships substantially contribute to the explanation of SES differences in subjective health. Interventions for improving social relations which especially focus on socially deprived groups are likely to help reducing socioeconomic disparities in health.

  6. Cigarette smoking, health status, socio-economic status and access to health care in diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jec, Sedgwick; Mc, Gulliford; Aj, Pearce

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background In diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and microvascular complications. We evaluated cigarette smoking in people with diabetes mellitus in a socio-economically deprived area. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of people registered with diabetes mellitus at 29 general practices in inner London. Responses were analysed for 1,899 (64%) respondents out of 2,983 eligible. Results There were 1,899 respon...

  7. Estrato Socioeconómico y Habilidades Cognitivas en Niños Escolarizados: Variables Predictoras y Mediadoras Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Skills in School-Age Children: Predicting and Mediating Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Arán Filippetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue analizar el efecto del estrato socioeconómico (ESE y de la edad sobre el desempeño en tareas de lenguaje, atención y memoria de niños escolarizados y examinar las variables socioeconómicas que predicen su ejecución. Se seleccionó una muestra intencionada de 228 niños argentinos de 8 a 11 años de edad de dos ESE (bajo y medio. Se empleó análisis multivariado de varianza y análisis de regresión jerárquica. Los resultados indicaron un efecto significativo del ESE y de la edad sobre las tareas cognitivas evaluadas. De las variables socioeconómicas analizadas, el nivel de instrucción de la madre (NIM fue el principal predictor del desempeño cognitivo del niño. Además, el NIM explicó un porcentaje de la varianza del desempeño obtenido por el niño, aun después de controlar su edad y nivel de lenguaje comprensivo. Se discuten los resultados en función de la influencia del ESE sobre el desempeño cognitivo y de los posibles factores predictores y mediadores de esta asociación.The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of socioeconomic status (SES and age on school-age children's performance in language, attention, and memory tasks and to examine the socioeconomic variables that predict their execution. An intentional sample of 228 Argentinean children aged 8-11 years from two SES (low and medium was used. Multivariate analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis were employed. Results revealed a significant effect of SES and age on the cognitive functions studied. Based on the socioeconomic variables analyzed, maternal instruction level (MIL was found to be the main predictor of the child's cognitive performance. In addition, MIL explained a percentage of variance in the child's performance, even after controlling for the child's age and receptive language level. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of SES on cognitive performance and the possible predicting and mediating factors of this association.

  8. A spatial analysis of variations in health access: linking geography, socio-economic status and access perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Brunsdon Chris; Comber Alexis J; Radburn Robert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs) surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes survey. Road distances to the neares...

  9. Publication title: Paid work between age 60 and 70 years in Europe: a matter of socio-economic status? Publication type: Journal Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Komp

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, older persons’ workforce participation has increased and, after years of studying early retirement, the focus has gradually shifted to workforce participation between age 60 and 70 years. Those are the years directly below and above the mandatory retirement age in most of the European countries. We investigate the influence of socio-economic status (SES on older persons’ workforce participation. Moreover, we study whether the importance of private pensions in a country modifies the effect of SES. Survey data from eleven European countries are analysed in multilevel analyses. Results show that paid work in old age is the domain of persons with high SES. Moreover, a high share of private pensions in a country diminishes the influence of occupational prestige on men’s workforce participation. This suggests that older persons with low SES deserve particular attention in labour market reforms. Additionally, it suggests that pension reforms be monitored concerning their effects on social inequalities.

  10. The relation of dialogic, control, and racial socialization practices to early academic and social competence: effects of gender, ethnicity, and family socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Oscar; Jean-Baptiste, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This research tests the relations of parental practices to child competence and assertions that practices differ by gender of the child. Home-based interviews and structured observations of parent-child interactions were conducted with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of families (N = 501) whose 4-year-old children were served in public prekindergarten. Study data confirmed the importance of parental practices for children's academic and social competence but did not support claims that use of any of the practices was related to the child's gender. Significant differences were found for economic status on dialogic practices and for ethnicity on control and ethnic socialization. Poor parents employed dialogic practices less than nonpoor parents' and African American parents employed dialogic practices less often and control and ethnic socialization more often than European Americans. Dialogic practices were related to competence, but parental control and ethnic socialization were not. PMID:23889013

  11. Low socio-economic status and familial occurrence of goitre are associated with a high prevalence of goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of goitre is dependent on genetic and environmental factors, but the associations with socio-economic and life-style factors have only been examined briefly. A cohort of 4649 participants from the general population was examined with questionnaires, thyroid ultrasonography, clinical examination and blood tests. Data were analysed in linear models and logistic regression analysis. Thyroid volume and serum thyroglobulin were closely associated with educational level with higher values in the group with the lowest levels of education (p < 0.001). The same pattern applied to thyroid multinodularity at ultrasonography (p = 0.002) and palpable goitre (p = 0.01). Physical activity in leisure time was negatively associated with thyroid enlargement (p = 0.02) and serum thyroglobulin (p < 0.001). These associations diminished markedly if adjustment was made for smoking habits, alcohol consumption and iodine intake. Familial occurrence of goitre was associated with goitre prevalence (Odds Ratio 2.5, 95% CI: 1.6-3.9), but did not confound the socio-economic associations. In conclusion, social imbalances in the occurrence of goitre were identified. These imbalances could in part be explained by differences in smoking habits and iodine intake

  12. Brechas en cobertura efectiva por nivel socioeconómico y condición de pobreza / Gaps in effective coverage by socioeconomic status and poverty condition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Pablo, Gutiérrez.

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar en el contexto de la ampliación en la protección en salud en México las brechas por nivel socioeconómico y condición de pobreza en la cobertura efectiva de intervenciones preventivas en México. Material y métodos. Datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2012 y 2006, uti [...] lizando indicadores de cobertura efectiva previamente propuestos, con una estratificación por quintil socioeconómico (SE) y por condición de pobreza multidimensional. Resultados. Para las intervenciones relacionadas con la vacunación, se identifica lo que se ha llamado equidad inmunológica. Para otros indicadores de servicios preventivos se observa una menor probabilidad de cobertura efectiva en el quintil de menor nivel SE y entre los pobres multidimensionales. Analizando las diferencias entre 2006 y 2012, no hay evidencia de que haya mejorado esta brecha. Conclusión. Aunque la protección en salud en México se ha incrementado de forma importante y ha reducido las brechas socioeconómicas, éstas siguen manifestándose en las coberturas efectivas de las intervenciones preventivas. Abstract in english Objective. To analyze, in the context of increased health protection in Mexico, the gaps by socioeconomic status and poverty condition on effective coverage of selected preventive interventions. Materials and methods. Data from the National Health & Nutrition Survey 2012 and 2006, using previously d [...] efined indicators of effective coverage and stratifying them by socioeconomic (SE) status and multidimensional poverty condition. Results. For vaccination interventions, immunological equity has been maintained in Mexico. For indicators related to preventive interventions provided at the clinical setting, effective coverage is lower among those in the lowest SE quintile and among people living in multidimensional poverty. Comparing 2006 and 2012, there is no evidence on gap reduction. Conclusion. While health protection has significantly increased in Mexico, thus reducing SE gaps, those gaps are still important in magnitude for effective coverage of preventive interventions.

  13. Using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data to analyze geographical distribution of socio-economic status; an experience from KEMRI/CDC HDSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amek, Nyaguara; Vounatsou, Penelope; Obonyo, Benson; Hamel, Mary; Odhiambo, Frank; Slutsker, Laurence; Laserson, Kayla

    2015-04-01

    Continuous monitoring in health and demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) allows for collection of longitudinal demographic data, health related, and socio-economic indicators of the site population. We sought to use household survey data collected between 2002 and 2006 in the Kenya Medical Research Institute in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and prevention (KEMRI/CDC) HDSS site in Asembo and Gem Western Kenya to estimate socio-economic status (SES) and assess changes of SES over time and space. Data on household assets and characteristics, mainly source of drinking water, cooking fuel, and occupation of household head was annually collected from 44,313 unique households during the study period. An SES index was calculated as a weighted average of assets using weights generated via Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Polychoric PCA, and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) methods applied to the pooled data. The index from the best method was used to rank households into SES quintiles and assess their transition over time across SES categories. Kriging was employed to produce SES maps at the start and the end of the study period. First component of PCA, Polychoric PCA, and MCA accounted for 13.7%, 31.8%, and 47.3%, respectively of the total variance of all variables. The gap between the poorest and the least poor increased from 1% at the start to 6% at the end of the study period. Spatial analysis revealed that the increase in least poor households was centered in the lower part of study area (Asembo) over time. No significant changes were observed in Gem. The HDSS sites can provide a platform to assess spatial-temporal changes in the SES status of the population. Evidence on how SES varied over time and space within the same geographical area may provide a useful tool to design interventions in health and other areas that have a close bearing to the SES of the population. PMID:25602533

  14. Causal relationships between survival rates, dietary and lifestyle habits, socioeconomic status and physical, mental and social health in elderly urban dwellers in Japan: A chronological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Fujiwara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Life expectancy was well known to associate with lifestyle habits, socioeconomic condition, and three health-related dimensions (physical, mental and social health status. However, the causal effect relationship among these variables remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the causal relationships among health and life conditions, socioeconomic status, dietary and lifestyle habits and three health-related dimensions in elderly urban dwellers in Tokyo, Japan. Of 16,462 eligible elderly individuals aged 65 years and older, 13,195 participants responded to the questionnaire survey conducted in September 2001 (a response rate of 80.2%. A follow-up survey was conducted in September 2004 and a total of 8162 survivors were followed until the end of August 2007 through the municipal resident's registry. Exploratory factor analysis defined five latent variables based on the 13 observed variables. From a cross-lagged effects variation model using structural equation modeling, causal relationships were analyzed using longitudinal data obtained at the 2001 and 2004 survey and the number of survival days between 2004 and 2007. After estimating a best-fit model, we discovered that health and life conditions were not determined by current dietary and lifestyle habits, which many studies showed. However, the conditions were more directly affected by three health-related dimensions three years earlier, and indirectly affected by educational attainment and previous annual income as well. The current model suggests that it might be of great importance for elderly individuals to emphasize the maintenance of psychological well being, physical activity, social communication and participation, as well as income, rather than focusing on improvements in diet and health-related lifestyles per se.

  15. Funciones ejecutivas en niños escolarizados: efectos de la edad y del estrato socioeconómico / Executive functions in school-aged children: age and socioeconomic status effects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    VANESSA, ARÁN FILIPPETTI.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, se ha incrementado notoriamente el estudio sobre las funciones ejecutivas prefrontales en niños de edad escolar. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar la influencia de la edad y del estrato socioeconómico (ESE) en el desempeño de tareas ejecutivas y conocer cuáles son las [...] variables socioeconómicas que predicen una mejor ejecución. Participaron 254 niños de 7 a 12 años de edad de diferentes estratos socioeconómicos de la ciudad de Santa Fe, Argentina. Se utilizó una batería de pruebas ejecutivas sensibles a la función prefrontal. Los resultados obtenidos señalan un efecto significativo de la edad y del ESE sobre las funciones ejecutivas estudiadas. Los diferentes dominios del constructo siguen una trayectoria diferente según el desarrollo y el efecto del ESE. Además, en todas las funciones ejecutivas se evidencia un patrón de funcionamiento cognitivo inferior en los niños de estrato socioeconómico bajo (ESB). Finalmente, se encontró que, de las variables incluidas en el análisis, solo el nivel educativo de la madre y las condiciones de alojamiento de la familia se asocian al funcionamiento ejecutivo de los niños. Se discuten los resultados en función de la influencia que ejerce la maduración cerebral y las variables ambientales en el funcionamiento ejecutivo. Abstract in english Lately, the study of prefrontal executive functions in grade scholars has noticeably increased. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of age and socioeconomic status (SES) on executive tasks performance and to analyze those socioeconomic variables that predict a better execution. A s [...] ample of 254 children aged between 7 and 12 years from the city of Santa Fe, Argentina and belonging to different socioeconomic status were tested. A battery of executive functions sensitive to prefrontal function was used to obtain the results. These indicate a significant influence of age and SES on executive functions. The cognitive patterns follow a different path according to the development and SES effect. Besides, it is revealed a pattern of low cognitive functioning in low-SES children in all executive functions. Finally, from the variables included in this study, it was found that only the educational level of the mother and the housing conditions are associated to the children's executive function. The results are discussed in terms of the influence of the cerebral maturation and the environmental variables in the executive functioning.

  16. Obesidade e sobrepeso em adolescentes: relação com atividade física, aptidão física, maturação biológica e "status" socioeconômico / Obesity and overweight in adolescents: relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, biological maturity and socioeconomic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia, Figueiredo; Daniel, Santos; Michele, Souza; André, Seabra; José, Maia.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo relaciona atividade física (AF), aptidão física (AptF), maturação biológica e "status" socioe-conômico (ESE) com as prevalências de risco ponderal de adolescentes. Foi desenvolvido no Concelho de Santo Tirso, região norte de Portugal e amostrou 961 alunos (463 meninos e 498 meninas) com [...] idades variando entre os 11 e os 18 anos. O índice de massa corporal foi utilizado para estabelecer o "status" ponderal com base nos pontos de corte propostos por COLE et al. A AF foi avaliada através do questionário de Baecke e a AptF com quatro testes da bateria Fitnessgram. O ESE foi estimado a partir do acesso aos escalões atribuídos pela Ação Social Escolar e a maturação biológica a partir do "offset" maturacional. A análise estatística foi efetuada nos "softwares" Pepi versão 4.0 e SPSS 18.0. O nível de significância foi mantido em 5%. Seis por cento dos alunos eram obesos e 19,5% tinham sobrepeso; meninos e meninas têm prevalências semelhantes de sobrepeso e obesidade. Os níveis médios de AF foram baixos a moderados independentemente do sexo ou "status" ponderal. Os meninos eram mais ativos que as meninas (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to relate physical activity, physical fitness, maturation and socioeconomic status with the prevalence of ponderal risk in adolescents. This was a transversal study made in the Council of Santo Tirso in the north of Portugal. The sample consisted of 961students (463 boys an [...] d 498 girls), aged 11 to 18. Body mass index was used to establish ponderal status based on the cut points from COLE et al. Physical activity was evaluated by Baecke's questionnaire and physical fitness with four tests from Fitnessgram battery. Socioeconomic status was ranked according to the grades assigned by state school subsidies, while biological maturation estimation was based on maturational offset. Software programs Pepi version 4.0 and SPSS 18.0 were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was kept in 5%. Six percent of the target students were obese and 19.5% had overweight. The prevalences of overweight and obesity were similar between genders. The medium levels of physical activity were low or moderate, independent of gender or ponderal status. Boys were more active than girls (p

  17. Jordan's First Research Reactor Project: Driving Forces, Present Status and the Way Ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xoubi, Ned, E-mail: Ned@Xoubi.co [Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC), P.O.Box 70, Shafa Badran, 11934 Amman (Jordan)

    2011-07-01

    In a gigantic step towards establishing Jordan's nuclear power program, Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) is building the first nuclear research and test reactor in the Kingdom. The new reactor will serve as the focal point for Jordan Center for Nuclear Research (JCNR), a comprehensive state of the art nuclear center not only for Jordan but for the whole region, the center will include in addition to the reactor a radioisotopes production plant, a nuclear fuel fabrication plant, a cold neutron source (CNS), a radioactive waste treatment facility, and education and training center. The JRTR reactor is the only research reactor new build worldwide in 2010, it is a 5 MW light water open pool multipurpose reactor, The reactor core is composed of 18 fuel assemblies, MTR plate type, with 19.75% enriched uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) in an aluminum matrix. It is reflected on all sides by beryllium and graphite blocks. Reactor power is upgradable to 10 MW with a maximum thermal flux of 1.45x10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The reactor reactivity is controlled by four Hafnium Control Absorber Rods (CAR). Jordan Center for Nuclear Research is located in Ramtha city, it is owned by Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC), and is contracted to Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Daewoo E and C. The JCNR project is a 56 months EPC fixed price contract for the design engineering, construction, and commissioning the JCNR reactor, and other nuclear facilities. The project presents many challenges for both the owner and the contractor, being the first nuclear reactor for Jordan, and the first nuclear export for Korea. The driving forces, present status and the way ahead will be presented in this paper. (author)

  18. Jordan's First Research Reactor Project: Driving Forces, Present Status and the Way Ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a gigantic step towards establishing Jordan's nuclear power program, Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) is building the first nuclear research and test reactor in the Kingdom. The new reactor will serve as the focal point for Jordan Center for Nuclear Research (JCNR), a comprehensive state of the art nuclear center not only for Jordan but for the whole region, the center will include in addition to the reactor a radioisotopes production plant, a nuclear fuel fabrication plant, a cold neutron source (CNS), a radioactive waste treatment facility, and education and training center. The JRTR reactor is the only research reactor new build worldwide in 2010, it is a 5 MW light water open pool multipurpose reactor, The reactor core is composed of 18 fuel assemblies, MTR plate type, with 19.75% enriched uranium silicide (U3Si2) in an aluminum matrix. It is reflected on all sides by beryllium and graphite blocks. Reactor power is upgradable to 10 MW with a maximum thermal flux of 1.45x1014 cm-2s-1. The reactor reactivity is controlled by four Hafnium Control Absorber Rods (CAR). Jordan Center for Nuclear Research is located in Ramtha city, it is owned by Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC), and is contracted to Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Daewoo E and C. The JCNR project is a 56 months EPC fixed price contract for the design engineering, construction, and commissioning the JCNR reactor, andn, and commissioning the JCNR reactor, and other nuclear facilities. The project presents many challenges for both the owner and the contractor, being the first nuclear reactor for Jordan, and the first nuclear export for Korea. The driving forces, present status and the way ahead will be presented in this paper. (author)

  19. Status of potato husbandry and farmer's socio-economic profile in moisture and heat prone karnataka, india

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan district of Karnataka (India) plays an important role of providing processing grade potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) during September to December months when there is real dearth of such potatoes in the country. However, shallow soils, low soil carbon, inadequate irrigation water (126% cropping intensity in study area) and heat stress have been bothering farmers of this area for a long time. In addition, severe late blight infestations during recent years have played havoc for Potato farmers, dragging average potato productivity in the area to sub seven tonne/ hectare levels. Current study was carried out to analyse socio-economics of potato farmers in Hassan district of Karnataka so that policy makers and development agencies take right decisions towards upliftment of potato farmers of this area. District wise annual compound growth rates (ACGRs) of potato area, production and productivity were estimated for the period during 1999-00 to 2009-10. During this period, potato area in Hassan district expanded at 11.5% ACGR, the corresponding production and productivity figures decelerated by 2 and 12%, respectively. The study of various socio-economic factors revealed that the sampled households were deprived of even the basic household necessities such as food security (33% total and 65% landless labourer respondents), personal water connection (72% respondents) and toilets (68% respondents). Potato contract farming arrangements between potato farmers and the leading contractor, PepsiCo India were also studied. This article recommends enhanced emphasis of Indian government on irrigation development under various rural development schemes and consolidation of land holdings in order to facilitate farm mechanization and improved agricultural profitability. (author)

  20. Socioeconomic Status and Other Related Factors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (? 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ? 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847

  1. Obesidade e sobrepeso em adolescentes: relação com atividade física, aptidão física, maturação biológica e "status" socioeconômico Obesity and overweight in adolescents: relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, biological maturity and socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Figueiredo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relaciona atividade física (AF, aptidão física (AptF, maturação biológica e "status" socioe-conômico (ESE com as prevalências de risco ponderal de adolescentes. Foi desenvolvido no Concelho de Santo Tirso, região norte de Portugal e amostrou 961 alunos (463 meninos e 498 meninas com idades variando entre os 11 e os 18 anos. O índice de massa corporal foi utilizado para estabelecer o "status" ponderal com base nos pontos de corte propostos por COLE et al. A AF foi avaliada através do questionário de Baecke e a AptF com quatro testes da bateria Fitnessgram. O ESE foi estimado a partir do acesso aos escalões atribuídos pela Ação Social Escolar e a maturação biológica a partir do "offset" maturacional. A análise estatística foi efetuada nos "softwares" Pepi versão 4.0 e SPSS 18.0. O nível de significância foi mantido em 5%. Seis por cento dos alunos eram obesos e 19,5% tinham sobrepeso; meninos e meninas têm prevalências semelhantes de sobrepeso e obesidade. Os níveis médios de AF foram baixos a moderados independentemente do sexo ou "status" ponderal. Os meninos eram mais ativos que as meninas (p The aim of this study was to relate physical activity, physical fitness, maturation and socioeconomic status with the prevalence of ponderal risk in adolescents. This was a transversal study made in the Council of Santo Tirso in the north of Portugal. The sample consisted of 961students (463 boys and 498 girls, aged 11 to 18. Body mass index was used to establish ponderal status based on the cut points from COLE et al. Physical activity was evaluated by Baecke's questionnaire and physical fitness with four tests from Fitnessgram battery. Socioeconomic status was ranked according to the grades assigned by state school subsidies, while biological maturation estimation was based on maturational offset. Software programs Pepi version 4.0 and SPSS 18.0 were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was kept in 5%. Six percent of the target students were obese and 19.5% had overweight. The prevalences of overweight and obesity were similar between genders. The medium levels of physical activity were low or moderate, independent of gender or ponderal status. Boys were more active than girls (p < 0.001 but no significant differences were found between the students with obesity and overweight and normoponderal ones. On what concerns physical fitness, a high percentage of students (above 50% were considered inapt and failed the tests. Students suffering from overweight and obesity were clearly more inapt. Students with more advanced maturational offset as well as the youngest ones were more likely to present overweight and obesity but no meaningful relationship was found between socioeconomic position and ponderal status. We concluded that young students from S. Tirso had high prevalences of obesity and overweight, were relatively inactive and largely physically unfit.

  2. Parental feeding practices and socioeconomic status are associated with child adiposity in a multi-ethnic sample of children

    OpenAIRE

    Cardel, Michelle; Willig, Amanda L.; Dulin-keita, Akilah; Casazza, Krista; Beasley, T. Mark; Ferna?ndez, Jose? R.

    2011-01-01

    Parental feeding practices have been associated with children’s weight status, but results have been inconsistent across populations. Research is needed to elucidate the relationship between parental feeding practices and adiposity in diverse populations. The present study tested if: (1) parental feeding practices differed by race/ethnicity (2) parental pressure to eat and parental restriction were associated with adiposity levels, and (3) to investigate the relationship between parental fe...

  3. Association between socioeconomic status and overweight and obesity among Inuit adults: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007–2008

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    Natalia Zienczuk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the socio-economic correlates of overweight and obesity among Inuit undergoing rapid cultural changes. Study design. A cross-sectional health survey of 2,592 Inuit adults from 36 communities in the Canadian Arctic. Methods. Main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, respectively and as characteristics were similar, groups were combined into an at-risk BMI category (BMI>25 kg/m2. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between various sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity with overweight and obesity. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28 and 36%, respectively, with a total prevalence of overweight and obesity of 64%. In analyses of sociodemographic variables adjusted for age, gender and region, higher education, any employment, personal income, and private housing were all significantly positively correlated with an at-risk BMI (p?0.001. Smoking, Inuit language as primary language spoken at home, and walking were inversely associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusions. The current findings highlight the social disparities in overweight and obesity prevalence in an ethnically distinct population undergoing rapid cultural changes.

  4. Cross-sectional analysis of association between socioeconomic status and utilization of primary total hip joint replacements 2006–7: Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry

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    Brennan Sharon L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The utilization of total hip replacement (THR surgery is rapidly increasing, however few data examine whether these procedures are associated with socioeconomic status (SES within Australia. This study examined primary THR across SES for both genders for the Barwon Statistical Division (BSD of Victoria, Australia. Methods Using the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry data for 2006–7, primary THR with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA among residents of the BSD was ascertained. The Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage was used to measure SES; determined by matching residential addresses with Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. The data were categorised into quintiles; quintile 1 indicating the most disadvantaged. Age- and sex-specific rates of primary THR per 1,000 person years were reported for 10-year age bands using the total population at risk. Results Females accounted for 46.9% of the 642 primary THR performed during 2006–7. THR utilization per 1,000 person years was 1.9 for males and 1.5 for females. The highest utilization of primary THR was observed in those aged 70–79?years (males 6.1, and females 5.4 per 1,000 person years. Overall, the U-shaped pattern of THR across SES gave the appearance of bimodality for both males and females, whereby rates were greater for both the most disadvantaged and least disadvantaged groups. Conclusions Further work on a larger scale is required to determine whether relationships between SES and THR utilization for the diagnosis of OA is attributable to lifestyle factors related to SES, or alternatively reflects geographic and health system biases. Identifying contributing factors associated with SES may enhance resource planning and enable more effective and focussed preventive strategies for hip OA.

  5. Influence of socioeconomic status, wealth and financial empowerment on gender differences in health and healthcare utilization in later life: evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kakoli; Chaudhuri, Anoshua

    2008-05-01

    Empirical studies from developed countries observe that women report worse health and higher healthcare utilization than men, but the health disadvantage diminishes with age; gender differences in self-rated health often vanish or are reversed in older ages. Comparable assessments of health during later life from developing countries are limited because of the lack of large-scale surveys that include older women. Our study attempts to address the shortage of developing country studies by examining gender differences in health and healthcare utilization among older adults in India. Both ordered and binary logit specifications were used to assess significant gender differences in subjective and objective health, and healthcare utilization after controlling for demographics, medical conditions, traditional indicators of socioeconomic status like education and income, and additional wealth indicators. The wealth indicators, measured by property ownership and economic independence, are regarded as financially empowering older adults to exercise greater control over their health and well-being. Data are drawn from a nationally representative decennial socioeconomic and health survey of 120,942 Indian households conducted during 1995-1996. The study sample comprises 34,086 older men and women aged >or= 60 years. Our results indicate that older women report worse self-rated health, higher prevalence of disabilities, marginally lower chronic conditions, and lower healthcare utilization than men. The health disadvantage and lower utilization among women cannot be explained by demographics and the differential distribution of medical conditions. While successive controls for education, income, and property ownership narrows the gender gap in both health and healthcare utilization, significant differentials still persist. Upon controlling for economic independence, gender differentials disappear or are reversed, with older women having equal or better health than otherwise similar men. Financial empowerment might confer older women the health advantage reflected in developed societies by enhancing a woman's ability to undertake primary and secondary prevention during the life course. PMID:18313185

  6. Associação entre prevalência de inatividade física e indicadores de condição socioeconômica em adolescentes / Association between prevalence of physical inactivity and indicators of socio-economic status in adolescents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Cazuza de, Farias Júnior.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A redução nos níveis de atividade física na população jovem tem sido amplamente descrita em vários países, sobretudo em alguns subgrupos dessa população. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de inatividade física em adolescentes escolares do ensino médio do município de Joã [...] o Pessoa - PB, e analisar sua associação com indicadores de condição socioeconômica. METODOLOGIA: Participaram do estudo 2.566 adolescentes (1.132 rapazes e 1.434 moças), de 14 a 18 anos de idade (16,5±1,17). Foram levantadas informações demográficas (sexo e idade), socioeconômicas (trabalho, tipo de escola, classe econômica, escolaridade dos pais), e mediu-se o nível de atividade física (kcal/kg/dia), mediante utilização de um diário de atividade física. Foram classificados como fisicamente inativos os adolescentes com demanda energética diária Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The decrease in the levels of physical activity in the young population has been described thoroughly in several countries, above all in some subgroups of that population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity in high school adolescents from th [...] e João Pessoa city - PB and to analyze its association with indicators of socio-economic status. METHODOLOGY: 2,566 adolescents (1,132 boys and 1,434 girls), ages between 14-18 years (16.5±1.17) participated in this study. Demographic (sex and age) and socio-economic data (work, school type, economic class, and parents' educational background) were raised. Besides that, the level of physical activity (kcal/kg/day) was measured through a diary of physical activity. The adolescents were classified as physically inactive when had daily energy demand

  7. Effects of education and word reading on cognitive scores in a community-based sample of Spanish elders with diverse socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contador, Israel; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; Del Ser, Teodoro; Benito-León, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The influence of education and oral word-reading ability on cognitive performance was examined in a sample of 1510 nondemented elders differing in socioeconomic status (SES) from three Spanish communities. Method. All individuals were enrolled in the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain, a population-based epidemiological study in central Spain. They completed a detailed demographic survey and a short standardized neuropsychological battery assessing psychomotor speed, attention, language, and memory. The Word Accentuation Test (WAT) was used as measure of oral reading ability. The influence of education and oral reading on cognitive performance was determined by multiple linear regression models, first controlling for demographics (age and sex), and subsequently for the WAT score and education. The contribution of socioeconomic conditions was addressed by stratifying the sample into groups of high and low SES. Results. The WAT showed a significant independent effect on cognitive scores, generally greater than that predicted by demographics. The higher predictive power of oral word reading on cognitive scores compared to education was consistent across the three communities. Although the variance explained by WAT was very similar in areas with diverse SES (low vs. high), WAT scores accounted for slightly more variance in naming and memory tasks in low SES areas. In contrast, the variance explained by WAT was higher for verbal fluency and the Trail-Making Test in areas with high SES. Conclusion. Oral word-reading ability predicts cognitive performance better than years of education across individuals with different SES. The influence of WAT may be modulated by SES and cognitive task properties. PMID:25686369

  8. Socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Poel, E.; Hosseinpoor, A. R.; Speybroeck, N.; Ourti, T. G. M.; Vega, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to report on socioeconomic inequality in childhood malnutrition in the developing world, to provide evidence for an association between socioeconomic inequality and the average level of malnutrition, and to draw attention to different patterns of socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition. METHODS: Both stunting and wasting were measured using new WHO child growth standards. Socioeconomic status was estimated by principal component analysis using a s...

  9. Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (vitamin B12 and B6 deficiency was very low. A quarter of the women had suboptimal folate status in the first trimester of pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies. PMID:25386981

  10. Associations of organic produce consumption with socioeconomic status and the local food environment: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Cynthia L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Joel D; Moore, Kari; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics, such as healthy food availability, have been associated with consumption of healthy food. Little is known about the influence of the local food environment on other dietary choices, such as the decision to consume organic food. We analyzed the associations between organic produce consumption and demographic, socioeconomic and neighborhood characteristics in 4,064 participants aged 53-94 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using log-binomial regression models. Participants were classified as consuming organic produce if they reported eating organic fruits and vegetables either "sometimes" or "often or always". Women were 21% more likely to consume organic produce than men (confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.30), and the likelihood of organic produce consumption was 13% less with each additional 10 years of age (CI: 0.84-0.91). Participants with higher education were significantly more likely to consume organic produce (prevalence ratios [PR] were 1.05 with a high school education, 1.39 with a bachelor's degree and 1.68 with a graduate degree, with less than high school as the reference group [1.00]). Per capita household income was marginally associated with produce consumption (p?=?0.06), with the highest income category more likely to consume organic produce. After adjustment for these individual factors, organic produce consumption was significantly associated with self-reported assessment of neighborhood produce availability (PR: 1.07, CI: 1.02-1.11), with an aggregated measure of community perception of the local food environment (PR: 1.08, CI: 1.00-1.17), and, to a lesser degree, with supermarket density (PR: 1.02: CI: 0.99-1.05). This research suggests that both individual-level characteristics and qualities of the local food environment are associated with having a diet that includes organic food. PMID:23936098

  11. A Study the impact of health and nutrition on productivity and socio-economic status of Bhutan

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    Navin Kumar Jha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the past research has found that the average health and nutritional status in developing countries falls considerably short as compared to the developed countries. But in the recent decades the changes in such indices in the developing countries have been enormous and in many cases the absolute gaps between the developing countries and developed countries have been reduced. In the recent decades the economists have attended the determinants and impact of health and nutritional status towards exploring in the economic developmental practice by appropriate policy design. Health and nutrition are positively related to labour productivity or production organization and ultimately to the household income at the micro level and economic growth at the macro level of a country. Since, there is no sufficient data on nutrient status of the individuals in Bhutan which makes comprehensive difficulties in the said things of the country. Bhutanese mainly consume less vegetables and fruits and consume more cereals. Low dietary intake, inadequate child care and a high incidence of infections are causes for Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM. The non-exclusive breast feeding and inadequate complementary feeding of a mother influences uncertain growth status in young children. As a result of high priority given by RGoB to education the gross primary enrolment ratio increased to 81 percent in 2003 from 55 percent in 1991, an annual increase of 6 to 7 percent. The girls enrolment ratio has also risen significantly, to 47 percent from 39 percent for the same year. The economic growth of Bhutan was estimated as 6.5 percent in 1997-1998 and it was increased to 7.3 percent in 2001-2002. Real GDP of the country has stabilized at 5.6 percent per annum. Agriculture is the mainstay of the Bhutanese economy, however it grew more slowly. The contribution from this sector to GDP of the country in the first year of the ninth five year plan was 30 percent. The construction, manufacturing and electricity are the other main income sources of the country.

  12. Geographical and socioeconomic inequalities in women and children's nutritional status in Pakistan in 2011: an analysis of data from a nationally representative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Bhatti, Zaid; Soofi, Sajid B; Fortunato, Lea; Ezzati, Majid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Pakistan has one of the highest levels of child and maternal undernutrition worldwide, but little information about geographical and socioeconomic inequalities is available. We aimed to analyse anthropometric indicators for childhood and maternal nutrition at a district level in Pakistan and assess the association of nutritional status with food security and maternal and household socioeconomic factors. Methods We used data from the 2011 Pakistan National Nutrition Survey, which included anthropometric measurements for 33?638 children younger than 5 years and 24?826 women of childbearing age. We estimated the prevalences of stunting, wasting, and underweight among children and of underweight, overweight, and obesity in women for all 143 districts of Pakistan using a Bayesian spatial technique. We used a mixed-effect linear model to analyse the association of nutritional status with individual and household sociodemographic factors and food security. Findings Stunting prevalence in Pakistan's districts ranged between 22% (95% credible interval 19–26) and 76% (69–83); the lowest figures for wasting and underweight were both less than 2·5% and the highest were 42% (34–50) for wasting and 54% (49–59) for underweight. In 106 districts, more women were overweight than were underweight; in 49 of these districts more women were obese than were underweight. Children were better nourished if their mothers were taller or had higher weight, if they lived in wealthier households, and if their mothers had 10 or more years of education. Severe food insecurity was associated with worse nutritional outcomes for both children and women. Interpretation We noted large social and geographical inequalities in child and maternal nutrition in Pakistan, masked by national and provincial averages. Pakistan is also beginning to face the concurrent challenge of high burden of childhood undernutrition and overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age. Planning, implementation, and evaluation of programmes for food and nutrition should be based on district-level needs and outcomes. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Grand Challenges Canada, UK Medical Research Council. PMID:25794676

  13. Analysis of medical expenditure and socio-economic status in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China: a retrospective study

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    Le Qihua

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little has been known regarding the relationship between ocular chemical injury and victims’ medical expenditure, income loss and socio-economic status changes. So we conduct this retrospective cross-sectional study in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China. Methods Fifty-six patients were enrolled and required to complete a self-report questionnaire consisting of the following contents: entire expenditure on medical treatment; the victims’ personal and household per capita income, and income loss caused by the injury; and the changes of socioeconomic status as well. Results The median expense of medical treatment was CNY 40,000 (approximately US$5,900. The medical expenditure rose significantly with increased injury severity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased frequency of surgery. More than half victims (51.8?%, 29/56 paid all or the majority of medical expense by themselves. The expense of only 5 victims was mainly paid by medical insurance, accounting for less than ten percent (8.9?%, 5/56. The victims’ personal and household per capita income both decreased significantly after the injury, with the median reduction being CNY 24,000 and CNY 7,800 (approximately US$3600 and US$1200 per year respectively. The reduction amplitude of personal and household per capita income rose with increased injury severity and prolonged time of care required. The injury caused emotional depression or anxiety in 76.8?% (43/56 victims, and the relationship with their relatives got worse in 51.9?% (29/56 patients. Moreover, only 21.4?% (12/56 patients felt that the whole society gave them care and concern after the injury, whereas 46.4?% (26/56 and 28.6?% (16/56 felt indifference or discrimination from society as a whole (X2?=?16.916, P?=?0.028. Conclusions The medical expense was a huge economic burden to most victims of ocular chemical burns, and personal and household per capita income of the victims decreased significantly after injury, both of which had a close relationship with the injury severity. Formal legislation was urgently needed to compel the employer to purchase injury or medical insurance and provide more compulsory protection to the population working in high risk occupations. In addition, psychological counseling and instruction shouldn’t be neglected in the aid and treatment of victims.

  14. Socioeconomic status and misperception of body mass index among Mexican adults / Nivel socioeconómico y percepción del índice de masa corporal en adultos en México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Arantxa Colchero; Yanink, Caro-Vega; Martha, Kaufer-Horwitz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la asociación entre la percepción del índice de masa corporal (IMC) y las variables socioeconómicas en adultos de México. Material y métodos. Se estudiaron 32052 adultos que participaron en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006. Se estimó la percepción incorrecta del IMC c [...] lasificando la percepción del entrevistado sobre su peso en categorías de IMC y comparándola con la que le correspondía de acuerdo con la medición real de su peso y estatura. El nivel socioeconómico se evaluó mediante los activos en los hogares. Se estimaron modelos de regresión logística y multinomial por género y categoría de IMC. Resultados. Las mujeres y hombres adultos subestiman su categoría de IMC. La probabilidad de tener una percepción correcta es menor que la probabilidad de obtener un resultado correcto sólo por azar. Los individuos con mayor nivel de escolaridad y socioeconómico tienen mayor probabilidad de percibir correctamente su IMC, particularmente en personas con sobrepeso. Conclusiones. Dado que una correcta percepción del peso se ha asociado con mayor búsqueda de su control y que nuestros resultados muestran que la población estudiada subestima su IMC, las intervenciones que provean información sobre definiciones y consecuencias del sobrepeso y la obesidad y que promuevan el monitoreo del peso corporal pueden ser benéficas. Abstract in english Objective. To estimate the association between perceived body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic variables in adults in Mexico. Materials and methods. We studied 32052 adults from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006. We estimated BMI misperception by comparing the respondent's w [...] eight perception (as categories of BMI) with the corresponding category according to measured weight and height. Misperception was defined as respondent's perception of a BMI category different from their actual category. Socioeconomic status was assessed using household assets. Logistic and multinomial regression models by gender and BMI category were estimated. Results. Adult women and men highly underestimate their BMI category. We found that the probability of a correct classification was lower than the probability of getting a correct result by chance alone. Better educated and more affluent individuals are more likely to have a correct perception of their weight status, particularly among overweight adults. Conclusions. Given that a correct perception of weight has been associated with an increased search of weight control and that our results show that the studied population underestimated their BMI, interventions providing definitions and consequences of overweight and obesity and encouraging the population to monitor their weight could be beneficial.

  15. The socioeconomic and technical status of cut flower producers in Tabasco, Mexico / Nivel socioeconómico y tecnológico de los productores de flor de corte en Tabasco, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María I, Saldaña y Hernández; Regino, Gómez; Juan M, Pat; José D, Álvarez; Julián, Pérez; Carlos F, Ortiz.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish M.I. Saldaña y Hernández, R. Gómez, J.M. Pat, J.D. Álvarez, J. Pérez, y C.F. Ortiz. 2013. Nivel socioeconómico y tecnológico de los productores de flor de corte en Tabasco, México. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):5-15. La floricultura en Tabasco, México, forma parte de un plan de diversificación para incremen [...] tar ingresos agrícolas con expectativas alentadoras. Para conocer aspectos socioeconómicos y técnico-productivos del sector, se aplicaron encuestas a productores a partir de información oficial, para generar un padrón de floricultores. Los indicadores socioeconómicos y tecnológicos utilizados, demostraron que el 38% de los productores corresponden a un nivel socioeconómico alto, 69% cuentan con tres a más de 10 años de experiencia en sus cultivos, son propietarios de su tierra 66% y tienen niveles de escolaridad superiores al promedio nacional. La mayoría de los productores no dependen exclusivamente de los ingresos de esta actividad. El promedio de ingreso por superficie cultivada es de $ 936.33 USD ha-1 año-1. El nivel tecnológico y manejo de las plantaciones es muy variado entre las unidades de producción. Los rendimientos y calidad de la producción son susceptibles de mejora a través del manejo oportuno de malezas, riego y drenaje. Las enfermedades y plagas no son limitantes por el momento. Sólo se comercializa el 11% de la producción, por lo que se requiere desarrollar el mercado nacional e internacional. No obstante, la infraestructura hidráulica, productiva y de poscosecha es insuficiente para desarrollar la actividad con miras a la exportación. Abstract in english M.I. Saldaña y Hernández, R. Gómez, J.M. Pat, J.D. Álvarez, J. Pérez, and C.F. Ortiz. 2013. The socioeconomic and technical status of cut flower producers in Tabasco, México. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):5-15. Floriculture in Tabasco, Mexico is part of a diversification and increasing agricultural income, [...] which has the potential for outstanding growth. To determine the socioeconomic status as well as the technical advancement of this sector, surveys were conducted of cut flower producers and combined with official statistics. Socioeconomic and technological indicators showed that 38% of the producers had a high standard of living and 69% of farmers had three or more years of experience in flower cultivation. Most farmers owned their land (66%), and their educational attainment was above the national average. Most of the producers did not depend exclusively on their revenues from flowers. The average income for a cultivated area was $936.33 USD ha-1 y r¹.The technological level and management of the plantations was very different among farms. The yield and quality of the production could be improved through improved handling of weeds, watering and drainage. Plant diseases and pests are not restricting growth at this time. Currently, only 11% of the production is marketed, which means that a national and international market needs to be developed. In addition, it was found that the infrastructure for watering, production and post-harvest is insufficient to develop the activity for the export market.

  16. CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS, ACTIVITY LEVEL, HEALTH-RELATED ANTHROPOMETRIC VARIABLES, SEDENTARY BEHAVIOUR AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN A SAMPLE OF IRANIAN 7-11 YEAR OLD BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Esmaeilzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, activity level, some health-related anthropometric variables, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status (SES of 7-11 year old boys in the city of Ardabil, Iran. Of 21 253 school boys aged 7-11 years, 766 participated in this study using the cluster sampling method. Subjects underwent standard anthropometry. One-mile test was used to evaluate ·VO2max. BMI cut-off points were used to identify weight status. Child’s TV watching and video playing daily time (TVVPT was taken for sedentary behaviour evaluation. SES and activity level were measured by standard questionnaires. Of all participants, 8.9?0(N=68 of students had CRF lower than normal and 58.6?0(N=449 of them had inadequate physical activity. There was a significant adverse relationship between ·VO2max and body mass index (BMI, waist to height ratio (WHtR, waist circumference (WC, and fat mass (FM (p<0.05. A significant direct association between SES and both FM and TVVPT was observed (p<0.05. Significantly lower physical activity and ·VO2max, and higher TVVPT were observed in the obese boys than their counterparts (p<0.05. The results of this study indicated a significant relationship between CRF and physical activity, and health-related anthropometric variables in a selected sample of 7-11 year boys. Moreover, the obese subjects had not only lower physical activity but also longer sedentary behaviour time than their counterparts.

  17. Estado nutricional, medidas antropométricas, nivel socioeconómico y actividad física en universitarios brasileños Nutritional status, anthropometrical measurements, socio-economic status, and physical activity in Brazilian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martins Bion

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La actividad física y una alimentación adecuada ejercen un papel esencial al perfeccionamiento de la salud y al control de enfermedades. Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido determinar el estado nutricional a través de medidas antropométricas, nivel socioeconómico, enfermedades más comunes y tipo de actividad física, además del consumo alimentario y el lugar donde son realizadas las comidas de los estudiantes de Graduación en Nutrición de la UFPE. Material y métodos: La muestra se ha constituido de 68 alumnas del Curso de Nutrición, de distintos períodos escolares y con edades entre 18 y 27 años. El proceso de selección de la muestra ha sido por conveniencia. Las estudiantes han participado voluntariamente y han contestado a tres cuestionarios, respectivamente, sobre el nivel socioeconómico (renta familiar y posibles enfermedades que padecían, medidas de los pliegues cutáneos y tipo de actividad física practicada; registro de los alimentos consumidos y lugar donde las comidas eran realizadas. El análisis estadístico se ha realizado a través de frecuencias absolutas, porcentuales, promedios y desvío estándar. El margen de error utilizado en los tests empleados ha sido de 5%. Resultados: En cuanto a los rendimientos, han predominado los superiores a tres sueldos mínimos (86%, los padres tienen un papel determinante en el costeo del estudio (46%, seguido del padre (24%, madre (9%, marido (4%, otros responsables (10%; el 7% no han dado información. Las enfermedades más comunes eran: rinitis alérgica, amigdalitis, insomnio y constipación intestinal. El peso, estatura, el índice de masa corporal y la relación cintura cadera de las estudiantes seguían los patrones normales. La circunferencia abdominal ha variado en solo 2,57 cm entre los grupos etarios investigados. En cuanto a la práctica de actividades físicas, el 68% eran sedentarias, el 20% practicaban actividad leve y el 13% moderada. Sobre el lugar de realización de las comidas, el desayuno, en su mayoría (76%, era realizado en casa, seguido de la cena (56%. Mientras que el almuerzo (41% y la merienda 1 (34%, en la Universidad. Entre las alumnas que no han informado del lugar en el que hacían las comidas ha habido un porcentaje mayor para las grandes y menor para las pequeñas comidas. Los tipos principales de comidas consumidas han sido desayuno, almuerzo y cena (98%. Para las pequeñas comidas, los valores han sido: merienda 1 (54%, merienda 2 (61%, merienda 3 (45%. El análisis del consumo alimentario por tres días ha revelado ingestión de energía con déficit del 21% en relación a lo recomendado (p Introduction: The physical activity and adequate food plays a key role in improving health and the control of diseases. Objective: This paper aims at determining the nutritional state through antropometric measures, socioeconomic level, the most common illnesses and type of physical activity, beyond food consumption and the place where meals are taken, of under-graduate students of the Nutrition course in UFPE. Methods: The sample is constituted of 68 female students, of different periods and at ages between 18 and 27 years old. The process of selection of the sample was for convenience. The students voluntarily participated and answered three questionnaires, respectively, on their socioeconomic level (income of the family and possible illnesses they had, measures of the cutaneous folds and type of practiced physical activity; register of consumed foods and local where the meals were carried. Statistical analysis was performed by absolute frequency, percentage, average and standard deviation. The margin of error used in the testing employees was 5%. Results: In relation to the incomes, they had predominated above three minimum wages (86%, the parents have a predominant role in the expenditure of their study (46%, followed by the father (24%, mother (9%, husband (4%, other responsible ones (10%; 7% did not give information. The most common illnesses were: allergic rinite, tonsilitis, sleeple

  18. Estado nutricional, medidas antropométricas, nivel socioeconómico y actividad física en universitarios brasileños / Nutritional status, anthropometrical measurements, socio-economic status, and physical activity in Brazilian university students

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Martins Bion; M. H. de, Castro Chagas; G. de, Santana Muniz; L. G., Oliveira de Sousa.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La actividad física y una alimentación adecuada ejercen un papel esencial al perfeccionamiento de la salud y al control de enfermedades. Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido determinar el estado nutricional a través de medidas antropométricas, nivel socioeconómico, enfermedade [...] s más comunes y tipo de actividad física, además del consumo alimentario y el lugar donde son realizadas las comidas de los estudiantes de Graduación en Nutrición de la UFPE. Material y métodos: La muestra se ha constituido de 68 alumnas del Curso de Nutrición, de distintos períodos escolares y con edades entre 18 y 27 años. El proceso de selección de la muestra ha sido por conveniencia. Las estudiantes han participado voluntariamente y han contestado a tres cuestionarios, respectivamente, sobre el nivel socioeconómico (renta familiar) y posibles enfermedades que padecían, medidas de los pliegues cutáneos y tipo de actividad física practicada; registro de los alimentos consumidos y lugar donde las comidas eran realizadas. El análisis estadístico se ha realizado a través de frecuencias absolutas, porcentuales, promedios y desvío estándar. El margen de error utilizado en los tests empleados ha sido de 5%. Resultados: En cuanto a los rendimientos, han predominado los superiores a tres sueldos mínimos (86%), los padres tienen un papel determinante en el costeo del estudio (46%), seguido del padre (24%), madre (9%), marido (4%), otros responsables (10%); el 7% no han dado información. Las enfermedades más comunes eran: rinitis alérgica, amigdalitis, insomnio y constipación intestinal. El peso, estatura, el índice de masa corporal y la relación cintura cadera de las estudiantes seguían los patrones normales. La circunferencia abdominal ha variado en solo 2,57 cm entre los grupos etarios investigados. En cuanto a la práctica de actividades físicas, el 68% eran sedentarias, el 20% practicaban actividad leve y el 13% moderada. Sobre el lugar de realización de las comidas, el desayuno, en su mayoría (76%), era realizado en casa, seguido de la cena (56%). Mientras que el almuerzo (41%) y la merienda 1 (34%), en la Universidad. Entre las alumnas que no han informado del lugar en el que hacían las comidas ha habido un porcentaje mayor para las grandes y menor para las pequeñas comidas. Los tipos principales de comidas consumidas han sido desayuno, almuerzo y cena (98%). Para las pequeñas comidas, los valores han sido: merienda 1 (54%), merienda 2 (61%), merienda 3 (45%). El análisis del consumo alimentario por tres días ha revelado ingestión de energía con déficit del 21% en relación a lo recomendado (p Abstract in english Introduction: The physical activity and adequate food plays a key role in improving health and the control of diseases. Objective: This paper aims at determining the nutritional state through antropometric measures, socioeconomic level, the most common illnesses and type of physical activity, beyond [...] food consumption and the place where meals are taken, of under-graduate students of the Nutrition course in UFPE. Methods: The sample is constituted of 68 female students, of different periods and at ages between 18 and 27 years old. The process of selection of the sample was for convenience. The students voluntarily participated and answered three questionnaires, respectively, on their socioeconomic level (income of the family) and possible illnesses they had, measures of the cutaneous folds and type of practiced physical activity; register of consumed foods and local where the meals were carried. Statistical analysis was performed by absolute frequency, percentage, average and standard deviation. The margin of error used in the testing employees was 5%. Results: In relation to the incomes, they had predominated above three minimum wages (86%), the parents have a predominant role in the expenditure of their study (46%), followed by the father (24%), mother (9%), husband (4%), other responsible o

  19. Replication of a Gene-Environment Interaction Via Multimodel Inference: Additive-Genetic Variance in Adolescents' General Cognitive Ability Increases with Family-of-Origin Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2015-03-01

    The present study of general cognitive ability attempts to replicate and extend previous investigations of a biometric moderator, family-of-origin socioeconomic status (SES), in a sample of 2,494 pairs of adolescent twins, non-twin biological siblings, and adoptive siblings assessed with individually administered IQ tests. We hypothesized that SES would covary positively with additive-genetic variance and negatively with shared-environmental variance. Important potential confounds unaddressed in some past studies, such as twin-specific effects, assortative mating, and differential heritability by trait level, were found to be negligible. In our main analysis, we compared models by their sample-size corrected AIC, and base our statistical inference on model-averaged point estimates and standard errors. Additive-genetic variance increased with SES-an effect that was statistically significant and robust to model specification. We found no evidence that SES moderated shared-environmental influence. We attempt to explain the inconsistent replication record of these effects, and provide suggestions for future research. PMID:25539975

  20. Elección de carrera en estudiantes de nivel socioeconómico bajo de universidades chilenas altamente selectivas / Career choice among low socioeconomic-status newcomers in highly selective chilean universities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evelyn, Carrasco; Claudia, Zúñiga; Jacqueline, Espinoza.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar y describir, de manera comprensiva, aquellos factores asociados a la elección de carrera en estudiantes de nivel socioeconómico bajo, que cursan primer año en universidades altamente selectivas de la Región Metropolitana, y detectar potenciale [...] s semejanzas y diferencias entre quienes acceden por ingreso regular (PSU) y quienes lo hacen mediante programas de acción afirmativa. Desde una aproximación cualitativa, la investigación recurrió a la teoría sociocognitiva de desarrollo de carrera, con la finalidad de comprender de manera integrada este proceso de elección. Se llevaron a cabo entrevistas grupales semiestructuradas y se realizó un análisis de contenido categorial temático de los datos. Los resultados se agrupan en tres categorías: factores personales, contextuales y de agencia. Finalmente, se presentan algunas conclusiones y proyecciones para futuros estudios. Abstract in english This research aimed to identify and describe the factors associated with career choice among low socioeconomic-status newcomers enrolled in highly selective universities at the Metropolitan Region of Chile. In addition, it sought to detect similarities and differences among students entering through [...] regular admission (PSU) versus affirmative programs. From a qualitative approach, the research is based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory and included semi-structured group interviews and thematic content analysis. Results are classified into three categories: personal, contextual and agency. Finally, the document presents findings and forecasts for future studies.

  1. Effects of medical risk and socioeconomic status on the rate of change in cognitive and social development for low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, S H; Denson, S E; Swank, P R

    1997-04-01

    Using Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) analysis, this study evaluated the effects of medical risk at birth and socioeconomic status (SES) on the rate of change in cognitive and social development over the first three years of life in premature children with low birth weight (LBW). Children with LBW (n = 79) with both high (HR) (n = 37) and low (LR) (n = 42) medical risk were compared to healthy full-term (FT) (n = 49) children. Children were assessed longitudinally at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months for cognitive development with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the McCarthy Scales for Children's Abilities, and for social initiative and responsiveness with observational measures. The HR LBW group had slower rates of increases in cognitive scores than did the LR LBW and FT groups and showed more deceleration in cognitive development by 36 months of age. Children with LBW, regardless of medical risk, had lower social initiating scores and slower rates of increase in initiating across the first 36 months than did FT children. As predicted, the groups did not show different rates of change for measures of social responsiveness. Higher SES was predictive of better cognitive and social development for all children. The difficulties encountered by children with LR and HR LBW in developing social initiating skills are discussed in relation to the link between learning to take initiative and early executive function skills. PMID:9240485

  2. Geography, population, demography, socioeconomic, anthropometry, and environmental status in the MAL-ED cohort and case-control study Sites in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Aldo A M; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Soares, Alberto M; Filho, José Q; de Sousa, Francisco; Abreu, Cláudia B; Bindá, Alexandre; Lima, Ila; Quetz, Josiane; Moraes, Milena; Maciel, Bruna; Costa, Hilda; Leite, Alvaro M; Lima, Noélia L; Mota, Francisco S; Di Moura, Alessandra; Scharf, Rebecca; Barrett, Leah; Guerrant, Richard L

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort in the study's Fortaleza, Brazil, catchment area has a population of approximately 82 300 inhabitants. Most of the households (87%) have access to clean water, 98% have electricity, and 69% have access to improved toilet/sanitation. Most childbirths occur at the hospital, and the under-5 mortality rate is 20 per 1000 live births. The MAL-ED case-control study population, identified through the Institute for the Promotion of Nutrition and Human Development (IPREDE), serves 600 000 inhabitants from areas totaling about 42% of the city of Fortaleza. IPREDE receives referrals from throughout the state of Ceará for infant nutrition, and provides services including teaching activities and the training of graduate students and health professionals, while supporting research projects on child nutrition and health. In this article, we describe the geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and environmental status of the MAL-ED cohort and case-control study populations in Fortaleza, Brazil. PMID:25305299

  3. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening in women from middle and low socioeconomic status in Bogotá, Colombia

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    Isabel C. Scarinci

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: in Colombia, cervical cancer (cc is the secondmost common type of cancer among women. It has an agestandardizedincidence of 21.5/100,000. The purpose of thisstudy was to examine the knowledge and perceived factorsassociated with CC screening among women from low mediumincome status in Bogotá, Colombia. Methodology: the studywas conducted with 10 focus groups segmented by age groups(18-33, 34-49, and 50-66. Two researchers conducted contentanalysis and identified the emerging categories. Results: thesample consisted of 81 women whose ages ranged from 18to 66. Early onset of sexual activity, promiscuity, vaginalinfections, hpv, genetics, abortions, and lack of hygienewere identified as the most important risk factors for cc.Participants recognized that this disease does not alwayshave symptoms, and that pap smears detect it early. However,they mentioned fear of undergoing a pap test, discomfort orpain, embarrassment, poor services, procrastination, and fearof a cancer diagnosis as the main barriers preventing regularscreening. Women recommended educational campaignsand improved customer service as strategies to motivatethem. Conclusion: participants reported basic knowledgeabout CC and screening. Actions to facilitate screening mustbe multifaceted and based on the barriers and facilitatorsmentioned by each age group.

  4. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level Nível de pobreza e estado de saúde das crianças: um estudo de fatores de risco em população urbana de baixo nível socioeconômico

    OpenAIRE

    Issler, Roberto M. S.; Giugliani, Elsa R. J.; Kreutz, Guilherme T.; Meneses, Clarice F.; Justo, Elisa B.; Kreutz, Valerie M.; Milton Pires

    1996-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile) were found to ha...

  5. ‘The influence of gestational age and socioeconomic status on neonatal outcomes in late preterm and early term gestation: a population based study’

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    Ruth Chelsea A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infants born late preterm (34?+?0 to 36?+?6?weeks GA (gestational age are known to have higher neonatal morbidity than term (37?+?0 to 41?+?6?weeks GA infants. There is emerging evidence that these risks may not be homogenous within the term cohort and may be higher in early term (37?+?0 to 38?+?6?weeks GA. These risks may also be affected by socioeconomic status, a risk factor for preterm birth. Methods A retrospective population based cohort of infants born at 34 to 41?weeks of GA was assembled; individual and area-level income was used to develop three socioeconomic (SES groups. Neonatal morbidity was grouped into respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, other respiratory disorders, other complications of prematurity, admission to a Level II/III nursery and receipt of phototherapy. Regression models were constructed to examine the relationship of GA and SES to neonatal morbidity while controlling for other perinatal variables. Results The cohort contained 25 312 infants of whom 6.1% (n?=?1524 were born preterm and 32.4% (n?=?8203 were of low SES. Using 39/40?weeks GA as the reference group there was a decrease in neonatal morbidity at each week of gestation. The odds ratios remained significantly higher at 37?weeks for RDS or other respiratory disorders, and at 38?weeks for all other outcomes. SES had an independent effect, increasing morbidity with odds ratios ranging from 1.2–1.5 for all outcomes except for the RDS group, where it was not significant. Conclusions The risks of morbidity fell throughout late preterm and early term gestation for both respiratory and non-respiratory morbidity. Low SES was associated with an independent increased risk. Recognition that the morbidities associated with prematurity continue into early term gestation and are further compounded by SES is important to develop strategies for improving care of early term infants, avoiding iatrogenic complications and prioritizing public health interventions.

  6. Prontitud coordinativa: perfiles multivariados en función de la edad, sexo y estatus socio-económico / Coordination readiness: multivariate profiles based upon age, sex, and socioeconomic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alcibiades B., Valdivia; Rita F., Lara; Celinda B., Espinoza; Severo Q., Pomahuacre; Giovanny R., Ramos; André, Seabra; Rui, Garganta; José, Maia.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Caracterizar el nivel de desarrollo coordinativo (CoM), describir su distribución percentílica, e identificar la prontitud coordinativa de niños peruanos en función de la edad, sexo y estatus socioeconómico. Metodología: El tamaño de la muestra comprendió a 4,007 niños (femenino= 1889; mas [...] culino= 2118) entre los 6 y los 11 años de edad (niñas= 8,99; niños= 9,07) de escuelas del área metropolitana de Lima, Perú. La CoM fue determinado a través de la batería de pruebas KTK que comprende cuatro pruebas: equilibrio a la retaguardia (ER), saltos laterales (SL), saltos monopedales (SM) y transposición lateral (TL). El estatus socioeconómico (ESE) fue evaluado según la localización física de cada escuela (tipo de vecindad). Los análisis estadísticos exploratorios, descriptivos e inferenciales: análisis de varianza multivariable, función discriminante y chi cuadrado fueron realizados en SPSS 15. Las cartas percentílicas fueron elaboradas en el software LMS versión 1.32. Resultados: Existen incrementos significativos de valores medios de las pruebas de KTK en ambos sexos y a lo largo de la edad. Valores de reclasificación de los escolares en sus edades originales es bajo y presenta tendencia decreciente a lo largo de la edad (30% a 23% y 30% a 20% en niñas y niños, respectivamente). La pertenencia a un determinado ESE no expresa la presencia de perfiles de desarrollo coordinativo diferenciados. Conclusiones. El desarrollo coordinativo es altamente específico a cada género. Se constata una tendencia generalizada en ambos sexos de expresar perfiles de desarrollo coordinativo inferiores a lo esperado para su edad. El ESE no es un predictor concluyente en el desarrollo de la coordinación motora de los niños. Abstract in english Purpose:To describe motor coordination levels (CoM), their centile distribution, as well as identify the coordinative readiness of Peruvian children as a function of age, sex and socioeconomic status. Methodology: Sample size included4007 children (n=1889 females; n=2118 males) between 6 and 11 year [...] s of age (young = 8,99; children = 9,07) from several schools of the metropolitan area of Lima, Perú. CoM was assessed with the KTK, a battery of tests that includes: balancing backward (BB), hopping on one leg (HO), jumping sideways (JS) and shifting platforms (SP). Socioeconomic status (SES) was assessed according to the physical localization of each school (type of neighborhood). Exploratory, descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were used, including: multivariate analysis of variance, discriminant function and chi square. Percentile charts were constructed in the LMS software version 1.32. Results: Significant increases in mean values of CoM were found in both sexes, and across age groups. Reclassification values of CoM in their original ages are low and presents a decreased tendency throughout age (30% to 23% and 30% to 20% in girls and boys, respectively). SES is not a relevant predictor of differences in coordination profiles of children. Conclusions: The development of coordination is highly gender specific. There is a clear trend, in boys and girls, to show a coordination profile that is lower than expected for their chronological age. SES is not a conclusive predictor in the development of motor coordination profiles of children.

  7. Independent Influences of Current and Childhood Socioeconomic Status on Health Outcomes in a North-Carolina Family-Practice Sample of Arthritis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassari, Antoine R.; Cleveland, Rebecca J.; Callahan, Leigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Compelling evidence suggests that socioeconomic status (SES) is a determinant of health outcomes among persons with arthritis. SES in early-life has likewise been associated with various aspects of health, but the connection between childhood SES and health among people with arthritis remains to be investigated. The purpose of this study is to determine the influences of current and childhood SES on self-reported disability, depression, and physical and mental health among people with self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis. Methods Data originated from a North Carolinian network of primary care centers. Participants with self-reported arthritis with complete sociodemographic and relevant health information were retained in our sample (n = 782). We created summary measures for current and childhood SES from indicators of education, occupation and homeownership, using parental SES as a proxy for participants’ childhood SES. Linear regression models were used to assess the associations between health outcomes and SES variables separately and together, adjusting for key covariates. Results Lower childhood and current SES scores were associated with worse disability and physical health. Current SES was furthermore associated with mental health and depressive symptoms. Associations of low current and childhood SES with health outcomes remained significant when concurrently included in a linear model. Conclusion Childhood and current SES are both determinants of health among persons with arthritis. This underscores the importance of childhood SES as a determinant of adult health among individuals with arthritis. Further studies should focus on these associations in different populations and across different types of arthritis. PMID:23401367

  8. Variáveis psicossociais e desempenho em leitura de crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico / Psychosocial variables and reading performance of children with low socioeconomic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciane da Rosa, Piccolo; Olga Garcia, Falceto; Carmen Luisa, Fernandes; Daniela Centenaro, Levandowski; Rodrigo, Grassi-Oliveira; Jerusa Fumagalli, Salles.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo longitudinal investigou a contribuição de fatores psicossociais para o desempenho em leitura de crianças. Participaram 59 mães e seus filhos aos 4 meses, 2, 5-6 e 9-11 anos. Correlacionou-se o desempenho em leitura das crianças a variáveis psicossociais. Encontrou-se correlações negativa [...] s entre morbidade psiquiátrica materna na primeira infância e leitura de palavras irregulares e entre o número de familiares que residiam com a criança aos 2 e 5-6 anos e o desempenho na leitura de palavras. A renda familiar aos 2 anos correlacionou-se positivamente com compreensão textual. Entretanto, apenas o número de familiares que residiam com a criança foi preditor do desempenho em leitura de palavras. Conclui-se que o desempenho em leitura relaciona-se a fatores psicossociais. Abstract in english This longitudinal study investigated the impact of psychosocial factors on reading performance of children with low socioeconomic status. Fifty nine mothers and their children at 4 months, 2, 5-6 and 9-11 years of age participated. The children's reading performance was correlated with psychosocial [...] variables. Negative correlations were found between maternal psychiatric morbidity in early childhood and reading of irregular words, and between the number of family members living with the child at 2 and 5-6 years and word reading performance. Family income at 2 years correlated positively with reading comprehension. However, only the number of family members who lived with the child was a predictor of reading performance. The results indicate that reading performance is related to psychosocial factors.

  9. Ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index in the United States: the role of parental socioeconomic status and economic contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy; Krauss, Ramona C; Wang, Youfa

    2012-08-01

    This paper examined the importance of household and economic contextual factors as determinants of ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 for the years 1997 through 2000 were combined with economic contextual data on food prices, outlet density and median household income. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method was used to examine the factors that could help explain ethnic disparities in BMI. Ethnic differences in household demographic, parental socioeconomic status (SES), and economic contextual factors explained the majority of the male black-white (63%), male Hispanic-white (78%) and female Hispanic-white (62%) BMI gaps but less than one-half of the female black-white BMI gap (44%). We found that adding the economic contextual factors increased the explained portion of the ethnic BMI gap for both female and male adolescents: the economic contextual factors explained 28% and 38% of the black-white and Hispanic-white BMI gaps for males and 13% and 8% of the black-white and Hispanic-white BMI gaps for females, respectively. Parental SES was more important in explaining the Hispanic-white BMI gap than the black-white BMI gap for both genders, whereas neighborhood economic contextual factors were more important in explaining the male BMI gap than the female BMI gap for both black-white and Hispanic-white ethnic disparities. A significantly large portion of the ethnic BMI gap, however, remained unexplained between black and white female adolescents. PMID:22607746

  10. Nutritional status of urban schoolchildren of high and low socioeconomic status in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala / Estado nutricional de escolares urbanos de niveles socioeconómicos alto y bajo en Quetzaltenango, Guatemala

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iris F., Groeneveld; Noel W., Solomons; Colleen M., Doak.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: En muchos países en desarrollo se elevan las prevalencias de sobrepeso y de obesidad en niños, con el incremento del riesgo de enfermedades crónicas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las prevalencias de retraso en el crecimiento, peso bajo, sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de 8 a 1 [...] 0 años de edad de niveles socioeconómicos (NSE) alto o bajo en Quetzaltenango, la segunda mayor ciudad de Guatemala. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal entre abril y junio de 2005 en el que se midió el peso y la talla de 583 niños de escuelas primarias privadas y públicas. Para evaluar el retraso en el crecimiento, el peso bajo, el sobrepeso y la obesidad se utilizaron como referencias las puntuaciones z de la talla para la edad y del peso para la edad y los centiles de los índices de masa corporal para la edad, propuestos por los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de las Enfermedades (CDC) de los Estados Unidos de América en 2000. RESULTADOS: La talla, el peso y el índice de masa corporal medios fueron significativamente mayores en los 327 niños de NSE alto que en los 256 niños de NSE bajo en todos los grupos de edad y sexo. La prevalencia de retraso en el crecimiento fue significativamente mayor en los niños con NSE bajo que en los de NSE alto (27,0% frente a 7,3%; P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing in children in many developing countries, increasing chronic disease risk. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren 8 to 10 years old who were of high or low socioecon [...] omic status (SES) in Quetzaltenango, which is the second largest city in Guatemala METHODS: Between April and June 2005 we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 583 children in private and public elementary schools, in which we measured height and weight. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 height-for-age z-scores, weight-for-age z-scores, and body mass index-for-age centiles were used to define stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity. RESULTS: Mean height, weight, and body mass index were significantly higher in the 327 children of high SES than in the 256 children of low SES, across sexes and age groups. The prevalence of stunting was significantly higher in low-SES children than in high-SES ones (27.0% vs. 7.3%, P

  11. Current status of REC mechanism in India and possible policy modifications to way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govt. of India has come up with renewable energy (RE) promotional policies and regulations to tap the abundant renewable energy sources in the country for energy security and to reduce the dependance on fossil fuels. Subsequent to the enactment of the Electricity Act 2003, Renewable purchase obligation (RPO) became mandatory on power distribution companies. Renewable energy certificate (REC) was introduced to help the obligated entities to meet their RPO irrespective of the availability of local RE sources and its trading started in India in March 2011. This paper briefs about the RE promotional policies and regulations of Govt. of India and analyses the RPO announced by various state electricity regulatory commissions (SERCs). A detailed analysis of REC trading at the energy exchanges till February 2013 is presented to show the REC market trend and the share of REC in the total RE requirement of the country. The impact of RE promotional policies and regulations on the RE sector is also analysed. Based on the above analysis, realistic policy modifications are suggested to improve the current status of the RE sector of India. - Highlights: • Briefs about the RE promotional policies and regulations of Govt. of India. • Analyses the RPO announced by various state electricity regulatory commissions. • Detailed analysis of REC trading at the energy exchanges till February 2013. • Analysis of impact of RE promotional policies and regulations on the RE sector of India. • Suggests policy modification to improve the situation of the RE sector of India

  12. Can the relation between tooth loss and chronic disease be explained by socio-economic status? A 24-year follow-up from the Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between number of missing teeth and all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality as well as morbidity and to explore whether socio-economic factors mediate this association. An ongoing prospective cohort study of 1462 Swedish women included a dental survey in 1968/69 with follow-up until 1992/93. The dental examination included a panoramic radiographic survey and a questionnaire. Number of missing teeth at baseline was analysed in a Cox proportional hazards model to estimate time to mortality and morbidity. Number of missing teeth, independently of socio-economic status variables (the husband's occupational category, combined income, and education) was associated with increased all cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality respectively (relative risk (RR): 1.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.18-1.58) and (RR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.15-1.85 per 10 missing teeth), but no associations were found for cancer mortality (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.91-1.52). The relation between poor oral health and future cardiovascular disease could not be explained by measures of socio-economic status in this study

  13. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. Results The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Conclusions Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender, discerning between real and perceived experiences of discrimination and considering potentially moderating factors such as coping strategy and internalization of racial stereotypes are important issues to address in future Canadian racial inequalities research of this kind. PMID:23061401

  14. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in anthropometric status in a population undergoing the nutritional transition: data from 1982, 1993 and 2004 pelotas birth cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Matijasevich Alicia; Santos Iná S.; Menezes Ana M. B.; Barros Aluísio J D; Gigante Denise P.; Horta Bernardo L.; Barros Fernando C.; Victora Cesar G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in child nutrition may change rapidly over time, particularly in populations undergoing the nutrition transition. Yet, the few available studies are repeated cross-sectional surveys. By studying three prospective birth cohorts in the same city over a period of more than two decades, we describe secular trends in overweight and stunting at different ages, according to socioeconomic position. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were launc...

  15. LASSO, two-way, and GPS time comparisons: A (very) preliminary status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillet, Christian J. L.; Feraudy, D.; Torre, J. M.; Mangin, J. F.; Grudler, P.; Baumont, Francoise S.; Gaignebet, Jean C.; Hatat, J. L.; Hanson, Wayne; Clements, A.

    1990-01-01

    The first results are presented on the time transfer experiments between TUG (Graz, Austria) and OCA (Grasse, France) using common view Global Positioning System (GPS) and two-way stations at both sites. The present data, providing arms of the clock offsets of 2 to 3 nanoseconds for a three month period, have to be further analyzed before any conclusions on the respective precision and accuracy of these techniques can be drawn. Two years after its start, the Laser Synchronization from Stationary Orbit (LASSO) experiment is finally giving its first results at TUG and OCA. The first analysis of three common sessions permitted researchers to conclude that the LASSO package on board Meteosat P2 is working satisfactorily, and that time transfer using this method should provide clock offsets at better than 1 nanosecond precision, and clock rates at better than 10(exp -12) s/s in a 5 to 10 minutes session. A new method for extracting this information from the raw data sent by LASSO should enhance the performances of this experiment, exploiting the stability of the on-board oscillator.

  16. Socioeconomic status influences physical fitness in European adolescents independently of body fat and physical activity: the HELENA Study / El estatus socioeconómico influencia la condición física en adolescentes europeos: El estudio HELENA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., Jiménez Pavón; F. B., Ortega; J. R., Ruiz; V., España Romero; E., García Artero; D., Moliner Urdiales; S., Gómez Martínez; G., Vicente Rodríguez; Y., Manios; L., Béghin; J., Répasy; M., Sjöstrom; L. A., Moreno; M., González Gross; M. J., Castillo.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción: La influencia del estatus socioeconómico sobre la condición física en relación con la salud no está clara. Objetivo: Examinar la influencia del estatus socioeconómico sobre la condición física en relación con la salud en adolescentes. Metodología: Un total de 3259 adolescentes (15,0 ± [...] 1,3 años) del "Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study" (HELENA-CSS) participaron en el estudio. El estatus socioeconómico fue medido con una escala de riqueza familiar "family affluence scale (FAS)". Se midieron velocidad-agilidad, fuerza muscular y capacidad aeróbica. Las covariables incluidas fueron grasa corporal total, actividad física y estadio madurativo. Resultados: Los adolescentes con alto FAS tuvieron significativamente mayores niveles de condición física que aquellos con bajo FAS exceptuando los tests de velocidad-agilidad y fuerza de prensión manual en chicos. En general, las asociaciones observadas presentaron un efecto del tamaño de la muestra (effect size) entre medio y largo. Conclusión: Estos resultados sugieren que el estatus socioeconómico esta positivamente asociado con la condición física en adolescentes Europeos independientemente de la grasa corporal total y el nivel de actividad física. Abstract in english Introduction: The influence of socioeconomic status on health-related fitness is not clear. Aim: To examine the influence of socioeconomic status on health-related fitness in adolescents. Methods: A total of 3,259 adolescents (15.0 ± 1.3 y) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adoles [...] cence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) participated in the study. Socioeconomic status was assessed by the family affluence scale (FAS). Speed-agility, muscular strength and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed. Covariates included total body fat, physical activity and pubertal status. Results: Adolescents with high FAS had significantly higher fitness levels than their peers of lower FAS categories except for speed-agility and handgrip in boys. Overall, the associations observed presented a medium to large effect size. Conclusion: These results suggest that socioeconomic status is positively associated with physical fitness in European adolescents independently of total body fat and habitual physical activity.

  17. [Influence of socioeconomic factors on the quality of life of elderly hypertensive individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, João Marcus Oliveira; Rios, Lorena Roseli; Teixeira, Larissa Silva; Vieira, Fernanda Silva; Mendes, Danilo Cangussu; Vieira, Maria Aparecida; Silveira, Marise Fagundes

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to evaluate the association between socioeconomic variables and the quality of life of elderly hypertensive patients treated under the Family Health Program in the city of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. An analytical cross study was conducted in a representative sample of 294 elderly hypertensive patients. Data were collected using a questionnaire on socioeconomic characteristics and quality of life (MINICHAL). The data were analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kuskall-Wallis tests. The results showed that marital status, religion and education affect the quality of life of elderly hypertensive patients in a statistically significant way. Elderly hypertensive patients who were single/divorced/widowed, evangelical, spiritualist and belonging to other religious bodies, illiterate achieved lower scores in terms of quality of life. For the remaining variables, there was no statistical association. The conclusion, drawn is that socioeconomic factors such as marital status, education and religion influence the quality of life of elderly hypertensive patients. PMID:25119088

  18. Composição corporal em crianças de sete a 10 anos de idade, de alto nível socioeconômico / Body composition in seven-to-ten-year old children of high socioeconomic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enio Ricardo Vaz, Ronque; Débora Alves, Guariglia; Edilson Serpeloni, Cyrino; Ferdinando Oliveira, Carvalho; Ademar, Avelar; Miguel de, Arruda.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a composição corporal de crianças de sete a 10 anos de idade, de alto nível socioeconômico. Para tanto, 511 crianças (274 meninos e 237 meninas) foram submetidas a medidas antropométricas de massa corporal, estatura e espessuras de dobras cutâneas tricipital (TR) [...] e subescapular (SE). Com base nessas informações, foram determinados: gordura corporal relativa (% Gordura), massa corporal magra (MCM), distribuição da gordura corporal (DGC) e o somatório da espessura das dobras cutâneas TR e SE (?EDC). Anova two-way foi utilizada para as comparações entre os sexos e os diferentes grupos etários, seguida pelo teste post hoc de Scheffé quando P meninos) e na MCM (meninos > meninas). Efeito significante da idade foi identificado em todas as variáveis analisadas, exceto na DGC, com os valores mais elevados sendo encontrados no grupo etário de 10 anos. Um percentual elevado, tanto de meninos quanto de meninas, apresentou índice de adiposidade alto, com superioridade para os meninos (28% vs. 14%, P Abstract in english The objective of this study was to analyze the body composition of seven to 10 year-old children of high socioeconomic status. Therefore, 511 children (274 boys and 237 girls) were submitted to body mass, height and triceps (TR) and subscapular (SE) skinfolds thickness anthropometric measurement. Ba [...] sed on this information, the following topics were determined: relative body fat (% Fat), lean body mass (LBM), body fat distribution (BFD) and sum of the thickness of the TR and SE skinfolds (£TSF). Two-way ANOVA was used for comparisons between gender and the different age groups, followed by the Scheffé post hoc test when P boys) and in LBM (boys > girls). Significant age effect was identified in all analyzed variables, except for DBF, with the highest values having been found in the 10 year-old group. A high percentage both for boys and girls presented high adiposity index, with superiority for boys (28% vs. 14%, P

  19. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the rise of diet-related chronic diseases. People with higher SES and those with a longer exposure to the urban environment are priority target groups for interventions focusing on environmental risk factors that are amenable to change in this population. Lifestyle interventions would appear appropriate, with particular emphasis on physical activity.

  20. Sex, Smoking, and Socioeconomic Status Are Associated with Body Composition among Tuberculosis Patients in a Deuterium Dilution Cross-Sectional Study in Mwanza, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praygod, George Amani; Range, Nyagosya

    2013-01-01

    Underweight is common among tuberculosis (TB) patients. However, there is little information on determinants of body composition at TB treatment initiation in high-TB-burdened countries. This study aimed to determine factors associated with body composition at commencement of TB treatment in Mwanza, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2007 to 2008 among newly diagnosed TB patients. Fat and fat-free mass were determined using a deuterium dilution technique and fat and fat-free mass indices were computed. Correlates were assessed using multiple regression analysis. A total of 201 pulmonary TB patients were recruited; of these, 37.8% (76) were female, 51.7% (104) were HIV infected, 65.3% (126) had sputum-positive TB, and 24.4% (49) were current smokers. In multiple regressions analysis, males had a 2.2-kg/m(2) [(95% CI = 1.6, 2.9); P <0.0001] lower fat mass index but 1.5 kg/m(2) [(95% CI = 0.9, 2.0); P <0.0001] higher fat-free mass index compared with females. Sputum-positive TB was associated with a lower fat mass index among HIV-uninfected patients [-1.4 kg (95% CI = -2.5, -0.4); P = 0.006] but not among HIV-infected patients (P-interaction = 0.09). Current smokers had a 0.7-kg/m(2) [(95% CI = 0.02, 1.5); P = 0.045] lower fat mass index, but smoking did not affect fat-free mass. High socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with higher fat as well as fat-free mass. HIV infection, cluster of differentiation 4 count, and antiretroviral therapy were not correlates. Sex, smoking, and SES were associated with body composition of TB patients at treatment commencement. Prospective studies are needed to determine the role of these factors on weight gain, functional recovery, and survival during and after treatment.

  1. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Schieve, Laura A; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2014-07-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case-control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n=198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n=253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference -21.4, 95% CI: -24.0, -18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference -5.1, 95% CI: -9.5, -0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born at both of the hospitals. The effect of being in the lower compared to the middle tertile of SES score was reduced by approximately a quarter; the effect of being in the upper compared to the middle tertile of SES score was reduced by nearly half, but this comparison was possible only for children born at the private hospital. A child's individual SES was associated with cognitive performance within advantaged and disadvantaged populations. Child enrichment was associated with better cognitive performance and attenuated the SES influence. Health care providers should reinforce guidelines for home enrichment and refer children with delays to early intervention and education, particularly children from disadvantaged populations. PMID:24679548

  2. Longitudinal, population-based study of racial/ethnic differences in colorectal cancer survival: impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status, treatment and comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroup Antoinette

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer, if detected early, has greater than 90% 5-year survival. However, survival has been shown to vary across racial/ethnic groups in the United States, despite the availability of early detection methods. Methods This study evaluated the joint effects of sociodemographic factors, tumor characteristics, census-based socioeconomic status (SES, treatment, and comorbidities on survival after colorectal cancer among and within racial/ethnic groups, using the SEER-Medicare database for patients diagnosed in 1992–1996, and followed through 1999. Results Unadjusted colorectal cancer-specific mortality rates were higher among Blacks and Hispanic males than whites (relative rates (95% confidence intervals = 1.34 (1.26–1.42 and 1.16 (1.04–1.29, respectively, and lower among Japanese (0.78 (0.70–0.88. These patterns were evident for all-cause mortality, although the magnitude of the disparity was larger for colorectal cancer mortality. Adjustment for stage accounted for the higher rate among Hispanic males and most of the lower rate among Japanese. Among Blacks, stage and SES accounted for about half of the higher rate relative to Whites, and within stage III colon and stages II/III rectal cancer, SES completely accounted for the small differentials in survival between Blacks and Whites. Comorbidity did not appear to explain the Black-White differentials in colorectal-specific nor all-cause mortality, beyond stage, and treatment (surgery, radiation, chemotherapy explained a very small proportion of the Black-White difference. The fully-adjusted relative mortality rates comparing Blacks to Whites was 1.14 (1.09–1.20 for all-cause mortality and 1.21 (1.14–1.29 for colorectal cancer specific mortality. The sociodemographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics also had different impacts on mortality within racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion In this comprehensive analysis, race/ethnic-specific models revealed differential effects of covariates on survival after colorectal cancer within each group, suggesting that different strategies may be necessary to improve survival in each group. Among Blacks, half of the differential in survival after colorectal cancer was primarily attributable to stage and SES, but differences in survival between Blacks and Whites remain unexplained with the data available in this comprehensive, population-based, analysis.

  3. Self-reported hearing difficulties, main income sources, and socio-economic status; a cross-sectional population-based study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Pernilla

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hearing difficulties constitute the most common cause of disability globally. Yet, studies on people with hearing difficulties regarding socio-economic status (SES, work, long-term unemployment, sickness absence, and disability pension are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the main income sources of men and women of working ages with and without self-reported hearing difficulties and associations with gender, age, SES, type of living area, and country of birth. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study, using information on self-reported hearing difficulties and SES of 19 045 subjects aged 20–64 years participating in Statistics Sweden’s annual Living Conditions Surveys in any of the years 2004 through 2008. The information was linked to a nationwide database containing data on demographics and income sources. Odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated, using binary logistic regression analysis. Results Hearing difficulties increased with age and were more common in men (age-adjusted OR: 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30-1.56 with an overall prevalence of 13.1% in men and 9.8% in women. Using working men as reference, the OR of having hearing difficulties was 1.23 (0.94-1.60 in men with unemployment benefits and 1.36 (1.13-1.65 in men with sickness benefits or disability pension, when adjusting for age and SES. The corresponding figures in women were 1.59 (1.17-2.16 and 1.73 (1.46-2.06. The OR of having sickness benefits or disability pension in subjects with hearing difficulties was 1.36 (1.12-1.64 in men and 1.70 (1.43-2.01 in women, when adjusting for age and SES and using men and women with no hearing difficulties as reference. Conclusions Hearing difficulties were more prevalent in men. After adjustment with age and SES as well as with type of living area and country of birth, a significant association with unemployment benefits was found only in women, and the associations with long-term sickness absence and disability pension tended to be stronger in women.

  4. Socioeconomic trajectories affect mortality in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders; Stochholm, Kirstine

    2011-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is associated with male infertility, hypogonadism, and learning disability. Morbidity and mortality are increased and the causes behind remain unknown. Is it the chromosome aberration or is it caused by postulated poorer socioeconomic status?

  5. Ancestralidade Genômica, nível socioeconômico e vulnerabilidade ao HIV/aids na Bahia, Brasil / Genomic Ancestry, socioeconomic status and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in Bahia, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kiyoko, Abe-Sandes; Thaís Ferreira, Bomfim; Taisa Manuela Bonfim, Machado; Camila, Abe-Sandes; Angelina Xavier, Acosta; Carlos Roberto Brites, Alves; Bernardo Galvão, Castro Filho.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O curso clínico da infecção pelo HIV é determinado por complexas interações entre características virais e o hospedeiro. Variações no hospedeiro, a exemplo das mutações CCR5?32 e CCR264I, são importantes para a vulnerabilidade e progressão do HIV/aids. Atualmente, observa-se um aumento do número de [...] casos da infecção entre os segmentos da sociedade com menor nível de escolaridade e pior condição socioeconômica. Com o objetivo de estimar a ancestralidade e verificar a sua associação com renda, escolaridade vulnerabilidade e progressão ao HIV/aids foram analisados 517 indivíduos infectados pelo HIV-1, sendo 289 homens e 224 mulheres. Os pacientes foram classificados segundo a ancestralidade genômica avaliada por 10 AIMs e pela vulnerabilidade e progressão ao HIV/aids através das mutações CCR5?32 e CCR264I. Os indivíduos infectados pelo HIV-1 apresentaram contribuição africana de 47%. As mutações CCR5?32 e CCR264I foram mais frequentes nos indivíduos brancos (3%) e negros (18%) respectivamente, e essas mutações mostraram frequência mais elevada nos tipicamente progressores (TP), quando comparados com os rapidamente progressores (RP) para aids. Não foi encontrada associação entre ancestralidade e vulnerabilidade ao HIV na análise para o grau de instrução. A pauperização da infecção pelo HIV-1 nessa população foi confirmada pela relação inversa entre renda e ancestralidade africana, pois quanto menor a renda maior a ancestralidade africana. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem associação entre as condições socioeconômicas e vulnerabilidade ao HIV/aids da população afrodescendente. Abstract in english The clinical course of HIV infection is determined by complex/ interactions between viral and host's characteristics./ Host variations, such as CCR5?32 and CCR264I mutations, are important/ to vulnerability and progression of HIV/AIDS./ Currently, the number of cases among patients with lower educat [...] ional level and lower social and economic status is/ increasing./ Aiming to/ estimate the ancestry and verify its association with income,/ education, vulnerability and progression of HIV/AIDS, 517 individuals infected with HIV-1 were studied (55.9% men and 43.3% women). The/ patients were/ classified according to/ genomic ancestry evaluated by 10 AIMs and by vulnerability and/ progression of HIV/AIDS through CCR5?32 and CCR264I mutations./ The/ individuals infected with HIV-1 showed 47% of African contribution./ CCR5?32 and CCR264I mutations were more frequent in white/ (3%) and black (18%) individuals, respectively, and these same mutations/ showed higher frequency in the typically progressive HIV-infected individuals (TP), when compared to the rapidly progressive (RP)./ There was no association between ancestry and/ vulnerability to HIV in the analysis of level of education./ The pauperization of the HIV-1 infection in this population was confirmed by/ the inverse relationship between income and African ancestry, because the lower/ the income, the greater the African ancestry./ The results suggest that there is an association between socioeconomic status and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in the Afro-descendant population.

  6. A associacao entre a adiposidade corporal e a aptidao musculoesqueletica em meninos e mediada pelo nivel economico? / Does socioeconomic status mediate the association between adiposity and musculoskeletal fitness in boys?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giseli, Minatto; Thales Boaventura Rachid, Nascimento; Roberto Regis, Ribeiro; Keila Donassolo, Santos; Edio Luiz, Petroski.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se estimar a prevalência de adiposidade corporal elevada e sua associação com a aptidão musculoesquelética, por nível econômico, em crianças e adolescentes do sexo masculino. Estudo epidemiológico transversal realizado em 1.531 escolares (6-17 anos) da rede de ensino pública do município d [...] e Cascavel, PR, Brasil. A adiposidade corporal foi estimada pela técnica de dobras cutâneas. Foram coletadas informações referentes à idade, nível econômico e estágio maturacional, bem como ao desempenho nos testes de sentar e alcançar, abdominal em 1 minuto, impulsão horizontal e Shuttle run. As análises (teste t de student não pareado e regressão de Poisson) foram realizadas por nível econômico alto e baixo (baixo+médio), com nível de significância de 5%. A prevalência de adiposidade corporal elevada foi de 30,4%, sendo maior (p Abstract in english We aimed to estimate the prevalence of high body adiposity and its association with musculoskeletal fitness in male children and adolescents according to socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out with 1,531 school children (6-17 years old) attending public schools [...] in Cascavel, state of Paraná, Brazil. Body adiposity was estimated based on skinfold thickness. Information was also collected on chronological age, socioeconomic status, sexual maturation, performance in physical tests such as sit and reach, 1-minute sit-up, stationary long jump and Shuttle run. Statistical analyses were performed (Student's unpaired t test and Poisson regression) taking into consideration socioeconomic status (high and low+middle), with p

  7. Revisión sistemática de los estudios sobre el nivel socioeconómico de los hombres que maltratan a sus parejas / Systematic review of studies on the socioeconomic status of men who batter their intimate partners

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen, Vives-Cases; Diana, Gil-González; Mercedes, Carrasco-Portiño; Carlos, Álvarez-Dardet.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: A pesar de la visibilidad de los casos de violencia del compañero íntimo contra las mujeres en parejas con problemas socioeconómicos, su relación con el hecho concreto de desarrollar una conducta violenta no está clara. Se plantea realizar una revisión sistemática de la evidencia empír [...] ica sobre el papel del nivel socioeconómico de los perpetradores en este problema. Métodos: Revisión sistemática. Bases de datos: Eric (1966-2004), Sociological Abstracts (1963-2005), Science Citation Index (1945-2005), Social Science Citation Index (1956-2005), Medline a través de Pubmed (1966-2005), Social Service Abstracts (1980-2005), Lilacs (1982-2005) y Psycinfo (1972-2005). Se incluyeron los artículos empíricos con objetivos o hipótesis sobre la relación causal entre el bajo nivel socioeconómico -empleo, educación e ingresos- de los hombres y la violencia del compañero íntimo contra mujeres. Resultados: Se localizaron 251 estudios. Sólo 10 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se encontró un estudio de cohortes, uno de casos y controles, un estudio ecológico y una serie de casos. Dos estudios calculan las odds ratio (OR) en sus análisis. En uno se obtiene una OR de 1,4 (intervalo de confianza del 95%, 1,1-1,9) con el desempleo, y en el otro no se alcanzó en nivel de significación estadística ni con este factor ni con el bajo nivel de ingresos y educativo. Conclusiones: Se requiere más información, y de más calidad, que permita establecer resultados concluyentes sobre el papel causal del nivel socioeconómico de los hombres que maltratan a sus parejas. Aún es insuficiente la evidencia empírica que asocia la conducta violenta de los hombres contra sus parejas con determinados grupos de bajo nivel socioeconómico. Abstract in english Background: Despite the visibility of intimate partner violence against women in low socioeconomic groups, the association of low socioeconomic status and violent behavior is unclear. We performed a systematic review of the empirical evidence on the causal role of batterers' socioeconomic status in [...] this phenomenon. Methods: We performed a systematic review, using the following databases: Eric (1966-2004), Sociological Abstracts (1963-2005), Science Citation Index (1945-2005), Social Science Citation Index (1956-2005), Medline through Pubmed (1966-2005), Social Service Abstracts (1980-2005), Lilacs (1982-2005) and Psycinfo (1972-2005). We included empirical papers with aims or hypothesis related to the causal relation between low socioeconomic status (employment, education, income) in men and IPV. Results: A total of 251 studies were identified, but only 10 met the inclusion criteria. There was one cohort study, one case-control study, one ecological study and one study based on a series of cases. Two studies calculated odds ratio in the analyses. One of these studies reported an odds ratio of 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.9) with unemployment and the other study showed no significant positive associations with this factor or with low income or education. Conclusions: More information and better quality data are required to establish conclusive results on the causal role of the socioeconomic status of men who batter their intimate partners. The empirical evidence on the relationship between violent male behavior against their partners and low socioeconomic status is still insufficient.

  8. Revisión sistemática de los estudios sobre el nivel socioeconómico de los hombres que maltratan a sus parejas Systematic review of studies on the socioeconomic status of men who batter their intimate partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Carrasco-Portiño

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: A pesar de la visibilidad de los casos de violencia del compañero íntimo contra las mujeres en parejas con problemas socioeconómicos, su relación con el hecho concreto de desarrollar una conducta violenta no está clara. Se plantea realizar una revisión sistemática de la evidencia empírica sobre el papel del nivel socioeconómico de los perpetradores en este problema. Métodos: Revisión sistemática. Bases de datos: Eric (1966-2004, Sociological Abstracts (1963-2005, Science Citation Index (1945-2005, Social Science Citation Index (1956-2005, Medline a través de Pubmed (1966-2005, Social Service Abstracts (1980-2005, Lilacs (1982-2005 y Psycinfo (1972-2005. Se incluyeron los artículos empíricos con objetivos o hipótesis sobre la relación causal entre el bajo nivel socioeconómico -empleo, educación e ingresos- de los hombres y la violencia del compañero íntimo contra mujeres. Resultados: Se localizaron 251 estudios. Sólo 10 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se encontró un estudio de cohortes, uno de casos y controles, un estudio ecológico y una serie de casos. Dos estudios calculan las odds ratio (OR en sus análisis. En uno se obtiene una OR de 1,4 (intervalo de confianza del 95%, 1,1-1,9 con el desempleo, y en el otro no se alcanzó en nivel de significación estadística ni con este factor ni con el bajo nivel de ingresos y educativo. Conclusiones: Se requiere más información, y de más calidad, que permita establecer resultados concluyentes sobre el papel causal del nivel socioeconómico de los hombres que maltratan a sus parejas. Aún es insuficiente la evidencia empírica que asocia la conducta violenta de los hombres contra sus parejas con determinados grupos de bajo nivel socioeconómico.Background: Despite the visibility of intimate partner violence against women in low socioeconomic groups, the association of low socioeconomic status and violent behavior is unclear. We performed a systematic review of the empirical evidence on the causal role of batterers' socioeconomic status in this phenomenon. Methods: We performed a systematic review, using the following databases: Eric (1966-2004, Sociological Abstracts (1963-2005, Science Citation Index (1945-2005, Social Science Citation Index (1956-2005, Medline through Pubmed (1966-2005, Social Service Abstracts (1980-2005, Lilacs (1982-2005 and Psycinfo (1972-2005. We included empirical papers with aims or hypothesis related to the causal relation between low socioeconomic status (employment, education, income in men and IPV. Results: A total of 251 studies were identified, but only 10 met the inclusion criteria. There was one cohort study, one case-control study, one ecological study and one study based on a series of cases. Two studies calculated odds ratio in the analyses. One of these studies reported an odds ratio of 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.9 with unemployment and the other study showed no significant positive associations with this factor or with low income or education. Conclusions: More information and better quality data are required to establish conclusive results on the causal role of the socioeconomic status of men who batter their intimate partners. The empirical evidence on the relationship between violent male behavior against their partners and low socioeconomic status is still insufficient.

  9. Antropometria, maturação sexual e idade da menarca de acordo com o nível socioeconômico de meninas escolares de Cascavel (PR) / Antropometry, sexual maturation and menarcheal age according to socioeconomic status of schoolgirls from Cascavel (PR)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Everton Paulo, Roman; Roberto Regis, Ribeiro; Gil, Guerra-Júnior; Antonio de Azevedo, Barros-Filho.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a idade da menarca e a antropometria de meninas escolares de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos em Cascavel (Estado do Paraná) -Região Sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado no ano de 2006 com 2.761 meninas em 27 escolas públicas e particulares. A idade da menarca foi [...] obtida pelo método status quo. Para a avaliação da maturação sexual foi realizada a autoavaliação de acordo com os critérios descritos por Tanner. O nível socioeconômico foi obtido por meio do questionário da ABEP (2003). Avaliou-se o peso e a estatura, obtendo-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC). Foram utilizados a análise estatística descritiva e o teste de Mann-Whitney, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A idade da menarca geral foi 12,2±1,2 anos e 12,1±1,1; 12,3±1,2 e 12,4±1,2 anos para os tercis alto, médio e baixo de nível socioeconômico, respectivamente. Foram constatados valores superiores para as meninas pós-menarca no peso e na estatura dos 10 aos 17 anos de idade e no IMC dos 11 aos 14 anos de idade. CONCLUSÕES: As meninas de nível socioeconômico alto apresentaram idade da menarca em idade inferior aos demais níveis socioeconômicos. Embora estas diferenças tenham sido observadas em níveis socioeconômicos distintos, biologicamente foram consideradas pequenas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate age of menarche and anthropometric data of schoolgirls of different socioeconomic levels in Cascavel, state of Parana, in Southern Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 with 2,761 girls evaluated in 27 private and public schools. Age at menarche was [...] obtained by the status quo method. Sexual maturity was assessed by self evaluation, according to Tanner's criteria. Socioeconomic level was obtained through the ABEP (2003) questionnaire. Data of weight, stature and Body Mass Index (BMI) were obtained. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney test at 5% significance. RESULTS: Age at menarche was 12.2±1.2 years in the whole sample, and was 12.1±1.1; 12.3±1.2 and 12.4±1.2 in girls from high, medium and low socioeconomic levels, respectively. Post-menarche girls aged 10-17 years had higher values of stature and weight and girls aged 11-14 years had higher BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Age at menarche was lesser in girls from a higher socioeconomic level. Although these differences had been found in distinct socioeconomic levels, they were considered biologically small.

  10. Antropometria, maturação sexual e idade da menarca de acordo com o nível socioeconômico de meninas escolares de Cascavel (PR Antropometry, sexual maturation and menarcheal age according to socioeconomic status of schoolgirls from Cascavel (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Paulo Roman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a idade da menarca e a antropometria de meninas escolares de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos em Cascavel (Estado do Paraná -Região Sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado no ano de 2006 com 2.761 meninas em 27 escolas públicas e particulares. A idade da menarca foi obtida pelo método status quo. Para a avaliação da maturação sexual foi realizada a autoavaliação de acordo com os critérios descritos por Tanner. O nível socioeconômico foi obtido por meio do questionário da ABEP (2003. Avaliou-se o peso e a estatura, obtendo-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC. Foram utilizados a análise estatística descritiva e o teste de Mann-Whitney, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A idade da menarca geral foi 12,2±1,2 anos e 12,1±1,1; 12,3±1,2 e 12,4±1,2 anos para os tercis alto, médio e baixo de nível socioeconômico, respectivamente. Foram constatados valores superiores para as meninas pós-menarca no peso e na estatura dos 10 aos 17 anos de idade e no IMC dos 11 aos 14 anos de idade. CONCLUSÕES: As meninas de nível socioeconômico alto apresentaram idade da menarca em idade inferior aos demais níveis socioeconômicos. Embora estas diferenças tenham sido observadas em níveis socioeconômicos distintos, biologicamente foram consideradas pequenas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate age of menarche and anthropometric data of schoolgirls of different socioeconomic levels in Cascavel, state of Parana, in Southern Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 with 2,761 girls evaluated in 27 private and public schools. Age at menarche was obtained by the status quo method. Sexual maturity was assessed by self evaluation, according to Tanner's criteria. Socioeconomic level was obtained through the ABEP (2003 questionnaire. Data of weight, stature and Body Mass Index (BMI were obtained. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney test at 5% significance. RESULTS: Age at menarche was 12.2±1.2 years in the whole sample, and was 12.1±1.1; 12.3±1.2 and 12.4±1.2 in girls from high, medium and low socioeconomic levels, respectively. Post-menarche girls aged 10-17 years had higher values of stature and weight and girls aged 11-14 years had higher BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Age at menarche was lesser in girls from a higher socioeconomic level. Although these differences had been found in distinct socioeconomic levels, they were considered biologically small.

  11. Towards a Dialect-Neutral Assessment Instrument for the Language Skills of Afrikaans-Speaking Children: The Role of Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, Frenette

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were to establish whether there is a correlation between the socioeconomic background of Afrikaans-speaking children and their performance on a dialect-neutral language test, and to ascertain whether the allowance the test currently makes for parental education level is sufficient. The Afrikaans version of the…

  12. Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism: Digging Deeper for the Contributions of Language Dominance, Linguistic Knowledge, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C.; Thomas, Enlli Mon; Jones, Leah; Guasch, Nestor Vinas; Young, Nia; Hughes, Emma K.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a bilingual advantage can be observed for executive function tasks in children of varying levels of language dominance, and examines the contributions of general cognitive knowledge, linguistic abilities, language use and socio-economic level to performance. Welsh-English bilingual and English monolingual…

  13. Efecto del nivel socioeconómico en el control inhibitorio durante la edad preescolar / Effect of Socioeconomic Status in Inhibitory Control During Preschool Age

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Asucena, Lozano Gutiérrez; Feggy, Ostrosky.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha señalado que el nivel socioeconómico (NSE) juega un papel importante en el logro académico y en el funcionamiento de distintos sistemas cognitivos. El lenguaje y las funciones ejecutivas son los procesos donde se encuentran más diferencias significativas en función del NSE, debid [...] o a que son funciones que tardan en desarrollarse y por ellos están sujetas a los efectos adversos asociados al NSE. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las diferencias en el desempeño en tareas de control inhibitorio entre niños preescolares de NSE alto y bajo. Se evaluó una muestra de 231 niños de 4 a 6 años que cursaban el jardín de Niños. Los resultados muestran que el desempeño en tareas que evalúan la inhibición de respuestas cognitivas y motoras hay un efecto significativo del NSE, los niños de NSE alto obtienen mayores puntajes que los niños de NSE bajo, mientras que en una tarea de demora de gratificación los niños de NSE bajo cometen menos errores. EL NSE es un factor que determina en gran medida el desarrollo de la capacidad de inhibir respuestas dominantes durante la edad preescolar, lo cual es relevante para la autoregulación y facilitación del desarrollo de otras funciones ejecutivas. Abstract in english Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with cognitive ability and school achievement during childhood and adolescence. Previous studies have pointed out that executive functioning and language are key processes affected by variations in SES. These effects can be found even in the preschool age and [...] subsist probably into adulthood. Among executive functions, inhibitory control plays a crucial role in allowing preschool children to engage efficiently in more complex tasks and in enhancing the development of other executive functions, thus allowing self regulation, which is particularly important during this developmental stage. Inhibitory control is a complex construct characterized as the ability to suppress a dominant response while a subdominant one is activated, or the delaying of responses and slowing of motor activity. Furthermore, due to its protracted development from infancy through adolescence and even adulthood, this cognitive process results especially susceptible to the influence of the adverse factors associated with low SES. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in inhibitory control in preschool children from high and low SES. We assessed a sample of 231 preschool children between 4 and 6 years old. In order to assess different components of inhibitory control, selection of measures included tasks of cognitive and motor inhibition (stroop like tasks and a motor tapping test) as well as a gratification delay task (gift delay task). Results showed that measures of cognitive and motor inhibition were affected by SES, suggesting that this variable is crucial in determining the development of the ability to suppress dominant responses through the usage of effective strategies. The ability to delay a response to obtain a reward seems to depend on other variables possibly linked to temperament and parenting, due to children of low SES outperforming children from high SES. These data agree with existing results in terms of the relevance of SES to account for the differences observed in cognitive performance, and highlight the need of studying the exact mechanism through which SES influences cognition.

  14. Escore de ambiente construído relacionado com a prática de atividade física no lazer: aplicação numa região de baixo nível socioeconômico / Built environment score related to leisure-time physical activity: application in a region of low socioeconomic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alex Antonio, Florindo; Leandro Martin Totaro, Garcia; Vanessa Valente, Guimarães; Emanuel Péricles, Salvador; Homero, Fonseca Filho; Rodrigo Siqueira, Reis; José Cazuza de, Farias Junior.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available São escassas as evidências sobre a relação entre atividade física de lazer (AFL) e ambiente construído no Brasil, especialmente em áreas de baixo nível socioeconômico. Sendo assim, objetivou-se descrever indicadores de ambiente construído relacionados à prática de AFL de adultos de uma região de bai [...] xo nível socioeconômico. Trata-se de estudo transversal com 767 adultos que viviam no Distrito de Ermelino Matarazzo, em São Paulo, em 2007. A variável dependente foi a prática de AFL (em minutos por semana). As independentes foram 35 variáveis ambientais avaliadas por auditagem em 30 setores censitários. A AFL foi correlacionada (coeficiente de Spearman) com todas as variáveis ambientais e aquelas que tiveram p Abstract in english There is little evidence on the relationship between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and built environment in Brazil, especially in areas of low socioeconomic status. The objective of this study was to describe indicators of built environment score related to LTPA for adults living in a region [...] of low socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 767 adults living in Ermelino Matarazzo district in São Paulo, 2007. The dependent variable was the practice of LTPA (in minutes per week). Independent variables were 35 environment variables that were evaluated by an audit instrument in 30 census tracts. LTPA was correlated (Spearman coefficient) with all environment variables, and variables that had p

  15. What a Difference Immigration Law Makes: PISA results, migration background, socioeconomic status and social mobility in Europe and traditional countries of immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Minoiu, Nicoleta

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the importance of social class, migration background and command of national languages for the PISA school performance of teenagers living in European countries (France, Finland, Germany, United Kingdom, and Sweden) and traditional countries of immigration (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the US). Econometric results show that the influence of the socioeconomic background of parents differs strongly across nations, with the highest impact found fo...

  16. The Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Status on Academic Performance of Students in Selected Schools in Edu Lga of Kwara State Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Femi Ogunshola; Adewale, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between home-based environment factors and the academic performance of students in selected secondary schools within a local government area in Kwara State is investigated. Samples were obtained with one hundred and eighty (180) students randomly selected from three secondary schools. The four factors that were examined and statistically analyses were: parental socio-economic background, parental educational background, parental educational qualification and students’ healt...

  17. Relación entre orientación política y condición socioeconómica en la cultura política chilena: una aproximación desde la psicología política / Relationship between political orientation and socioeconomic status in Chilean political culture: a political psychology approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrés, Haye; Héctor, Carvacho; Roberto, González; Jorge, Manzi; Carolina, Segovia.

    Full Text Available A partir de un estudio longitudinal sobre cultura política en chilenos, discutimos la paradojal evidencia encontrada en la literatura que plantea que, por un lado, las actitudes políticas más pro-democráticas y anti-autoritarias se observarían en sectores sociales acomodados y, por otro lado, las ac [...] titudes más pro-conservadoras y anti-igualitaristas se observarían en grupos sociales dominantes. Nuestros datos muestran que el patrón de actitudes políticas (autoritarismo, apoyo a la democracia, conservadurismo y nacionalismo) es similar entre personas de derecha de estrato alto, izquierda de estrato bajo, y centro de estrato medio. En cambio, quienes manifiestan una orientación política incongruente con su condición socioeconómica presentan actitudes políticas diferenciadas del patrón predominante. Concluimos que la paradoja puede resolverse explicando el patrón de actitudes políticas de un grupo en función del (des)ajuste de la orientación política a sus condiciones socioeconómicas. Abstract in english Based on a longitudinal study about political culture in Chile, we discuss the paradoxical evidence found in the literature suggesting, on the one hand, that the more pro-democratic and anti-authoritarian political attitudes are expected to be observed in higher economic level groups and, on the oth [...] er hand, more conservative and anti-egalitarian attitudes are expected to be observed in dominant groups. We found that the pattern of political attitudes (authoritarianism, support to democracy, conservatism, and nationalism) is similar among rightwingers of high economic status, leftwingers of low economic status, and centrists of middle economic status. Instead, individuáis whose political standing is incongruent with their socioeconomic group, show a pattern of political attitudes different from the predominant pattern. We conclude that the paradox can be solved explaining the pattern of political attitudes of a social group as a function of the fit of its political identity to its socioeconomic condition.

  18. Caracterização do consumo alimentar, ambiente socioeconômico e estado nutricional de pré-escolares de creches municipais Characteristics of dietary intake, socioeconomic environment and nutritional status of preschoolers at public kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Gontijo de Castro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o consumo alimentar, o ambiente socioeconômico, a freqüência de anemia ferropriva e o estado nutricional de pré-escolares. MÉTODOS: A população estudada constituiu-se de 89 crianças de 24 a 72 meses de idade, assistidas em creches municipais de Viçosa, MG. Foram avaliados: nível de hemoglobina, peso, estatura, presença de parasitose, consumo alimentar dos pré-escolares e o perfil biossocioeconômico de suas famílias. RESULTADOS: O estado nutricional do grupo foi considerado satisfatório, e a prevalência de anemia relativamente baixa (11,2%. Condições adequadas de saneamento, nível razoável de escolaridade dos pais, baixo número de filhos e ausência de parasitas envolvidos com a gênese da anemia podem justificar o perfil observado. Não foi observada associação da anemia ferropriva nem com desnutrição nem com parasitose. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de alguns fatores biossocioeconômicos apresentarem-se favoráveis ao estado nutricional e à baixa prevalência de anemia, observa-se, entretanto, que a insuficiente renda per capita e a dieta deficiente poderão levar esse grupo de pré-escolares, no futuro, a um pior estado de saúde.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dietary intake, the socioeconomic environment, the frequency of iron deficiency anemia, and the preschoolers' nutritional status. METHODS: The evaluated population consisted of 89 children aged 24 to 72 months, who were assisted at the public nursery schools in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Evaluation was performed for hemoglobin level, body weight, stature, parasites' presence and dietary intake of the children, as well as for their families' biological and socioeconomic profiles. RESULTS: The group's nutritional status was considered satisfactory, and anemia prevalence was relatively low (11.2%. This profile may be justified by the adequate conditions of sanitation, reasonable level of parents' schooling, low numbers of children per family, and absence of parasites involved in the anemia genesis. No association was observed between iron-deficiency anemia and malnutrition, neither parasitosis. CONCLUSION: Although some bio-socioeconomic factors showed favorable nutritional state and low anemia prevalence, it was observed, however, that the families' insufficient income per capita and their deficient diet will probably lead this group of children to a worse health status.

  19. Brucelosis: condición socioeconómica familiar y calidad de vida en dos zonas contrastantes del estado de Tlaxcala, México / Brucellosis: socioeconomic status family and quality of life in two contrasting areas of the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermina, García Juárez; Efrén, Ramírez Bribiesca; Maricela, Hernández-Vázquez; Hermila, Orozco Bolaños; Luz M., Hernández-Calva; José, Jiménez López.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La brucelosis, o fiebre de Malta, es una enfermedad zoonótica ocasionada por la bacteria intracelular del género Brucella melitensis y Brucella abortus. En el estado de Tlaxcala los caprinos son los principales reservorios y los productos lácteos no pasteurizados ocasionan daños a la salud pública. [...] En el año 2008 se presentó una tasa de morbilidad de 4.78/100000 habitantes, con ello se ocupó el cuarto lugar a nivel nacional; al segundo bimestre del 2011 se pasó al primer lugar nacional. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la condición socioeconómica familiar de los individuos afectados con brucelosis en las zonas rural y urbana, evaluando la calidad de vida. Los grupos de estudio fueron seleccionados por regionalización a través del programa Arc View-3.2. Se aplicaron dos cuestionarios con los siguientes propósitos: 1) analizar la condición socioeconómica de los grupos de estudio y 2) medir la calidad de vida en los individuos infectados y sanos, empleando el método de Rand Group. Los resultados mostraron que en la zona rural, de baja condición socioeconómica, había mayor incidencia de brucelosis, interrupción en tratamientos médicos, complicaciones médicas en los individuos enfermos, menor nivel educativo, menos servicios médicos y medicamentos. La calidad de vida de los individuos infectados con brucelosis fue menor, cuando se comparó con los grupos de individuos sanos. Abstract in english Brucellosis, known as well as Malta fever, is a zoonotic disease caused by intracellular bacteria of the genus Brucella abortus or melitensis, the goats are the main reservoirs, and unpasteurized dairy products cause problem to public health. In 2008 Tlaxcala sate, filed a morbidity rate of 4.78/100 [...] 000 inhabitants, ranking fourth nationally, the second two months of 2011 was ranked first nationally. The objective of this study was to analyze the relative socioeconomic status of individuals affected with brucellosis in rural and urban areas, evaluating the quality of life. The study groups were selected for regionalization through ArcView-3.2. Two questionnaires were applied for the following purposes: 1) Analyze the socioeconomic status of the study groups. 2) Measuring the quality of life in individuals infected and healthy, using the method of Rand Group. The results showed in rural areas: low socioeconomic status, higher incidence of brucellosis, interruption in medical treatment, medical complications in individuals ill, less educated, less medical services and medicines. The quality of life of individuals infected with brucellosis was lower when compared with the groups of healthy individuals.

  20. Caracterização do consumo alimentar, ambiente socioeconômico e estado nutricional de pré-escolares de creches municipais / Characteristics of dietary intake, socioeconomic environment and nutritional status of preschoolers at public kindergartens

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresa Gontijo de, Castro; Juliana Farias de, Novaes; Márcia Regina, Silva; Neuza Maria Brunoro, Costa; Sylvia do Carmo Castro, Franceschini; Adelson Luiz Araújo, Tinôco; Paulo Fernando da Glória, Leal.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o consumo alimentar, o ambiente socioeconômico, a freqüência de anemia ferropriva e o estado nutricional de pré-escolares. MÉTODOS: A população estudada constituiu-se de 89 crianças de 24 a 72 meses de idade, assistidas em creches municipais de Viçosa, MG. Foram avaliados: nível d [...] e hemoglobina, peso, estatura, presença de parasitose, consumo alimentar dos pré-escolares e o perfil biossocioeconômico de suas famílias. RESULTADOS: O estado nutricional do grupo foi considerado satisfatório, e a prevalência de anemia relativamente baixa (11,2%). Condições adequadas de saneamento, nível razoável de escolaridade dos pais, baixo número de filhos e ausência de parasitas envolvidos com a gênese da anemia podem justificar o perfil observado. Não foi observada associação da anemia ferropriva nem com desnutrição nem com parasitose. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de alguns fatores biossocioeconômicos apresentarem-se favoráveis ao estado nutricional e à baixa prevalência de anemia, observa-se, entretanto, que a insuficiente renda per capita e a dieta deficiente poderão levar esse grupo de pré-escolares, no futuro, a um pior estado de saúde. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dietary intake, the socioeconomic environment, the frequency of iron deficiency anemia, and the preschoolers' nutritional status. METHODS: The evaluated population consisted of 89 children aged 24 to 72 months, who were assisted at the public nursery schools in Viçosa, MG, [...] Brazil. Evaluation was performed for hemoglobin level, body weight, stature, parasites' presence and dietary intake of the children, as well as for their families' biological and socioeconomic profiles. RESULTS: The group's nutritional status was considered satisfactory, and anemia prevalence was relatively low (11.2%). This profile may be justified by the adequate conditions of sanitation, reasonable level of parents' schooling, low numbers of children per family, and absence of parasites involved in the anemia genesis. No association was observed between iron-deficiency anemia and malnutrition, neither parasitosis. CONCLUSION: Although some bio-socioeconomic factors showed favorable nutritional state and low anemia prevalence, it was observed, however, that the families' insufficient income per capita and their deficient diet will probably lead this group of children to a worse health status.

  1. Prospective associations between socio-economic status and dietary patterns in European children: the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants (IDEFICS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Börnhorst, Claudia; Bammann, Karin; Gwozdz, Wencke; Krogh, Vittorio; Hebestreit, Antje; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Reisch, Lucia; Eiben, Gabriele; Iglesia, Iris; Veidebaum, Tomas; Kourides, Yannis A; Kovacs, Eva; Huybrechts, Inge; Pigeot, Iris; Moreno, Luis A

    2015-02-01

    Exploring changes in children's diet over time and the relationship between these changes and socio-economic status (SES) may help to understand the impact of social inequalities on dietary patterns. The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns by applying a cluster analysis to 9301 children participating in the baseline (2-9 years old) and follow-up (4-11 years old) surveys of the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants Study, and to describe the cluster memberships of these children over time and their association with SES. We applied the K-means clustering algorithm based on the similarities between the relative frequencies of consumption of forty-two food items. The following three consistent clusters were obtained at baseline and follow-up: processed (higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast food); sweet (higher frequency of consumption of sweet foods and sweetened drinks); healthy (higher frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and wholemeal products). Children with higher-educated mothers and fathers and the highest household income were more likely to be allocated to the healthy cluster at baseline and follow-up and less likely to be allocated to the sweet cluster. Migrants were more likely to be allocated to the processed cluster at baseline and follow-up. Applying the cluster analysis to derive dietary patterns at the two time points allowed us to identify groups of children from a lower socio-economic background presenting persistently unhealthier dietary profiles. This finding reflects the need for healthy eating interventions specifically targeting children from lower socio-economic backgrounds. PMID:25563904

  2. Mortalidade por câncer de boca e condição sócio-econômica no Brasil Mortality for oral cancer and socioeconomic status in Brazil

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    Danielle Muniz de Lira Borges

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available As doenças crônico-degenerativas representam um grande problema de saúde pública, necessitando de levantamento e controle mais efetivos destas enfermidades por parte dos órgãos públicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi correlacionar os índices de mortalidade por câncer oral nas capitais do Brasil no período de 1998 a 2002 com indicadores sócio-econômicos do Censo Demográfico de 2000, por meio de um estudo do tipo ecológico. Os dados foram extraídos do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade (Ministério da Saúde/DATASUS, para os anos de 1998-2002. Os indicadores sócio-econômicos foram obtidos a partir do Atlas do Desenvolvimento Humano no Brasil. Após coleta dos dados, a análise estatística foi realizada usando-se o índice de correlação de Pearson. Observaram-se correlações positivas e significativas entre os indicadores sócio-econômicos (Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano-Municipal - IDH-M, IDH-M renda, IDH-M educação, IDH-M longevidade e renda per capita, e correlação negativa e significante para os indicadores sócio-econômicos índice de Gini e mortalidade infantil. Apesar das limitações do estudo e da provável problemática de sub-registros nas capitais menos desenvolvidas, o presente trabalho encontrou correlações estatisticamente significantes entre os indicadores sócio-econômicos selecionados e o índice de mortalidade por câncer oral.Chronic non-communicable diseases represent a major public health problem, requiring more effective investigation and control by government agencies. The aim of this study was to correlate the mortality rate for oral cancer in Brazilian State capitals from 1998 to 2002 with socioeconomic factors collected in the 2000 census, using an ecological study design. Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System from 1998 to 2002. Social factors were taken from the Brazilian Human Development Atlases. After data collection, statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation index. The findings included positive and significant correlations among the socioeconomic indicators (Municipal Human Development Index - MHDI, MHDI-income, MHDI-education, MHDI-life expectancy, and per capita income, and negative and significant correlations with the socioeconomic indicators Gini Index and infant mortality. Despite the study's limitations and probable underreporting in less developed State capitals, the study found significant statistic correlations between the selected socioeconomic indicators and the oral cancer mortality rate.

  3. Development of the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms Project using a social marketing process: a community-based physical activity and nutrition intervention for low-socioeconomic-status mothers in a rural area in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharod, Jigna M; Drewette-Card, Rebecca; Crawford, David

    2011-03-01

    A physical activity and nutrition community intervention called the Oxford Hills Healthy Moms (OHHM) Project was developed using a multifaceted social marketing process, including review of state surveillance results, key informant interviews, and a survey and focus group discussions with low-socioeconomic-status (low-SES) mothers. This formative work was used to make key decisions on the selection of the intervention region, segmentation of the audience, and design of intervention strategies addressing multiple levels of the socioecological model. The OHHM Project aims to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity levels among low-SES mothers in the Oxford Hills region of Maine. The OHHM Project includes five components: (a) physical activity buddy program, (b) cooking club with education, (c) fruit and vegetable discount buying club with education, (d) increased access to produce vendors, and (e) increased access to places for physical activity. PMID:20660151

  4. An Ecology of Prestige in New York City: Examining the Relationships Among Population Density, Socio-economic Status, Group Identity, and Residential Canopy Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, J. Morgan; Locke, Dexter H.; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.

    2014-09-01

    Several social theories have been proposed to explain the uneven distribution of vegetation in urban residential areas: population density, social stratification, luxury effect, and ecology of prestige. We evaluate these theories using a combination of demographic and socio-economic predictors of vegetative cover on all residential lands in New York City. We use diverse data sources including the City's property database, time-series demographic and socio-economic data from the US Census, and land cover data from the University of Vermont's Spatial Analysis Lab (SAL). These data are analyzed using a multi-model inferential, spatial econometrics approach. We also examine the distribution of vegetation within distinct market categories using Claritas' Potential Rating Index for Zipcode Markets (PRIZM™) database. These categories can be disaggregated, corresponding to the four social theories. We compare the econometric and categorical results for validation. Models associated with ecology of prestige theory are more effective for predicting the distribution of vegetation. This suggests that private, residential patterns of vegetation, reflecting the consumption of environmentally relevant goods and services, are associated with different lifestyles and lifestages. Further, our spatial and temporal analyses suggest that there are significant spatial and temporal dependencies that have theoretical and methodological implications for understanding urban ecological systems. These findings may have policy implications. Decision makers may need to consider how to most effectively reach different social groups in terms of messages and messengers in order to advance land management practices and achieve urban sustainability.

  5. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in anthropometric status in a population undergoing the nutritional transition: data from 1982, 1993 and 2004 pelotas birth cohort studies

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    Matijasevich Alicia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in child nutrition may change rapidly over time, particularly in populations undergoing the nutrition transition. Yet, the few available studies are repeated cross-sectional surveys. By studying three prospective birth cohorts in the same city over a period of more than two decades, we describe secular trends in overweight and stunting at different ages, according to socioeconomic position. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were launched in the city of Pelotas (Brazil in 1982, 1993 and 2004, with follow-up visits at twelve, 24 and 48?months. Children were weighed and measured at every visit. Z-scores of length/height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated using the WHO Child Growth Standards. The slope and relative indices of inequality, based on family income quintiles, were estimated for each follow-up visit. Results Between the 1982 and 2004 cohorts, stunting among four-year-olds declined (from 10.9% to 3.6%, while overweight increased (from 7.6% to 12.3%. In every visit, stunting prevalence was inversely related to income. Both absolute and relative inequalities declined over time; among four-year-olds stunting dropped from 26.0% in the 1982 cohort to 6.7% in the 2004 cohort in the poorest group, while in the richest group stunting prevalence dropped from 2.7% in 1982 to 1.1% in the 2004 cohort study. The secular trend towards increased overweight was evident for four-year-olds, in almost all socioeconomic groups, but not among one and two-year-olds. Among four-year old children, overweight prevalence increased in all income quintiles, by 130% in the middle-income group, 64% in the poorest and 41% in the richest group. Conclusions The decline in stunting is remarkable, but the increase in overweight among four-year olds – particularly among the poorest and the middle-income groups– requires concerted efforts to prevent the long term consequences of child overweight.

  6. Combined effect of short stature and socioeconomic status on body mass index and weight gain during reproductive age in Brazilian women

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    Sichieri R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature, a marker for undernutrition early in life, has been associated with obesity in Brazilian women, but not in men. We tested the hypothesis that weight gain during the reproductive years could explain this gender difference. A national two-stage household survey of mothers with one or more children under five years of age was conducted in Brazil in 1996. The subjects were women aged 20 to 45 years (N = 2297, with last delivery seven months or more prior to the interview. The regions of the country were divided into rural, North/Northeast (urban underdeveloped and South/Southeast/Midwest (urban developed. The dependent variables were current body mass index (BMI measured, BMI prior to childbearing (reported, and BMI change. Socioeconomic variables included mother's years of education and family purchasing power score. A secondary analysis was restricted to primiparous women. The prevalence of current overweight and overweight prior to childbearing (BMI > or = 25 kg/m² was higher among shorter women (<1.50 m compared to normal stature women only in the urban developed region (P < 0.05. After adjustment for socioeconomic variables, age, parity, BMI prior to childbearing, and age at first birth, current BMI was 2.39 units higher (P = 0.008 for short stature women living in the urban developed area compared with short stature women living in the urban underdeveloped area. For both multiparous and primiparous women, BMI gain compared to the value prior to childbearing was significantly higher among short stature women living in the urban developed region (P <= 0.04. These results provide clear evidence that short stature was associated with a higher BMI and with an increased risk of weight gain/retention with pregnancy in the developed areas of Brazil, but not in the underdeveloped ones.

  7. Associação entre o estado nutricional antropométrico e a situação sócio-econômica de adolescentes em Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil / Association between anthropometric nutritional status and socioeconomic conditions among adolescents in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabio da Silva, Gomes; Luiz Antonio dos, Anjos; Mauricio Teixeira Leite de, Vasconcellos.

    2446-24-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Investigou-se a relação entre o estado nutricional e a situação sócio-econômica familiar de adolescentes moradores de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os dados de 523 adolescentes, pertencentes a uma amostra probabilística de 1.734 domicílios, foram coletados entre janeiro e dezembro de 2003 e repre [...] sentam os 71.922 jovens residentes em Niterói. As análises incluíram a estimação de intervalos de confiança de razões de prevalência e testes de distribuições proporcionais e de independência entre classes de estado nutricional e classes de renda familiar per capita e as faixas de número de moradores do domicílio. Foi encontrada uma associação positiva significativa entre baixo peso/magreza e o número de moradores do domicílio (sexo masculino: p Abstract in english This study focused on the relationship between nutritional and socioeconomic status among adolescents in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Data from 523 adolescents living in 1,734 households were collected from January to December 2003, from a total of 71,922 adolescents living in Niterói. Sub [...] jects were selected through a probabilistic household sample. The analyses included the estimation of confidence intervals for prevalence ratios and proportional distributions and independence tests between categories of nutritional status and per capita family income and number of residents per household. There was a significant positive association between underweight/thinness and number of residents in the same household (male: p

  8. Associação entre o estado nutricional antropométrico e a situação sócio-econômica de adolescentes em Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil / Association between anthropometric nutritional status and socioeconomic conditions among adolescents in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabio da Silva, Gomes; Luiz Antonio dos, Anjos; Mauricio Teixeira Leite de, Vasconcellos.

    2446-24-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Investigou-se a relação entre o estado nutricional e a situação sócio-econômica familiar de adolescentes moradores de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os dados de 523 adolescentes, pertencentes a uma amostra probabilística de 1.734 domicílios, foram coletados entre janeiro e dezembro de 2003 e repre [...] sentam os 71.922 jovens residentes em Niterói. As análises incluíram a estimação de intervalos de confiança de razões de prevalência e testes de distribuições proporcionais e de independência entre classes de estado nutricional e classes de renda familiar per capita e as faixas de número de moradores do domicílio. Foi encontrada uma associação positiva significativa entre baixo peso/magreza e o número de moradores do domicílio (sexo masculino: p Abstract in english This study focused on the relationship between nutritional and socioeconomic status among adolescents in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Data from 523 adolescents living in 1,734 households were collected from January to December 2003, from a total of 71,922 adolescents living in Niterói. Sub [...] jects were selected through a probabilistic household sample. The analyses included the estimation of confidence intervals for prevalence ratios and proportional distributions and independence tests between categories of nutritional status and per capita family income and number of residents per household. There was a significant positive association between underweight/thinness and number of residents in the same household (male: p

  9. The use of end-quintile comparisons to identify under-servicing of the poor and over-servicing of the rich: A longitudinal study describing the effect of socioeconomic status on healthcare

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    Holman C D'Arcy J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To demonstrate the use of end-quintile comparisons in assessing the effect of socio-economic status on hospital utilisation and outcomes in Western Australia. Methods Hospital morbidity records were extracted from the WA Data Linkage System for the period 1994–99, with follow-up to the end of 2000. Multivariate modelling was used to estimate the effect of socio-economic status on hospital admission rates, average and total length of stay (LOS, cumulative incidence of readmission at 30 days and one year, and case fatality at one year. Results The study demonstrated higher rate ratios of hospital admission in the more disadvantaged quintiles: rate ratios were 1.31 (95% CI 1.25–1.37 and 1.32 (1.26–1.38 in the first quintile (most disadvantaged and the second quintile respectively, compared with the fifth quintile (most advantaged. There was a longer total LOS in the most disadvantaged quintile compared with quintile 5 (LOS ratio 1.24; 1.23–1.26. The risk of readmission at 30 days and one year and the risk of death at one year were also greater in those with greater disadvantage: the hazard ratios for quintiles 1:quintile 5 were 1.07 (1.05–1.09, 1.17 (1.16–1.18 and 1.10 (1.07–1.13 respectively. In contradiction to the trends towards higher hospital utilisation and poorer outcomes with increasing social disadvantage, in some MDC's the rate ratio of quintile 1:quintile 2 was less than 1, and quintile 4:quintile 5 was greater than 1. For all surgical admissions the most disadvantaged had a significantly lower admission rate than the second quintile. Conclusion This study has shown that the disadvantaged within Western Australia are more intensive users of hospital services but their outcomes following hospitalisation are worse, consistent with their health status. Instances of overuse in the least disadvantaged and under use in the most disadvantaged have also been identified.

  10. Foodborne illness incidence rates and food safety risks for populations of low socioeconomic status and minority race/ethnicity: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2013-08-01

    While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe. PMID:23955239

  11. La magnitud de la inseguridad alimentaria en México: su relación con el estado de nutrición y con factores socioeconómicos / Magnitude of food insecurity in Mexico: Its relationship with nutritional status and socioeconomic factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresa, Shamah-Levy; Verónica, Mundo-Rosas; Juan A, Rivera-Dommarco.

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir la distribución de la inseguridad alimentaria (IA) en México, desde la perspectiva del acceso a la alimentación y consumo, y su relación con diversos factores socioeconómicos y del estado de nutrición. Material y métodos. Se presenta información de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y [...] Nutrición 2012, de la Encuesta Nacional de Ingreso y Gasto en Hogares 2008, y del Consejo Nacional de Evaluación de la Política de Desarrollo Social. La medición de la inseguridad alimentaria se realizó mediante la Escala Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Seguridad Alimentaria y su relación con variables socioeconómicas, dietéticas y nutricionales. Resultados. En México uno de cada tres hogares padece IA moderada o severa. La IA aumenta el riesgo de desnutrición infantil; y de diabetes, sobrepeso y obesidad en adultos, principalmente en mujeres. Conclusión. Mejorar los factores y causas estructurales que influyen en la IA en México es imperante por las implicaciones que tiene para el desarrollo nacional. Abstract in english Objective. To describe the distribution of food insecurity (FI) in Mexico, from the perspective of food access and consumption, and its relationship with diverse socioeconomic factors and nutritional status. Materials and methods. Information from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (Ensan [...] ut 2012), National Income - Expense in Households Survey 2008 (ENIGH 2008), and from the National Council for Poverty Evaluation (Coneval) was gathered for this study. Food insecurity (FI) measurement was conducted by applying the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) and its relation with socioeconomic, dietetic, and nutritional variables. Results. In Mexico one out of three households suffers food insecurity in moderate or severe degree. FI not only increases the malnutrition risk in children but also contributes to the great incidence of diabetes, overweight and obesity in adults, principally in women. Conclusion. To improve structural agents and factors that impact in FI in Mexico is imperative, due to the consequences that it has in the country's development.

  12. Assessment of Fertility Status in the Male Sumatran Rhino at the Sumateran Rhino Sanctuary, Way Kambas National Park, Lampung

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD AGIL; IMAN SUPRIATNA; BAMBANG PURWANTARA; DEDI CANDRA

    2008-01-01

    Sumatran rhino is the most endangered rhino species. Its population is estimated less than 300 individuals remaining in the wild with highly declining rate to 50% in the last 15 years. The number of male rhinoceroses in the captivity are very few, therefore the assessment of its fertility is very important in order to support the breeding success since the captive breeding success is very poor. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the male reproductive status, (ii) to establish...

  13. Effect of Socioeconomic Status on General and At-Risk High School Boys' Willingness to Accept Same-Sex Peers with LD (Learning Disabilities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, Maximino; Trusty, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-eight educationally successful and 33 educationally at-risk high school boys from varying SES backgrounds participated in a study to determine their willingness to allow same-sex peers with LD to participate in activities in the school, out-of-school, and both contexts. Kruskal Wallis One-way Analysis of Variance of Ranks results indicated…

  14. Efectos de la actividad física y del nivel socioeconómico en el sobrepeso y obesidad de escolares, Lima Este 2005 / Effects of the physical activity and socioeconomic status in overweight and obesity in school students, East Lima 2005

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alcibíades, Bustamante V; André F., Seabra; Rui M., Garganta; José A., Maia.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Documentar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de 6 a 11 años de edad, y determinar la influencia del nivel socioeconómico y de la actividad física sobre ellos. Materiales y métodos: Se evaluaron 4191 niños de siete instituciones educativas de Lima Este. El sobrepeso y la [...] obesidad fueron determinados a través del índice de masa corporal, los niveles de actividad física fueron evaluados a partir del cuestionario de Godin y Shephard y la caracterización del nivel socioeconómico (NSE) fue según la escuela donde cursaban estudios. Resultados: La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad fue de 22 y 7% respectivamente, 32,9% de los escolares fueron considerados como poco activos. Los escolares de NSE alto tienen mayor riesgo de presentar sobrepeso (OR: 3,9; IC95%: 3,1- 4,9) o ser obesos (OR: 11,5; IC95%: 7,3-18,2) independientemente de la edad, sexo y nivel de actividad física. No se encontró asociación entre los niveles de actividad física y el sobrepeso u obesidad. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad que se encontró refuerza la preocupación mundial con la obesidad infantil y sus consecuencias en el futuro. Los factores más influyentes para el sobrepeso y la obesidad fueron el NSE, edad y sexo. La actividad física no presenta ninguna asociación significativa. Abstract in english Objectives: To document the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as to determine the influence of socioeconomic status and physical activity levels in body mass index (BMI) of school students aged 6 to 11 years. Material and methods: Be evaluated 4191 children of seven educational instituti [...] ons of East Lima. Overweight and obesity were assessed by BMI, physical activity levels were evaluated from a questionnaire developed by Godin and Shephard, and for the characterization of socioeconomic status (SES) we used as criteria the school where subjects study. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 22% and 7%, respectively, 32,9% of children were considered as little active. The students of higher SES have a great risk of developing overweight (OR: 3,9; 95CI: 3,1- 4,9) or obesity (OR: 11,5; CI95: 7,3-18,2) adjusted to age, sex and physical activity level. No significant association was found between physical activity levels and overweight or obesity. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found reinforce the world concern with infantile obesity and its consequences in the future. The most influential factors of overweight and obesity were SES, age and sex. Physical activity doesn’t present any significant association.

  15. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…

  16. The influence of both individual and area based socioeconomic status on temporal trends in Caesarean sections in Scotland 1980-2000

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    Dundas Ruth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates have risen over the last 20 years. Elective Caesarean section rates have been shown to be linked to area deprivation in England, women in the most deprived areas were less likely to have an elective section than those in the most affluent areas. We examine whether individual social class, area deprivation or both are related to Caesarean sections in Scotland and investigate changes over time. Methods Routine maternity discharge data from live singleton births in Scottish hospitals from three time periods were used; 1980-81 (n = 133,555, 1990-91 (n = 128,933 and 1999-2000 (n = 102,285. Multilevel logistic regression, with 3 levels (births, postcode sector and Health Board was used to analyse emergency and elective Caesareans separately; analysis was further stratified by previous Caesarean section. The relative index of inequality (RII was used to assess socioeconomic inequalities. Results Between 1980-81 and 1999-2000 the emergency section rate increased from 6.3% to 11.9% and the elective rate from 3.6% to 5.5%. In 1980-81 and 1990-91 emergency Caesareans were more likely among women at the bottom of the social class hierarchy compared to those at the top (RII = 1.14, 95%CI 1.00-1.25 and RII = 1.13, 1.03-1.23 respectively and also among women in the most deprived areas compared to those in the most affluent (RII = 1.18, 1.05-1.32 and RII = 1.13, 1.02-1.26 respectively. In 1999-2000 the odds of an elective section were lower for women at the bottom of the social class hierarchy than those at the top (RII = 0.87, 0.76-1.00 and also lower in women in the most deprived areas compared to those in the most affluent (RII = 0.85, 0.73-0.99. Conclusions Both individual social class and area deprivation are independently associated with Caesarean sections in Scotland. The tendency for disadvantaged women to be more likely to receive emergency sections disappeared at the same time as the likelihood of advantaged groups receiving elective sections increased.

  17. Birds and the City: Urban Biodiversity, Land Use, and Socioeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja Kabisch; Dagmar Haase; Strohbach, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    We examined bird diversity in relation to land use and socioeconomic indicators in Leipzig, Germany. We used neighborhood diversity (ND) and bivariate correlation to show that the potential to experience biodiversity in a city is associated with population density, household income, unemployment, and urban green space. People living in urban districts with high socioeconomic status experience the highest species richness around their homes, whereas lower social status increases the chance of ...

  18. Associação entre o estado nutricional antropométrico e a situação sócio-econômica de adolescentes em Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Association between anthropometric nutritional status and socioeconomic conditions among adolescents in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio da Silva Gomes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a relação entre o estado nutricional e a situação sócio-econômica familiar de adolescentes moradores de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os dados de 523 adolescentes, pertencentes a uma amostra probabilística de 1.734 domicílios, foram coletados entre janeiro e dezembro de 2003 e representam os 71.922 jovens residentes em Niterói. As análises incluíram a estimação de intervalos de confiança de razões de prevalência e testes de distribuições proporcionais e de independência entre classes de estado nutricional e classes de renda familiar per capita e as faixas de número de moradores do domicílio. Foi encontrada uma associação positiva significativa entre baixo peso/magreza e o número de moradores do domicílio (sexo masculino: p This study focused on the relationship between nutritional and socioeconomic status among adolescents in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Data from 523 adolescents living in 1,734 households were collected from January to December 2003, from a total of 71,922 adolescents living in Niterói. Subjects were selected through a probabilistic household sample. The analyses included the estimation of confidence intervals for prevalence ratios and proportional distributions and independence tests between categories of nutritional status and per capita family income and number of residents per household. There was a significant positive association between underweight/thinness and number of residents in the same household (male: p < 0.05; female: p < 0.001. Number of residents in the same household was positively associated with prevalence of underweight/thinness in adolescents. Overweight/obesity was positively associated with per capita family income.

  19. Seguimientos de anticuerpos contra hepatitis A y E en una cohorte de niños de bajo nivel socioeconómico Hepatitis A and E virus antibodies in Chilean children of low socioeconomic status. A one year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ibarra V

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The seroprevalence of antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV is decreasing in many Latin American countries, along with improvements in sanitary standards. However, there is no information available about low socioeconomic status (LSE populations. Aim: To assess the evolution of hepatitis A and E virus antibodies in a cohort of LSE Chilean children. Material and methods: One hundred sixty eight children aged four years, 97 males, coming from public primary care clinics, were studied. Two blood samples were obtained with an interval of one year. Anti-HAV and anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV antibodies, were detected by ELISA using Abbott kits. Results: Anti-HAV was positive in 19 children (11.3%. After one year of follow-up, only 10 children had sustained reactivity (52.6%. Fourteen children, initially negative, became positive during the follow up (9.4%. Antibody titers to HAV were significantly higher in samples that remained positive, compared with those that lost reactivity. Anti-HEV was found positive in two children (1.2%. One remained positive and the other became negative. Conclusions: In this cohort of LSE Chilean children, the prevalence to antibodies against HAV and HEV is low. Follow-up detected loss of reactivity to HAV in nearly one half of the children, probably related to lower antibody levels

  20. Is There an Interaction Between Socioeconomic Status and FRAX 10-Year Fracture Probability Determined With and Without Bone Density Measures? Data from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study of Female Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, S L; Quirk, S E; Hosking, S M; Kotowicz, M A; Holloway, K L; Moloney, D J; Dobbins, A G; Pasco, J A

    2015-02-01

    FRAX(©) evaluates 10-year fracture probabilities and can be calculated with and without bone mineral density (BMD). Low socioeconomic status (SES) may affect BMD, and is associated with increased fracture risk. Clinical risk factors differ by SES; however, it is unknown whether aninteraction exists between SES and FRAX determined with and without the BMD. From the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, we drew 819 females aged ?50 years. Clinical data were collected during 1993-1997. SES was determined by cross-referencing residential addresses with Australian Bureau of Statistics census data and categorized in quintiles. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the same time as other clinical data were collected. Ten-year fracture probabilities were calculated using FRAX (Australia). Using multivariable regression analyses, we examined whether interactions existed between SES and 10-year probability for hip and any major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) defined by use of FRAX with and without BMD. We observed a trend for a SES * FRAXno-BMD interaction term for 10-year hip fracture probability (p = 0.09); however, not for MOF (p = 0.42). In women without prior fracture (n = 518), we observed a significant SES * FRAXno-BMD interaction term for hip fracture (p = 0.03) and MOF (p = 0.04). SES does not appear to have an interaction with 10-year fracture probabilities determined by FRAX with and without BMD in women with previous fracture; however, it does appear to exist for those without previous fracture. PMID:25578145

  1. Relation between overweight/obesity and self-rated health among adolescents in Germany. Do socio-economic status and type of school have an impact on that relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Laura; Lampert, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the relation between overweight/obesity and self-rated health (SRH), and whether this relation varies by social factors. Data was taken from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS, baseline 2003?2006). For the definition of overweight and obesity, body mass index was calculated based on standardized height and weight measurements. SRH of adolescents (n = 6813, 11?17 years) was raised with the question: "How would you describe your health in general?" The response categories were "very good", "good", "fair", "poor", and "very poor". We dichotomized these responses into: "very good/good" vs. "fair/poor/very poor". Socio-economic status (SES) in the family of origin and adolescents' school type were analyzed as modifying factors. Prevalence and age-adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by binary logistic regression models. We found that overweight and obese boys and obese girls reported fair to very poor SRH more often than their normal weight peers, and that these differences were more apparent in early than late adolescence. In addition, the relation between obesity and SRH was similarly strong in all sub-groups, but there was seldom a relation between overweight and SRH. In summary, the results show that obesity is linked to poor SRH regardless of SES and school type, while the relation between overweight and SRH varies by social factors among adolescents. PMID:25690000

  2. Relation between Overweight/Obesity and Self-Rated Health Among Adolescents in Germany. Do Socio-Economic Status and Type of School Have an Impact on That Relation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Krause

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between overweight/obesity and self-rated health (SRH, and whether this relation varies by social factors. Data was taken from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS, baseline 2003?2006. For the definition of overweight and obesity, body mass index was calculated based on standardized height and weight measurements. SRH of adolescents (n = 6813, 11?17 years was raised with the question: “How would you describe your health in general?” The response categories were “very good”, “good”, “fair”, “poor”, and “very poor”. We dichotomized these responses into: “very good/good” vs. “fair/poor/very poor”. Socio-economic status (SES in the family of origin and adolescents’ school type were analyzed as modifying factors. Prevalence and age-adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by binary logistic regression models. We found that overweight and obese boys and obese girls reported fair to very poor SRH more often than their normal weight peers, and that these differences were more apparent in early than late adolescence. In addition, the relation between obesity and SRH was similarly strong in all sub-groups, but there was seldom a relation between overweight and SRH. In summary, the results show that obesity is linked to poor SRH regardless of SES and school type, while the relation between overweight and SRH varies by social factors among adolescents.

  3. How Computer Literacy and Socioeconomic Status Affect Attitudes Toward a Web-Based Cohort: Results From the NutriNet-Santé Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Caroline; Andreeva, Valentina A; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Fassier, Philippine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Background In spite of the growing literature in the field of e-epidemiology, clear evidence about computer literacy or attitudes toward respondent burden among e-cohort participants is largely lacking. Objective We assessed the computer and Internet skills of participants in the NutriNet-Santé Web-based cohort. We then explored attitudes toward the study demands/respondent burden according to levels of computer literacy and sociodemographic status. Methods Self-reported data from 43,028 e-cohort participants were collected in 2013 via a Web-based questionnaire. We employed unconditional logistic and linear regression analyses. Results Approximately one-quarter of participants (23.79%, 10,235/43,028) reported being inexperienced in terms of computer use. Regarding attitudes toward participant burden, women tended to be more favorable (eg, “The overall website use is easy”) than were men (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.59-0.71, P12 years of schooling) were less likely to accept the demands associated with participation (eg, “I receive questionnaires too often”) compared to their less educated counterparts (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.48-1.76, P48178

  4. Prevalência de disfunção sexual em dois grupos de mulheres de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos / Prevalence of sexual dysfunction in two women groups of different socioeconomic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela Siqueira, Prado; Vanessa Paula Lins Porto, Mota; Tatiana Isabel Azevedo, Lima.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar se há diferença na prevalência de disfunção sexual e nos escores dos domínios da função sexual entre um grupo de mulheres atendido no serviço público e outro atendido no privado, e apurar se há associação entre disfunção sexual e renda familiar e escolaridade. MÉTODOS: estudo tra [...] nsversal no qual foram incluídas 201 mulheres sexualmente ativas, com idade de 18 a 45 anos, das quais 90 foram atendidas no serviço público e 111, no setor privado. Avaliaram-se idade, estado civil, uso de anticoncepção hormonal, renda e escolaridade, e todas as mulheres foram submetidas ao Índice da Função Sexual Feminina (IFSF), instrumento utilizado para avaliação da sexualidade. Para análise estatística, foi utilizado o programa SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) versão 15.0, aplicando-se o teste do ?2 para variáveis categóricas e o t de Student para amostras independentes. RESULTADOS: a comparação entre os grupos (setor público versus setor privado) não mostrou diferença significativa na prevalência de disfunção sexual (20 e 23,4%, p=0,5) nem nos escores dos domínios sexuais: desejo (3,9±1,3 e 3,8±1,0, p=0,6), excitação (4,5±0,8 e 4,4±0,9, p=0,5), lubrificação (5,2±1,2 e 5,0±0,9, p=0,1), orgasmo (5,0±1,2 e 4,9±1,1, p=0,5), satisfação (5,2±1,2 e 5,1±1,0, p=0,9), e dor (5,3±1,1 e 5,2±1,0, p=0,8). A disfunção sexual ocorreu em 28% das mulheres com renda entre dois e quatro salários mínimos, 17,5% daquelas com renda maior ou igual a cinco salários e em 14,3% daquelas com renda menor ou igual a um salário (p=0,1). Em relação à escolaridade, a disfunção ocorreu em 30,2% das mulheres com ensino fundamental, 24,2% daquelas com ensino médio e 13,4% e das mulheres com ensino superior (p=0,09). CONCLUSÕES: não se observou diferença significativa na prevalência de disfunção sexual e nos escores dos domínios sexuais entre os grupos, nem associação de disfunção sexual com renda ou escolaridade. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to identify if there is a difference in the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and in the sexual domain scores between a group of women attended at a public service and a group attended at a private service, and to investigate if there is an association between sexual dysfunction, family inco [...] me and educational status. METHODS: transversal study including 201 sexually active women aged from 18 to 45 years, 90 of them from a public service and 111 from private services. We evaluated age, marital status, use of hormonal contraception, income and educational status, and all women were submitted to the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), an instrument for the evaluation of their sexuality. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 15.0, was used for statistical analysis. The ?2 test was applied for categorical variables and the Student's t-test to independent samples. RESULTS: there was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction between groups (public versus private) (20 and 23.4%, p=0.5), or concerning the domain scores, desire (3.9±1.3 and 3.8±1.0, p=0.6), sexual arousal (4.5±0.8 and 4.4±0.9, p=0.5), lubrication (5.2±1.2 and 5.0±0.9, p=0.1), orgasm (5.0±1.2 and 4.9±1.1, p=0.5), satisfaction (5.2±1.2 and 5.1±1.0, p=0.9), and pain (5.3±1.1 and 5.2±1.0, p=0.8). Sexual dysfunction was detected in 28% of the women with income between two and four minimum wages, in 17.5% of those with an income of five wages or more, and in 14.3% among those with an income of one wage or less (p=0,1). The dysfunction occurred in 30.2% of women with elementary education, in 24.2% of those with high school education and in 13.4% of those with higher education (p=0.09). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of sexual dysfunction or in the sexual domain scores between groups, nor was there an association with income or education status.

  5. Emerging adulthood in brazilians of differing socioeconomic status: transition to adulthood / Adultez emergente en brasileños de diferentes niveles socioeconómicos: transición para la vida adulta / Adultez emergente em brasileiros de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos: transição para a vida adulta

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana, Dutra-Thomé; Silvia Helena, Koller.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo constituiu investigação exploratória descritiva de caráter tranversal sobre transição para a vida adulta em brasileiros de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos (NSE), considerando o fenômeno chamado adultez emergente (AE). Foram analisadas variáveis sociodemográficas, percepção de adu [...] ltez, acesso à tecnologia, status educacional e de trabalho. A amostra foi composta de 547 jovens de ambos os sexos, residentes em Porto Alegre (RS), entre 18 e 29 anos, e pertencentes aos NSEs baixo e alto. Mais de 50% da amostra total registrou perceber-se ambivalente quanto a ter atingido ou não a vida adulta, o que pode indicar a existência da AE em indivíduos de ambos NSEs. Todavia, a AE mostrou-se mais provável de ocorrer em contextos de NSE alto. O grupo de NSE baixo apresentou tendência a assumir responsabilidades adultas precocemente, o que dificulta a experimentação de um período mais exploratório de suas identidades. Abstract in spanish Este estudio constituyó una investigación exploratoria descriptiva de carácter trasversal sobre la transición para la vida adulta en brasileños de diferentes niveles socioeconómicos (NSE), considerando el fenómeno llamado de adultez emergente (AE). Fueron analizadas variables sociodemográficas, como [...] percepción de adultez, tiempo libre, acceso a la tecnología, nivel educativo y estatus laboral. La muestra fue compuesta por 547 jóvenes de ambos sexos, residentes en Porto Alegre (RS), entre 18 y 29 años; de NSE bajo y alto. Más del 50% de la muestra total señaló percibirse ambivalente en cuanto a haber llegado o no a la vida adulta, lo que puede indicar la presencia de la AE en sujetos de ambos NSEs. Sin embargo, la AE se mostró más probable de ocurrir en contextos de NSE alto. El grupo de NSE bajo presentó tendencia a asumir responsabilidades adultas precozmente, lo que dificulta la experimentación en un período más exploratorio de sus identidades. Abstract in english This study was a descriptive exploratory investigation into the transition to adulthood in Brazilian young people of differing socioeconomic status (SES), considering the phenomenon of Emerging Adulthood (EA). The variables analyzed were sociodemographic aspects, perceptions of adulthood, access to [...] technology, and educational and employment status. The sample included 547 young people ranging between 18 and 29 years of age, residents of Porto Alegre (RS), of low and high SES. More than 50% of the total sample reported that they felt in-between adolescence and adulthood, which may indicate the existence of EA in individuals of both SES. However, EA was more likely to be present in high SES contexts. The low SES group presented a tendency to assume adult responsibilities earlier, which blocks their opportunities for experiencing a period of identity exploration.

  6. Acculturation, socioeconomic status, obesity and lifestyle factors among low-income Puerto Rican women in Connecticut, U.S., 1998-1999 Aculturación, clase social, obesidad y factores relacionados con el estilo de vida en mujeres puertorriqueñas de bajos ingresos residentes del estado de Connecticut, Estados Unidos, 1998-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Nurgül Fitzgerald; David Himmelgreen; Grace Damio; Sofia Segura-Pérez; Yu-Kuei Peng; Rafael Pérez-Escamilla

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of socioeconomic status and acculturation with obesity and lifestyle characteristics that may be risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease among low-income Puerto Rican women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1998 and 1999 by interviewing a convenience sample of 200 low-income Puerto Rican female caretakers of young children in Hartford, Connecticut, United States of America. Various recruitment methods were used to e...

  7. Asociación del nivel socioeconómico con la higiene bucal en preescolares bajo el programa de odontología preventiva del IMSS en Campeche / Association between socioeconomic status and oral hygiene among preschoolers enrolled in the IMSS preventive dental program in Campeche

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlo Eduardo, Medina-Solís; América, Segovia-Villanueva; Ramón, Estrella-Rodríguez; Gerardo, Maupomé; Leticia, Ávila-Burgos; Ricardo, Pérez-Nuñez.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la asociación entre el estado socioeconómico y la higiene bucal en la dentición primaria de niños preescolares. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en 1,303 niños de 10 escuelas de Campeche, México. Todos los sujetos fueron examinados clínicamente en una silla [...] dental portátil por uno de cuatro examinadores. Se aplicó un cuestionario dirigido a las madres para la recolección de las variables socioeconómicas y sociodemográficas, incluyendo variables de actitud hacia la importancia de la salud bucodental. Se evaluó la higiene bucal tomando en consideración la frecuencia de cepillado dentaly lapresencia de placa dentobacteriana. El análisis se realizó en STATA 8.2® utilizando pruebas no paramétricas. Resultados. La media de edad fue 4.36 ± 0.79 años y 48.3% de los niños examinados fueron mujeres. Del total de los niños bajo estudio, 17.8% (n = 232) fueron asignados al grupo de higiene bucal inadecuada, 50.9% (n = 663) al de regular, y 31.3% (n = 408) al de adecuada. Quienes presentaron más frecuentemente higiene bucal inadecuada (p Abstract in english Objective. Determine the association between socioeconomic status and oral hygiene in the primary dentition of preschool children. Materials and methods. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 1,303 children attending 10 schools in Campeche, Mexico. Every child was clinically examined in a portable [...] dental chair by one of four examiners. We used a questionnaire addressed to the mothers to collect data on socioeconomic and socio demographic variables-including attitudinal variables dealing with the perceived importance of oral health. Oral hygiene was assessed appraising the frequency of tooth brushing and the presence of dental plaque. Data analysis included non-parametric tests using STATA 8.2®. Results. Mean age was 4.36 ± 0.79 years and 48.3% of children were girls. Of the study population, 17.8% (n= 232) were classified as having inadequate oral hygiene, 50.9% (n= 663) having moderate oral hygiene, and 31.3% (n= 408) having adequate oral hygiene. Children who were rated more frequently as having inadequate hygiene (p

  8. ESTADO EPISTEMOLÓGICO DE LA COMUNICACIÓN: POSIBILIDADES DE SU TERRITORIALIDAD COMO CAMPO / COMMUNICATION EPISTEMOLOGICAL STATUS: WAYS OF TERRITORIALITY AS A FIELD

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eloína, Castro Lara.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Bolivia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Cet essai passe revue aux différentes positions au sujet du statut épistémologique de la discipline de la communication, en proposant sept regards, à partir de la perspective épistémologique mais aussi dès son institutionnalisation. Les fragiles frontières de la communication comme territoire permet [...] tent d’y poser des historicités caractérisées par des tensions, dialogues et confrontations, que peuvent être appréciées comme des paris épistémologiques, qui ouvrent la possibilité d’introduire des ruptures dans les espaces épistémologiques et dans les espaces politico-institutionnelles, face aux futurs scénarios du champ disciplinaire. Abstract in spanish El presente ensayo referencia las diversas posturas en torno al estatus disciplinar de la Comunicación proponiendo siete planteos, tanto desde la perspectiva epistemológica como a partir de su institucionalización. Las porosas fronteras de la Comunicación como territorio de conocimiento permiten ubi [...] car historicidades caracterizadas por tensiones, diálogos y confrontaciones que se contemplan como apuestas epistemológicas, lo que también posibilita rupturas en los espacios epistemológicos y en los político-institucionales ante los escenarios futuros del campo. Abstract in english The present essay references the various positions on the discipline status of Communication, proposing seven approaches, from an epistemological perspective and from its institutionalization. The porous borders of the Communication as a field of knowledge help locate temporalities and historicities [...] characterized by tensions, dialogues and confrontations. Each posture could be seen as an epistemological bet, which also make ruptures possible, in the epistemological, political and institutional spaces in front of future scenarios of the field.

  9. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions

  10. Assessment of Fertility Status in the Male Sumatran Rhino at the Sumateran Rhino Sanctuary, Way Kambas National Park, Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD AGIL

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Sumatran rhino is the most endangered rhino species. Its population is estimated less than 300 individuals remaining in the wild with highly declining rate to 50% in the last 15 years. The number of male rhinoceroses in the captivity are very few, therefore the assessment of its fertility is very important in order to support the breeding success since the captive breeding success is very poor. The objectives of this study were (i to determine the male reproductive status, (ii to establish a reliable semen collection method, and (iii to assess semen parameters of the fresh collected sample. Three methods of semen collection were examined to determine its fertilizing potential, i.e. (i stimulated combination of artificial vagina (AV, penile massage (PM and accessory gland massage (AGM; (ii AV and PM; and (iii only with PM. The first method gave the best result with an ejaculation success of 85.71% (6/7, n = 7. The second and third methods obtained an ejaculation success rate of 50% (2/4, n = 4 and 25% (1/4, n = 4, respectively. The collected ejaculates had a volume of 1.2-12.4 ml with whitish to cream turbid colour and pH 6.90-6.99. Sperm concentration was (143-333 x 103 sperm/ml. The quality of the sperm was low with only approximately 1% of them moved forward slowly. Approximately 80% of the spermatozoa were immature (prox. cytoplasmic droplet with head (macro-, microcephalic and tail abnormalities (broken tail. Semen quality increased after several collections and the amount of immature sperm decreased up to 5%. Electroejaculation procedure could produce 34 ml semen, but no sperm was found in the ejaculate. Hence, the combination of AV, PM, and AGM could get higher volume of ejaculate compared to other methods, but sperm concentration was better obtained using AV and PM only. Repeated semen collection increased semen quality, although the male has low fertilizing capacity due to low sperm concentration (oligozoospermia and small volume of the ejaculate (oligospermia.

  11. Desempenho funcional de crianças com paralisia cerebral de níveis socioeconômicos alto e baixo / Functional performance of children with cerebral palsy from high and low socioeconomic status / Desempeño funcional de niños con parálisis cerebral de niveles socioeconómicos alto y bajo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elisângela Andrade, Assis-Madeira; Sueli Galego, Carvalho; Silvana Maria, Blascovi-Assis.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência do nível socioeconômico sobre o desempenho funcional de crianças com paralisia cerebral. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com abordagem quantitativa. Foram selecionadas 49 crianças com diagnóstico clínico de paralisia cerebral de uma amostra de conveniência, com idades d [...] e três a sete anos e meio, de ambos os sexos, classificadas de acordo com o nível de gravidade da paralisia cerebral, com base no Sistema de Classificação da Função Motora Grosseira. Os participantes foram distribuídos em dois grupos de níveis socioeconômicos, alto e baixo, de acordo com o Critério de Classificação Econômica do Brasil. O desempenho funcional foi avaliado com o Inventário de Avaliação Pediátrica de Incapacidade. Foi aplicado o teste t de Student para amostras independentes a fim de comparar as médias entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: O nível socioeconômico não afetou o desempenho funcional de crianças com paralisia cerebral leve. Crianças com paralisia cerebral moderada de classe econômica baixa apresentaram escores da função social inferiores (p=0,027) aos daquelas de classe alta. Crianças com paralisia cerebral grave de nível socioeconômico baixo apresentaram desempenho inferior nas habilidades de autocuidado (p=0,021) e mobilidade (p=0,005). Essas crianças foram mais dependentes em relação à mobilidade (p=0,015) do que as de nível socioeconômico alto. CONCLUSÕES: O nível socioeconômico pode exercer influência no desenvolvimento da criança com paralisia cerebral, devendo ser fator de risco considerado nas ações educacionais e de saúde voltadas a essa população. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Investigar la influencia del nivel socioeconómico sobre el desempeño funcional de niños con parálisis cerebral. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, con acercamiento cuantitativo. Se seleccionaron 49 niños con diagnóstico clínico de parálisis cerebral de una muestra de conveniencia, con edades en [...] tre tres y siete años y medio, de ambos sexos, clasificadas conforme al nivel de gravedad de parálisis cerebral, con base en el Sistema de Clasificación de la Función Motora Grosera. Los participantes fueron distribuidos en dos grupos de niveles socioeconómicos, alto y bajo, conforme al Criterio de Clasificación Económica de Brasil. El desempeño funcional fue evaluado con el Inventario de Evaluación Pediátrica de Discapacidad. Se aplicó la prueba t de Student para muestras independientes a fin de comparar los promedios entre los grupos. RESULTADOS: El nivel socioeconómico no afectó el desempeño funcional de niños con parálisis cerebral liviana. Niños con parálisis cerebral moderada de clase económica baja presentaron escores de la función social inferiores (p=0,027) a los de niños de clase alta. Niños con parálisis cerebral grave de nivel socioeconómico bajo presentaron desempeño inferior en las habilidades de autocuidado (p=0,021) y movilidad (p=0,005). Esos niños fueron más dependientes respecto a la movilidad (p=0,015) que los de nivel socioeconómico alto. CONCLUSIONES: El nivel socioeconómico puede ejercer influencia en el desarrollo del niño con parálisis cerebral, debiendo ser factor de riesgo considerado en las acciones educacionales y de salud dirigidas a esa población. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of socioeconomic status on the functional performance of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Cross-sectional quantitative study of 49 children diagnosed with cerebral palsy from a convenience sample. Children of both genders aged three to seven and a half y [...] ears were studied. They were classified according to the level of severity of cerebral palsy based on the Gross Motor Function Classification System. Participants were organized in two groups considering their high or low socioeconomic status, according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria. Functional performance was assessed by the Pediatri

  12. Desempenho funcional de crianças com paralisia cerebral de níveis socioeconômicos alto e baixo Desempeño funcional de niños con parálisis cerebral de niveles socioeconómicos alto y bajo Functional performance of children with cerebral palsy from high and low socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Andrade Assis-Madeira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência do nível socioeconômico sobre o desempenho funcional de crianças com paralisia cerebral. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com abordagem quantitativa. Foram selecionadas 49 crianças com diagnóstico clínico de paralisia cerebral de uma amostra de conveniência, com idades de três a sete anos e meio, de ambos os sexos, classificadas de acordo com o nível de gravidade da paralisia cerebral, com base no Sistema de Classificação da Função Motora Grosseira. Os participantes foram distribuídos em dois grupos de níveis socioeconômicos, alto e baixo, de acordo com o Critério de Classificação Econômica do Brasil. O desempenho funcional foi avaliado com o Inventário de Avaliação Pediátrica de Incapacidade. Foi aplicado o teste t de Student para amostras independentes a fim de comparar as médias entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: O nível socioeconômico não afetou o desempenho funcional de crianças com paralisia cerebral leve. Crianças com paralisia cerebral moderada de classe econômica baixa apresentaram escores da função social inferiores (p=0,027 aos daquelas de classe alta. Crianças com paralisia cerebral grave de nível socioeconômico baixo apresentaram desempenho inferior nas habilidades de autocuidado (p=0,021 e mobilidade (p=0,005. Essas crianças foram mais dependentes em relação à mobilidade (p=0,015 do que as de nível socioeconômico alto. CONCLUSÕES: O nível socioeconômico pode exercer influência no desenvolvimento da criança com paralisia cerebral, devendo ser fator de risco considerado nas ações educacionais e de saúde voltadas a essa população.OBJETIVO: Investigar la influencia del nivel socioeconómico sobre el desempeño funcional de niños con parálisis cerebral. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, con acercamiento cuantitativo. Se seleccionaron 49 niños con diagnóstico clínico de parálisis cerebral de una muestra de conveniencia, con edades entre tres y siete años y medio, de ambos sexos, clasificadas conforme al nivel de gravedad de parálisis cerebral, con base en el Sistema de Clasificación de la Función Motora Grosera. Los participantes fueron distribuidos en dos grupos de niveles socioeconómicos, alto y bajo, conforme al Criterio de Clasificación Económica de Brasil. El desempeño funcional fue evaluado con el Inventario de Evaluación Pediátrica de Discapacidad. Se aplicó la prueba t de Student para muestras independientes a fin de comparar los promedios entre los grupos. RESULTADOS: El nivel socioeconómico no afectó el desempeño funcional de niños con parálisis cerebral liviana. Niños con parálisis cerebral moderada de clase económica baja presentaron escores de la función social inferiores (p=0,027 a los de niños de clase alta. Niños con parálisis cerebral grave de nivel socioeconómico bajo presentaron desempeño inferior en las habilidades de autocuidado (p=0,021 y movilidad (p=0,005. Esos niños fueron más dependientes respecto a la movilidad (p=0,015 que los de nivel socioeconómico alto. CONCLUSIONES: El nivel socioeconómico puede ejercer influencia en el desarrollo del niño con parálisis cerebral, debiendo ser factor de riesgo considerado en las acciones educacionales y de salud dirigidas a esa población.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of socioeconomic status on the functional performance of children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Cross-sectional quantitative study of 49 children diagnosed with cerebral palsy from a convenience sample. Children of both genders aged three to seven and a half years were studied. They were classified according to the level of severity of cerebral palsy based on the Gross Motor Function Classification System. Participants were organized in two groups considering their high or low socioeconomic status, according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria. Functional performance was assessed by the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. The Student's t-test was applied for independent samples in order to compare means between groups. RESU

  13. WOMEN STATUS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Prema, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper tries to explain the development of women movement in India and the status of women during the Vedic period and British period. It also tries to explain the position of women on the basis of socioeconomic – political empowerment.

  14. Socioeconomic disparities in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Susanne B; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Norris, Keith C

    2015-01-01

    CKD is a national public health problem that afflicts persons of all segments of society. Although racial/ethnic disparities in advanced CKD including dialysis-dependent populations have been well established, the finding of differences in CKD incidence, prevalence, and progression across different socioeconomic groups and racial and ethnic strata has only recently started to receive significant attention. Socioeconomics may exert both interdependent and independent effects on CKD and its complications and may confound racial and ethnic disparities. Socioeconomic constellations influence not only access to quality care for CKD risk factors and CKD treatment but may mediate many of the cultural and environmental determinants of health that are becoming more widely recognized as affecting complex medical disorders. In this article, we have reviewed the available literature pertaining to the role of socioeconomic status and economic factors in both non-dialysis-dependent CKD and ESRD. Advancing our understanding of the role of socioeconomic factors in patients with or at risk for CKD can lead to improved strategies for disease prevention and management. PMID:25573507

  15. Data Analysis of Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Vela-McConnell

    In this exercise designed for a Race, Class and Gender course. Students will examine the effect of gender and race on social class in the United States. This activity uses a customized data set made from the 2000 Census and guides students through data interpretation using table outputs from WebCHIP found at DataCounts!.

  16. Intergenerational and socioeconomic gradients of childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-i-font, Joan; Gil, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to intergenerationally parental influences? How important is a parent’s socioeconomic status in accounting for the emergence of obesity among children? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of income and education effects, as well as less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are c...

  17. Análise comparativa dos efeitos da base socioeconômica, dos tipos de crime e das condições de prisão na reincidência criminal / Comparative analysis of the effects of socioeconomic status, crime type and prison conditions on criminal recidivism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Mario, Fandiño Mariño.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo central do trabalho é identificar e mensurar o poder explicativo relativo das seguintes três dimensões causais hipotéticas da reincidência criminal: a) variáveis biográficas ou socioeconômicas, a saber: estado civil, filhos, naturalidade, idade, religião, raça, instrução formal e nível de [...] qualificação da ocupação; b) tipo de delito, segundo os seguintes oito tipos simplificados: homicídios, lesões corporais, roubos, furtos, estelionatos, posse e uso de entorpecentes e estupros); e c) condições de prisão, incluindo a disponibilidade e qualificação dos funcionários - tanto de segurança quanto administrativos -, trabalho prisional dos apenados, treinamento profissionalizante e instrução em geral, espaços disponíveis e superlotação, e programas de assistência social ao apenado. O trabalho resume e avalia a literatura internacional relativa à reincidência criminal, tanto em termos metodológicos quanto teóricos, e apresenta um panorama histórico recente da criminalidade no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, como pano de fundo da análise da reincidência propriamente dita. Utilizando dados longitudinais oficiais das prisões para os anos de 1989 a 1997, e o cadastro geral oficial de apenados do estado, uma série de regressões é calculada pelo método step-wise, relacionando as três dimensões em questão com a variável reincidência, dicotomizada. A dimensão biográfica explica 32% da reincidência, o tipo de crime explica outros 9%, e as condições de prisão explicam ainda 16%, sugerindo uma ampla influência da política prisional na redução da reincidência. Abstract in english This work is primarily aimed at identifying and measuring the relative explicatory ability of the following three hypothetical causal dimensions of criminal recidivism: a) socioeconomic variables, namely: marital status, children, place of birth, age, religion, race, educational level and qualificat [...] ion level of the occupation; b) type of offense, according to eight simplified types: homicide, assault and battery, larceny, robbery, embezzlement, possession and use of illegal drugs, and rape); and c) prison conditions, including the availability and qualification of prison personnel - both in security and management - prison work by inmates, professional training and general educational level, available spaces and overpopulation, and social programs for inmates. The work summarizes and evaluates international literature on criminal recidivism, both in methodological and in theoretical terms, presenting a recent historical overview on crime in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, as the background for analyzing recidivism itself. Based on official longitudinal data from 1989 to 1997, and the state's general inmates registry, a series of regressions are calculated by the step-wise method, relating the three dimensions in question with the variable of recidivism, dichotomizing it. The socio-economic dimension explains 32% of recidivism, crime type explains other 9% of recidivism, and prison conditions explain an additional 16%, suggesting a wide margin of recidivism reduction by prison policies. Some closing considerations are presented in relation to the "new penology" and prisonal philosophy in Brazil.

  18. Dental pain prevalence and association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in schoolchildren, Southern Brazil, 2002 Prevalência de dor de dente e associação com cárie e condições socioeconômicas em escolares, sul do Brasil, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincon Hideo Nomura

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the relation between dental pain, dental caries and socioeconomic status among 12- and 13-year-old schoolchildren enrolled in a public school in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil in 2002. This study was a cross-sectional study involving 181 schoolchildren. Dental pain experience was the dependend variable analyzed. Socioeconomic data of the children's families were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT index (WHO, 1997. The field workteam consisted of an examiner and a recorder. The statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and the non-conditional multiple logistic regression. The response rate was 93.4%. The intraexaminer agreement measured on a tooth by tooth basis