Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionConnection of socioeconomic status measures (such as income and education and parental addiction to childhood leukemia are likely to vary with place and time. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between socioeconomic status and childhood leukemia.Materials and Methodsa case- control study conducted on 86 case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia age 0-14 years in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd and matched on age and sex to 188 healthy controls. Data was collected by interview using a questionnaire.Data analyzed by chi-square test. Odds ratio (Ors and 95% confidence intervals were used to measure the risk of childhood A.L.L associated with parental smoking, alcohol drinking & addiction.ResultsThere was a significant difference in parental education level (P-value=0, P-value=0.001, income status (P-value =0.001, father's job (0.002 between two groups. The risk of childhood A.L.L was associated with paternal smoking (P-value =0.001, OR=2.6, CI 95%, 1.5-4.5, alcohol drinking (P-value=0.003, OR=3.33, CI 95%, 2.7-3.9, addiction (P-value =0, OR=42.7, CI95%, 5.56-328.34.ConclusionThe results suggest that socioeconomic factors and paternal smoking and alcohol drinking are related to risk of childhood leukemia. It should be considered for planning support.
Johnston, J M; Grufferman, S; Bourguet, C C; Delzell, E; DeLong, E R; Cohen, H. J.
A case control study was conducted to test the hypothesis that socioeconomic status is positively associated with multiple myeloma incidence. One hundred and fifty-three myeloma cases and 459 controls were identified at the Duke University Medical Center at Durham, North Carolina. Study members were interviewed regarding indicators of socioeconomic status. The association of myeloma with family income (current and highest), education, occupation, home ownership, dwelling size, and an index of...
Ferrer, R.; Palmer, R.
Objectives: To analyse the variability in health status within as well as between socioeconomic groups. What is the range of individual variability in the health effects of socioeconomic status? Is the adverse effect of lower socioeconomic status uniform across the entire distribution of health status?
Thomas, Michael S. C.; Forrester, Neil A.; Ronald, Angelica
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data…
Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine J.; Martin, Monica J.
Research during the past decade shows that social class or socioeconomic status (SES) is related to satisfaction and stability in romantic unions, the quality of parent-child relationships, and a range of developmental outcomes for adults and children. This review focuses on evidence regarding potential mechanisms proposed to account for these…
Reijneveld, S.A.; Gunning-Schepers, L.J.
STUDY OBJECTIVE--Indicators of socioeconomic status are associated with age. This study aimed to analyse the influence of the age distribution on the ranking of small areas by socioeconomic status and on the association between their socioeconomic status and standardised mortality. DESIGN--The ranking of small areas by socioeconomic status indicators (educational level, income, and unemployment) was compared with crude values and after correction for their age structure. The age and gender st...
Virtanen, M.; Kivimäki, M.; Elovainio, M; Linna, A; Pentti, J; Vahtera, J.
To investigate the associations of workplace neighbourhood socioeconomic status with health behaviours, health and working conditions among school teachers. Method: The survey responses and employer records of 1862 teachers were linked to census data on school neighbourhood socioeconomic status. In the multilevel analysis, adjustments were made for demographics, work factors and the socioeconomic status of the teacher's own residential area.
Brekke, Kurt R.; Holmås, Tor Helge; Monstad, Karin; Straume, Odd Rune
This paper aims at shedding light on the social gradient by studying the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and provision of health care. Using administrative data on services provided by General Practitioners (GPs) in Norway over a fi ve year period (2008-12), we analyse the quantity, composition and value of services provided by the GPs according to patients` SES measured by education, income or ethnicity. Our data allow us to control for a wide set of patient and GP characteri...
Ana CarolinaReiff e Vieira
Full Text Available Os estudos nacionais indicam comportamento epidêmico da obesidade, e ênfase tem sido dada sobre os determinantes sociais do excesso de peso. O status socioeconômico tem sido avaliado por ocupação, educação e renda. Vários fatores relacionados à obesidade, como atividade física, consumo alimentar e hábitos familiares sofrem também influência do status socioeconômico. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre a associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade e também foram apresentados dados de uma pesquisa de base populacional sobre obesidade em mulheres do município do Rio de Janeiro. A ocorrência da obesidade entre os diferentes níveis de status socioeconômico é influenciada pelo sexo e idade, e são discutidos fatores ambientais que determinam a possibilidade de acesso aos alimentos saudáveis e a oportunidade de prática de atividade física. Por fim, é discutido como os hábitos familiares influenciam nas escolhas dos alimentos e como o status socioeconômico pode modificar esse efeito, bem como a disponibilidade de alimentos e o preço destes, levando a um maior consumo de alimentos de alta densidade energética, fator de risco dietético para obesidade.An epidemic of obesity has been revealed by Brazilian nationwide surveys, and emphasis is being given to socioeconomic status as one of the main determinants of weight gain. Other factors also associated to obesity are influenced by socioeconomic status, such as physical activity, food consumption, and family habits. Socioeconomic status has been evaluated based on occupation, education, and income. A review of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity has been conducted, and data from a population-based survey regarding obesity among women in the city of Rio de Janeiro were also included. The occurrence of obesity among different levels of socioeconomic status as influenced by sex and age, and environmental factors that determine the possibility of access to healthy foods and to opportunities of practicing physical activity are also discussed. Finally, we discussed how family habits influence the choices of food, and how socioeconomic status can modify this effect, along with availability of foods and their prices, leading to a greater consumption of foods with high density of energy, a dietary risk factor for obesity.
Shankar Reddy Dudala; Ashok Kumar Reddy, K.; Ravi Prabhu, G.
Almost all community- based studies focus on socio-economic stratification, which is the key parameter for proper understanding the affordability of the community of health services, amenities and their purchasing capacity. Prasad’s socioeconomic status scale measures socioeconomic status of both rural and urban community based on per capita monthly income of the family.
Sara Shishehgar; Mahrokh Dolatian; Hamid Alavi Majd; Maryam Bakhtiary
Background: Stress during pregnancy can have serious adverse outcomes on the mother, the fetus, newborn, children and even adolescents. Socioeconomic status has been recognized as a predictor of stress amongst pregnant women. Objectives: The first aim of this study was to investigate the role of socioeconomic status in pregnancy stress rates. The second aim was to examine the most important items of socioeconomic status including monthly family income, husband occupational status as well as m...
Dr.Saifullah Saifi; Tariq Mehmood
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a combined measure of an individual's or family’s economic and social position relative to others, based on income, education, and occupation. When analyzing a family’s SES, the mother's and father’s education and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, versus with an individual, when their own attributes are assessed (GOP,2008). The article is based on a study, which is an attempt to explore the various factors that have an impact on achievem...
Dodi Mihaljevi?; Joško Sindik
In a sample of 18 players, members of the senior major league handball team, the correlation between the micro structure of handball in relation to their socioeconomic status, using the sociometric procedure, was analyzed. The research results lead to the acceptance of the hypothesis that the players of the same socioeconomic status, have better mutual emotional acceptance. The hypothesis of a better mutual functional accepting players of the same socioeconomic status, may be only partially ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Socioeconomic Data and Application Center (SEDAC) Treaty Status Dataset contains comprehensive treaty information for multilateral environmental agreements,...
Mheen, H., van der; K. Stronks; Looman, C.W.N.; Mackenbach, J. P.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS: Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands (13 854 respondents, aged between 25 and 74). Childhood socioeconomic group was ...
Özgüven, I??l; Ersoy, Betül; Özgüven, Ali Aykan; Erbay, P?nar Dündar
Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of Turkish high school adolescents using anthropometric indicators and to determine the relationship of nutritional status with gender and socioeconomic status (SES) in adolescents.
Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood is related to both immediate and persisting impairments in mental health and well-being. Findings from epidemiological studies suggest that children who grow up in families with a lower socioeconomic status (SES) have more symptoms of mental health problems, compared to those raised in more affluent families.
The overall aim of the current thesis was to expand the knowledge of the socioeconomic distribution of childhood mental healt...
Pickett, William; Day, Andrew G.; Hagel, Louise; Sun, Xiaoqun; Day, Lesley; Marlenga, Barbara; Brison, Robert J.; Pahwa, Punam; Crowe, Trever; Voaklander, Donald C.; Dosman, James
Purpose: To estimate the strength of relationships between socioeconomic status and injury in a large Canadian farm population. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 4,769 people from 2,043 farms in Saskatchewan, Canada. Participants reported socioeconomic exposures in 2007 and were followed for the occurrence of injury through 2009…
Nguyen, Quynh C.; Hussey, Jon M.; Halpern, Carolyn T; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W.; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Poole, Charles
Among adolescents, expectations of early death have been linked to future risk behaviors. These expectations may also reduce personal investment in education and training, thereby lowering adult socioeconomic status attainment. The importance of socioeconomic status is highlighted by pervasive health inequities and dramatic differences in life expectancy among education and income groups. The objectives of this study were to investigate patterns of change in perceived chances of living to age...
Marioni, Riccardo E.; Davies, Gail; Hayward, Caroline; Liewald, Dave; Kerr, Shona M.; Campbell, Archie; Luciano, Michelle; Smith, Blair H.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hocking, Lynne J.; Hastie, Nicholas D; Wright, Alan F; Porteous, David J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Deary, Ian J.
Education, socioeconomic status, and intelligence are commonly used as predictors of health outcomes, social environment, and mortality. Education and socioeconomic status are typically viewed as environmental variables although both correlate with intelligence, which has a substantial genetic basis. Using data from 6815 unrelated subjects from the Generation Scotland study, we examined the genetic contributions to these variables and their genetic correlations. Subjects underwent genome-wide...
Noori R MSc; Hashemizadeh H MSc; Darabian M MD; Boroumand H MSc
AbstractBackground Leukemia is the most prevalent childhood cancer, and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) constitutes 75% of all cases. Some epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and some childhood cancers. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess socioeconomical status in a case-control study.Materials and MethodsIn 2010, a case-control study was conducted on 100 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged 1 to14 years in Department o...
Rook, G A W; Raison, C L; Lowry, C A
The immune system evolved to require input from at least three sources that we collectively term the ‘old friends’: (i) the commensal microbiotas transmitted by mothers and other family members; (ii) organisms from the natural environment that modulate and diversify the commensal microbiotas; and (iii) the ‘old’ infections that could persist in small isolated hunter-gatherer groups as relatively harmless subclinical infections or carrier states. These categories of organism had to be tolerated and co-evolved roles in the development and regulation of the immune system. By contrast, the ‘crowd infections’ (such as childhood virus infections) evolved later, when urbanization led to large communities. They did not evolve immunoregulatory roles because they either killed the host or induced solid immunity, and could not persist in hunter-gatherer groups. Because the western lifestyle and medical practice deplete the ‘old’ infections (for example helminths), immunoregulatory disorders have increased, and the immune system has become more dependent upon microbiotas and the natural environment. However, urbanization maintains exposure to the crowd infections that lack immunoregulatory roles, while accelerating loss of exposure to the natural environment. This effect is most pronounced in individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) who lack rural second homes and rural holidays. Interestingly, large epidemiological studies indicate that the health benefits of living close to green spaces are most pronounced for individuals of low SES. Here we discuss the immunoregulatory role of the natural environment, and how this may interact with, and modulate, the proinflammatory effects of psychosocial stressors in low SES individuals. PMID:24401109
Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure.
Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure
Danzer, Alexander M.; Dietz, Barbara; Gatskova, Kseniia; Schmillen, Achim
This paper analyses incomes and socioeconomic status of internal migrants over time and in comparison to their new neighbors and investigates whether status consumption is a way for newly arrived city dwellers to signal their social standing. Using a novel dataset from the emerging economy of Kazakhstan we find that internal migrants earn an income and status premium for their move. In a comparison to indigenous city dwellers their earnings and household incomes are not significantly differen...
WARD, M. M.; Guthrie, Lori C.; Butler, Stephen C
Time perspective is a measure of the degree to which one’s thinking is motivated by considerations of the future, present, or past. Time perspective has been proposed as a potential mediator of socioeconomic disparities in health because it has been associated with health behaviors and is presumed to vary with socioeconomic status. In this cross-sectional community-based survey of respondents recruited from hair salons and barber shops in a suburb of Washington DC, we examined the associati...
Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W
Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years. PMID:25565407
Loon, A.J. van; van den Brandt, P. A.; Golbohm, R. A.
The association between socioeconomic status and colon cancer was investigated in a prospective cohort study that started in 1986 in The Netherlands among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on socioeconomic status, alcohol consumption and other dietary and non-dietary covariates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. For data analysis a case-cohort approach was used, in which the person-years at risk were estimated using a randomly selected subcoh...
Zahra Parsasirat; Amir Foroughi; Fatimah Yusooff; Nasrudin Subhi; Salina Nen; Hadi Farhadi
Prior research has attempted to investigate creativity as a behavior resulting from the interaction between the cognitive abilities, social environment and personal characteristics, but very little research has look at the role of environment characteristics on Emersion Adolescent Creativity. Hence, this article focuses on the effect of socioeconomic status on emerging adolescent creativity. In other words, family economic status, father’s education and mother’s education are the three di...
Hancox, R.; Milne, B.; Taylor, D.; Greene, J.; Cowan, J.; Flannery, E.; Herbison, G.; Mclachlan, C.; Poulton, R.; Sears, M.
Background: There is conflicting information about the relationship between asthma and socioeconomic status, with different studies reporting no, positive, or inverse associations. Most of these studies have been cross sectional in design and have relied on subjective markers of asthma such as symptoms of wheeze. Many have been unable to control adequately for potential confounding factors.
Boles, David B.
Socioeconomic status (SES), a variable combining income, education, and occupation, is correlated with a variety of social health outcomes including school dropout rates, early parenthood, delinquency, and mental illness. Several studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s largely failed to report a relationship between SES and hemispheric asymmetry…
Franks, Peter; Daniel J. Tancredi; Winters, Paul; Fiscella, Kevin
PURPOSE Socioeconomic status (SES) predicts coronary heart disease independently of the Framingham risk-scoring factors included in cholesterol treatment guidelines, possibly resulting in undertreatment of lower SES persons. We examined whether hybrid SES measures (based on area measures of income and individual education) address this bias and derived an approach to incorporating SES information into treatment guidelines.
Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Duffett-Leger, Linda; Levac, Leah; Watson, Barry; Young-Morris, Catherine
Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is widely accepted to have deleterious effects on the well-being and development of children and adolescents. However, rigorous meta-analytic methods have not been applied to determine the degree to which SES supports or limits children's and adolescents behavioural, cognitive and language development. While…
Dotterer, Aryn M.; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Pungello, Elizabeth
This study examined the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and school readiness, testing whether parenting (maternal sensitivity and negative behavior/intrusiveness) and financial stress mediated this association and if race moderated these paths. Participants included 164 mother-child dyads from African American and European American…
In 2002, President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which added accountability to President Lyndon Johnson's original Title I legislation of 1964. Specifically, it required that all children in Grades 3-8, by school year 2014, regardless of socioeconomic status, perform at or above grade level requirements in…
Hansson, Ase; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
Socioeconomic status (SES) is often used as control variable when relations between academic outcomes and students' migrational background are investigated. When measuring SES, indicators used must have the same meaning across groups. This study aims to examine the measurement invariance of SES, using data from TIMSS, 2003. The study shows…
Nguyen, Quynh C; Hussey, Jon M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Poole, Charles
Among adolescents, expectations of early death have been linked to future risk behaviors. These expectations may also reduce personal investment in education and training, thereby lowering adult socioeconomic status attainment. The importance of socioeconomic status is highlighted by pervasive health inequities and dramatic differences in life expectancy among education and income groups. The objectives of this study were to investigate patterns of change in perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations; PSE), predictors of PSE, and associations between PSE and future socioeconomic status attainment. We utilized the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-1995 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-2002 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). At Wave I, 14% reported ?50% chance of living to age 35 and older adolescents reported lower PSE than younger adolescents. At Wave III, PSE were similar across age. Changes in PSE from Wave I to III were moderate, with 89% of respondents reporting no change (56%), one level higher (22%) or one level lower (10%) in a 5-level PSE variable. Higher block group poverty rate, perceptions that the neighborhood is unsafe, and less time in the U.S. (among the foreign-born) were related to low PSE at Waves I and III. Low PSE at Waves I and III predicted lower education attainment and personal earnings at Wave IV in multinomial logistic regression models controlling for confounding factors such as previous family socioeconomic status, individual demographic characteristics, and depressive symptoms. Anticipation of an early death is prevalent among adolescents and predictive of lower future socioeconomic status. Low PSE reported early in life may be a marker for worse health trajectories. PMID:22405687
Woo, Jean; Suen, Eddie W. C.; Leung, Jason C.S.; Tang, Nelson L.S.; Ebrahim, Shah
Background: previous studies examining the relationship between socioeconomic status and telomere length showed conflicting results, one study finding shorter telomere length in subjects with lower socioeconomic status and one showing no relationship.
This retrospective study aims to explore any associations between socioeconomic factors and lung cancer management and outcome in the Australian setting. The study population consisted of patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer in 1996 who were living in the Northern Sydney Area Health Service (NSAHS) or South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS). These two Area Health Services differ in socioeconomic profiles based on socioeconomic indexes for areas (SEIFA), median income, education level and unemployment rate. Data on patient demographics, tumour characteristics, management details, recurrence and survival were collected, and the patterns of care were analysed. Socioeconomic status indicators of the two Area Health Services were imputed from the Australian Bureau of Statistics data. There were 270 and 256 new cases of lung cancer identified in NSAHS and SWSAHS respectively. Patients in NSAHS were slightly older (median age 73 versus 68 years) and there was less male predominance. The stage distributions and performance status of the two cohorts were similar. There were no significant differences in the utilisation rates of different treatment modalities between the two areas: radiotherapy (54% in NSAHS and 55% in SWSAHS), chemotherapy (34% and 25%), surgery (26% and 21%) and no treatment (22% and 25%). The 5-year overall survival was slightly in favour of NSAHS (10.5% and 7.4%), but did not reach statistical significance. Despite differences in socioeconomicance. Despite differences in socioeconomic profiles between the two area health services, patients with lung cancer had similar patterns of care and survival
Barrera, Gladys; Cases, Tania; Bunout, Daniel; de la Maza, María Pía; Leiva, Laura; Rodriguez, Juan Manuel; Hirsch, Sandra
To assess if there is an association between socioeconomic status and quality of life, functional status and markers of aging, we studied 86 women aged 73 ± 7 years, who answered the WHO Qol Bref quality of life survey. Mini mental state examination, timed up and go test, 12 minutes' walk, hand grip and quadriceps strength, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), carotid intima-media thickness and telomere length in peripheral leukocytes were measured. Successful aging was defined as a walking speed, handgrip strength, appendicular lean body mass, timed up and go and minimental values above cutoff points for disability. Participants with successful aging had a higher quality of life score and were more likely to live in rich municipalities. There was a positive correlation between telomere length, right handgrip strength and total fat free mass. Therefore, there is an association between socioeconomic status, successful aging and quality of life. PMID:25288053
Bili?-Kirin, Vesna; Gmajni?, Rudika; Burazin, Jelena; Milici?, Valerija; Buljan, Vesna; Ivanko, Marija
The perception of obesity among people has not changed significantly regardless numerous public educational programs. Reasons for obesity pandemics are numerous and complex, but can be mostly resumed to life-style changes. The aim of this research was to determine connection between socioeconomic factors and obesity with children of our region. Study included pupils aged 7-8 from 19 first grades in 8 primary schools in Osijek-Baranya County. Body height and weight were measured and socioeconomic data status were collected. Socioeconomic status included data on marital status, educational level, employment, number of children in the family, kindergarten attendance and urban/rural location and also smoking habits of parents. BMI was calculated as a parameter for obesity assessment according to Croatian reference values. Total of 372 children were measured. There were 6.5% of overweight children (BMI between 90th and 97th percentile) and 2.4% of obese children (BMI above 97th percentile). The prevalence of obese children in our research was 8.9%. Obesity is not influenced by rural/urban residence, marital status of parents, number of children in the family, mother's education, or by parents' smoking habits. Positive correlation between obesity and father's education and parents' unemployment was found. Available literature data, same as our study, did not show consistent association between socioeconomic factors and obesity with children. Contradictory results of different studies can be a result of a small sample, difference in study design and different criteria for defining categories within investigated socioeconomic factor. PMID:25144987
Kincheloe, Joe L., Ed.; Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.
In these vivid, thought-provoking essays, leading scholars draw from their own life experiences to explore the ways in which socio-economic class has shaped their lives and educational practices. Some experienced the sting of poverty as students, while others tell stories of a privileged upbringing and moments of epiphany when they recognized the…
Tomfohr, Lianne; Ancoli-israel, Sonia; Dimsdale, Joel E.
Race and current socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with sleep. Parental education, a commonly studied component of childhood SES, is predictive of adult health outcomes; yet its impact on adult sleep remains unclear. In this study, the sleep of 128 Black and White adults was investigated. Participants with lower childhood SES (assessed via parental education) slept more time in Stage 2 sleep and less time in slow wave sleep (SWS) than those with higher childhood SES. Additionally, wom...
Jednoro?g, Katarzyna; Altarelli, Ire?ne; Monzalvo, Karla; Fluss, Joel Victor; Dubois, Jessica; Billard, Catherine; Dehaene-lambertz, Ghislaine; Ramus, Franck
Children’s cognitive abilities and school achievements are deeply affected by parental socioeconomic status (SES). Numerous studies have reported lower cognitive performance in relation to unfavorable environments, but little is known about the effects of SES on the child’s neural structures. Here, we systematically explore the association between SES and brain anatomy through MRI in a group of 23 healthy 10-year-old children with a wide range of parental SES. We confirm behaviorally that...
Kapur, Kanika; Escarce, José J.; Rogowski, Jeannette; Freedman, Vicki A.; Wickstrom, Steven L; Adams, John L.
This study examined the effects of education, income, and wealth on medical care expenditures in two Medicare managed care plans. The study also sought to elucidate the pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects expenditures, including preferences for health and medical care and ability to navigate the managed care system. We found that education, income, and wealth all affected medical care expenditures, although the effects of these variables differed across expenditure ca...
Fauzia Islam; Azimur Rahman; Naseema Khatoon; Mohammad Ali Imam
Education is one of the most significant landmarks in women empowerment as it facilitates them to deal with their traditional responsibilities to bring positive changes in their lives. Education lessens Socio-economic disparities rampant in the society and acts as a way of improving the status of women within the family if the access to education is not denied to women on the pretext of tradition, religion or any other social norm. This research is designed to explore the rela...
Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter
We examined whether socioeconomic status (SES) could be used to identify which schools or children are at greatest risk of bullying, which can adversely affect children's health and life. We conducted a review of published literature on school bullying and SES. We identified 28 studies that reported an association between roles in school bullying (victim, bully, and bully-victim) and measures of SES. Random effects models showed SES was weakly related to bullying roles. Adjusting for publication bias, victims (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24, 1.58) and bully-victims (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.36, 1.74) were more likely to come from low socioeconomic households. Bullies (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97, 0.99) and victims (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.94, 0.97) were slightly less likely to come from high socioeconomic backgrounds. SES provides little guidance for targeted intervention, and all schools and children, not just those with more socioeconomic deprivation, should be targeted to reduce the adverse effects of bullying. PMID:24825231
Haaland, Venke Furre; Telle, Kjetil
Using variation across geographic regions, a number of studies from the U.S. and other developed countries have found more deaths in economic upturns and less deaths in economic downturns. We use data from regions in Norway for 1977-2008 and find the same pro-cyclical patterns. Using individual-level register data for the identical population, we find that disadvantaged socioeconomic groups are not hit harder by pro-cyclical mortality than advantaged groups. We also find that other indicators of deteriorated health (than death), like becoming disabled, are pro-cyclical. Overall, our analysis suggests that pro-cyclical mortality is rather related to deaths of people already in deteriorated health than to people of low socioeconomic status. PMID:25205610
Fujiwara, Takeo; Ito, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of income inequality and parental socioeconomic status on several birth outcomes in Japan. Data were collected on birth outcomes and parental socioeconomic status by questionnaire from Japanese parents nationwide (n = 41,499) and then linked to Gini coefficients at the prefectural level in 2001. In multilevel analysis, z scores of birth weight for gestational age decreased by 0.018 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.029, -0.006) per 1-standard-deviation (0.018-unit) increase in the Gini coefficient, while gestational age at delivery was not associated with the Gini coefficient. For dichotomous outcomes, mothers living in prefectures with middle and high Gini coefficients were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48) times more likely, respectively, to deliver a small-for-gestational-age infant than mothers living in more egalitarian prefectures (low Gini coefficients), although preterm births were not significantly associated with income distribution. Parental educational level, but not household income, was significantly associated with the z score of birth weight for gestational age and small-for-gestational-age status. Higher income inequality at the prefectural level and parental educational level, rather than household income, were associated with intrauterine growth but not with shorter gestational age at delivery. PMID:23576676
_Health, United States, 1998_ is the 22nd report on health and disease in the nation submitted by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to the President and Congress. Compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), the report examines national trends in health and disease statistics. The Highlights section features the major findings while this year's Chartbook (each year focuses on a major health topic) examines the relationship between socioeconomic status and health. The results of this examination are discussed in the press release. Numerous detailed tables and figures are included.
Pandey, Anamika; Ladusingh, Laishram
Assessment of the health status of the older adults can go a long way in controlling the disease burden and monitoring the path to healthy aging in India. In the absence of a population-based clinical survey to collect data on morbidities and other health conditions through biomarkers, self-rated health by nationally representative older population is used for understanding factors contributing to the gender differential in health status. Socioeconomic status is the most important factor explaining 59% of the gender gap in self-assessed health among older adults. The vulnerability of older women in terms of educational attainment, occupational status, and economic dependency is responsible for the higher level of poor self-assessed health. The gender gap in self-assessed poor health among older Indian adults, which perpetuates over the life course resulting in severe health disadvantages at old age can be reduced considerably through social empowerment and gender sensitive public policies. PMID:24652876
Stephen R. Zubrick; Peter Jacoby; Ball, Stephen J.
Fetal growth is an important risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. In turn, socioeconomic status is a key predictor of fetal growth; however, other sociodemographic factors and environmental effects may also be important. This study modelled geographic variation in poor fetal growth after accounting for socioeconomic status, with a fixed effect for socioeconomic status and a combination of spatially-correlated and spatially-uncorrelated random effects. The dataset comprised 88,246 l...
Habibollah Esmaeeli; Rana Amiri; Ahmadshah Farhat; Ashraf Mohammadzadeh
Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on ...
Carlsen, Fredrik; Kaarbøe, Oddvar
We investigate whether socioeconomic status affects hospital waiting times for elderly men when controls for severity and supply/choice variables are included. Socioeconomic status is measured by small area level education. We estimate a series of regressions explaining waiting time as a function of education level. We find that patients of different socioeconomic status are treated differently when only fixed effects for birth year is included. When we control for medical cond...
Hurst, S A
Growing data on the socioeconomic determinants of health pose a challenge to analysis and application of fairness in health. In Just health: meeting health needs fairly, Norman Daniels argues for a change in the population end of our thinking about just health. What about clinical care? Given our knowledge of the importance of wealth, education or social status to health, is fairness in medicine served better by continuing to avoid considering our patients' social status in setting clinical priorities, or by attempting to equalise existing health inequalities by giving priority to the socioeconomically disadvantaged at the point of care? In this article, I argue that doctors should not attempt the latter. Granted, giving priority to low status would go some way towards compensating unjust health inequalities and the impression of being left aside in other social spaces. It would represent reverse discrimination, but could still be justified inasmuch as disadvantaged groups could be identifiable, and as long as the intent was compensation rather than retribution. However, under current circumstances such priority would risk being attributed arbitrarily, would represent a form of medical proselytising, risk leaving the worst-off with less by alienating the powerful, and require teaching doctors to act in strongly counter-cultural ways--possibly at great cost. Crucially, however, we protect both equal health and equal regard by treating all alike: priority to low status would promote the first somewhat, but at the expense of sacrificing the second. PMID:19103935
Full Text Available Objectives: This paper presents a literature review that examines the relationship between socioeconomic statusand women’s smoking behavior in the United States.Methods: A literature search was conducted among national and international peer-reviewed literature in thefollowing databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Education Resource InformationCenter (ERIC, MEDLINE, and PsycARTICLES. A manual search was performed to obtain relevant articleswithin selected journals.Results: Of the 9 reviewed studies, 5 indicated that a low education level is a causal factor which has a significantrelationship with smoking behavior among women. 6 of the reviewed studies provided evidence that householdincome level plays an important role in women’s cigarette smoking. Finally, 2 of the reviewed studies indicatedthat women’s smoking behavior is influenced by their marital status.Conclusion: The findings from this literature review indicate that future smoking prevention efforts targetingwomen might benefit from incorporating education, household income, and marital situation intomulti-component programs that focus on the differences in socioeconomic status.
The objectives of this systematic review are to summarise the current literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of childhood leukaemia, to highlight methodological problems and formulate recommendations for future research. Starting from the systematic review of Poole et al. (Socioeconomic status and childhood leukaemia: a review. Int. J. Epidemiol. 2006;35(2):370-384.), an electronic literature search was performed covering August 2002-April 2008. It showed that (1) the results are heterogeneous, with no clear evidence to support a relation between SES and childhood leukaemia; (2) a number of factors, most importantly selection bias, might explain inconsistencies between studies; (3) there is some support for an association between SES at birth (rather than later in childhood) and childhood leukaemia and (4) if there are any associations, these are weak, limited to the most extreme SES groups (the 10-20% most or least deprived). This makes it unlikely that they would act as strong confounders in research addressing associations between other exposures and childhood leukaemia. Future research should minimise case and control selection bias, distinguish between different SES measures and leukaemia subtypes and consider timing of exposures and cancer outcomes. (authors)
Pereira Carlos AB
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil. Methods We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n = 768, 35–60 years old. Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain. They were then invited to be clinically assessed (304 accepted. Pain was estimated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, as well as screening for tender points using dolorimetry. Statistical analyses included Bayesian Statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis Anova test (significance level = 5%. Results From the phone-interview screening, we divided participants (n = 768 in three groups: No Pain (NP (n = 185; Regional Pain (RP (n = 388 and Widespread Pain (WP (n = 106. Among those participating in the clinical assessments, (304 subjects, the prevalence of fibromyalgia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [2.6%; 6.3%]. Symptoms of pain (VAS and FIQ, feeling well, job ability, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depression were statically different among the groups. In multivariate analyses we found that individuals with FM and WP had significantly higher impairment than those with RP and NP. FM and WP were similarly disabling. Similarly, RP was no significantly different than NP. Conclusion Fibromyalgia is prevalent in the low socioeconomic status population assisted by the public primary health care system. Prevalence was similar to other studies (4.4% in a more diverse socioeconomic population. Individuals with FM and WP have significant impact in their well being.
Chuang, Y.; Cubbin, C.; Ahn, D; Winkleby, M
Objectives: To assess the effects of neighbourhood level socioeconomic status (SES) and convenience store concentration on individual level smoking, after consideration of individual level characteristics.
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been ''authorized as a defense activity of the Department of Energy...for the express purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States...'' (PL 96-164). As reported in previous conferences, WIPP continues ahead of schedule and below budget with full facility construction well underway. To date, based on recent review, the socioeconomic impacts have been negligible and steps have been taken to ensure that they remain that way throughout operations
Kopp, M.; Skrabski, A; Kawachi, I; Adler, N.
Objectives: To examine the relations between subjective social status, and objective socioeconomic status (as measured by income and education) in relation to male/female middle aged mortality rates across 150 sub-regions in Hungary.
Full Text Available Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye,1 Abali Chuku,2 Ikechi Gareth Okpechi,3 Ugochukwu Uchenna Onyeonoro,4 Okechukwu Ojoemelam Madukwe,5 Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka Okafor,6 Okechukwu Samuel Ogah5,71Division of Renal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 3Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, 5Ministry of Health, Nnamdi Azikiwe Secretariat, 6Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 7Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, NigeriaBackground and objectives: Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria.Material and method: This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity. Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance.Results: Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity in individuals with no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education was 6.3%, 14.9%, 10.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. Educational status was found to be significantly associated with obesity in women, but not in men, or in the combined group. However, level of income was observed to be significantly associated with obesity in men, women, and in the combined group.Conclusion: Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are important determinants of obesity in our study population, and therefore may be indirectly linked to the prevalence and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Nigeria.Keywords: obesity, body mass index, BMI, income, education, socioeconomic status, Naira (?
Full Text Available Socio-economic status of plain and hill area differ to a large degree from each other. Such type of study is very much common for both the areas. Rishop village of Darjeeling is very much interesting from social as well as economic point of view. On one hand tourism is a part of their economic life, on the other hand they are exceptional in West Bengal in terms of language, religion, way of life style etc. All these are due to the especial category of physical, and atmospheric set up
Previous studies showing a geographical association between radon and various cancers, particularly the leukaemias and lymphomas, appear to be confounded by the role of radon levels as a surrogate for socioeconomic status. Higher socioeconomic status (at least at the UK county level) is correlated with higher levels of domestic radon. Controlling for the relationship between socioeconomic status and radon removes the correlation between radon exposure and lymphoproliferative disease. Reported associations between radon and lymphoproliferative disease (and possibly other cancers) may be secondary to socioeconomic variables. (author)
Full Text Available The wealth of country in terms of man power totally depends upon the children, the future citizen. Apart from this, children also determine the socio-cultural values of the future. Physical, mental and social well beings of the children are closely related to the socioeconomic well beings of the parents. To know the Relationship between socioeconomic status of parents and health of children of Government primary school of Bangalore, a one-time observational cross sectional study was conducted in the three primary schools of Kottigepalya. 456 children were included in the study. A complete physical examination of the children was done and deviations from normal were recorded. A large number, 319 (69.96%, school children were found to be sick, in which 39 (12.23% children were belonging to SES lower middle (III, 239 (74.92% were to SES upper lower (IV and 41 (12.85% children were to SES lower (V. This results show that the SES of parents is truly affects the health of children.
This report examines the relationship between socio-economic status and participation in the vocational education and training (VET) sector. Research indicates that students from low socio-economic status areas are over-represented in the VET sector; it also shows that VET students from these areas complete qualifications at a better-than-average…
Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige
There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences…
Apouey, Bénédicte H.
Health policies tend to focus on improving the access to health care of persons of low-socioeconomic status to improve their health. This commentary argues that health policies directly directed at health and socioeconomic status (and other components of individual welfare) will also be effective if one wants to improve the well-being of the poor.
Caplan, Leslie J.; Schooler, Carmi
We examine the relations among socioeconomic status, control beliefs, and two coping styles (problem-focused vs. emotion-focused) in the context of financial stress. Findings indicate that low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked to greater use of emotion-focused financial coping and lesser use of problem-focused financial coping. The effects of…
Galéra, Cédric; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Michel, Grégory; Touchette, Evelyne; Fombonne, Eric; Melchior, Maria
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with socioeconomic difficulties later in life. Little research in this area has been based on longitudinal and community studies. AIMS: To examine the relationship between childhood attention problems and socioeconomic status 18 years later. METHOD: Using a French community sample of 1103 youths followed from 1991 to 2009, we tested associations between childhood attention problems and socioeconomic status between...
Full Text Available To study the role of Socio-Economic factors in increasing anxiety level of adolescents, a study was conducted among the adolescents of Nanded district With an Objective – “To study the Role of Socio-Economic Factors of Family in Arousing Anxiety of Adolescents.” Sample was selected by Stratified Random Sampling method among 265 girls and 262 boys from 16 to 18 years age group belonging to three income groups. Assessment of anxiety level in adolescents was carried out with the help I.P.A.T. Anxiety scale, by Samuel.E.Krug. For the convenience of adolescents Hindi version of this test was used revised by Dr.S.D.Kapoor. The obtained data was examined with the help of scoring key and was statistically co-related with socio-economic factors of adolescents. Results indicate that, 1Family income was significantly co-related with 5% level in boys with apprehension (0.249** and tension (0.256** and with 1% level with same norms i.e. apprehension (0511* and tension (0.521* in girls.2 Family income was also significantly co-related with low self control in boys (0274* and girls (0.277* with1% level.3 Specially in boys it was found that father's education was significantly co-related with apprehension (0.255* at 1% level.4 When anxiety norms of both girls and boys were studied through the test of variance i.e. one way ANOVA no significant difference was found. Scores for the norms like emotional instability, apprehension and tension were found with more percent in boys than girls. Whereas scores of indirect factors related to anxiety were found more in girls along with low self control and suspicion.
Lipowicz, Anna; Szklarska, Alicja; Malina, Robert M
This study considers the relationship between a cumulative index of biological dysregulation (allostatic load) and several dimensions of socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle in adult Polish males. The extent to which lifestyle variables can explain SES variation in allostatic load was also evaluated. Participants were 3887 occupationally active men aged 25-60 years living in cities and villages in the Silesia region of Poland. The allostatic load indicator included eleven markers: % fat (adverse nutritional intake), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (cardiovascular activity), FEV1 (lung function), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (inflammatory processes), glucose and total cholesterol (cardiovascular disease risk), total plasma protein (stress-haemoconcentration), bilirubin, creatinine clearance and alkaline phosphatase activity (hepatic and renal functions). A higher level of completed education, being married and residing in an urban area were associated with lower physiological dysregulation. The association between indicators of SES and allostatic load was not eliminated or attenuated when unhealthy lifestyle variables were included in the model. Smoking status and alcohol consumption played minimal roles in explaining the association between SES and allostatic load; physical activity, however, had a generally protective effect on allostatic load. PMID:23806750
Full Text Available Lars Haukali Omland,1 Merete Osler,2 Peter Jepsen,3,4 Henrik Krarup,5 Nina Weis,6 Peer Brehm Christensen,7 Casper Roed,1 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Niels Obel1 On behalf of the DANVIR Cohort Study1Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Research Center for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 6Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, DenmarkBackground and aims: It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection or a prognostic factor following infection.Methods: From Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on three markers of SES: employment, income, and education. In a case control design, we examined HCV infected patients and controls; conditional logistic regression was employed to obtain odds ratios (ORs for HCV infection for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity, and substance abuse. In a cohort design, we used Cox regression analysis to compute mortality rate ratios (MRRs for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity level, age, substance abuse, and gender.Results: When compared to employed persons, ORs for HCV infection were 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24–3.26 for disability pensioners and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.83–2.72 for the unemployed. When compared to persons with a high income, ORs were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.34–2.01 for low income persons and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.02–1.40 for medium income persons. The OR was 1.35 (95% CI: 1.20–1.52 for low education (no more than basic schooling. When compared to employed patients, MRRs were 1.71 (95% CI: 1.22–2.40 for unemployed patients and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.63–3.08 for disability pensioners. When compared to high income patients, MRRs were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.05–2.05 for medium income patients and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.13–2.34 for low income patients. Educational status was not associated with mortality.Conclusion: Low SES was associated with an increased risk of HCV infection and with poor prognosis in HCV infected patients.Keywords: survival, socioeconomic status, risk factor, prognosis
Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L
Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter ( 10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034
LaVeist, Thomas A.
This article addresses one of the most vexing problems facing health disparities researchers, the confounding of race and socioeconomic status. This article does the following: (1) it outlines the magnitude of confounding between race and socioeconomic status; (2) it demonstrates problems caused by this confounding; (3) it examines the degree to which race disparities are a function of socioecomic status; and (4) it discusses considerations for advancing research on health disparities after a...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported discrepancies in cause-specific mortality among groups of individuals with different socio-economic status. However, most of the studies were limited by the specificity of the investigated populations and the broad definitions of the causes of death. The aim of the present population-based study was to explore the dependence of disease specific mortalities on the socio-economic status in Sweden, a country with universal health care. Another aim was to investigate possible gender differences. Methods Using the 2006 update of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we identified over 2 million individuals with socio-economic data recorded in the 1960 national census. The association between mortality and socio-economic status was investigated by Cox's proportional hazards models taking into account the age, time period and residential area in both men and women, and additionally parity and age at first birth in women. Results We observed significant associations between socio-economic status and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, to cancer and to endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The influence of socio-economic status on female breast cancer was markedly specific: women with a higher socio-economic status showed increased mortality due to breast cancer. Conclusion Even in Sweden, a country where health care is universally provided, higher socio-economic status is associated with decreased overall and cause-specific mortalities. Comparison of mortality among female and male socio-economic groups may provide valuable insights into the underlying causes of socio-economic inequalities in length of life.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on elderly health. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean. The sample comprised 2,143 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 years and older living in the urban area of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Linear regression models estimated the effect of socioeconomic status indicators (years of schooling completed, occupation and purchasing pow...
Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G.; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Kushnerenko, Elena
Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject…
Irena Janžekovi? Žmauc
Full Text Available Preschool education is not possible without the cooperation of the parents, because it represents a complement to family education. Socio-economic status of parents is one of the factors that affect the cooperation of preschool teachers and parents. The empirical study checked whether there are differences in the types and frequency of participation of preschool teachers and parents in the areas of two Slovenian statistical regions that differ in the socio-economic status. We found that preschool teachers in the environment with lower socio-economic status more often cooperate with parents in some formal and informal modes of cooperation than they do in the environment with higher socio-economic status.
Tuchsen, F.; Hannerz, H; JENSEN, M; Krause, N.
Objectives: To predict the relative risk and time trend in hospitalisation due to coxarthrosis (CA) among groups of different socioeconomic status and occupations in order to test existing aetiological hypotheses.
Abdulrahman Nasser Al-Odayani; Omar Zayyan Alsharqi; Alaeddin Mohammad Khalaf Ahmad; Ala`Eddin Mohammad Khalaf Ahmad; Hussein Mohammad Al-Borie; Ameerah M. N. Qattan
The present study was designed to examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) of the mother’s knowledge about different aspects of diabetes and the glycemic control of type 1 children with diabetes. Samples were taken from successive admissions to the outpatient diabetes clinics in Prince Sultan Medical Military City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well designed questionnaire covering different aspects including demographic data, educational background, and socioeconomic status of the car...
Sharma, Rahul; Saini, Narinder K.
The socioeconomic status (SES) is widely recognized as one of the important factors affecting the health condition of an individual or a family. One of the scales widely used and quoted even today is the one developed by Kuppuswamy. The Kuppuswamy scale in its various forms has held steady over three decades now and is still widely used as a measure of socioeconomic status in the urban population. However, it is important to discuss the applicability in the changed modern scenario.
YU, Z.; Nissinen, A.; E. Vartiainen; Song, G.; Guo, Z.; Zheng, G.; Tuomilehto, J.; Tian, H.
INTRODUCTION: In developed countries socioeconomic status has been proven to be an important factor in the progression of cardiovascular disease. The present article reports the results of a cross-sectional assessment to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in a Chinese urban population. METHODS: In 1996, a behavioural risk factor survey was carried out in Tianjin, the third largest city in China. A sample of 4000 people aged 15-69 years, st...
Sabanayagam, C.; Shankar, A; Wong, T. Y.; Saw, S M; Foster, P.J.
BACKGROUND: Studies from industrialized Western countries have reported an inverse association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity. In contrast, few studies from newly industrialized countries in Asia have examined this association. In this context, we examined the association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity by gender in Chinese adults in Singapore.METHODS: A population-based cross sectional study of 942 participants (57.3% women, 40-81 years) residing in t...
Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Hayashi, Hanae; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
Background: Considerable evidence suggests that communication inequality is one potential mechanism linking social determinants, particularly socioeconomic status, and health inequalities. This study aimed to examine how dimensions of health communication outcomes (health information seeking, self-efficacy, exposure, and trust) are patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan. Methods: Data of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 2,455 people aged 15–75 years in Japan were us...
López León, S.; Choy, W.C.; Aulchenko, Y S.; Claes, S.; Oostra, B. A.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Duijn, C.M. van; Janssens, A.C.J.W.
Objective: To investigate the extent to which shared genetic factors can explain the clustering of depression among individuals with lower socioeconomic status, and to examine if neuroticism or intelligence are involved in these pathways. Methods: In total 2,383 participants (1,028 men and 1,355 women) of the Erasmus Rucphen Family Study were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADSD). Socioeconomic status ...
PUSHPALATA M. DESHMUKH
The purpose of the study was to compare the socio-economic status between Kabaddi and Football Players participation in Intercollegiate Competition. The objective of the study was to find out whether there is any significant difference in the socio-economic status of Kabaddi and Football Players participation in Intercollegiate Competition For the purpose of this study 30 Kabaddi players and 30 Football players were selected as a sample who participated in Intercollegiate Competition ...
Sundquist Jan; Sundquist Kristina; Bermejo Justo; Weires Marianne; Hemminki Kari
Abstract Background Previous studies have reported discrepancies in cause-specific mortality among groups of individuals with different socio-economic status. However, most of the studies were limited by the specificity of the investigated populations and the broad definitions of the causes of death. The aim of the present population-based study was to explore the dependence of disease specific mortalities on the socio-economic status in Sweden, a country with universal health care. Another a...
Riva, Valentina; Marino, Cecilia; Giorda, Roberto; Molteni, Massimo; Nobile, Maria
Both genetic and socio-demographic factors influence the risk for behavioral problems in the developmental age. Genetic studies indicate that shared genetic factors partially contribute to behavioral and learning problems, in particular reading disabilities (RD). For the first time, we explore the conjoint role of DCDC2 gene, an identified RD candidate gene, and socioeconomic status (SES) upon behavioral phenotypes in a general population of Italian children. Two of the most replicated DCDC2 markers [i.e., regulatory element associated with dyslexia 1 (READ1), rs793862] were genotyped in 631 children (boys = 314; girls = 317) aged 11-14 years belonging to a community-based sample. Main and interactive effects were tested by MANOVA for each combination of DCDC2 genotypes and socioeconomic status upon emotional and behavioral phenotypes, assessed by Child Behavior Check-List/6-18. The two-way MANOVA (Bonferroni corrected p value = 0.01) revealed a trend toward significance of READ1(4) effect (F = 2.39; p = 0.016), a significant main effect of SES (F = 3.01; p = 0.003) and interactive effect of READ1(4) × SES (F = 2.65; p = 0.007) upon behavioral measures, showing higher attention problems scores among subjects 'READ1(4+) and low SES' compared to all other groups (p values range 0.00003-0.0004). ANOVAs stratified by gender confirmed main and interactive effects among girls, but not boys. Among children exposed to low socioeconomic level, READ1 genetic variant targets the worst outcome in children's attention. PMID:25012462
Johnson, Sara B.; Gordon, Brian J.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Adler, Nancy E.
Background: Physicians' assumptions about patients' socioeconomic status (SES) have been shown to influence clinical decision making in adult patients. The goal of this study is to assess the factors associated with pediatric pulmonologists' (PPs') subjective ratings of their patients' SES, and whether these factors differ by patient race/ethnicity. Methods: Parents of children with asthma (n=171) presenting for pulmonary care reported their SES using the MacArthur Subjective SES 10-rung ladder. The PPs (n=7) also estimated each family's SES. Two-level linear regression models with random intercepts (level 1: PP's SES ratings; level 2: PPs) were used to assess the predictors of PP-estimated family SES. The analyses were then stratified by race/ethnicity. Results: Parental educational, insurance type, age, and race/ethnic background were associated with PPs' SES ratings. Black/African American families were rated lower than white families, accounting for other demographic factors (b=?0.60, p<0.01), but families of other races/ethnicities were not (b=?0.10, p=0.29). Even when comparing families with the same level of parental education, black/African American families, but not families of other backgrounds, were judged to have lower SES than white families (from 0.77 rungs lower among parents with some college, to 1.2 rungs lower among parents with high school or less; both p<0.05). Conclusions: Racial differences in PPs' ability to estimate families' subjective SES in asthma care may be a function of unconscious societal biases about race and class. Collecting subjective SES from families and PPs during the office visit could facilitate discussions about material and psychosocial needs and resources that influence treatment effectiveness. PMID:25276485
Lange, Peter; Marott, Jacob Louis
We investigated the association between length of school education and 5-year prognosis of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), including exacerbations, hospital admissions and survival. We used sample of general population from two independent population studies: The Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study. A total of 6,590 individuals from general population of Copenhagen with COPD defined by the Global initiative for obstructive lung disease criteria were subdivided into 4 groups based on the length of school education: 1,590 with education < 8 years; 3,131 with education 8-10 years, 1,244 with more than 10 years, but no college/university education and 625 with college/university education. Compared with long education, short education was associated with current smoking (p < 0.001), higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms (p < 0.001) and lower forced expiratory volume in the first second in percent of predicted value (FEV1%pred) (p < 0.001). Adjusting for sex, age, FEV1%pred, dyspnea, frequency of previous exacerbations and smoking we observed that shortest school education (in comparison with university education), was associated with a higher risk of COPD exacerbations (hazards ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.15-2.37) and higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.28-2.99). We conclude that even in an economically well-developed country with a health care system (which is largely free of charge), low socioeconomic status, assessed as the length of school education, is associated with a poorer clinical prognosis of COPD.
Lange, Peter; Marott, Jacob Louis
We investigated the association between length of school education and 5-year prognosis of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), including exacerbations, hospital admissions and survival. We used sample of general population from two independent population studies: The Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study. A total of 6,590 individuals from general population of Copenhagen with COPD defined by the Global initiative for obstructive lung disease criteria were subdivided into 4 groups based on the length of school education: 1,590 with education < 8 years; 3,131 with education 8-10 years, 1,244 with more than 10 years, but no college/university education and 625 with college/university education. Compared with long education, short education was associated with current smoking (p < 0.001), higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms (p < 0.001) and lower forced expiratory volume in the first second in percent of predicted value (FEV1%pred) (p < 0.001). Adjusting for sex, age, FEV1%pred, dyspnea, frequency of previous exacerbations and smoking we observed that shortest school education (in comparison with university education), was associated with a higher risk of COPD exacerbations (hazards ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.15-2.37) and higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.28-2.99). We conclude that even in an economically well-developed country with a health care system (which is largely free of charge), low socioeconomic status, assessed as the length of school education, is associated with a poorer clinical prognosis of COPD.
Idorn, L W; Wulf, H C
Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), also in Northern Europe despite equal access to health care. SES per se is not responsible for this association which must be ascribed to important risk factors for CMM such as intermittent UVR exposure, and screening for CMM possibly owing to a greater knowledge and understanding of CMM. Our review of the literature showed that high SES is associated with increased risk of CMM, thinner tumours, increased survival, and decreased mortality from CMM - the latter shown among women, and in recent studies also among men. There is evidence that high SES is associated with sun holidays, whereas low SES is associated with use of sunbeds. Findings suggest that high SES is associated with use of physicians and dermatologists for marks and moles, possibly due to more knowledge and better understanding of CMM. We conclude that there has been a true increase in CMM incidence among high SES individuals in Northern Europe probably due to past intense intermittent UVR exposure, especially in connection with sun holidays. However, the increased risk of CMM and a better outcome of CMM in high SES individuals may also be conditioned by frequent recourse to physicians, which may be ascribed to more knowledge and better understanding of CMM, although more studies on this subject are warranted. Thicker CMM tumours and increased CMM mortality among low SES individuals in recent decades may reflect exposure to intermittent UVR such as use of sunbeds, as well as delayed diagnosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen
It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.
Full Text Available Background: Not only the expand development of knowledge for reducing risk factors, but also the improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and socioeconomic inequalities could affect cancer incidence, diagnosis stage, and mortality. The aim of this study was investigation the relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study has conducted on 526 patients who were suffering from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2008 to December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status has filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS19. Results: The mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41. According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between family socioeconomic status and patient's age at diagnosis of breast cancer (p value 0.001. In the multiple logistic regressions, the relationship between excellent socioeconomic status and number of abortions was significant (p value> 0.007. Furthermore, the relationships between moderate and good socioeconomic statuses and smoking were significant (p value=0.05 and p value=0.02, respectively. Conclusion: The results have indicated that among those patients having better socioeconomic status, age at cancer diagnosis, number of pregnancies and duration of breast feeding was lower, and then number of abortions was more than the others. According to the results of this study, it was really important to focus on family socioeconomic status as a critical and effective variable on breast cancer risk factors among the Iranian women.
Mohaghegh, Pegah; Yavari, Parvin; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Abadi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Shormeij, Zeinab
Background Not only the expand development of knowledge for reducing risk factors, but also the improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and socioeconomic inequalities could affect cancer incidence, diagnosis stage, and mortality. The aim of this study was investigation the relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study has conducted on 526 patients who were suffering from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2008 to December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status has filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS19. Results The mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41). According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between family socioeconomic status and patient's age at diagnosis of breast cancer (p value 0.001). In the multiple logistic regressions, the relationship between excellent socioeconomic status and number of abortions was significant (p value> 0.007). Furthermore, the relationships between moderate and good socioeconomic statuses and smoking were significant (p value=0.05 and p value=0.02, respectively). Conclusion The results have indicated that among those patients having better socioeconomic status, age at cancer diagnosis, number of pregnancies and duration of breast feeding was lower, and then number of abortions was more than the others. According to the results of this study, it was really important to focus on family socioeconomic status as a critical and effective variable on breast cancer risk factors among the Iranian women. PMID:25821572
This survey study investigated the influences of culture, socioeconomic status, and children's special education status on parents' engagement in fostering self-determination behaviors. Major findings included (a) children from Caucasian families were more involved in personal independence activities than Asian and African American children; (b)…
Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Individual-le...
Syed M. A. Hanifi
Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES. Objective: The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design: We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4. The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results: Analysing cause of death (CoD revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were the leading causes of deaths (37%, followed by communicable diseases (CDs (22%, perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%, and injury and accidents (6%; the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years, which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04. For adult and the elderly (15 years and older, NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%, followed by CDs (23%. For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005, and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0.001. Conclusions: Epidemiologic transition is taking place with a shift from the dominance of CDs to NCDs. SES inequity in mortality still persists – the poor suffer from CDs in all age groups, whereas those better off suffer more from NCDs than CDs. Policy makers thus need to consider the social distribution of diseases before developing any public health action targeted towards reducing mortality and the extent of disease burden in an equitable manner.
Trickett, Penelope K.; And Others
The relationship of socioeconomic status (SES) to the etiology of physical child abuse and the consequences of abuse for child development was studied. There was an interaction of SES with abuse status. This suggests different relationships between SES and child rearing in abusive and nonabusive families. (BC)
de Haan, Anna M.; Boon, Albert E.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Hoeve, Machteld; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.
Background: Dropout from child and adolescent psychotherapy is a common phenomenon which can have negative consequences for the individual later in life. It is therefore important to gain insight on dropout risk factors. Objective: Several potential risk factors [ethnic minority status, a lower socioeconomic status (SES), and higher problem…
Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Abiodun; Adegoke, Olajire O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Awotidebe, Taofeek O
The study determined the diastolic and systolic pressure, anthropometric parameters, serological parameters comprising fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as well as the socio-economic status (SES) of inhabitants of Ilora with a view to providing information on impact of SES on metabolic syndrome (MetS). One hundred participants (54 males and 46 females) whose ages ranged from 30 and 70 years, participated in the study. Participants were recruited from the three wards of the town using multi-stage random sampling procedure. Subjects' weights, height, blood pressure, waist circumference (WC) were measured using standard instruments. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured using a glucometer on participants' blood samples taken after at least 8h of fasting. Serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were analyzed using enzyme colometric assay kits in the laboratory. SES of the participants was determined by using a questionnaire, which sought information on annual income, occupation and education. Participants who had MetS were determined using the new International Diabetes Foundation definition of MetS. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The mean scores for the males and females systolic blood pressure (SBP) were 123.20 ± 20.72 mmHg and 117.78 ± 14.64 mmHg, and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 78.63 ± 11.72 mmHg and 75.98 ± 13.06 mmHg, respectively. The mean of serological variables scores for the males and females, respectively, were FBG (4.95 ± 0.81 mmol/L and 4.84 ± 1.36 mmol/L), TG (1.28 ± 0.75 mmol/L and 1.35 ± 1.05 mmol/L), HDL-C (1.26 ± 0.21 mmol/L and 2.32 ± 7.34 mmol/L). The mean SES scores for the males and females were 14.35 ± 4.75 and 13.13 ± 4.66, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was 43.5% in females and 9.3% in males. Significant differences were found in SBP and FBG across the three SES groups (F=3.148 and 3.862, respectively, p<0.05). The high SES group was found to have significantly higher SBP and FBG than the low and middle SES groups. There were significant correlations between SES scores and SBP (r=0.255; p<0.05), FBG (r=0.270; p<0.01), and BMI (r=0.210; p<0.05). Also, significant relationships were found between weight and TG (r=0.282; p<0.05), waist circumference (WC) and FBG (r=0.264; p<0.05), and WC and TG (r=0.414; p<0.01). The study concluded that SES has significant relationship with metabolic syndrome components such as SBP and fasting blood glucose among adult population in Nigeria. PMID:23680248
Kieffer, Michael J.
Educators have growing concerns about students who learn to read proficiently by third grade but fall behind in later grades. This study investigates the prevalence of "late-emerging" reading difficulties among English language learners (ELLs) and native English speakers from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, using longitudinal data on a…
Daraei, Mina; Mohajery, Artmiz
The stratification system in India has resulted in the socioeconomic inequality in society and defines women domestic workers as one of the lowest segments of society. This qualitative and quantitative study aims at describing the problems of female domestic workers, the relationship of their employers with them, and exploring the impact of…
Monteiro, Carlos A.; Moura, Erly C.; Conde, Wolney L.; Popkin, Barry M.
A landmark review of studies published prior to 1989 on socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity supported the view that obesity in the developing world would be essentially a disease of the socioeconomic elite. The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity. Although more studies are necessary to clarify the exact nature of this relationship, partic...
Claudette D., Ncho; Susan C.D., Wright.
Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situ [...] ation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch's approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.
Claudette D. Ncho
Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates ofmorbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Dueto the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health ina low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gainan understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due totheir socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory usingpurposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realisedas 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in SoshanguveExtension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using opencoding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and geneticconstitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and workingconditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of peopleliving in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approachfrom registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned andimplemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in thecommunity without evidence based on a family perspective.
Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Landale, Nancy S.
Child health is fundamental to well-being and achievement throughout the life course. Prior research has demonstrated strong associations between familial socioeconomic resources and children’s health outcomes, with especially poor health outcomes among disadvantaged youth who experience a concentration of risks, yet little is known about the influence of maternal health as a dimension of risk for children. This research used nationally representative U.S. data from the National Health Inte...
Yan Huang; Jing Ren
Objectives: This paper presents a literature review that examines the relationship between socioeconomic statusand women’s smoking behavior in the United States.Methods: A literature search was conducted among national and international peer-reviewed literature in thefollowing databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Education Resource InformationCenter (ERIC), MEDLINE, and PsycARTICLES. A manual search was performed to obtain relevant articleswithin selected journals...
Full Text Available Educational achievement is only an aspect of development among many sides. Academic achievement may be influenced by various socio-economic factors like age, gender, family size, parent's education and occupation and also by economic status of the family. Without having opportunities it is not possible to achieve something in any sphere of life. The main objective of this study is to study the academic achievement of the students of Class X ,CBSE Examination, 2011-12 of the Kendriya Vidyalayas of Dibrugarh district and to study whether the socio-economic status the parents have any effect on the academic achievement of their children.
Curtis, David D.; Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, John; Lawson, Michael J.
Students from rural and low socioeconomic backgrounds do not pursue university education at the same rate as those from metropolitan areas or from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. This has been a long-standing issue for government. This study explores the aspirations and intentions for university education among low socioeconomic status (SES) and…
Full Text Available Background: Stage is one of the most important prognostic factors for the cancer diagnosis, including the breast cancer. Studies have found that the rate of breast cancer late-stage diagnosis, among the women with lower socioeconomic status, is more than the others. The aim of this study was investigation the relationship between family levels of socioeconomic status and stage at diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive study has conducted on 526 patients who have suffered from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti university of Medical science, from March 2008 till December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family status of socioeconomic status, have filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS 19. Results: The results have indicated that the mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41. There was a significant relationship between stage at diagnosis of breast cancer and family levels of socioeconomic status at the time of diagnosis (p=0.024. Also, the relationship between stage at diagnosis and living place (in or out of Tehran was significant (p=0.044. In the Multiple logistic regressions, these associations were significant. There wasn’t any significant relationship between stage of diagnosis of breast cancer and age, marital status and family history. Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study, deep paying attention to the family socioeconomic status as an important variable in stage at diagnosis of breast cancer, among Iranian women, was too important, and then providing the prevention plans related to this topic has seemed necessary.
Mohaghegh, Pegah; Yavari, Parvin; Akbari, Mohammad Esmail; Abadi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Farzane
Background Stage is one of the most important prognostic factors for the cancer diagnosis, including the breast cancer. Studies have found that the rate of breast cancer late-stage diagnosis, among the women with lower socioeconomic status, is more than the others. The aim of this study was investigation the relationship between family levels of socioeconomic status and stage at diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive study has conducted on 526 patients who have suffered from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti university of Medical science, from March 2008 till December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family status of socioeconomic status, have filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS 19. Results The results have indicated that the mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41). There was a significant relationship between stage at diagnosis of breast cancer and family levels of socioeconomic status at the time of diagnosis (p=0.024). Also, the relationship between stage at diagnosis and living place (in or out of Tehran) was significant (p=0.044). In the Multiple logistic regressions, these associations were significant. There wasn’t any significant relationship between stage of diagnosis of breast cancer and age, marital status and family history. Conclusion Regarding the results of this study, deep paying attention to the family socioeconomic status as an important variable in stage at diagnosis of breast cancer, among Iranian women, was too important, and then providing the prevention plans related to this topic has seemed necessary. PMID:25628844
Full Text Available Background: Despite a long interest in the historical fertility transition, there is still a lack of knowledge about disaggregated patterns that could help us understand the mechanisms behind the transition. In previous research the widely held view is that there was a change in the association between social status and fertility in conjunction with the fertility transition, implying that fertility went from being positively connected to social status (higher status was connected with higher fertility to being negatively associated with fertility. Objective: The aim of this collection is to study socioeconomic patterns in the fertility transition in a variety of contexts using similar approaches and measures of socioeconomic status. Methods: All contributions use different kinds of micro-level socioeconomic and demographic data and statistical models in the analysis. Data either come from census-like records or population registers. Conclusions: There is no consistent evidence for the hypothesis that socioeconomic status was positively related to fertility before the demographic transition. While such a correlation was clearly present in some contexts it was clearly not in other contexts. There is more unanimous support for the idea that the upper-and middle classes acted as forerunners in the transition, while especially farmers were late to change their fertility behavior. It is also evident that both parity-specific stopping and prolonged birth intervals (spacing were important in the fertility transition.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of a prospective study on quality of life in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients an investigation was carried out to examine whether there were differences among patients' quality of life scores and their socioeconomic status. Methods Quality of life was measured at two points in time (baseline and three months after initial treatment using three standard instruments; the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP, the European Organization for Research and Cancer Treatment Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 and its lung cancer supplement (QLQ-LC13. Socioeconomic status for each individual patient was derived using Carstairs and Morris Deprivation Category ranging from 1 (least deprived to 7 (most deprived on the basis of the postcode sector of their address. Results In all, 129 lung cancer patients entered into the study. Of these data for 82 patients were complete (at baseline and follow-up. 57% of patients were of lower socioeconomic status and they had more health problems, less functioning, and more symptoms as compared to affluent patients. Of these, physical mobility (P = 0.05, energy (P = 0.01, role functioning (P = 0.04, physical functioning (P = 0.03, and breathlessness (P = 0.02 were significant at baseline. However, at follow-up assessment there was no significant difference between patient groups nor did any consistent pattern emerge. Conclusion At baseline assessment patients of lower socioeconomic status showed lower health related quality of life. Since there was no clear trend at follow-up assessment this suggests that patients from different socioeconomic status responded to treatment similarly. In general, the findings suggest that quality of life is not only the outcome of the disease and its treatment, but is also highly dependent on each patients' socioeconomic characteristics.
Bratter, Jenifer L.; Gorman, Bridget K.
Using the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we explore the relationship between racial awareness, perceived discrimination, and self-rated health among black (n = 5,902) and white (n = 28,451) adults. We find that adjusting for group differences in racial awareness and discrimination, in addition to socioeconomic status, explains…
Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon
This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of…
Mulia, Nina; Karriker-jaffe, Katherine J.
Aims: To assess cross-level interactions between neighborhood and individual socioeconomic status (SES) on alcohol consumption and problems, and investigate three possible explanations for such interactions, including the double jeopardy, status inconsistency and relative deprivation hypotheses. Methods: Data from the 2000 and 2005 US National Alcohol Surveys were linked to the 2000 US Census to define respondent census tracts as disadvantaged, middle-class and advantaged. Risk drinking (cons...
Gretchen L. Birbeck; Kvalsund, Michelle P.; Byers, Peter A.; Bradbury, Richard; Mang'ombe, Charles; Organek, Natalie; Kaile, Trevor; Sinyama, Alex M.; Sinyangwe, Sylvester S.; Malama, Kennedy; Malama, Costantine
We conducted a prospective cohort study of 496 adults starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) to determine the impact of neuropsychiatric symptoms and socioeconomic status on adherence and mortality. Almost 60% had good adherence based upon pharmacy records. Poor adherence was associated with being divorced, poorer, food insecure, and less educated. Longer travel time to clinic, concealing one's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and experiencing side effects predicted poor adherence....
Sarah Hoeck; Johan Van der Heyden; Joanna Geerts; Guido Van Hal
Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (?65 years) and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES). Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine t...
Oh, Sam S.; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Martin, Melissa; Roth, Lindsey A.; Galanter, Joshua; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Eng, Celeste; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A.; Avila, Pedro C.; Farber, Harold J.; Serebrisky, Denise; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Williams, L. Keoki; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Thyne, Shannon; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Burchard, Esteban G.
Rationale: The burden of asthma is highest among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations; however, its impact is differentially distributed among racial and ethnic groups. Objectives: To assess the collective effect of maternal educational attainment, annual household income, and insurance type on childhood asthma among minority, urban youth. Methods: We included Mexican American (n = 485), other Latino (n = 217), and African American (n = 1,141) children (aged 8–21 yr) with and without asthma from the San Francisco Bay Area. An index was derived from maternal educational attainment, annual household income, and insurance type to assess the collective effect of socioeconomic status on predicting asthma. Logistic regression stratified by racial and ethnic group was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further examined whether acculturation explained the socioeconomic-asthma association in our Latino population. Measurements and Main Results: In the adjusted analyses, African American children had 23% greater odds of asthma with each decrease in the socioeconomic index (aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09–1.38). Conversely, Mexican American children have 17% reduced odds of asthma with each decrease in the socioeconomic index (aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72–0.96) and this relationship was not fully explained by acculturation. This association was not observed in the other Latino group. Conclusions: Socioeconomic status plays an important role in predicting asthma, but has different effects depending on race and ethnicity. Further steps are necessary to better understand the risk factors through which socioeconomic status could operate in these populations to prevent asthma. PMID:24050698
Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M
There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n?=?287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t?=?-2.7, P?=?.04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t?=?-2.04, P?=?.04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities. PMID:24879885
BelstrØm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. RESULTS: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the mostpredominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [G-3] brachy) were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01). Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…
Sackett, Paul R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Arneson, Justin J.; Cooper, Sara R.; Waters, Shonna D.
Critics of educational admissions tests assert that tests measure nothing more than socioeconomic status (SES) and that their apparent validity in predicting academic performance is an artifact of SES. The authors examined multiple large data sets containing data on admissions and related tests, SES, and grades showing that (a) SES is related to…
Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.
This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…
von Stumm, Sophie
The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…
Davis, Paula Coldwell
This study was conducted to see if a difference exists in the language arts proficiency levels of 2,080 fourth grade students with regard to gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status from 2010 through 2012 on the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program. Specifically, this study considered the possibility that a difference existed in language…
Chang, Dian-Fu; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Lin, Sung-Po
This study examines the nature of adult engagement in lifelong learning in Taiwan. Previous studies have shown that gender and socioeconomic status (SES) are key variables related to equal access to education. Are these variables related to adults' engagement in lifelong learning in a specific country? This study analysed data from a survey of…
Carvalho, Renato G.; Novo, Rosa F.
Introduction: In this quantitative, cross-sectional study we analyse the relationship between family socioeconomic status (SES) and students' adaptation to school life, as expressed through several indicators of achievement, integration (adaptation to transitions, behaviour problems, risk behaviours, interpersonal difficulties, participation in…
In overcrowded urban high schools, students are dealing with many issues in and out of school. Issues at home paired with math curriculum that does not seem relevant to their lives, leads to a lack of engagement in the classroom. This research poses the question: How can project-based algebra engage low-socioeconomic status high school students?…
Dodge, Kenneth A.
Examined processes in socialization that might account for an observed relationship between early socioeconomic status (SES) and later child behavior problems. Subjects were 585 children, followed from preschool to grade 3. Found that SES in preschool significantly predicted teacher-rated externalizing problems and peer-rated aggressive behavior.…
Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke
This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…
Ramburuth, Prem; Hartel, Charmine E. J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight factors that facilitate or hinder the entry and academic achievement of students from low socioeconomic status into higher education, and facilitate understanding about how such students can be supported in their learning at university. Design/methodology/approach: The authors draw on the…
Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Neena; Bottia, Martha Cecilia
Scholars have not adequately assessed how organizational cultures in schools differentially influence students' mathematics achievement by race and socioeconomic status (SES). We focus on what we term "collective pedagogical teacher culture", highlighting the role of professional communities and teacher collaboration in influencing mathematics…
Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…
Gore, Jennifer; Holmes, Kathryn; Smith, Max; Southgate, Erica; Albright, Jim
Recent Australian government targets for higher education participation have produced a flurry of activity focused on raising the aspirations of students from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. In this paper we test two key assumptions underpinning much of this activity: that students from low-SES backgrounds hold lower career…
Iruka, Iheoma U.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.
Research Findings: Grounded in the investment model and informed by the integrative theory of the study of minority children, this study used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set, a nationally representative sample of young children, to investigate whether the association between socioeconomic status (family income and…
This paper uses ordinary least squares, logit and probit regressions, along with chi-square analysis applied to nationwide data from the New Zealand ratemyteacher website to establish if there is any correlation between student ratings of their teachers and the socioeconomic status of the school the students attend. The results show that students…
Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio, Jr.
Using a nationally representative sample from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, this research examines the longitudinal effects of race and socioeconomic status on 12th-grade educational achievement and achievement 2 years after high school. For 12th-grade outcomes, the authors found no statistical difference in scores between Hispanic…
DeFlorio, Lydia; Beliakoff, Amber
Research Findings: Children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) enter kindergarten with less developed mathematical knowledge compared to children from middle SES families. This discrepancy is present at age 3 years and likely stems from differences in the home learning environment. This study reports SES-related differences both in…
Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien
The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…
Full Text Available The survey was carried out to study socioeconomic status of 50 dog owners in Nagpur of Maharashtra.The result revealed the businessmen (38% are more interested in dog keeping followed by government servants (16% and student (12%. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 229-229
Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie
Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…
Lawson, Gwendolyn M.; Duda, Jeffrey T.; Avants, Brian B.; Wu, Jue; Farah, Martha J.
Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function performance and measures of prefrontal cortical function, but little is known about its anatomical correlates. Structural MRI and demographic data from a sample of 283 healthy children from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development were used to investigate the relationship…
Dickinson, Emily R.; Adelson, Jill L.
This study uses a nationally representative student dataset to explore the limitations of commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES). Among the identified limitations are patterns of missing data that conflate the traditional conceptualization of SES with differences in family structure that have emerged in recent years and a lack of…
Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda
Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…
Rivers, Thomas E., Jr.
This study included a comparison of the graduation rates among high schools in South Carolina closely analyzing school size and socioeconomic status. The purpose for the study was to answer two questions: What patterns and relationships exist between school size and graduation rates at high schools in South Carolina? What patterns and…
Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang
This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…
A socio-psychological analytical framework will be adopted to illuminate the relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The framework puts the emphasis to incorporate micro familial factors into macro factor of the tracking system. Initially, children of the poor families always lack major prerequisite: diminution of cognitive…
Szumski, Grzegorz; Karwowski, Maciej
The objective of this study was to describe the selected conditions for school achievement of students with mild intellectual disabilities from Polish elementary schools. Participants were 605 students with mild disabilities from integrative, regular, and special schools, and their parents (N = 429). It was found that socioeconomic status (SES)…
Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Pesman, Haki
The authors explored how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) predicted physics achievement as mediated by metacognition and physics self-efficacy. Data were collected from 338 high school students. The model designed for exploring how gender and SES-related differences in physics achievement were explained through metacognition and physics…
Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather
Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…
Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod
This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…
Objective: To assess the socioeconomic status, treatment being offered and the impact of congenital heart disease treatment on families. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital / Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from first March to 31 August 2010. Methodology: All patients undergoing a cardiac surgical or angiographic intervention were enrolled. Socioeconomic status was assessed by Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale with income group modification. The impact was measured by the source of financing, effect on family financing source and schooling and health of siblings. Results: Of 211 patients undergoing treatment in the study period, surgery was the definitive treatment in 164 (77.7%) and angiographic intervention in 47 (22.3%) patients. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The mean age of the patient was 39.1 +- 3.2 months (range 01 day to 15 years). Majority of families belonged to middle (66.4%, n=140) and lower (27%, n=57) socioeconomic class. The mean cost of medicines and disposable was PKR 78378.2 +- 8845.9 (US$ 933.1 +- 105.3) in open heart surgery, PKR 12581 +- 7010.8 (US$ 149.8 +- 83.5) in closed heart surgery and PKR 69091 + 60906 in angiographic interventions. In 63.1% patients, families contributed towards these costs either completely (12.3%) or partly (50.8%) with significant contribution from the hospital. Adverse effect on families ranged from leave without pay to losing jobs or business (46%), and sellto losing jobs or business (46%), and selling their assets (11.3%). It also affected schooling and health of siblings (22.7% and 26.1% respectively). Conclusion: Majority of children with congenital heart disease belonged to middle and lower socioeconomic status in this study. Main definitive treatment was surgery. The cost of health care facilities posed a marked socioeconomic burden on those families. (author)
Associated with overweight, obesity and chronic diseases, the nutrition transition process reveals important socioeconomic issues in Mexico. Using panel data from the Mexican Family Life Survey, the purpose of the study is to estimate the causal effect of household socioeconomic status (SES) on nutritional outcomes among urban adults. We divide the analysis into two steps. First, using a mixed clustering procedure, we distinguish four socioeconomic classes based on income, educational and occupational dimensions: (i) a poor class; (ii) a lower-middle class; (iii) an upper-middle class; (iv) a rich class. Second, using an econometric framework adapted to our study (the Hausman-Taylor estimator), we measure the impact of belonging to these socioeconomic groups on individual anthropometric indicators, based on the body-mass index (BMI) and the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Our results make several contributions: (i) we show that a new middle class, rising out of poverty, is the most exposed to the risks of adiposity; (ii) as individuals from the upper class seem to be fatter than individuals from the upper-middle class, we can reject the assumption of an inverted U-shaped relationship between socioeconomic and anthropometric status as commonly suggested in emerging economies; (iii) the influence of SES on central adiposity appears to be particularly strong for men. PMID:26004210
Full Text Available Background: The rapid growth of ICT has led to an important increase in the use of computers in preschool age. However the benefits of this use are a debatable issue. Some focus on the positive effects of computers on learning and kids’ cognitive development while others believe that computers may negatively affect their social and motivational impact.Aim: The aim of this research was to study Greek parents’ views on preschools’ computer programs and how these views are influenced by the family’s socioeconomic level.Methodology: The survey involved 280 parents of children aged 3-5 years, of whom 140 were in the upper socioeconomic level and the other 140 in a lower one.Results: The upper socioeconomic level parents thought that the use of computers was appropriate for preschool children more than parents of lower socioeconomic status (P=0.01. and that its inclusion in the preschool center’s program would work in favor for children who have no computer at home (P=0.00. Parents with higher socioeconomic status felt more than the others that such a program can support the provision of knowledge (P=0.00, the development of mathematical (P=0.00 and linguistic skills (P=0.00 and entertain children (P=0.04. Furthermore, the upper socioeconomic level parents as opposed to the other group do not consider that the computer will remove preschool educator from their leading and teaching role (P=0.04 or reduce their communication with the preschoolers (P=0.00.Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that Greek parents, especially those of higher socioeconomic level, have a positive view on the integration of a computer program into the preschoolclassroom.
Full Text Available This study was design to determine whether there is a difference in the number of meals consumed away from home (restaurant or fast food between low socioeconomic status (SES and high SES adolescents. Additionally, this study sought to determine if the nutrients and food group chosen differs among children who consume meals away from home versus those who do not. Eighty four adolescences (51 boys and 33 girls ages 12-16 years and their parents from Shiraz, Iran completed the three 24 h diet recalls (one weekend and two week days. The demographics questionnaire was also completed from each participant. Data analyzed using SPSS and hypothesis tested using one way ANOVA. There was no significant difference in the number of meals consumed away from home in low SES adolescents compared to high SES (p = 0.464. However, those who consumed meals away from home reported a higher percentage of calories from fat (p = 0.007 and serving of fried vegetables (p = 0.010 compared to those who consumed no meals away from home. These findings suggest that intervention for adolescents eating patterns should provide information on choosing healthy meals away from home.
Eaton, William W.; Muntaner, Carles; Bovasso, Gregory; Smith, Corey
This paper assesses the hypothesis that depressive syndrome is associated with socioeconomic status, using longitudinal data from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Followup. Socioeconomic measures include those used in most studies of status attainment, as well as measures of financial dependence, non-job income, and work environment. Analyses include inter-and intra- generational mobility, and replicate the basic aspects of the status attainment process, as well as psychiatric epide...
Münster Eva; Rüger Heiko; Ochsmann Elke; Letzel Stephan; Toschke André M
Abstract Background The recent credit crunch will have implications for private households. Low socioeconomic status is associated to various diseases. While income, education and occupational status is frequently used in definitions of socioeconomic status, over-indebtedness of private households is usually not considered. Over-indebtedness is currently increasing in high-income countries. However, its association with health – particularly with obesity – remains unknown. Therefore, the ...
Full Text Available Environment is a global concept today. Environmental Education is an approach to learning. Environmental Education means the educational process dealing with man's relationship of population, pollution resource, conservation, technology, energy, urban and rural planning to the total biosphere.A self-made questionnaire was made in order to find the relationship between the Environmental Education aptitude and socioeconomic status among class IX Children of rural, urban and semi urban. The question paper contents fifty (50 questions and it divided into two sector. In sector-I content (10 questions by which the socioeconomic status of the children can be known and Sector-II consists of four type questions by which Environmental Education aptitude can be understood.Socioeconomic status is evaluated from the response of sector-I questions by analyzing the educational status of the family, occupation of the parents & the monthly income of the family of a particular student or sample. After classifying the samples into 3 classes of status (upper, middle & lower according to their socioeconomic condition, the mean of the marks was computed. The mean score of every status group is then analyzed to know the relationship between Environmental Education achievement level and socioeconomic status. Although there are many factor are responsible for the academic achievements in Environmental Education. But from this observation it may conclude that there is a strong relationship between Environmental Education achievement and socio-economic status.
Thiene Silva, Normando; Regina Fátima Feio, Barroso; David, Normando.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência da condição socioeconômica na prevalência de má oclusão na dentição decídua em uma população amazônica. MÉTODOS: esse estudo transversal compreendeu 652 crianças, de ambos os sexos, entre 3 e 6 anos de idade. Os indivíduos estavam matriculados na pré-escola na rede pr [...] ivada de ensino (alto nível socioeconômico; n = 312) ou, rede pública (baixo nível socioeconômico; n = 340), em Belém, no Pará. O teste chi-quadrado e estatística binominal foram usados para avaliar as diferenças entre os grupos socioeconômicos, com nível de significância considerado em p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of socioeconomic background on malocclusion prevalence in primary dentition in a population from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 652 children (males and females) aged between 3 to 6 years old. Subjects were enrolled in private p [...] reschools (higher socioeconomic status - HSS, n = 312) or public preschools (lower socioeconomic status - LSS, n = 340) in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Chi-square and binomial statistics were used to assess differences between both socioeconomic groups, with significance level set at P
Full Text Available The research was carried out on 2,083 children from elementary schools in the municipality of Kisela Voda, Republic of Macedonia, their ages ranging from 6 to 10 years old.. The aim of this research is to verify the effects of the socioeconomic status on some anthropometric, functional and motor measurements. Two anthropometric measurements, two functional measurements (diastolic and systolic pressure, three measurements for determining body structure and six motor tests have been used to complete the research. The results have been processed with the appropriate multivariate and univariate statistical procedures. According to the results we can conclude that the socioeconomic status affects the body weight, height, percentage of adipose tissue and some tests that measure the fitness level in the body. These effects are more common within the female respondents
Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and sass. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)
Luoto, R; Pekkanen, J.; Uutela, A.; Tuomilehto, J
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to assess the association of different indicators of socioeconomic status with levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women aged 25-64 years. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional survey, using a community based random sample. SETTING--The provinces of North Karelia and Kuopio in eastern Finland and the cities of Turku and Loimaa and surrounding communities in southwestern Finland in 1987. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 2164 men and 2182 women aged 25...
Chou Yiing-Jenq; Huang Nicole; Pu Christy
Abstract Background Many studies compared the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parents' reports on family socioeconomic status (SES). However, none of these studies analyzed whether the degree of concordance varies by different levels of household financial stress. This research examines whether the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parent reports for the three traditional SES measures (parental education, parental occupation and household income) varied with parent...
Maple-Brown Louise; Cunningham Joan; Hodge Allison; Dunbar Terry; O'Dea Kerin
Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES). Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous ...
Kendzor, Darla E; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S.; Jasjit S. Ahluwalia; Cinciripini, Paul M.; WETTER, DAVID W.
The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had a...
Gallo, Linda C.; Shivpuri, Smriti; Gonzalez, Patricia; Fortmann, Addie L.; de los Monteros, Karla Espinosa; Roesch, Scott C; Talavera, Gregory A; MATTHEWS, KAREN A.
Stress is a hypothesized pathway in socioeconomic status (SES)-physical health associations, but the available empirical data are inconsistent. In part, this may reflect discrepancies in the approach to measuring stress across studies, and differences in the nature of SES-stress associations across demographic groups. We examined associations of SES (education, income) with general and domain-specific chronic stressors, stressful life events, perceived stress, and stressful daily experiences ...
May A. Beydoun; Wang, Youfa
Obesity and depression are two diseases of major public health importance. While both correlate with each other, potential pathways involving depression that would link socioeconomic status (SES) to lifestyle factors and obesity have not been systematically examined using nationally representative data. Using rich data on 2,217 US young adults aged 20–39 years from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) and multivariate linear and logistic regression models, we exami...
This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status. Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 10/19/2011.
Sharp, Gregory; Iceland, John
In light of increasing racial and ethnic diversity, a recent housing crisis, and deep economic recession, arguments pertaining to the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in shaping patterns of racial/ethnic segregation remain salient. Using data from the 2000 decennial census and the 2007–2011 American Community Survey, we provide new evidence on the residential segregation patterns of whites from minorities by SES (income, education, and poverty). Results from our comprehensive analyses ind...
The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-i...
Nor Rashidah Zainal; Rohana Kamaruddin; Siti Badariah Saiful Nathan
Socioeconomic status of a family is a benchmark for a student in Malaysia to get financial aid in education, on top of their academic performance. As the number of students obtaining good grades in their Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia examination increases, entry to public universities become more competitive and the chances to get a full education financing become smaller. Most students resort to loans provided by PTPTN as many still do not have any form of saving to finance their higher education...
Seryozha Gontarev; Milan Naumovski; Kalac Ruzdija; Sofche Markovikj2
The research was carried out on 2,083 children from elementary schools in the municipality of Kisela Voda, Republic of Macedonia, their ages ranging from 6 to 10 years old.. The aim of this research is to verify the effects of the socioeconomic status on some anthropometric, functional and motor measurements. Two anthropometric measurements, two functional measurements (diastolic and systolic pressure), three measurements for determining body structure and six motor tests have been used to co...
This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among the British population. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975-2000. Daily intakes-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing on young age groups, trends of consumption over the 25-year period of study a...
Aschengrau Ann; Vieira Verónica; Weinberg Janice; Young Robin L; Webster Thomas F
Abstract Background It is unclear whether the socioeconomic status (SES) of the community of residence has a substantial association with infant birth weight. We used multilevel models to examine associations of birth weight with family- and community-level SES in the Cape Cod Family Health Study. Data were collected retrospectively on births to women between 1969 and 1983 living on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The sample included siblings born in different residences with differing community-lev...
Seyed J. Gaemmaghami; Leila Nikniaz; Reza Mahdavi; Zeinab Nikniaz; Farzad Razmifard; Farzaneh Afsharnia
Objectives: To determine the effects of infants’ birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. Methods. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants’ first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants’ birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regre...
When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009) that show how U....
Fokeena, Waqia Begum; Jeewon, Rajesh
There are no documented studies on socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass index (BMI) among Mauritian adolescents. This study aimed to determine the relationships between SES and BMI among adolescents with focus on diet quality and physical activity (PA) as mediating factors. Mauritian school adolescents (n = 200; 96 males, 104 females) were recruited using multistage sampling. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate BMI (c...
Svenson Lawrence W; Wilson Douglas R; Wild Cameron; Gilbride Susan J; Spady Donald W
Abstract Background Childhood injury is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and permanent disability in children in the developed world. This research examines relationships between socio-economic status (SES), demographics, and types of childhood injury in the province of Alberta, Canada. Methods Secondary analysis was performed using administrative health care data provided by Alberta Health and Wellness on all children, aged 0 to 17 years, who had injuries treated by a physician, eit...
Ren, X S; Amick, B C
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate relative odds ratios and to ascertain the relative contribution of each socioeconomic covariate in explaining racial disparities in self assessed health status (for example, global health perceptions and functional limitations of daily activities). DESIGN: National representative data from the 1987-88 national survey of families and households, a multistage, stratified probability sample of non-institutionalised American adults age 19 and older, were used. Logisti...
Doubeni, Chyke A.; Jambaulikar, Guruprasad D.; Fouayzi, Hassan; Robinson, Scott B.; Gunter, Margaret J; Field, Terry S; Roblin, Douglas W.; Fletcher, Robert H.
Background: Low-socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. Screening with colonoscopy, the most commonly used test in the US, has been shown to reduce the risk of death from CRC. This study examined if, among insured persons receiving care in integrated healthcare delivery systems, differences exist in colonoscopy use according to neighborhood SES. Methods We assembled a retrospective cohort of 100,566 men and women, 50–74 years old...
Lorant, Vincent; Bhopal, Raj
Abstract Background. Ethnic inequalities in health status and health care remain substantial in Europe and addressing them is becoming a priority. However, the best way to respond to such a challenge is, as yet, unclear. The research community is grappling with the contribution of socio-economic discrimination to ethnic inequalities. Methods. We present a new theoretical analysis, based on the landmark work of Charles Tilly on ‘Durable Inequality’ and we apply it to the ...
Ardington, C; Case, A
This paper investigates the association between mental health and socioeconomic status and assesses the extent to which the correlates of depression change over the life cycle. Mean depression scores for South Africans are markedly higher than those found in other countries. There are large differences in depression between population groups. For both men and women, sixty percent of the gap between Africans and whites can be explained by their socioeconomic status. Household expenditure per member and the number of assets owned by the household are significant negative correlates of depression, as is educational attainment. Reporting that one is on the lowest rung of the socioeconomic status ladder, or that children in the household are often hungry, is associated with reporting more depressive symptoms. Adults report more symptoms of depression and anxiety at older ages, with the most dramatic increase occurring between young adulthood and middle adulthood. For the African sub-sample, this can be explained in part by prime-age and older adults being more troubled by poverty. PMID:21915159
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status could affect the demand for hospital care. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of age, socioeconomic status and comorbidity on acute hospital admissions among elderly. Methods We retrospectively examined the discharge abstracts data of acute care hospital admissions of residents in Rome aged 75 or more years in the period 1997–2000. We used the Hospital Information System of Rome, the Tax Register, and the Population Register of Rome for socio-economic data. The rate of hospitalization, modified Charlson's index of comorbidity, and level of income in the census tract of residence were obtained. Rate ratios and 95% confidence limits were computed to assess the relationship between income deciles and rate of hospitalization. Cross-tabulation was used to explore the distribution of the index of comorbidity by deciles of income. Analyses were repeated for patients grouped according to selected diseases. Results Age was associated with a marginal increase in the rate of hospitalization. However, the hospitalization rate was inversely related to income in both sexes. Higher income was associated with lower comorbidity. The same associations were observed in patients admitted with a principal diagnosis of chronic condition (diabetes mellitus, heart failure, chron obstructive pulmonary disease or stroke, but not hip fracture. Conclusion Lower social status and associated comorbidity, more than age per se, are associated with a higher rate of hospitalization in very old patients.
Vukovi? Dejana S.
Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of contextual factors as determinants of sexual behavior of adolescents. It has been found that lower socioeconomic status is associated with risky sexual behavior. Sexual behavior is individual but develops under strong influence of cultural and other influences. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of family’s socioeconomic status and risky sexual behavior of adolescents in Belgrade. Method. Self-administered questionnaire was used in secondary schools in Belgrade, and 1,782 adolescents attending first grade filled the questionnaire. For the analyses of predictors of risky sexual behavior, multiple logistic regression was used. Results. Parents’ occupations did not show significant association with any of analyzed behaviors. Adolescents who received weekly disposable money above average were 2.5 times more likely to ever have had sexual intercourse, and if sexually active were more likely to use contraception. Perceived family’s wealth was a significant predictor of ever having sex (OR=1.9; CI 1.2-2.8 and not using contraception (OR=4.3; CI 1.2-15.0. Conclusion. Socioeconomic status is associated with sexual behaviors of adolescents. Fifteen-year olds who perceive their families as wealthier are more likely to ever have had sex and not use any kind of contraception. Adolescents with higher weekly income are more likely to ever have had sex and use contraception than their counterpats with less weekly disposable money. .
Full Text Available We present evidence that there can be substantial variation in species richness in residential areas differing in their socioeconomic and cultural characteristics. Many analyses of the impacts of urbanization on biodiversity rely on traditional “urban-to-rural” gradient measures, such as distance from urban center or population density, and thus can fail to account for the ways in which human socioeconomic and cultural characteristics are shaping the human–environment interaction and ecological outcomes. This influence of residential values and economic resources on biodiversity within the urban matrix has implications for human quality of life, for urban conservation strategies, and for urban planning.
Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…
Kjellén, Malin; von Euler-Chelpin, My
Earlier research has shown that participation in mammography screening tends to vary across socioeconomic levels. We assessed the difference between using the woman's own socioeconomic status (SES) and using that of her household or partner as determinant of participation in mammography screening.
Lee, Shinwon; Khan, Omar Faruk; Seo, Jeong Ho; Kim, Dong Yeon; Park, Kyung-hwa; Jung, Sook-in; Chung, Eun-kyung; Jang, Hee-chang
Successful tuberculosis control depends on good adherence to treatment. Yet, limited data are available on the efficacy of methods for improving the adherence of patients of low socioeconomic status. We evaluated the impact of physician-provided patient education on adherence to anti-tuberculosis medication in a low socioeconomic status and resource-limited setting. A pre-/post-intervention study was conducted at a suburban primary health care clinic in Bangladesh where an intensive education...
Vokó, Zoltán; Csépe, Péter; Németh, Renáta; Kósa, Karolina; Kósa, Zsigmond; Széles, György; Ádány, Róza
Abstract Objective: We investigated whether the association between Roma ethnicity and health is fully mediated by socioeconomic status in Hungary. Methods: Comparative health interview surveys were performed in 2003-2004 on representative samples of the Hungarian population and inhabitants of Roma settlements. Logistic regression models were applied to study whether the relationship between Roma ethnicity and health is fully mediated by socioeconomic status, and whe...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on elderly health. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean. The sample comprised 2,143 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 years and older living in the urban area of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Linear regression models estimated the effect of socioeconomic status indicators (years of schooling completed, occupation and purchasing power on each one of the following health indicators: depression, self-rated health, morbidity and memory capacity. A 5% significance level was set. RESULTS: There was a significant effect of years of education and purchasing power on self-rated health and memory capacity when controlled for the variables number of diseases during childhood, bed rest for at least a month due to health problems during childhood, self-rated health during childhood, living arrangements, sex, age, marital status, category of health insurance, intake of medicines. Only purchasing power had an effect on depression. Despite the bivariate association between socioeconomic status indicators and number of diseases (morbidity, this effect was no longer seen after including the controls in the model. CONCLUSIONS: The study results confirm the association between socioeconomic status indicators and health among Brazilian elderly, but only for some dimensions of socioeconomic status and certain health outcomes.OBJETIVO: Investigar o impacto do status socioeconômico na saúde de idosos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a base de dados transversal Inquérito sobre a Saúde, o Bem estar o Envelhecimento na América Latina e Caribe. Analisaram-se 2.143 idosos (60 anos ou mais residentes em domicílios, na área urbana de São Paulo, no ano de 2000. Modelos de regressões lineares estimaram o efeito dos indicadores de status socioeconômico (anos de estudo completos, ocupação e poder de compra nos indicadores de saúde: depressão, auto-avaliação da saúde, morbidade e capacidade de memória. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: Observou-se efeito significativo dos anos de estudo e do poder de compra na auto-avaliação da saúde e na capacidade da memória, quando controlado pelas variáveis: número de doenças antes dos 15 anos de idade, ter ficado na cama ao menos por um mês por problema de saúde antes dos 15 anos, auto-avaliação da saúde na infância, arranjos de vida, sexo, idade, estado civil, tipo de seguro de saúde, ingestão de remédios. Somente a capacidade de compra apresentou efeito na depressão. Apesar das análises bivariadas indicarem uma associação entre status socioeconômico e o número de doenças (morbidade, este efeito desapareceu quando os controles entraram no modelo. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam a associação entre indicadores socioeconômicos e a saúde dos idosos brasileiros, mas somente entre alguns indicadores e certos aspectos da saúde.
Mohammad R. Talebinejad
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional quotient (EQ and socioeconomic status and their effect on the performance of EFL learners in reading comprehension at high school. To this end, 80 homogenous EFL female students were selected from different high schools in Eghlid with the age range of 14-17. The participants were asked to complete Quick Placement Test, the "Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire", and the "Socioeconomic Questionnaire". Moreover, they answered the reading comprehension test. The Data analysis and statistical calculations revealed that there was a significant relationship between the students’ emotional intelligence, socioeconomic status and their reading ability.
Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin
A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120
Nor Rashidah Zainal
Full Text Available Socioeconomic status of a family is a benchmark for a student in Malaysia to get financial aid in education, on top of their academic performance. As the number of students obtaining good grades in their Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia examination increases, entry to public universities become more competitive and the chances to get a full education financing become smaller. Most students resort to loans provided by PTPTN as many still do not have any form of saving to finance their higher education. This study attempts to explore on parental saving for children’s higher education among Bumiputera across different socio-economic groups. A survey was conducted in UiTM and six of its affiliated colleges, with the total respondents of 371. Questionnaires to parents were distributed through the students. The results of the study reveal that only 15% of the students sampled received a form of financial aid from the government. The findings also show high correlation between the socio-economic status of parents and the level of awareness towards saving for their children. The findings are hoped to create awareness in the society that saving incentives for higher education can be utilized by all low and middle-income families in all communities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine the household and community level socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with child nutritional status in Cameroon, and changes in the effects of these factors during the 1990s economic crisis. We further consider age-specific effects of household economic status on child nutrition. Methods Child nutritional status was measured by weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores. Data were from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1991 and 1998. We used analysis of variance to assess the bivariate association between the explanatory factors and nutritional status. Multivariate, multilevel analyses were undertaken to estimate the net effects of both household and community factors. Results Average WAZ and HAZ declined respectively from -0.70 standard deviations (SD, i.e. 0.70 SD below the reference median, to -0.83 SD (p = 0.006 and from -1.03 SD to -1.14 SD (p = 0.026 between 1991 and 1998. These declines occurred mostly among boys, children over 12 months of age, and those of low socioeconomic status. Maternal education and maternal health seeking behavior were associated with better child nutrition. Household economic status had an overall positive effect that increased during the crisis, but it had little effect in children under 6 months of age. Improved household (water, sanitation and cooking fuel and community environment had positive effects. Children living in the driest regions of the country were consistently worst off, and those in the largest cities were best off. Conclusion Both household and community factors have significant impact on child health in Cameroon. Understanding these relationships can facilitate design of age- and community-specific intervention programs.
Jang, Soong-Nang; Choi, Yong-Jun; Kim, Dong-Hyun
This study sought to determine which factors among the indicators of socioeconomic status have the most influence on physical, mental and social functions, and on subjective well-being, all of which are components of successful ageing. A representative random sample of 1825 persons aged 65 years or older was surveyed by face-to-face interview. Socioeconomic status was measured by educational level, family household income, personal income and property ownership. The factors measured were chronic diseases, activities of daily living (ADL) for physical functioning, history of mental disease, Mini-Mental Status Examination questionnaire (MMSE) scores for mental functioning, social activity participation per week for social functioning, and the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) for subjective well-being. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Education level was the most important factor in physical and mental functioning, whereas personal income was the most important in social functioning. Educational level, household income and personal income were significantly associated with subjective well-being as assessed by PGCMS scores. Subjects who demonstrated successful ageing were more likely to have a higher education and higher personal income. The results point to the importance of focusing on disparities in each component of successful ageing, which may point to appropriate health-promotion strategies for eliminating inequality in successful ageing. PMID:18976546
Full Text Available Problem: The 2008 tuberculosis (TB surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736 defaulted from treatment. Context: TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. Action: We engaged Chiang Rai women’s organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic status to support poor TB patients financially and socially. A group of women formed a team to support these TB patients (n = 192 by raising and sustaining funds and providing home visits (n = 37. TB surveillance and patient-fund register data were used to evaluate TB treatment outcomes. Outcome: The success of TB treatment was significantly higher for patients receiving financial support (relative risk [RR]: 1.351; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.53; P < 0.000. Lower death rates in all groups were observed among patients receiving financial support. However, financial assistance alone did not improve treatment outcomes for migrant patients. Thirty-seven patients (25 Thai, eight hill tribe, four migrants who were visited by women volunteers at home achieved 95% TB treatment success. Discussion: It is possible to involve volunteers to support poor TB patients. Willingness to support TB patients was driven by presenting provincial TB epidemiology information, research data on the experience of poor patients and the inspiring experiences of other women volunteers. Future research should investigate the reasons for the high treatment success among patients who received home visits.
Soneji, Samir; Lewis, Valerie; Tanski, Susanne; Sargent, James D.
Aims This study assesses how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) modify the relationship between exposure to movie smoking and having tried smoking in adolescents. Design Data come from a cross-sectional telephone survey and were analyzed using logistic regression models. A respondent reporting ever having tried smoking was regressed on exposure to movie smoking, race, socioeconomic status, the interactions of these variables, and family and background characteristics. Setting National sample of US adolescents. Participants 3653 respondents aged 13–18 years. Measurements Outcome was if subjects reported ever having tried smoking. Movie smoking exposure was assessed through respondents’ reporting having watched a set of movie titles, which were coded for smoking instances. Findings The proportion having tried smoking was lower for Blacks (0.32) compared to Hispanics (0.41) and Whites (0.38). The relationship between movie smoking and having tried smoking varied by race/ethnicity. Among Whites and Hispanics exposure to movie smoking positively predicted smoking behavior, but movie smoking had no impact on Blacks. SES further modified the relation among Whites; high SES white adolescents were more susceptible to movie smoking than low SES white adolescents. Conclusions Exposure to movie smoking is not uniformly experienced as a risk factor for having ever tried smoking among U.S. adolescents. Whites and Hispanics are more likely to try smoking as a function of increased exposure to movie smoking. In addition, higher socioeconomic status increases susceptibility to movie smoking among Whites. Youth with fewer risk factors may be more influenced by media messages on smoking. PMID:22724674
Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M
OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general practice. METHODS: We enrolled 184 general practices and 5260 hypertensive patients. The general practitioners reported information about BP and diagnosis of diabetes. Information about education, income, antihypertensive drug treatment and other co-morbidity was retrieved from relevant registers from Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP
Seliske, Laura M; Pickett, William; Boyce, William F; Janssen, Ian
Lower socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods may have differential access to food retailers, potentially explaining the varying area-level obesity rates. The food retail environment around 188 schools across Canada was examined, including full-service restaurants, fast food restaurants, sub/sandwich retailers, donut/coffee shops, convenience stores, and grocery stores. School addresses were linked to census data to obtain area-level SES measures. Access to food retailers was generally not associated with the neighbourhood SES in the immediate proximity. Within the broader neighbourhood, lower SES neighbourhoods had access to fewer food retailers of all types. This effect was diminished after taking population density into account. PMID:19121973
N. Hejazi; Z. Mazloom
This study was design to determine whether there is a difference in the number of meals consumed away from home (restaurant or fast food) between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high SES adolescents. Additionally, this study sought to determine if the nutrients and food group chosen differs among children who consume meals away from home versus those who do not. Eighty four adolescences (51 boys and 33 girls) ages 12-16 years and their parents from Shiraz, Iran completed the three 24 h die...
Reichborn-Kjennerud Ted; Knudsen Ann; Ørstavik Ragnhild E; Østby Kristian; Mykletun Arnstein
Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status is a known risk factor for disability pension, and is also associated with health problems. To what degree health problems can explain the increased risk of disability pension award associated with low socioeconomic status is not known. Methods Information on 15,067 participants in the Hordaland Health Study was linked to a comprehensive national registry on disability pension awards. Level of education was used as a proxy for socioeconomic status....
Chan, Raymond H M; Gordon, Neil F; Chong, Alice; Alter, David A
The impact of secondary prevention initiatives on survival in higher-risk socioeconomically disadvantaged patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may depend on behavioral adaptive responsiveness, uptake, and adherence to healthier lifestyles. From December 1999 to February 2003, 1,801 patients in Ontario, Canada were interviewed regarding their lifestyle behaviors at 30 days after their index AMI hospitalization. Data were obtained using self-reported surveys, medical chart abstraction, and administrative data linkage. Multivariate analyses were adjusted for baseline sociodemographic, cardiac risk severity, and co-morbid conditions. Socioeconomically disadvantaged patients had greater cardiac risk severity at baseline than did their wealthier better-educated counterparts. Compared with lower-income patients, patients with higher incomes were less likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for highest vs lowest income tertiles 0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21 to 0.63, p <0.001), more likely to participate in exercise (adjusted OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.85, p = 0.02), and more likely to decrease or discontinue alcohol use (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.34, p = 0.06). The relation between education and lifestyle behaviors was less pronounced for education than for income. After adjustment for baseline factors, patients who acknowledged participation in regular physical exercise at 1 month had a significantly lower long-term mortality than those who did not. In conclusion, socioeconomically disadvantaged patients were sicker at baseline and less behaviorally responsive to embarking on healthy lifestyle changes after AMI than were those of higher socioeconomic status. PMID:19064009
Nwokocha, Ezebunwa Ethelbert
The research is based on information collected on 50 deceased Nigerian women of low socioeconomic status in different locations of the country including Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Zaria, Minna, Enugu, and Port-Harcourt among others. They had some common characteristics such as low levels of education, involvement in petty trading and were clients of a microfinance bank as small loan receivers. Primary data were generated mainly through verbal autopsy with widowers employing in-depth interviews and key informant interviews. In addition, unobtrusive observation was carried out in these locations to ascertain in some instances the distance between the deceased homes and health facilities patronised by the women. Secondary data were specific to death certificates of the deceased supplied by the widowers. Both ethnographic summaries and content analysis were employed in data analysis to account for contextual differences, especially in a multicultural society like Nigeria. The findings implicated several issues that are taken for granted at the micro-family and macro-society levels. It specifically revealed that small loans alone are not sufficient to empower poor women to make meaningful contributions to their own reproductive health in a patriarchal society like Nigeria. Results also indicated that cultural differences as well as rural-urban dichotomy were not proximate determinants of maternal behaviour; the latter rather finds expression in low socioeconomic status. Consequently, policy relevant recommendations that could contribute to significant maternal mortality reduction were proffered. PMID:23437504
José Wesley dos Santos Alves
Full Text Available Objective: Characterize the nutritional status, lifestyle, socioeconomic profile and food consumption of commercial workers customers of a social restaurant in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 156 individuals, 71 (45.5% men and 85 (54.5% women, aged between 19 and 59 years. The variables analyzed were: weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, history of chronic diseases, alcoholism, smoking and physical activity, family income, education and food intake of a subsample. Theadequacy of consumption was assessed by observing the recommendations of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI and nutritional requirements of the Workers’ Food Program.Results: We observed high prevalence of overweight 49 (31.4% and obesity 18 (11.5%, high rate of physical inactivity 109 (69.9%. Alcohol is often consumed weekly by 27(17.4%. 111 (71.2% of individuals studied until high school; and 104 (66.7% belonged to socioeconomic class C. 136 (87,2% showed no personal history of chronic diseases, or practice of smoking. Dietary intake adequacy revealed adequacy for macronutrients, fiber, saturated fats and micronutrients, with excessive sodium intake. Conclusion: Nutritional status was characterized as high prevalence of overweight and obesity, associated with a high abdominal adiposity, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption and socioeconomicprofile predominantly C1 and C2. Although the present study shows an adequate intake of micronutrients and macronutrients, there are excessive caloric intake, based on profile of physical inactivity and overweight.
Lampert, T; Kroll, L; Müters, S; Stolzenberg, H
Socioeconomic status (SES) constitutes a central analysis category of epidemiological research and health reporting. As part of the German cardiovascular disease prevention study 1984-1991, a multi-dimensional aggregated index was developed for the purpose of measuring SES. This index continues to be used in numerous studies to this day. For the purpose of health monitoring at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the index was fundamentally revised following critical assessment. This article describes the basic concepts underlying the revision and how they were implemented in relation to the "German health interview and examination survey for adults" (DEGS1). In addition, the results of the age and sex-specific distribution of the values of the revised SES index and those relating to the connection with other measurements of socioeconomic status are reported. The results are based on the data of DEGS1 2012 and the German national health interview and examination survey 1998 (GNHIES98). An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703479
Full Text Available Abstract Background Population based studies are important for prevalence, incidence and association studies, but their external validity might be threatened by decreasing participation rates. The 50 807 participants in the third survey of the HUNT Study (HUNT3, 2006-08, represented 54% of the invited, necessitating a nonparticipation study. Methods Questionnaire data from HUNT3 were compared with data collected from several sources: a short questionnaire to nonparticipants, anonymous data on specific diagnoses and prescribed medication extracted from randomly selected general practices, registry data from Statistics Norway on socioeconomic factors and mortality, and from the Norwegian Prescription Database on drug consumption. Results Participation rates for HUNT3 depended on age, sex and type of symptoms and diseases, but only small changes were found in the overall prevalence estimates when including data from 6922 nonparticipants. Among nonparticipants, the prevalences of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders were higher both in nonparticipant data and data extracted from general practice, compared to that reported by participants, whilst the opposite pattern was found, at least among persons younger than 80 years, for urine incontinence, musculoskeletal pain and headache. Registry data showed that the nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status and a higher mortality than participants. Conclusion Nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status, higher mortality and showed higher prevalences of several chronic diseases, whilst opposite patterns were found for common problems like musculoskeletal pain, urine incontinence and headache. The impact on associations should be analyzed for each diagnosis, and data making such analyses possible are provided in the present paper.
Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Juul, Svend
One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX personsretired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated.
Talebinejad, Mohammad R.; Zahra Rezai Fard
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional quotient (EQ) and socioeconomic status and their effect on the performance of EFL learners in reading comprehension at high school. To this end, 80 homogenous EFL female students were selected from different high schools in Eghlid with the age range of 14-17. The participants were asked to complete Quick Placement Test, the "Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire", and the "Socioeconomic Questionnaire". Moreove...
Kelly, Shona J; Burns, Nicholas R; Greta Bradman; Gary Wittert; Mark Daniel
Differences in IQ have been offered as an explanation for socioeconomic gradients in morbidity and mortality. Previous research has largely relied on linking education and conscription testing data with later life health. As this early life testing was used to determine a person’s academic path it is difficult to disentangle the effects of IQ from education. This study used IQ and socioeconomic status (SES) data collected concurrently in mid-life from men who did not experience IQ-test-driv...
Sun, Sun; Chen, Jiaying; Johannesson, Magnus; Kind, Paul; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Yaoguang; Burstro?m, Kristina
Purpose: To measure and analyse national EQ-5D data and to provide norms for the Chinese general population by age, sex, educational level, income and employment status. Methods: The EQ-5D instrument was included in the National Health Services Survey 2008 (n = 120,703) to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL). All descriptive analyses by socio-economic status (educational level, income and employment status) and by clinical characteristics (discomfort during ...
Lampert, T; Kroll, L E; von der Lippe, E; Müters, S; Stolzenberg, H
The analysis focuses on the connection between socioeconomic status (SES) and five health outcomes in the 18 to 79-year-old population of Germany. It uses data from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) which the Robert Koch Institute conducted in the period from 2008 to 2011 (n=8152). Socioeconomic status is recorded via a multidimensional index which includes information on education attainment, occupational status and household income. The results show that persons with a low socioeconomic status have a self-rated health status which is worse than that of persons with a medium or high socioeconomic status, and that they have diabetes more frequently. They also have a higher risk of depressive symptoms, obesity and physical inactivity. The results illustrate that health chances and the risk of illness are still very socially uneven distributed, thus emphasising the significance of political interventions to reduce health inequalities. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703503
Nagata, Jason M; Fiorella, Kathryn J; Salmen, Charles R; Hickey, Matthew D; Mattah, Brian; Magerenge, Richard; Milner, Erin M; Weiser, Sheri D; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship among socioeconomic status, social support, and food insecurity in a rural Kenyan island community. A cross-sectional random sample of 111 female heads of households representing 583 household members were surveyed in Mfangano Island, Kenya from August to October 2010 using adaptations of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. In multiple linear regression models, less instrumental social support, defined as concrete direct ways people help others (B = -0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.45 to -0.17), and decreased ownership scale based on owning material assets (B = -2.93; 95% CI -4.99 to -0.86) were significantly associated with increased food insecurity, controlling for age, education, marital status, and household size. Social support interventions geared at group capacity and resilience may be crucial adjuncts to improve and maintain the long term food security and health of persons living in low-resource regions. PMID:25680030
Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls. MAIN RESULTS: The suicide rate ratios obtained from the case-sibling and the case-control analysis, respectively, were of similar magnitude. For example, in the case-sibling analysis the adjusted suicide rate ratios associated with discharge from a psychiatric hospital within the previous 365 days, being unemployed the previous year, having a postgraduate degree and being single were 42.13 (95% CI 17.75 to 100.02), 1.78 (1.35 to 2.36), 0.51 (0.21 to 1.26), and 2.69 (1.91 to 3.79), respectively. The corresponding rate ratios obtained from the case-control analysis were 47.91 (35.41 to 64.83), 1.76 (1.49 to 2.08), 0.45 (0.26 to 0.76), and 2.39 (1.87 to 3.07). Moreover, the analogous ratios when comparing siblings and controls were 1.98 (1.08 to 3.63), 1.22 (1.06 to 1.41), 0.65 (0.44 to 0.95), and 0.89 (0.75 to 1.06). CONCLUSIONS: People who commit suicide deviate similarly from siblings and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides.
Ming, Kavin; Powell, Tenisha
Emergent literacy skills are important for children's academic achievement. Many preschool children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds have limited access to experiences that allow them to acquire emergent literacy skills such as letter knowledge, concepts of print, and phonological awareness. This article describes purposeful and age-appropriate…
Abdulrahman Nasser Al-Odayani
Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES of the mother’s knowledge about different aspects of diabetes and the glycemic control of type 1 children with diabetes. Samples were taken from successive admissions to the outpatient diabetes clinics in Prince Sultan Medical Military City (PSMMC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well designed questionnaire covering different aspects including demographic data, educational background, and socioeconomic status of the care providers was used to collect information from mothers of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM children. The questionnaire was designed on the basis of the Michigan diabetes knowledge scale and also on the basis of food habits of Saudi Arabia and it was validated. The questionnaire was completed after interviewing the mothers during visits to the PSMMC hospital. Every mother was asked with those particular questions. Glycemic control was assessed by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c. The socio-demographic data of mothers was recorded by self-report. It was found that, there was significant variation in the knowledge of diabetes among mothers with different ages (P 0.05. No significant results were observed between family income and diabetes knowledge (p>0.05.However, a positive relationship was observed with higher income and higher knowledge. There was a significant association between mothers knowledge of diabetes and HbA1C level (r = -0.1739, p<0.05 indicating that, higher knowledge ultimately leads to greater control of HbA1c level. A significant association was also observed between education and HbA1c level (r= -0.2538, p<0.05 with children of mothers with higher level of education showing a better control of glycated haemoglobin levels. However, no significant association was found between monthly family income and HbA1C level. In conclusion, the current study illustrated that, mothers with more knowledge of diabetes and with better education were maintaining a better glycemic control of their children, irrespective of the socio-economic status. It was found that, to improve glycemic control and to decrease acute and chronic complications of diabetes in children, mother’s knowledge and education is needed.
Sugiyama, Takemi; Howard, Natasha J; Paquet, Catherine; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark
Residents of areas with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are known to be less physically active during leisure time. Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be related to recreational walking equally in low and high SES areas. This cross-sectional study tested whether associations of specific environmental attributes, measured objectively and subjectively, with walking for recreation were moderated by area-level SES. The data of the North West Adelaide Health Study collected in 2007 (n?=?1500, mean age 57) were used. Self-reported walking frequency was the outcome of the study. Environmental exposure measures included objectively measured walkability components (residential density, intersection density, land use mix, and net retail area ratio) and perceived attributes (access to destinations, neighborhood esthetics, walking infrastructure, traffic/barriers, and crime safety). Participants' suburbs were categorized into low and high SES areas using an indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage. Low SES areas had lower scores in residential density, neighborhood esthetics, walking infrastructure, traffic/barriers, and crime safety. Recreational walking was associated with residential density, access to destinations, esthetics, traffic/barriers, and crime safety. Effect modification was observed for two attributes (out of nine): residential density was associated with walking only in low SES areas, while walking infrastructure was associated with walking only in high SES areas. The associations of neighborhood environmental attributes with recreational walking were largely consistent across SES groups. However, low SES areas were disadvantaged in most perceived environmental attributes related to recreational walking. Improving such attributes in low SES neighborhoods may help close socioeconomic disparities in leisure time physical activity. PMID:25604935
Mingo, Chivon A.; Martin, Kathryn R.; Schoster, Britta; Callahan, Leigh F.
To examine the impact of individual and community socioeconomic status (SES) measures on mental health outcomes in individuals with arthritis, participants with self-reported arthritis completed a telephone survey assessing health status, health attitudes and beliefs, and sociodemographic variables. Regression analyses adjusting for race, gender, BMI, comorbidities, and age were performed to determine the impact of individual and community level SES on mental health outcomes (i.e., Medical Outcomes Study SF-12v2 mental health component, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life Healthy Days Measure, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression [CES-D] scale). When entered singly, lower education and income, nonmanagerial occupation, non-homeownership, and medium and high community poverty were all significantly associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Income, however, was more strongly associated with the outcomes in comparison to the other SES variables. In a model including all SES measures simultaneously, income was significantly associated with each outcome variable. Lower levels of individual and community SES showed most consistent statistical significance in association with CES-D scores. Results suggest that both individual and community level SES are associated with mental health status in people with arthritis. It is imperative to consider how interventions focused on multilevel SES factors may influence existing disparities. PMID:25152816
There is substantial debate in the field of epidemiology over the theoretical underpinnings of socioeconomic status (SES)-disease mechanisms in the developed world. In particular, it has been debated whether psychosocial mechanisms are important in understanding these relationships, compared with material influences. Within an interdisciplinary context, this review synthesizes the youth development and resilience literatures in examination of this hypothesis. This review provides evidence that both classes of mechanisms are critical to understanding and addressing SES-disease mechanisms over the lifecourse. Research findings demonstrating the effects of these classes of factors point to the complicated and dynamic nature of how SES may impact disease. In the epidemiologic literature, investigators predominantly consider the cumulative impact of biological insults over time. A developmental perspective, however, provides evidence of the importance of psychosocial influences early in life on socioeconomic and health trajectories over the lifecourse. Future epidemiologic research should consider cumulative and developmental influences of early adversity--both psychosocial and material--on later health. This perspective may be particularly relevant to appropriately evaluating the impact of selection and causation in research on SES and disease and will also hopefully provide clarity to this ongoing theoretical debate. PMID:17868964
Pratt, Gregory C.; Vadali, Monika L.; Kvale, Dorian L.; Ellickson, Kristie M.
Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888
Full Text Available Objectives: The current study sought to examine the association between the degree of pain and socioeconomic status among older male and female Ghanaians. Method: Data were drawn from the 2007–08 World Health Organization Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE survey conducted in Ghana (Young adults=803, Adults=1689 and Older adults=2616. This includes bodily aches Ghanaians experienced in the last 30 days. Analyses of the association of pain with predisposing and enabling factors were carried out by means of ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results: In the age-adjusted model, pain was statistically significantly associated with the cohabitating group as its marginal effect suggests that respondents in that category were less likely to experience pain as related to the others in women. Conclusion: This study established that Ghanaian men go through more pain than their women counterparts. This article is premier to our knowledge to apply ordered logistic for the degree of pain.
Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen
One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor. PMID:24374020
Fokeena, Waqia Begum; Jeewon, Rajesh
There are no documented studies on socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass index (BMI) among Mauritian adolescents. This study aimed to determine the relationships between SES and BMI among adolescents with focus on diet quality and physical activity (PA) as mediating factors. Mauritian school adolescents (n = 200; 96 males, 104 females) were recruited using multistage sampling. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate BMI (categorised into underweight, healthy-weight, overweight, obese). Chi-square test, Pearson correlation, and Independent samples t-test were used for statistical analysis. A negative association was found between SES and BMI (?(2) = 8.15%, P < 0.05). Diet quality, time spent in PA at school (P = 0.000), but not total PA (P = 0.562), were significantly associated with high SES. Poor diet quality and less time spent in PA at school could explain BMI discrepancies between SES groups. PMID:22606060
Conklin, Annalijn I.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Suhrcke, Marc; Surtees, Paul; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Monsivais, Pablo
•Eating a variety of many fruits and vegetables is critical for healthy aging.•Variety is as important as quantity of fruits and vegetables for disease prevention.•Fruit and vegetable consumption is strongly graded by socioeconomic status.•Variety was strongly patterned by socioeconomic status and by financial hardships.•Economic inequalities were greater in women for fruit and men for vegetable variety.
Zhao, Ningning; Valcke, Martin; Desoete, Annemie; Verhaeghe, JeanPierre
The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between family socioeconomic status and mathematics performance on the base of a multi-level analysis involving a large sample of Chinese primary school students. A weak relationship is found between socioeconomic status and performance in the Chinese context. The relationship does…
Glance, Dorea E.
This research focused on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of student personal characteristics and school counselor self-efficacy. While previous literature focuses on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of academic characteristics such as…
The present study examined the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing (as reflected in physical symptom reporting) in two groups of American and Jordanian college students. It also assessed moderation effects of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Participants were administered a questionnaire consisting of items pertaining to dispositional optimism (as measured by the Revised Life Orientation Test, LOT-R) along with items assessing physical symptom reporting and sociodemographic factors (e.g., gender, socioeconomic status). The results revealed significant negative correlations between dispositional optimism and physical symptom reporting for both American and Jordanian participants, although the magnitude of the correlation for the American group was noticeably larger than that for the Jordanian group. The results also showed that women, especially Jordanians, were more likely than men to report physical symptoms. Among Jordanians, physical symptom reporting was more common among those of lower SES. No statistically significant differences in physical symptom reporting were found between American men and women or between the two cultural groups. Multiple regression analyses revealed no statistically significant interactions between optimism and cultural background, optimism and gender, or optimism and SES. Overall, the results suggest that optimism is the factor most predictive of physical symptom reporting, followed by SES and gender. These results corroborate previous findings on the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing, and point to crosscultural differences in relationship patterns. These differences suggest that although personality characteristics such as optimism may play an important role in the physical wellbeing of both Western and non-Western groups, the influence of sociodemographic factors such as gender and SES and their interaction with cultural variables must not be overlooked. PMID:22822989
Full Text Available Background:The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Iranian aged 25-64 estimated to be about 7.7%.The aim of current study was the assessment of socioeconomic status of diabetic patients and their complications.Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted on type 2 diabetic patients with complications in four major teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS during July 2009 to March 2010. All patients (530 were interviewed through a questionnaire with 85% response rate (450 patients. Skilled nurses were assigned as responsible for data collection. Collected data analyzed by Exact Fisher and ?2 tests using SPSS version 11.5.Results: The majority of patients had experienced one or more complications. Findings revealed that 50%, 33.6% and 16.4% of the patients suffered from one, two, and three complications of type 2 diabetes, respectively. Patients with cardiovascular complications included 22.2%, with both cardiovascular and eye complications (12.7%, and with cardiovascular, eye and foot ulcer together 14% of the respondents. Frequency of complications demonstrated significant relation with sex,age,educational level,type of occupation, duration of diabetes (P<0.001 and social class (P=0.002.The majority of patients (54.2% belonged to low income group.Conclusion: It seems patients with low socioeconomic status face more challenges in their social environment together with less psychological support. Health care systems are responsible to empower them to control their illness and feel a better life to live.
Martin, Daniel J.; Park, John; Langan-martin, Julie; Connolly, Moira; Smith, Daniel J.; Taylor, Mark
Aims and method: To investigate whether socioeconomic status influenced rates of depot medication prescribing, polypharmacy (more than two psychotropic medications), newer (second-generation) antipsychotic prescribing and clozapine therapy. Postcodes, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) categories and current medication status were ascertained. Patients in the most deprived SIMD groups (8-10 combined) were compared with those in the most affluent SIMD groups (1-3 combined). Resu...
Full Text Available Children feel stress long before they grow up. Many children have to cope with family conflict, divorce, constant changes in schools, neighbourhood and child care arrangements, peer pressure and sometimes even violence in their homes or communities. The impact of a stressor depends on the academic achievement of students. It is the stress which does not allow students to perform well in classroom situation, the study objectives The objectives tested in this part of the study are as under 1. To study the differences in scores of academic achievement between the students possessing different levels of stress belonging to different socio-economic status and sex. 2. To study the nature of interaction between stress and socio-economic status, stress and sex, and among stress, socioeconomic status and sex when academic achievement was taken as a dependent variable. The study reveals that students belonging to High Socio-economic Status are academically sound as compared to their counterparts while as when male and female students compared together they have an equal chance of being academically sound or poor. This reveals that when stress and sex, and SES and Sex taken jointing they do effect on dependent variable i.e. academic achievement.
Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra
This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…
Neuman, Melissa; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gortmaker, Steven; Subramanian, S. V.
Background: Urbanization is often cited as a main cause of increasing BMIs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and urban residents in LMICs tend to have higher BMIs than do rural residents. However, urban-rural differences may be driven by differences in socioeconomic status (SES).
Full Text Available Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.
Mock, Steven E.; Arai, Susan M.
Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events. PMID:21833299
Alarcón, Ana M; Muñoz, Sergio; Kaufman, Jay S; Martínez, Carlos; Riedemann, Pablo; Kaliski, Sonia
The aim of this study was to estimate the contributions of ethnic group and socioeconomic status as social determinants related to disability and disease activity in Chilean Mapuche and non-Mapuche patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Descriptive cross-sectional study with a stratified hospital-based sample of 189 patients in treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. We assessed disability as categorical variable with the Health Assessment Questionnaire, disease activity with the Disease Activity Score instrument, and socioeconomic status with a standard questionnaire used by the Chilean government. Measures of association, stratified analyses and a multiple logistic regression model were used to analyze the data using the Stata 12.1 software package. Low socioeconomic status (annual income below US$ 7,200) is associated with disability (OR 3.87 CI 1.68-9.20) and Mapuche ethnic identity also contributes to disability (OR 2.48, CI 1.09-5.89). Relevant but not statistically significant in multivariable models were variables such as age, gender and place of residence. RA patients with a low socioeconomic status have almost three times the odds of having a moderate to high disability, independent of their ethnic group, gender or place of residence. Therefore, healthcare efforts should be aimed at promoting early diagnosis and prompt treatment among populations with high levels of poverty, which in the region of the Araucanía means primarily indigenous rural areas. PMID:25178741
Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Evans, Gary W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Philibert, Robert A.
The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental…
Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.
Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…
Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath
The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…
Mello, Zena R.
This longitudinal study examined the development of educational and occupational expectations from adolescence to adulthood in relation to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) group membership. Hierarchical linear modeling on national data (NELS:88) spanning 12 years yielded several findings: (a) African American participants reported the…
Ulriksen, Robin; Sagatun, Åse; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Waaktaar, Trine; Lervåg, Arne Ola
Social support and socioeconomic status (SES) have received considerable attention in explaining academic achievement and the achievement gap between students with ethic majority and immigrant background, and between boys and girls. Using a Structural Equation Modeling approach we examine (1) if there exist a gap in school achievements between…
Wagner, Mary M.; Newman, Lynn A.; Javitz, Harold S.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, this study considers (a) the extent to which the socioeconomic status (SES) of youth with disabilities predicted their likelihood of high school graduation, postsecondary education enrollment, and employment; (b) the extent to which other individual and family factors mediated the…
Simpkins, Sandra D.; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Price, Chara D.; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth
The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms…
This study compared student scientific reasoning and conceptual knowledge in argumentation-based and traditional instruction, taught in school regions with low and high socio-economic status (SES) respectively. Furthermore, concrete and formal reasoning students' scientific reasoning and conceptual knowledge were compared during both instructions…
Ladas, Aristea I.; Carroll, Daniel J.; Vivas, Ana B.
Recent research indicates that bilingual children are more proficient in resolving cognitive conflict than monolinguals. However, the replicability of such findings has been questioned, with poor control of participants' socioeconomic status (SES) as a possible confounding factor. Two experiments are reported here, in which the main attentional…
This study compared the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in one middle socioeconomic status (SES), and one low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002), and after (200...
This study examined the socioeconomic status (SES), collegiate involvement, and social consciousness of low-income college students (LICSs) and higher-income college students (HICSs) in Taiwan. The study analyzed 1,453 LICSs and 1,453 HICSs from 156 colleges in Taiwan. The results showed that the two student groups exhibited different SESs and…
The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…
Curtis, Vicki L.
The three tiered reading model and the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) are two initiatives being used to identify struggling readers of low socioeconomic status. While there is abundant information with statistical reports from various researchers, there is little research available as to what educators implementing…
Cueto, Santiago; Guerrero, Gabriela; Leon, Juan; Zapata, Mayli; Freire, Silvana
Using Young Lives longitudinal data from Peru, this paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) measured at the age of one, opportunities to learn (OTL) and achievement in mathematics ten years later. Four variables of OTL were measured: hours of class per year, curriculum coverage, quality of teachers' feedback, and…
Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Martin, Monica J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna; Conger, Rand
This third-generation, longitudinal study evaluated a family investment perspective on family socioeconomic status (SES), parental investments in children, and child development. The theoretical framework was tested for first-generation parents (G1), their children (G2), and the children of the second generation (G3). G1 SES was expected to…
Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose
This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…
Thompson, R. Bruce; Corsello, Maryann; McReynolds, Samuel; Conklin-Powers, Bernice
In this study, we explored socioeconomic status (SES) and family structure as predictors of resiliencies among "at-risk" youth before and after participating in schools-based mentoring programs. Twenty-four youths (13 girls) aged 13-18 ("M" = 16.21, SD = 1.76) participated. Youths completed pre- and post-test…
Pacharee Kantipong; Jirapohn Wongyai; Supalert Nedsuwan; Sarmwai Luangjina; Jintana Ngamvithayapong-Yanai; Nobukatsu Ishikawa
Problem: The 2008 tuberculosis (TB) surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736) defaulted from treatment. Context: TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. Action: We engaged Chiang Rai women’s organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic sta...
Holman C D'Arcy J; Moorin Rachael E
Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate groups of patients with a relatively homogenous health status to evaluate the degree to which use of the Australian hospital system is affected by socio-economic status, locational accessibility to services and patient payment classification. Method Records of all deaths occurring in Western Australia from 1997 to 2000 inclusive were extracted from the WA mortality register and linked to records from the hospital morbidity data system (HMDS)...
Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc
This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.
TRUPIN, LAURA; TONNER, M. CHRISTINE; YAZDANY, JINOOS; JULIAN, LAURA J.; CRISWELL, LINDSEY A.; KATZ, PATRICIA P.; YELIN, EDWARD
Objective To determine if neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) is independently related to physical and mental health outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Data derived from the first 3 waves of the Lupus Outcomes Study, a telephone survey of 957 patients with confirmed SLE diagnoses, recruited from clinical and non-clinical sources. Residential addresses were geocoded to U.S. Census block groups. Outcome measures included the Systemic LupusActivity Questionnaire (SLAQ) score, a self-reported assessment of SLE symptoms; the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey physical functioning score; and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score of ? 19 points. Multivariate analyses adjusted for race/ethnicity and other demographic and health-related covariates. Results After adjustment, lower individual SES, measured by education, household income, or poverty status, was associated with all outcomes. In models that did not include individual SES, low neighborhood SES (> 30% of residents in poverty) was also associated with poor outcomes. After adjustment for individual SES, demographic, and health-related covariates, only CES-D ? 19 remained associated with neighborhood SES: 47% [95% confidence interval (CI) 38–56%] versus 35% (95% CI 32–37%). Conclusion Individual SES is associated with physical and mental health outcomes in persons with SLE. Low neighborhood SES contributes independently to high levels of depressive symptoms. Future research should focus on mechanisms underlying these differences. PMID:18634153
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.
Teresa C. B., Freitas; Carl, Gabbard; Priscila, Caçola; Maria I. L., Montebelo; Denise C. C., Santos.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) and stimulation provided in the home environment are influential factors in aspects of child well-being including motor development. Little is known regarding the influence of SES on specific aspects of the home environment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ava [...] ilability of affordances in the home to promote infant motor development and family SES. METHOD : The sample consisted of 300 families with infants aged 3 to 18 months. SES was assessed according to family socioeconomic class, income and parental level of education. To evaluate motor affordances found at home, the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS) was used. The AHEMD-IS was designed to assess dimensions of the home environment including Physical Space (outside and inside space), Daily Activities and Play Materials (fine-motor and gross-motor toys). RESULTS: SES indicators significantly influenced the availability of Physical Space and Play Materials. The Physical Space dimension was influenced by family economic class and income. The Play Materials dimension was influenced by all SES indicators. Daily Activities were not influenced by any of the SES indicators. Daily activities and play material were influenced by the infant's age. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that SES indicators are influential with regard to the provision of motor affordances in the home environment for infants. However, daily activities, which represent an aspect of the environment that is highly dependent on parental generation of situations that are conducive to motor skill development, are independent of family SES.
Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre
Full Text Available Objective: To compare sub-optimal birth weight (2,500 to 2,999 g term newborns to appropriate for gestational age (birth weight ? 3,000 g term newborns, regarding maternal data and newborn morbidity and mortality. Methods: Single term newborns, appropriate for gestational age from a high socioeconomic population (n = 1,242 with birth weight ranging from 2,500 to 2,999 g (Group I were compared to 4,907 newborns with birth weight ? than 3,000 g (Group II. Maternal and newborn characteristics were compared between the groups. The Mann-Whitney test, ?2 test and multivariate analysis were used. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Rresults: The frequency of sub-optimal birth weight newborns in the population studied was 20.2%. There was a significant association between sub-optimal birth weight and maternal weight before pregnancy and body mass index, maternal weight gain, height, smoking habit and hypertension. Newborns’ 1-minute Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia and hospital stay were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05. A significant relationship could not be established with the 5-minute Apgar score and pulmonary hypertension in both groups. Neonatal mortality did not differ between the groups. Cconclusions: Socioeconomic status was not a risk factor for sub-optimal birth weight in the studied population. Genetic and environmental factors were associated to sub-optimal weight and neonatal diseases. According to these data, this group of newborns should receive special attention from the health team.
Davidsen, Jesper RØmhild; SØndergaard, Jens
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based longitudinal study was to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and anti-asthmatic treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) among young Danish adult asthmatics, and to investigate whether these associations were consistent over time. METHODS: We extracted data on prescription drug use, education, and income in 97 665 users of anti-asthmatic drugs, aged 18-44 years, identified in Statistics Denmark during 1997-2005. Individual information on education and income was used as measures of SES. Education was categorised into basic school/high school, vocational training, and higher education, and income was categorised into low, middle, and high income. Associations between ICS use and SES were estimated by logistic regression models. RESULTS: High levels of education and income were independently associated with ICS use, education demonstrating the strongest association. Using basic school/high school and low income as baselines, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ICS use for higher education were 1.46 (95% CI 1.40-1.51) and 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.14) for high income. Higher education was a nearly constant factor associated with ICS use throughout the observation period, but high income did not demonstrate any association before 2001 with increasing ORs observed each year hereafter. All associations became more pronounced when restricting to 35-44 year-olds. CONCLUSION: High levels of SES were positively associated with ICS use in young adult asthmatics. To encourage ICS use, special attention should be paid to asthmatics with low educational level and low income. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for this socioeconomic inequality.
Boylan, Sinead M; Gill, Timothy P
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that socioeconomic status (SES) may influence the risk of obesity; however it is important to consider individual changes in SES over the life-course in addition to SES at specific time-points to better understand the complex associations with obesity. We explored the relationship between lifetime-specific and life-course SES and risk of obesity and overweight in Danish adults. METHODS: Data were used from the Danish Youth and Sports Study (DYSS) – a 20–22 year follow-up study of Danish teenagers born between 1964 and 1969. Baseline data gathered in 1983 and 1985 included self-reported BMI, SES and physical activity. The follow-up survey (2005) repeated these assessments in addition to an assessment of diet. Complete data on adolescent and adult SES and BMI were available for 623 participants. RESULTS: Following adjustments, adolescent SES had no significant association with overweight/obesity in this sample, however females of low or medium adult SES were significantly more likely to be overweight/obese compared to those of high SES (low SES: OR: 2.7; 95% CI: (1.3–5.8); p = 0.008; medium SES: OR: 4.0, 95% CI (1.6–10.2); p = 0.003). Females who decreased in SES during adulthood were significantly more likely to be overweight/obese compared to those who remained of high SES (OR: 3.1; 95% CI (1.1–9.2); p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Effects of early life-factors may be conditional upon the environment in adulthood, particularly for the women. Further research should consider the timing of SES exposure and the mechanisms which may be responsible for the socioeconomic gradients in prevalence of obesity and overweight.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A link between low parental socioeconomic status and mental health problems in offspring is well established in previous research. The mechanisms that explain this link are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether school performance was a mediating and/or moderating factor in the path between parental socioeconomic status and the risk of hospital admission for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Methods A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-1977 was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the end of their ninth and final year of compulsory school until 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and linear regression analyses were performed to test whether the association between parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour was mediated or moderated by school performance. Results The results of a series of multiple regression analyses, adjusted for demographic variables, revealed that school performance was as an important mediator in the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and risk of non-fatal suicidal behaviour, accounting for 60% of the variance. The hypothesized moderation of parental socioeconomic status-non-fatal suicidal behaviour relationship by school performance was not supported. Conclusions School performance is an important mediator through which parental socioeconomic status translates into a risk for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Prevention efforts aimed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among young people will need to consider socioeconomic inequalities in school performance.
Emma, Velásquez; María Adela, Barón; Liseti, Solano; María, Páez; Daisy, Llovera; Zulay, Portillo.
Full Text Available Estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado que, niveles desfavorables de lípidos séricos en la infancia son predictores del desarrollo de lesiones en la adultez. Se evaluó el perfil lipídico de 297 preescolares venezolanos (4-7 años) para establecer comparaciones según el nivel socioeconómico (NSE), me [...] dido por Graffar modificado. Se hicieron dos grupos: NSE alto (n=103) y NSE bajo (n=194). El estado nutricional antropométrico se evaluó mediante el indicador peso/talla (P/T), adoptando los puntos de corte del NCHS/OMS. El perfil lipídico se determinó por métodos bioquímicos colorimétricos y se calcularon las relaciones de riesgo aterogénico. Según el estado nutricional se encontró 5,8% y 14,9% de déficit; 78,6% y 70,1% de normalidad; 15,5% y 14,9% de exceso en el NSE alto y el NSE bajo, respectivamente. Los valores promedio del perfil lipídico fueron: Triglicéridos (TG): 0,66± 0,27 y 0,76± 0,31 mmol/L, Colesterol Total (CT): 3,61± 0,65 y 2,98± 0,71 mmol/L, HDL-C: 1,04± 0,18 y 0,62± 0,16 mmol/L, LDL-C: 2,27± 0,61 y 2,01± 0,71 mmol/L, CT/HDL-C: 3,5± 0,78 y 5,0± 1,5. LDL-C/HDL-C: 2,0± 0,71 y 3,4± 1,4; con diferencias significativas entre los grupos en NSE alto y bajo, respectivamente. Se encontró asociación significativa (p Abstract in english Epidemiological studies have shown that unfavorable serum lipids levels in childhood are predictors of development of atherosclerosis lesions in adulthood. We assessed the lipid profile of 297 Venezuelan preschool children (4-7 years old) from two socioeconomic levels in order to compare them by thi [...] s characteristic. Their social level was determined according to modified Graffar method, and two groups were obtained: high socioeconomic status (HSES, n=103) and low socioeconomic status (LSES, n=194). Nutritional anthropometric evaluation was performed by weight to height, and NCHS/OMS cut-off point was used. Lipid profile was determined by colorimetric biochemical methods and atherogenic risks factors were calculated. Underweight for HSES was 5.8% and for LSES: 14.9%, while normal status was 78.6% and 70.1%, and overweight was 15.5% and 14.9%, respectively. Mean values for triglycerides were 0.66± 0.27and 0.76± 0.31 mmol/L, total cholesterol (TC): 3.61± 0.65 and 2.98± 0.71 mmol/L, HDL-C: 1.04± 0.18 and 0.62± 0.16 mmol/L, LDL-C: 2.27± 0.61 and 2.01± 0.71 mmol/L, TC/HDL-C: 3.5± 0.78 and 5.0± 1.5; LDL-C/HDL-C: 2.0± 0.71 and 3.4± 1.4 with significant differences between HSES and LSES as shown respectively. A significant association was found (p
A R Dorosty
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Food insecurity implies a limited ability to secure adequate and safe food or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways.The nutrition transition in Iran is taking place in the context of rapid demographic change and urbanization in spite of underweight, obesity and overweight increased, especially among women. It is usually expected that food-insecure people have an inadequate food intake, less body fat, and body weight. However, several studies in developed countries have shown a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among food-insecure household members, especially women. Under weight and overweight or obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in the developed countries and is assuming to become a serious health problem in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the association between food insecurity and socio-economic factors in households and body mass index among urban women in Dezful in 2008.Materials and Methods: A total of 400 household were randomly selected by two stage sampling from different areas in Dezful. Heights and weights of all women were measured based on standard protocols, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. BMI status was defined based on cut-off values recommended by NIH( under weight = BMI<18.5, normal weight 18.5< BMI< 25, overweight 25?BMI<30 and obesity BMI?30"nWomen provided detailed demographic and food insecurity information via a face- to- face interview. Information on food insecurity was collected using the instrument originally developed by USDA. All analysis was conducted using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The prevalence of household food insecurity was %37.6 and 42.8% of the women were overweight, and 12% obese, respectively. Results showed that, BMI was positively associated with food insecurity, womens age and family size and inversely associated with , race and economic status (p <0.05.Conclusion: It is evident that household food insecurity, overweight and obesity coexist in Dezful. Women age, family size, race and economic status were recognized as associated factors with food insecurity but other factors didnt show significant relationship. There is lack of published information regarding food insecurity and some factors affecting with body weight status; therefore, it is necessary to perform such studies in other regions too.
Introduction Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Methods Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national ‘Health Behavior in School-aged Children’ study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Results Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p?0.001), 1.5-times higher odds of low life satisfaction (p?=?0.008), and a greater chance of a lower quality of life and a higher SDQ score than boys (p?=?0.001). The adolescents who perceived their family’s material welfare as worse had 4-times higher odds (p?0.001) of a low life satisfaction, a greater chance of a low quality of life, and a higher SDQ score than those who perceived it as better (p?0.001). Adolescents with no friends had lower KIDSCREEN-10 and higher SDQ scores than those who had more than three friends. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia is among the EU members with the lowest rates of social inequalities, it was found that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on adolescents’ mental health status in Slovenia in the future. PMID:24673838
Larsen, Morten H
Despite a general consensus and recognition of the importance of the "social gradient" on nutritional standards and ultimately people's health, (Budrys, 2003; Marmot & Wilkinson, 1999; Marmot et al., 1991; Ross & Wu, 1995), the body of literature identifying and describing the actual underlying social mechanisms which could explain this association is small, fragmented and not contained within one single discipline of thought - the effects of this conundrum seem easier to describe than to explain. The aim of this article is therefore to explore and identify social mechanisms, which could help explain why people with low socio-economic status consume a disproportionate amount of unhealthy foods and therefore also observe poorer diets. It is therefore in many ways an exploration into the nature of (relative) poverty. The point of departure for this exploration and identification is historical descriptions (in the form of excerpts) from George Orwell's (1937) book "The Road to Wigan Pier" on the living conditions of the British working classes. These descriptions will be aligned with results from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour. Strong similarities are identified between George Orwell's historical descriptions of the working-class's unhealthy diet and the findings from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour of people with a low socio-economic status. Certain social mechanisms influencing nutritional choices are readily identifiable across disciplines, and even partly reproduced in different historical, social and spatial contexts, with stronger negative (nutritional) consequences for people with low socio-economic status. The disregard of social mechanisms, and therefore implicitly issues of class, could indicate a general "de-socialization" of nutritional advice also in its dispersal through various health-promotion initiatives and campaigns, which raises serious questions about the usefulness of much nutritional advice, already tentatively questioned by some nutritionist (Burr et al., 2007) as well as "food" sociologist (Smith & Holm, 2010). PMID:25865664
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of socioeconomic status (SES on obesity in a group of adolescents. METHODS: This study was performed Ankara with students of two schools with low SES (n:183 and high SES (n:187 according to data Prime Minister Republic of Turkey, Turkish Statistical Institute. The total of 370 adolescents, 11-13 years-old, joined to the study which was 186 boys and 184 girls. The anthropometric measurements and the prevalence of obesity were done on adolescents. Moreover, their nutritional statuses were assessed; daily energy and nutrient intakes were calculated. The data were evaluated as low and high SES. RESULTS: Weight, BMI, triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfold thickness, and percentage of fat mass were significantly higher in high SES than in low SES (p<0.05. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 5.5% and 2.2% for low SES; 10.7% and 6.4% for high SES, respectively. Overweight and obesity prevelance are higher in high SES than low SES (p<0.05. Daily energy intake, percentage of energy from proteins and fats and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages were higher in high SES than in low SES. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity in adolescents with high SES is more common due to high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet composition. To inform adolescents, regarding to their SES, about nutrition and physical activities would be preventive for obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 433-440
DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive
The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development. PMID:15083654
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.
Subhash Singh Parihar
Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014. Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.
Goulden, R; Ibrahim, T; Wolfson, C
High socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with better health outcomes, but some research has linked it with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). The evidence for this association is inconsistent and has not previously been systematically reviewed. A systematic review of cohort and case-control studies in any language was conducted looking at the association between MS and SES. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for articles in all languages published up until 23 August 2013. Twenty-one studies from 13 countries were included in the review. Heterogeneity of study settings precluded carrying out a meta-analysis, and a qualitative synthesis was performed instead. Five studies, all from more unequal countries, reported an association between high SES and MS. Thirteen studies reported no evidence of an association, and three studies reported an association with low SES. These 16 studies largely came from more egalitarian countries. The evidence for an association between high SES and increased MS risk is inconsistent but with some indication of a stronger effect in countries and time periods with higher inequality. Firm conclusions are hampered by the failure of most studies to control for other important risk factors for MS. PMID:25370720
Jackson, R W; Treiber, F A; Turner, J R; Davis, H; Strong, W B
Cardiovascular (CV) responsivity to and recovery from acute laboratory stressors, as derived from aggregate scores of CV functioning during and after postural change, video game challenge, social competence interview, and parent-child conflict discussion, were evaluated in 272 youths [mean age 13.5 +/- 2.6 years; 162 Blacks (77 males, 85 females), 110 Whites (60 males, 50 females)], all with a positive family history of essential hypertension. Blacks demonstrated greater systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and lower heart rate responsivity compared to Whites (all P values < 0.05). A race by neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) interaction for SBP responsivity was also observed where low SES Whites and high SES Blacks had the greatest responsivity compared to their same race cohorts. Additionally, upper SES Whites had the lowest total peripheral resistance responsivity. For recovery, Blacks and males exhibited higher SBP during recovery compared to Whites and females, respectively. These findings extend previous studies and provide further support for the hypothesis that recovery from stress is a potentially informative component of the contribution of stress responsivity to cardiovascular disease. PMID:9987057
Full Text Available Typically, big changes in the economic system lead to alterations on families’ disposable income and thus on their spending for different types of products, including food. These may imply in the long run a structural modification of the population’s diet quality. After the fall of the socialist system, in the past two decades, Central and Eastern European countries, including Hungary, went through a profound and sometimes difficult transition of their political and economic systems, shifting from a centralized plan to an open-market economy, and, perhaps more importantly, the European Union integration. Economic change in lower-income and transitional economies of the world appears to coincide with increasing rapid social change. With respect to nutrition, there is evidence that these countries are changing their diets and that changes seem to happen at a faster pace than ever before (e.g. Ivanova et al., 2006. In this paper, we analyse the evolution of Hungarian dietary patterns based on socio-economic status (SES data between 1993 and 2007. Data allows defining and profiling several clusters based on aggregated consumption data, and then inspecting the influence of SES variables using OLS and multinomial logit estimations
Lee, Ching-Chih; Chien, Sou-Hsin; Hung, Shih-Kai; Yang, Wei-Zhen; Su, Yu-Chieh
This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and oral cancer mortality. A population-based follow-up study was conducted of 3607 oral cancer patients (predominantly male) who were diagnosed between 2004 and 2005. Each patient was traced to death or for 2 years. Individual SES was defined by enrollee category. Neighborhood SES was defined by income, and numbers of doctors, and neighborhoods were grouped into advantaged and disadvantaged areas. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the death-free survival rate between the different SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. In oral cancer patients aged below 65 years, death rates among those with low SES were highest in disadvantaged neighborhoods. After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, urbanization, and area of residence), tumor extent, treatment modalities (operation, adjuvant therapy), hospital characteristics (ownership, teaching level, caseload), and year of diagnosis, oral cancer patients with low individual SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods conferred a 1.46- to 1.64-fold higher risk for death, compared with patients with high individual SES in advantaged neighborhoods. No statistically significant difference was found in risk of death between different SES groups in patients aged 65 and above. Our findings indicate that oral cancer patients with low individual SES have the highest risk of mortality even under a universal health-care system. Public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group. PMID:22041306
Chen, Mingling; Wu, Yikang; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Li, Xueqing; Wang, Chunmei; Luo, Jianyong; Zhao, Genming; Chen, Zhongwen; Xu, Wanghong
Objectives This study examines the associations of socioeconomic status (SES) with intensity of different types of physical activity (PA) in Chinese adults, aimed at outlining and projecting socioeconomic disparities in PA among the population undergoing a rapid nutrition transition. Methods A community-based survey was conducted among 3,567 residents aged 30–65 years old in Jiaxing, China, in 2010. SES and PA were assessed by a structured questionnaire. SES was assessed as socioeconomic index (SEI) score based on self-reported educational attainment, household income and occupation. Metabolic equivalents (METs) were calculated for each subject to quantify the total amount of PA from occupation, exercise, transportation and housework. Results Intensity of overall PA in this population was 165 MET-hours/week, in which energy expenditure in occupational PA accounted for 82%. Both types and intensity of PA were significantly different by SES: middle SES groups had higher intensity of occupational activities; lower SES subjects engaged in more household work; whereas higher SES subjects were more likely to exercise, more active during commuting and had longer sedentary time. All the three components of SES, education attainment, income and occupation, contributed to socioeconomic disparities in PA in this population. Conclusions Our results suggest an overall insufficiency and socioeconomic inequalities in PA among Chinese adults in Jiaxing, a typical city experiencing a rapid urbanization in China. There is an urgent need to promote leisure-time activities in this population. PMID:26177205
Ayandiran Olufemi E; Adebayo Abayomi A; Olaogun Adenike AE; Olasode Olayinka A
Abstract Background Public health research is shifting focus to the role of socioeconomic indicators in the promotion of health. As such an understanding of the roles that socio-economic factors play in improving health and health-seeking behaviour is important for public health policy. This is because the share of resources devoted to different policy options should depend on their relative effectiveness. Objective To measure the effect of socio-economic status (age, education, occupation,...
Leppin Anja; Richter Matthias; Nic Gabhainn Saoirse
Abstract Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive) alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic d...
Cassedy, Amy; Drotar, Dennis; Ittenbach, Richard; Hottinger, Shawna; Wray, Jo; Wernovsky, Gil; Newburger, Jane W.; Mahony, Lynn; Mussatto, Kathleen; Cohen, Mitchell I; Marino, Bradley S.
Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to influence children’s health-related quality of life. Many SES indicators assess distinct dimensions of a family’s position rather than measuring the same underlying construct. Many researchers, however, see SES indicators as interchangeable. The primary aim of this study was to determine which measure of SES had the strongest impact on health-related quality of life. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Li...
Hongxiang Guo; Wenjie Yang; Ying Cao; Jian Li; Johannes Siegrist
Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES) on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7–12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by ...
Joel Gittelsohn, Phd; Min Kyung Ahn, Mhs; Hee-soon Juon, Phd
IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the Californ...
Lee, Eun Jung; Park, Sangshin; Kim, Cho-Il; Choi, Doo-won; Lee, Jung Sun; Oh, Sun Min; Cho, Eunyoung; Park, Hye Kyung; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Oh, Sang Woo
Background: A limited amount of research, primarily conducted in Western countries, has suggested that higher socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher risk of eating disorders (EDs). However, little is known about this association in Asian countries. We examined the association of SES with disturbed eating behavior (DEB) and related factors in Korean adolescents. Subjects A nationwide online panel survey was conducted in a sample of adolescents (n = 6,943, 49.9% girls). DEB was me...
Issler Roberto M.S.; Giugliani Elsa R.J.; Kreutz Guilherme T.; Meneses Clarice F.; Justo Elisa B.; Kreutz Valerie M.; Pires Milton
To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile) were found to ha...
Dowd, Jennifer Beam; Zajacova, Anna; Aiello, Allison
Recent work in biodemography has suggested that life-time exposure to infection and inflammation may be important determinants of later-life morbidity and mortality. Early exposure to infections during critical periods can predispose individuals to chronic disease, in part through the reallocation of energy away from development needed for immune and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, markers of inflammation are known to vary by socioeconomic status in adults and may contribute to overall s...
Scharoun-Lee, Melissa; Adair, Linda S; Kaufman, Jay S.; Gordon-larsen, Penny
Racial/ethnic disparities in obesity widen dramatically during young adulthood in the US. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity can provide insight on these disparities. However, the delay and complexity of the transition to adulthood creates challenges for defining SES using traditional, single indicators, such as income or years of education. Our objective was to define a multidimensional measure of young adult SES using ex...
Cutumisu Nicoleta; Spence John C; Carson Valerie; Cargill Lindsey
Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and we...
Quinn, Kelly; Kaufman, Jay S.; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Yeatts, Karin B.
Asthma disproportionately affects non-whites in urban areas and those of low socioeconomic status, yet asthma's social patterning is not well-explained by known risk factors. We hypothesized that disadvantaged urban populations experience acute and chronic housing stressors which produce psychological stress and impact health through biological and behavioral pathways. We examined eight outcomes: six child respiratory outcomes as well as parent and child general health, using data from 682 lo...
Massari, Veronique; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Parizot, Isabelle; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Chauvin, Pierre, 1942-
In France, numerous HIV patients still discover their HIV status as a result of AIDS-related symptoms. We investigated factors related to the absence of any HIV testing in men and women separately, using the data from the SIRS cohort, which includes 3023 households representative of the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. The failure to use HIV testing services was studied in relation to individual socioeconomic and demographic factors as well as some psychosocial characteristics. The effect of ...
Jenum, Anne Karen; Lorentzen, Catherine Anne Nicole; Ommundsen, Yngvar
Objective: To summarise the main results of a community-based study on physical activity promotion — "Romsås in Motion". Methods: The study assessed changes in physical activity, body mass and psychosocial mediators of physical activity from a pseudo-experimental cohort study involving two districts with low socioeconomic status in Oslo, Norway. In 2000, baseline investigation included 2950 30–67-year-olds — 48% of those invited. At follow-up in 2003 we measured 1776 subjec...
Dilley, Julia A.; Erin Peterson; Matthew Bobo; Pickle, Kathryn E.; Kristen Rohde
Background . Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES) and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design . For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods . With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alas...
Overview: A primary caregivers’ knowledge about child health can have a significant impact on her practices, which in turn can affect child growth and development. The main objective of the study was to explore the level of caregiver’s knowledge and beliefs about the treatment of diarrhoea and child nutrition and to find out whether caregivers’ socio-economic status influences their knowledge and beliefs. Methods: In this study, the data used were from the Savelugu- Nanton Hous...
Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; DODGE, KENNETH A.; Zelli, Arnaldo; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.
Direct and indirect precursors to parents' harsh discipline responses to hypothetical vignettes about child misbehavior were studied with data from 978 parents (59% mothers; 82% European American and 16% African American) of 585 kindergarten-aged children. SEM analyses showed that parents' beliefs about spanking and child aggression and family stress mediated a negative relation between socioeconomic status and discipline. In turn, perception of the child and cognitive–emotional processes (...
This study carries out empirical researches among Mainland Chinese high school students to explore the impactof parent’s socioeconomic status on perceived parental pressure and test anxiety. The discoveries of the studyinclude: perceived parental pressure has significant impact on test anxiety; parents’ occupations, parents’ incomeand mother’s education have significant impact on perceived parental pressure; parents’ occupations, parents’income and mother’s education have signif...
Dotson, Vonetta M.; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H.; Evans, Michele K; Alan B. Zonderman
Previous research has shown that reading ability is a stronger predictor of cognitive functioning than years of education, particularly for African Americans. The current study was designed to determine whether the relative influence of literacy and education on cognitive abilities varies as a function of race or socioeconomic status (SES). We examined the unique influence of education and reading scores on a range of cognitive tests in low and high SES African Americans and Whites. Literacy ...
GOUTAM CHAKRABORTY; JAYANTA META
Environment is a global concept today. Environmental Education is an approach to learning. Environmental Education means the educational process dealing with man's relationship of population, pollution resource, conservation, technology, energy, urban and rural planning to the total biosphere.A self-made questionnaire was made in order to find the relationship between the Environmental Education aptitude and socioeconomic status among class IX Children of rural, urban an...
Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge; Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Robert; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Hysing, Mari
Objective: This study examined the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices as mediators of the association between familial socioeconomic status (SES) and child mental health problems. Method: The sample included 2,043 5th-7th graders (50.7% female) participating in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study. Children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parents reported family economy and education level, e...
Loon, A.J. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kant, I.J.; Swaen, G M; Kremer, A.M.; van den Brandt, P. A.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of occupational exposure to carcinogens in explaining the association between socioeconomic status and lung cancer. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. Data on diet, other lifestyle factors, sociodemographic characteristics and job history were collected by means of a self administered questionnaire. Follow up for incident cancer was established by record linkage with a national pathology register and with regional cancer registries. SETTING: Populat...
Sumiko Kurioka; Masaya Takahashi; Akihito Shimazu; Akiomi Inoue; Norito Kawakami; Hideki Hashimoto; Akizumi Tsutsumi; Setsuko Taneichi; Yixuan Song; Koichi Miyaki; Takuro Shimbo
The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and str...
Tandon Pooja S; Zhou Chuan; Sallis James F; Cain Kelli L; Frank Lawrence D; Saelens Brian E
Abstract Background Children in households of lower socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to be overweight/obese. We aimed to determine if home physical activity (PA) environments differed by SES and to explore home environment mediators of the relation of family SES to children’s PA and sedentary behavior. Methods Participants were 715 children aged 6 to 11 from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids (NIK) Study. Household SES was examined using highest educational attainment and income. Hom...
Prospective foreign language teachers need to have an accurate knowledge and a positive perception of the target language and target culture so that they can help their students gain further insight on culture by and large. Hence, by means of a questionnaire, prospective English language teachers’ (n= 412) perceptions of the target language and culture are sought to be answered in relation to their present knowledge of the target language and culture and their socioeconomic status. The resu...
Ana Carolina de Campos
Full Text Available Visou-se identificar o perfil psicomotor de crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico e verificar o efeito nelas de um programa de intervenção psicomotora. Participaram do estudo seis crianças do sexo masculino, na faixa de 10 a 12 anos (11,5±0,92. Os participantes foram avaliados utilizando-se uma bateria psicomotora que avalia sete fatores psicomotores: tonicidade, equilibração, lateralização, noção do corpo, estruturação espaço-temporal, praxia global e fina; de acordo com o desempenho da criança, os fatores são pontuados de 1 a 4; o escore 1 refere-se ao perfil apráxico, 2 ao dispráxico, 3 ao eupráxico e 4 ao hiperpráxico. Com base nas dificuldades detectadas foi elaborado um programa de intervenção psicomotora, aplicado durante três meses, em 16 sessões de uma hora de duração, duas vezes por semana. Ao término da intervenção os participantes foram reavaliados. Pela avaliação inicial, o perfil dos participantes foi predominantemente eupráxico nos fatores equilibração, lateralização, noção do corpo, praxia global e praxia fina; nos fatores tonicidade e estruturação espaço-temporal o perfil foi predominantemente dispráxico. Após o programa de intervenção houve aumento estatisticamente significativo (pThis study aimed at outlining the psychomotor profile of socioeconomically disadvantaged children and at verifying the effect on them of an assessment-based psychomotor training program. Participants were six 10-to-12 year-old children (mean age 11.5±0.92, who were evaluated before and after the program by means of a psychomotor battery which assesses seven categories: tonus, equilibrium, lateralisation, body perception, time-space orientation, gross and fine praxis; scores range from 1 to 4, determining the following profiles: 1, apraxic; 2, dyspraxic; 3, eupraxic; 4, hyperpraxic. By drawing on children's difficulties, a psychomotor playing program was applied during 3 months, in 16 one-hour sessions, twice a week. The initial evaluation showed participants profile to be predominantly eupraxic in equilibrium, lateralisation, body perception, gross and fine praxis; profile was mostly dyspraxic as to tonus and time-space orientation. After the program, scores significantly improved in tonus, equilibration, time-space orientation, gross, and fine praxis (p<0.05, thus suggesting that the program applied was able to benefit psychomotor performance of low socioeconomic status children.
Full Text Available Background: Disparities in health outcomes between the poor and the better off are increasingly attracting attention from researchers and policy makers. However, policies aimed at reducing inequity need to be based on evidence of their nature, magnitude, and determinants. Objectives: The study aims to investigate the relationship between household socio-economic status (SES and under-five mortality, and to measure health inequality by comparing poorest/least poor quintile mortality rate ratio and the use of a mortality concentration index. It also aims to describe the risk factors associated with under-five mortality at Rufiji Demographic Surveillance Site (RDSS, Tanzania. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study included 11,189 children under-five residing in 7,298 households in RDSS in 2005. Principal component analysis was used to construct household SES. Kaplan–Meier survival incidence estimates were used for mortality rates. Health inequality was measured by calculating and comparing mortality rates between the poorest and least poor wealth quintile. We also computed a mortality concentration index. Risk factors of child mortality were assessed using Poisson regression taking into account potential confounders. Results: Under-five mortality was 26.9 per 1,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI (23.7–30.4]. The poorest were 2.4 times more likely to die compared to the least poor. Our mortality concentration index [?0.16; 95% CI (?0.24, ?0.08] indicated considerable health inequality. Least poor households had a 52% reduced mortality risk [incidence rate ratio (IRR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.30–0.80]. Furthermore, children with mothers who had attained secondary education had a 70% reduced risk of dying compared to mothers with no education [IRR = 0.30; 95% CI (0.22–0.88]. Conclusion: Household socio-economic inequality and maternal education were associated with under-five mortality in the RDSS. Targeted interventions to address these factors may contribute towards accelerating the reduction of child mortality in rural Tanzania.
Basha, Sakeenabi; Mohammad, Roshan Noor; Swamy, Hiremath Shivalinga; Sexena, Vrinda
Obesity and poverty are independent risk factors in trauma-related morbidity in children as well as adolescents. The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between traumatic dental injury, obesity, and socioeconomic status in 6- and 13-year-old schoolchildren in Davangere city, Karnataka, India. Data were obtained from 1,550 schoolchildren. Dental trauma was classified according to Andreasen's criteria. The medical evaluation assessed the Body Mass Index. Overjet was considered a risk factor when it presented values higher than 3 mm, whereas lip coverage was classified as adequate or inadequate. With appropriate sample weighting, relationships between traumatic dental injury and other variables were assessed using the chi-squared test and multivariable logistic regression. Overall prevalence of dental injuries was 10.52% (3.6% in 6-year-olds and 17.2% in 13-year-olds). Boys experienced more injuries than girls, 11.03% and 9.97%, respectively (p>.05). There was a statistically significant difference between traumatic dental injury and overjet (95% confidence interval [CI] [2.06, 4.78], p socioeconomic status had an odds ratio 2.33 (95% CI [1.05, 3.97]) times higher likelihood of having dental trauma than children from medium and upper socioeconomic status. To conclude the results of this study support an association between traumatic dental injuries, obesity, and poverty. PMID:25812163
Chen, Hsin-Jen; Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Youfa
Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006-2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients) in body mass index (BMI) and HPA were estimated by couples' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses' BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI???30, overweight: 30?>?BMI???25) was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women's husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women's husbands (OR?=?0.69 (95% CI?=?0.53-0.89)). Men's unemployment status was associated with wives' greater odds of obesity (OR?=?1.31 (95% CI?=?1.01-1.71)). HPA was associated with men's employment status and income level, but not with women's. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors. PMID:25332834
Weers, Anthony J.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of socioeconomic status on the achievement of high school students participating in a one-to-one laptop computer program. Students living in poverty struggle to achieve in schools across the country, educators must address this issue. The independent variable in this study is socioeconomic…
Dunn RA, Sharkey JR, Lotade-Manje J, Bouhlal Y, Nayga RM Jr. Socio-economic status, racial composition and the affordability of fresh fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods of a large rural region in Texas.
Yoshinori Fujiwara; Naoko Sakurai; Suwen Yang; Sugako Kurimori; Motoyuki Yuasa; Tanji Hoshi
Life expectancy was well known to associate with lifestyle habits, socioeconomic condition, and three health-related dimensions (physical, mental and social health status). However, the causal effect relationship among these variables remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the causal relationships among health and life conditions, socioeconomic status, dietary and lifestyle habits and three health-related dimensions in elderly urban dwellers in Tokyo, Japan. Of 16,462 eli...
Hercberg Serge; Deschamps Valerie; Szego Emmanuelle; Roudier Candice; Salanave Benoit; Oleko Amivi; Malon Aurelie; Vernay Michel; Castetbon Katia
Abstract Background Identification of subpopulations at high risk of overweight and obesity is crucial for prevention and management of obesity in different socioeconomic status (SES) categories. The objective of the study was to describe disparities in the prevalence of overweight and obesity across socioeconomic status (SES) groups in 18–74 year-old French adults. Methods Analyses were based on a multistage stratified random sample of non-institutionalized adults aged 18–74-years-old fr...
Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite Bernardo
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a duração de sono na adolescência em diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODO: Foram investigados 863 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em duas escolas de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas por meio de questionários para identificação de informações sobre os hábitos de sono e nível socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: A duração média de sono nos dias da semana foi de 8,83(1,87 horas e a prevalência de adolescentes com duração de sono de oito ou menos horas diárias foi de 39,0% nos dias com aula. Adolescentes da classe baixa apresentaram menor duração do sono (p = 0,043. Na análise ajustada, a idade, o nível socioeconômico e o hábito de tirar a sesta foram os principais fatores associados a poucas horas de sono. Os participantes de 18 a 19 anos apresentaram maior prevalência de poucas horas de sono em comparação aos de 10 a 11 anos (PR = 4,78; CI95%: 1,98-11,53, assim como os adolescentes da classe alta em comparação com a classe baixa (PR = 1,48; CI95%: 1,20-1,83. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram associações entre o nível socioeconômico e os hábitos de sono de adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status. METHOD: We investigated 863 adolescents from 10 to 19 years in two schools in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Sleep habits data and socioeconomic status were obtained by questionnaires. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration on days of the week was 8.83(1.87 hours and the prevalence of adolescents with eight or fewer hours/day was 39.0% on school days (p = 0.043. On adjusted analysis, age, socioeconomic status and taking a nap habit were the main factors associated with few hours of sleep. Older students (aged 18 to 19 years showed higher prevalence of few hours of sleep when compared to younger students (10 to 11 years (RP = 4.78; IC95%: 1.98-11.53, as well as for upper class adolescents when compared to those with lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Results showed the association between socioeconomic status and adolescents' sleep/wake habits.
Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa H; Perry, Cheryl L; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K Srinath
This study examined whether the distribution of tobacco use and related psychosocial risk factors among youth in urban India vary by socioeconomic status (SES). Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of students enrolled in the 6th and 8th grades in 32 schools in Delhi and Chennai (N = 11,642). The survey was conducted in 2004, before the implementation of a program designed to prevent and reduce tobacco use (MYTRI). Mixed-effect regression models were used (a) to determine the prevalence of tobacco use among private (higher SES) and government (lower SES) school students, (b) to investigate whether certain psychosocial factors were associated with increased tobacco use, and (c) to determine how these factors varied by school type. Ever-use of multiple forms of tobacco (e.g., gutkha, bidis, and cigarettes) was more prevalent among government school students than private school students. After adjusting for city, gender, grade, and age, we found the prevalence rate for ever-use of any tobacco product to be 18.9% for government school students, compared with 12.2% for private school students (padvertising was also a strong correlate of current tobacco use for government school students but not private school students. In two large cities of India, students attending government schools are using many forms of tobacco at higher rates than private school students. The psychosocial risk profile of government school students suggests they are more vulnerable to initiation and use and to outside influences that encourage use. PMID:18188751
Koval John J
Full Text Available Abstract Background While research to date has consistently demonstrated that socioeconomic status (SES is inversely associated with injury mortality in both children and adults, findings have been less consistent for non-fatal injuries. The literature addressing SES and injury morbidity among adolescents has been particularly inconclusive. To explore potential explanations for these discrepant research findings, this study uniquely compared the relationship across different measures of SES and different causes of injury (recreation versus non-recreation injuries within a sample of Canadian adolescents. Methods The sample included adolescent participants (aged 12 to 19 years in the Canadian 1996–1997 cross-sectional National Population Health Survey (n = 6967. Five SES measures (household income, two neighbourhood-level proxy measures, two parental indicators were examined in relation to three injury outcomes (total, recreation, and non-recreation injuries using multivariable logistic regression. Results Among males, a clear relationship with injury was observed only for a parental SES index, which was positively associated with total and recreation injuries (odds ratios for the highest versus lowest SES category of 1.9 for total and 2.5 for recreation injuries. Among females, there was some evidence of a positive relationship between SES and injuries, particularly for a neighbourhood-level education measure with total and recreation injuries (odds ratios of 1.7 for total and 2.0 for recreation injuries. Conclusion The results suggest that differences related to the measures of SES chosen and the causes of injury under study may both contribute to discrepancies in past research on SES and non-fatal injuries among adolescents. To clarify the potential SES-injury relationship among youth, the findings emphasize a need for a greater understanding of the meaning and relevance of different SES measures for adolescents, and for an exploration of the pathways through which SES may be related to injury risk.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies compared the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parents' reports on family socioeconomic status (SES. However, none of these studies analyzed whether the degree of concordance varies by different levels of household financial stress. This research examines whether the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parent reports for the three traditional SES measures (parental education, parental occupation and household income varied with parent-reported household financial stress and relative standard of living. Methods 2,593 adolescents with a mean age of 13 years, and one of their corresponding parents from the Taiwan Longitudinal Youth Project conducted in 2000 were analyzed. Consistency of adolescents' and parents' reports on parental educational attainment, parental occupation and household income were examined by parent-reported household financial stress and relative standard of living. Results Parent-reported SES variables are closely associated with family financial stress. For all levels of household financial stress, the degree of concordance between adolescent's and parent's reports are highest for parental education (? ranging from 0.87 to 0.71 followed by parental occupation (? ranging from 0.50 to 0.34 and household income (? ranging from 0.43 to 0.31. Concordance for father's education and parental occupation decreases with higher parent-reported financial stress. This phenomenon was less significant for parent-reported relative standard of living. Conclusions Though the agreement between adolescents' and parents' reports on the three SES measures is generally judged to be good in most cases, using adolescents reports for family SES may still be biased if analysis is not stratified by family financial stress.
Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin
Background/objectives:Children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. We described country-specific dietary patterns among children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS study and assessed the association of dietary patterns with an additive SES indicator.Subjects/Methods:Children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Principal component analysis was applied to identify dietary country-specific patterns. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess their association with SES. Results:Two to four dietary patterns were identified in the participating regions. The existence of a 'processed' pattern was found in the eight regions. Also, a 'healthy' pattern was identified in seven of the eight regions. In addition, region-specific patterns were identified, reflecting the existing gastronomic and cultural differences in Europe. The 'processed' pattern was significantly inversely associated with theSES additive indicator in all countries except Sweden, whereas the 'healthy' pattern was positively associated with SES in the Belgian, Estonian, German and Hungarian regions, but was not significant in the Italian, Spanish and Swedish regions.Conclusions:A 'processed' pattern and a 'healthy' pattern were found in most of the participating countries in the IDEFICS study, with comparable food item profiles. The results showed a strong inverse association of SES with the 'processed' pattern, suggesting that children of parents with lower SES may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. Therefore, special focus should be given to parents and their children from lower SES levels when developing healthy eating promotion strategies
Full Text Available When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009 that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provides preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child’s name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms, but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams. Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child’s name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children’s early literacy skills and school readiness.
Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca
When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent-child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent-child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent-child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the association between weight perception and socioeconomic status (SES in sub-Saharan Africa, and none made this association based on education, occupation and income simultaneously. Methods Based on a population-based survey (n = 1255 in the Seychelles, weight and height were measured and self-perception of one's own body weight, education, occupation, and income were assessed by a questionnaire. Individuals were considered to have appropriate weight perception when their self-perceived weight matched their actual body weight. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35% and 28%, respectively. Multivariate analysis among overweight/obese persons showed that appropriate weight perception was directly associated with actual weight, education, occupation and income, and that it was more frequent among women than among men. In a model using all three SES indicators together, only education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-4.8 and occupation (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.5 were independently associated with appropriate perception of being overweight. The OR reached 6.9 [95% CI: 3.4-14.1] when comparing the highest vs. lowest categories of SES based on a score including all SES indicators and 6.1 [95% CI: 3.0-12.1] for a score based on education and occupation. Conclusions Appropriately perceiving one's weight as too high was associated with different SES indicators, female sex and being actually overweight. These findings suggest means and targets for clinical and population-based interventions for weight control. Further studies should examine whether these differences in weight perception underlie differences in cognitive skills, healthy weight norms, or body size ideals.
Zielinski, Andrzej; Borgquist, Lars
Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate how distance to hospital and socioeconomic status (SES) influence the use of secondary health care (SHC) when taking comorbidity into account. Design and setting. A register-based study in Östergötland County. Subjects. The adult population of Östergötland County. Main outcome measures. Odds of SHC use in the population and rates of SHC use by patients were studied after taking into account comorbidity level assigned using the Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) Case-Mix System. The baseline for analysis of SES was individuals with the lowest education level (level 1) and the lowest income (1st quartile). Results. The study showed both positive and negative association between SES and use of SHC. The risk of incurring SHC costs was 12% higher for individuals with education level 1. Individuals with income in the 2nd quartile had a 4% higher risk of incurring SHC costs but a 17% lower risk of emergency department visits. Individuals with income in the 4th quartilehad 9% lower risk of hospitalization. The risk of using SHC services for the population was not associated with distance to hospital. Patients living over 40 km from hospital and patients with higher SES had lower use of SHC services. Conclusions. It was found that distance to hospital and SES influence SHC use after adjusting for comorbidity level, age, and gender. These results suggest that GPs and health care managers should pay a higher degree of attention to this when planning primary care services in order to minimize the potentially redundant use of SHC.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status is a known risk factor for disability pension, and is also associated with health problems. To what degree health problems can explain the increased risk of disability pension award associated with low socioeconomic status is not known. Methods Information on 15,067 participants in the Hordaland Health Study was linked to a comprehensive national registry on disability pension awards. Level of education was used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the association between socioeconomic status and rates of disability pension award, before and after adjusting for a wide range of somatic and mental health factors. The proportion of the difference in disability pension between socioeconomic groups explained by health was then calculated. Results Unadjusted odds ratios for disability pension was 4.60 (95% CI: 3.34-6.33 for the group with elementary school only (9 years of education and 2.03 (95% CI 1.49-2.77 for the group with high school (12 years of education when compared to the group with higher education (more than 12 years. When adjusting for somatic and mental health, odds ratios were reduced to 3.87 (2.73-5.47 and 1.81 (1.31-2.52. This corresponds to health explaining only a marginal proportion of the increased level of disability pension in the groups with lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion There is a socioeconomic gradient in disability pension similar to the well known socioeconomic gradient in health. However, health accounts for little of the socioeconomic gradient in disability pension. Future studies of socioeconomic gradients in disability pension should focus on explanatory factors beyond health.
Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes-asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction-at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics-INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000-2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project
Bard, D [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Laurent, O [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Filleul, L [CIRE Aquitaine, Bordeaux (France); Havard, S [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Deguen, S [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Segala, C [Sepia-Sante, Melrand (France); Pedrono, G [Sepia-Sante, Melrand (France); Riviere, E [ASPA, Schiltigheim (France); Schillinger, C [ASPA, Schiltigheim (France); Rouil, L [INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Arveiler, D [Registre des Cardiopathies Ischemiques du Bas-Rhin, Laboratoire d' epidemiologie et de sante publique-EA 1801, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Eilstein, D [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint Maurice (France)
Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes-asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction-at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics-INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000-2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project.
NØdskov, Kim; KværnØ, Ole
There are many indications that China is actively researching the design of an aircraft carrier. It is unknown whether China will initiate the actual acquisition of a carrier, but the indications that are available of their research into aircraft carriers and carrier-capable aircraft, as well as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status as a great power in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy, with potentially far-reaching consequences for the countries of the region. The Chinese have bought several retired carriers, which they have studied in great detail. The largest is the Russian-built carrier Varyag of the Kuznetsov class, which today is anchored in the Chinese Naval Base at Dalian. If they decide to acquire a carrier, they can either buy one or build it themselves. The easiest way would be to buy a carrier, and if that is the chosen option, then Russia would be the most likely country to build it. Technologically, it will be a major challenge for them to build one themselves and it is likely that they would have to obtain the assistance of another country. But there are indications, that China may choose this more diffi cult path, since it has bought four Russian carrier landing systems. China is very secretive about this, but when all the information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for China to complete, especially if they develop the complex catapult with which to launch the fi ghter aircraft, not to mention the possible development of a nuclear power plant for the ship. The Russian press has indicated that China is negotiating to buy SU-33 fi ghters, which Russia uses on the Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an alternative China may chose to modify the domestically produced J-10 or J-11 multirole fi ghter. If China does decide to acquire carriers, it would be operationally logical to acquire a minimum of two to three carriers to ensure an adequate and continually available combat capability. A Chinese carrier group, with the associated protection and support vessels, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new carriers. All these carriers could potentially infl uence Chinese interests in the future, and this could be a
PURPOSE: The aim of this research is to identify socioeconomic factors associated with mother's breastfeeding infants from 0-6months old in Savalugu Nanton district of Northern Ghana. Although many previous studies have focused on socioeconomic factors such as occupation, education and breastfeeding, much has not been done to tackle other factors including distance to primary fuel source, room density and their relationship with breastfeeding. Most of the recommendations from previous stud...
Jennifer L. Jarvie
Full Text Available Smoking is the most common cause of prema-ture cardiovascular disease in women, but con-temporary data is lacking. We sought to inves-tigate the differences between female smokers and nonsmokers in the US. Methods: Using a registry of almost 19,000 women who attended free public heart screenings sponsored by Sis-ter to Sister between 2008 and 2009 in 17 large US cities, we compared the means for lipid val-ues, cardiometabolic measures, and differences in sociodemographic information between smok-ers and nonsmokers. Secondary outcomes were age and race-adjusted odds for obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, a non-HDL > 160 mg/dl, and a serum glucose ? 126 mg/dl between smoking and nonsmoking women. Results: The final sample included 18,892 women (49.8 ± 14.3 years, 37% black, and 32% white, 14% Hispanic, with 1,216 (6.4% current smokers. Smokers were younger than non-smokers (45.6 ± 13.0 vs 50.1 ± 14.4 years, p < 0.001, with lower HDL levels (55.5 ± 17.4 vs 58.6 ± 17.4, p < 0.001, and higher triglycerides (148.8 ± 103.7 vs 145.5 ± 93, p = 0.4082. There were no significant differences in LDL between smokers versus nonsmokers. There were more black and white women in the smoking group. Smoking women were more likely to meet criteria for the metabolic syndrome (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.00 - 1.49 and have a non-HDL > 160 mg/dl (OR 1.19; 1.01 - 1.39. Insurance and income data showed a sig-nificant inverse relationship between smoking prevalence and increasing household income. Conclusions: In this richly diverse sample of women, female smokers were younger and of lower socioeconomic status than nonsmokers with significant differences in cardiometabolic risk factors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the socioeconomic status (SES of the community of residence has a substantial association with infant birth weight. We used multilevel models to examine associations of birth weight with family- and community-level SES in the Cape Cod Family Health Study. Data were collected retrospectively on births to women between 1969 and 1983 living on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The sample included siblings born in different residences with differing community-level SES. Methods We used cross-classified models to account for multiple levels of correlation in a non-hierarchical data structure. We accounted for clustering at family- and community-levels. Models included extensive individual- and family-level covariates. SES variables of interest were maternal education; paternal occupation; percent adults living in poverty; percent adults with a four year college degree; community mean family income; and percent adult unemployment. Results Residual correlation was detected at the family- but not the community-level. Substantial effects sizes were observed for family-level SES while smaller magnitudes were observed for community-level SES. Overall, higher SES corresponded to increased birth weight though neither family- nor community-level variables had significant associations with the outcome. In a model applied to a reduced sample that included a single child per family, enforcing a hierarchical data structure, paternal occupation was found to have a significant association with birth weight (p = 0.033. Larger effect sizes for community SES appeared in models applied to the full sample that contained limited covariates, such as those typically found on birth certificates. Conclusions Cross-classified models allowed us to include more than one child per family even when families moved between births. There was evidence of mild associations between family SES and birth weight. Stronger associations between paternal occupation and birth weight were observed in models applied to reduced samples with hierarchical data structures, illustrating consequences of excluding observations from the cross-classified analysis. Models with limited covariates showed associations of birth weight with community SES. In models adjusting for a complete set of individual- and family-level covariates, community SES was not as important.
Mishra, P; Hansen, E H
SETTING: A western hill district in Nepal, where tuberculosis (TB) treatment under DOTS was offered by the regional tuberculosis centre, two primary health centres, eight health posts, three sub-health posts and one ward of sub-metropolitan Pokhara. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the contribution of socioeconomic status to non-adherence to DOTS. DESIGN: Case-control study. Data were collected by questionnaire-based face-to-face interviews. The study sample consisted of 50 cases and 100 controls. The participation rate was 80% for cases (non-adherents) and 95% for controls. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of non-adherence to TB treatment was significantly associated with unemployment (odds ratio [OR] 9.2), low status occupation (OR 4.4), low annual income (OR 5.4), and cost of travel to the TB treatment facility (OR 3.0). Factors significant in the bivariate analyses--living conditions, literacy and difficulty in financing treatment--were not found to be significantly associated with non-adherence when adjusted for other risk factors in the multivariate regression model. CONCLUSION: Low socio-economic status and particularly lack of money are important risk factors for non-adherence to TB treatment in a poor country such as Nepal.
The role of diet quality and nutrient adequacy in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. The specific aims of these analyses were to assess overall diet quality and nutrient adequacy, and test for association between weight status and diet in children from low socioeconomic status (...
The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and the suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status of 18-month-old toddlers was investigated using a population-based sample in Japan, which has a universal healthcare system and a mandatory health checkup system for toddlers. Questionnaires including SES measurements and modified…
Perry, Brea L.; Link, Tanja; Boelter, Christina; Leukefeld, Carl
Little research has examined whether the effects of race or socioeconomic status (SES) on educational attitudes differ by gender, limiting knowledge of unique vulnerabilities occurring at the intersection of multiple social statuses. Using data from 182 sixth-graders, interactions between gender, race/ethnicity, and SES in predicting educational…
Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte
Near-daily intake of acute symptomatic medication for frequent headache increases the risk for medication-overuse headache (MOH). Chronic headache (CH) and MOH prevalences are inversely related to socioeconomic position (SEP). It is not known how SEP influences the health status of people with these headaches. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of CH in Denmark; possible associations between CH and education, work status, and income; and the health status of people with CH across socioeconomic strata. A total of 129,150 individuals aged ?16years were invited to the 2010 Danish National Health Survey. Data on SEP indicators and purchases of prescription drugs in 2009 were retrieved from national registers. Respondents with headache ?15days per month over 3months were classified as having CH. Those with concurrent over-the-counter analgesic intake of ?15days per month or prescription medication overuse (?20 or ?30 defined daily doses per month depending on the drug or drugs) were classified as having MOH. Associations between headache and SEP were analyzed by logistic regression, and associations between headache and health status scores, by linear regression. Physical and mental health composite scores (SF-12) were summarized per headache group, stratified by SEP, and compared to the sample mean. Analyses were adjusted for stratified sampling and nonresponse. The response rate was 53.1%. CH prevalence was 3.3% with 53.0% of cases having concurrent medication overuse (MOH prevalence 1.8%). CH was more prevalent among those individuals with low SEP. Health status scores were significantly lower among persons with CH in all SEP categories. The burden of CH can be reduced by preventing and treating MOH.
Chomba, Elwyn; Haworth, Alan; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Mbewe, Edward; BIRBECK, GRETCHEN L
Epilepsy is a highly stigmatized disorder in Zambia. Adult studies indicated that adults with epilepsy in many regions have significantly lower socioeconomic status (SES) than their peers. We conducted a case-control study of Zambian children with epilepsy (CWE) to assess the SES of CWE. 98 child pairs were recruited (n=196), mean age 10.8 yrs, 59.7% male. The comparison group’s medical conditions included asthma (54.0%), rheumatic heart disease (26.6%), type 1 diabetes (14.2%), and hypertens...
Olson Nicole A; Davidow Amy L; Winston Carla A; Chen Michael P; Gazmararian Julie A; Katz Dolores J
Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries has historically been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES). In the past quarter century, TB in the United States has changed from primarily a disease of native-born to primarily a disease of foreign-born persons, who accounted for more than 60% of newly-diagnosed TB cases in 2010. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of SES with rates of TB in U.S.-born and foreign-born persons in the United ...
Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik
BackgroundAge, gender and socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with the use of prescription drugs, even after adjustment for multimorbidity. General practitioners have a holistic and patient-centred perspective and our hypothesis is that this may reflect on the prescription of drugs. In Sweden the patient may seek secondary care without a letter of referral and the liability of the prescription of drugs accompanies the patient, which makes it suitable for this type of research. In this study we examine the odds of having prescription drug use in the population and the rates of prescription drugs among patients, issued in primary health care, according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level.MethodData were collected on all individuals above 20 years of age in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The John Hopkins ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for multimorbidity level. Odds ratio (OR) of having prescription drugs issued inprimary health care in the population and rates of prescription drug use among patients in primary health care, stated as incidence rate ratio (IRR), according to age, gender and socioeconomic status were calculated and adjusted for multimorbidity.ResultsAfter adjustment for multimorbidity, individuals 80 years or older had higher odds ratio (OR 3.37 (CI 95% 3.22-3.52)) and incidence rate ratio (IRR 6.24 (CI 95% 5.79-6.72)) for prescription drug use. Male individuals had a lower odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 0.66 (CI 95% 0.64-0.69)), but among patients males had a slightly higher incidence rate of drug use (IRR 1.06 (CI 95% 1.04-1.09)). Individuals with the highest income had the lowest odds ratio of having prescription drugs and individuals with the second lowest income had the highest odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 1.10 (CI 95% 1.07-1.13)). Individuals with the highest education had the lowest odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 0.61 (CI 95% 0.54-0.67)).ConclusionAge, gender and socioeconomic status are associated with large differences in the use of prescribed drugs in primary health care, even after adjustment for multimorbidity level.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The associations between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in adults have been studied although studies did not always document a relationship. The aim of this multicenter observational study was to determine the association between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in the elderly, in the context of a public health system providing universal free care to the whole population. Methods A total of 651 patients aged ?65 years hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia through the emergency departments of five Spanish public hospitals were recruited and followed up between May 2005 and January 2007. The primary outcomes studied were: length of stay, intensive care unit admission, overall mortality and readmission. Socioeconomic status was measured using both individual and community data: occupation [categorized in six social groups (I, II, III, IVa, IVb and V], educational level (? primary level or ? secondary level and disposable family income of the municipality or district of residence [>12,500 € (high municipality family income and ?12,500 € (low municipality family income]. The six social groups were further categorized as upper/middle social class (groups I-IVb and lower class (group V. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. OR and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. All statistical tests were two tailed and statistical significance was established as p Results 17.7% of patients lived in a municipality or district with a high municipality family income and 63.6% were upper/middle social class (I-IVb. Only 15.7% of patients had a secondary education. The adjusted analysis showed no association between pneumonia outcomes and social class, educational level or municipality family income. However, length of stay increased significantly in patients in whom the factors, living alone and being a smoker or ex-smoker coincided (p Conclusions We measured socioeconomic status using both individual and community data and found no association between social class, educational level or municipality family income and the variables of pneumonia outcomes. The lack of differences between social classes supports the provision of universal, equitable health care by the public health system.
Larsen, Morten Hedegaard
Despite of a general consensus and recognition of the importance of the “social gradient” on nutritional standards and ultimately people's health, (WHO 2013, Marmot & Wilkinson 1999, Marmot et.al 1991, Budrys 2003, Ross & Wu 1995), the body of literature identifying and describing the actual underlying social mechanisms which could explain this association is small, fragmented and not contained within one single discipline of thought – the effects of this conundrum seem easier to describe than to explain. The aim of this article is therefore to explore and identify social mechanisms, which could help explain why people with low socio-economic status consume a disproportionate amount of unhealthy foods and therefore also observe poorer diets. It is therefore in many ways an exploration into the nature of (relative) poverty. The point of departure for this exploration and identification is historical descriptions (in the form of excerpts) from George Orwell's 1937 book “The Road to Wigan Pier” on the living conditions of the British working classes. These descriptions will be aligned with results from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour. Strong similarities are identified between George Orwell's historical descriptions of the working-class's unhealthy diet and the findings from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour of people with a low socio-economic status. The article, on this basis, argues that certain social mechanisms influencing nutritional choices are readily identifiable across disciplines, and even partly reproduced in different historical, social and spatial contexts, with stronger negative (ill health) consequences for people with low socio-economic status especially. Finally the article discusses how social mechanisms affecting our nutritional choices could challenge the underlying rationalities and assumptions of the rational yet “knowledge deficient” individual consumer implicitly present in much nutritional advice - both past and present. The disregard of social mechanisms, and therefore implicitly issues of class, could indicate a general “de-socialization” of nutritional advice also in its dispersal through various health-promotion initiatives and campaigns, which raises serious questions about the usefulness of much nutritional advice, already tentatively questioned by some nutritionist (Burr et al., 2007) as well as “food” sociologist (Smith & Holm 2010).
Muhammad Rabi Ullah
Full Text Available From the early stages women are confined at some definite work, position and role which generally differ to men in society. Their status is seen as below than men in patriarchal social structure like Bangladesh. Today the situation is more or less remaining same to some extent in their family roles and responsibilities that causes to domestic violence. The article mainly focuses on the socio-economic status of women and different forms of domestic violence at urban area in Dhaka city. The study shows the lower position of women at different levels and also high rate of verbal and psychological violence to women in their married life. Still dependency on men was found high in the urban area and most women were found not engaged in productive economic activities. The total respondent’s 150 married women living with their husband were interviewed to collect primary data in Dhaka city.
Winkleby, M; Cubbin, C.
Study objectives: This study examines the influence of individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality among black, Mexican-American, and white women and men in the US. The authors had three study objectives. Firstly, they examined mortality rates by both individual level SES (measured by income, education, and occupational/employment status) and neighbourhood level SES (index of neighbourhood income/wealth, educational attainment, occupational status, and employment stat...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%. Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days, medium (4-14 days and long (>14 days spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal". Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters. Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR or odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2 and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16 times for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, respectively, while the similar changes varied from 0.79 to 2.8 for the other absence outcomes. General health explained some of the social gradient. Work factors and personal factors did not. Conclusions The social gradient in sickness absence was different for absences of different duration and patterns. It was strongest for absences of medium length and "abnormal" absence. The social gradient was not explained by other factors.
Kristensen, Trine RØnde; Jensen, Signe Marie
Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days), medium (4-14 days) and long (>14 days) spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations) and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal"). Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds ratios (OR)) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2) and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16) times for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, respectively, while the similar changes varied from 0.79 to 2.8 for the other absence outcomes. General health explained some of the social gradient. Work factors and personal factors did not. Conclusions The social gradient in sickness absence was different for absences of different duration and patterns. It was strongest for absences of medium length and "abnormal" absence. The social gradient was not explained by other factors.
Dekker, Louise H.; Nicolaou, Mary; van Dam, Rob M.; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; de Boer, Evelien J.; Brants, Henny A. M.; Beukers, Marja H.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Stronks, Karien
Background Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES) or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254), South Asian Surinamese (n=425), and African Surinamese (n=784) participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin participants, presumably a move towards more vegetables and fruits with higher SES but continued fidelity to the traditional diet. PMID:26041009
Louise H. Dekker
Full Text Available Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective: We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design: Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting: Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects: Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254, South Asian Surinamese (n=425, and African Surinamese (n=784 participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results: ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions: We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin participants, presumably a move towards more vegetables and fruits with higher SES but continued fidelity to the traditional diet.
Gupta, Rajeev; Deedwania, Prakash C.; Sharma, Krishnakumar; Gupta, Arvind; Guptha, Soneil; Achari, Vijay; Asirvatham, Arthur J.; Bhansali, Anil; Gupta, Balkishan; Gupta, Sunil; Jali, Mallikarjuna V.; Mahanta, Tulika G.; Maheshwari, Anuj; Saboo, Banshi; Singh, Jitendra; Gupta, Rajiv
Background To determine correlation of multiple parameters of socioeconomic status with cardiovascular risk factors in India. Methods The study was performed at eleven cities using cluster sampling. Subjects (n?=?6198, men 3426, women 2772) were evaluated for socioeconomic, demographic, biophysical and biochemical factors. They were classified into low, medium and high socioeconomic groups based on educational level (15 yr formal education), occupational class and socioeconomic scale. Risk factor differences were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Results Age-adjusted prevalence (%) of risk factors in men and women was overweight or obesity in 41.1 and 45.2, obesity 8.3 and 15.8, high waist circumference 35.7 and 57.5, high waist-hip ratio 69.0 and 83.8, hypertension 32.5 and 30.4, hypercholesterolemia 24.8 and 25.3, low HDL cholesterol 34.1 and 35.1, high triglycerides 41.2 and 31.5, diabetes 16.7 and 14.4 and metabolic syndrome in 32.2 and 40.4 percent. Lifestyle factors were smoking 12.0 and 0.5, other tobacco use 12.7 and 6.3, high fat intake 51.2 and 48.2, low fruits/vegetables intake 25.3 and 28.9, and physical inactivity in 38.8 and 46.1%. Prevalence of >?=?3 risk factors was significantly greater in low (28.0%) vs. middle (23.9%) or high (22.1%) educational groups (p?=?3 major cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:22952886
Abidoye, R. O.; Koleoso, Titilayo Abiodun
Compares incidence of caries in 60 13 to 15 year olds in 2 Nigerian schools, 1 with an affluent population and the other with students from a lower socioeconomic level. Data on parental occupations, patterns of dental practice, and eating habits were collected. Caries incidence in different categories of social standing was similar. (NH)
Dr.B.P.Ravi Kumar; Dr.Shankar Reddy Dudala; Dr.A.R.Rao
All community based studies focus on socio-economic stratification as this is the key to understanding affordability of health services, amenities and purchasability. When it is taken as a summation of education, occupation and income it reflects the value system expected for that level of education and occupation. Income is parallel to standard of living.
Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa H.; Erickson, Darin J.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Finnegan, Jonn R., Jr.; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath
This study investigates socioeconomic differences in patterns and trends of tobacco consumption over time among youth in India. Additionally, the distribution of tobacco use risk factors across social class was examined. The data were derived from a longitudinal study of adolescents, Project Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives.…
Nonnemaker, James M.; Allen, Jane A.; Davis, Kevin C.; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C.; Farrelly, Matthew C.
Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N?=?53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State’s antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor mental health. PMID:25033449
Nonnemaker, James M; Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C
Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N?=?53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor mental health. PMID:25033449
Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett
Using a national dataset of 820 women who had called the police for an incident of intimate partner violence, this study explored the relationship between several components of socioeconomic status (education, income, and employment), race, and the nature of interactions with police. Over and above the effects of control variables (the presence of an advocate on the scene, the severity of violence in the relationship, and prior calls to police), victims with higher education reported less positive interactions, less control during the interactions, and lower effectiveness of police. Race did not moderate these relationships, and the other components of socioeconomic status were not significantly related to any of the outcomes. Exploratory tests of mediation found that the relationship between education and the quality of interactions with police was explained by the fact that more educated victims felt they had less control in these incidents and were less likely to see the offender arrested. Results also provide evidence for the positive impact of advocates on interactions with police. Implications for research and policy are discussed. PMID:20232246
Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa
The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (?(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p behaviour within this group. PMID:25388981
Strong, Carol; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E
Despite known adverse causal effects of cigarette smoking on mental health, findings for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later depression and socioeconomic status remain inconclusive. Previous studies have had shorter follow-up periods and did not have a representative portion of the African American population. Using an analytical method that matches adolescent smokers with nonsmokers on childhood and background variables, this study aims to provide evidence on the effects of adolescent regular smoking on adult depression and socioeconomic status. Our longitudinal study is from the Woodlawn Study that followed 1,242 African Americans in Chicago from 1966-1967 (at age 6-7) through 2002-2003 (at age 42-43). We used a propensity score matching method to find a regular and a non-regular adolescent smoking group with similar childhood socioeconomic and family background and first grade academic and behavioral performance. We compared the matched samples to assess the longitudinal effects of adolescent smoking on adult outcomes. Comparing the matched 199 adolescent regular smokers and 199 non-regular smokers, we found statistical support for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later educational attainment (OR, 2.13; 95 % CI, 1.34, 3.39) and long-term unemployment (OR, 1.74; 95 % CI, 1.11, 2.75), but did not find support for the effects on adulthood major depressive disorders. With a community population of urban African Americans followed for 40 years, our study contributes to the understanding of the relationships between adolescent smoking and later educational attainment and employment. PMID:24379173
Shona J. Kelly
Full Text Available Differences in IQ have been offered as an explanation for socioeconomic gradients in morbidity and mortality. Previous research has largely relied on linking education and conscription testing data with later life health. As this early life testing was used to determine a person’s academic path it is difficult to disentangle the effects of IQ from education. This study used IQ and socioeconomic status (SES data collected concurrently in mid-life from men who did not experience IQ-test-driven career path direction in early life. If IQ is associated with SES generally then multiple domains of IQ it will be associated with all components of SES. In a subsample of men aged 35 - 80 (n = 287 from the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study, we evaluated relationships between each of four domains of cognitive ability (IQ domains: fluid (Gf; crystallised (Gc; visual/spatial (Gv and processing speed (Gs. SES was measured as standardized education, income, occupational prestige and deprivation score. Age-adjusted linear regression was used to test each SES-z-score individually against each IQ domain. Then all four SES measures were included in a single model for each IQ domain. This study found that a panel of standard IQ tests were positively associated with attained education but not with income or area-level deprivation score. Two IQ abilities, Gf and Gc, were also associated with occupational prestige score. These associations suggest that lesser levels of health associated with lower socioeconomic status is not accounted for by a lesser innate ability and that intervention may be possible.
Assari, Shervin; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid
Background: Although needle and syringe sharing is one of the main routs of transmission of HIV in several countries in the middle east, very little is known about how socio-economic status of injecting drug users (IDUs) is linked to the receptive syringe sharing behaviors in these countries. Aim: To study socio-economic correlates of receptive needle and syringe sharing among IDUs in Iran. Methods: The study used data from the Unhide Risk Study, a national survey of IDUs. This study sampled 636 IDUs (91% male) via snowball sampling from eight provinces in Iran in 2009. Socio-demographic and drug use characteristics were collected. We used a logistic regression to determine factors associated with receptive needle and syringe sharing during the past 6?months. Results: From 636 IDUs enrolled in this study, 68% (n?=?434) reported receptive needle and syringe sharing behaviors in the past 6?months. Odds of receptive needle and syringe sharing in the past 6?months was lower among IDUs who were male [odds ratios (OR)?=?0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.12–0.70], had higher education (OR?=?0.74, 95% CI?=?0.64–0.86) but higher among those who were unemployed (OR?=?4.05, 95% CI?=?1.50–10.94), and were single (OR?=?1.47, 95% CI?=?1.02–2.11). Conclusion: This study presented factors associated with risk of receptive needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. This information may be used for HIV prevention and harm reduction purposes. Socio-economic status of Iranian IDUs may be closely linked to high-risk injecting behaviors among them. PMID:25852577
Mallam Adamu Babikkoi; Noor Zainab binti Abdul Razak
Studies have indicated that, less affluent families are less likely to have the financial and or time availability to provide their children with academic support compared to affluent families.This study investigated the relationship between Language Learning Strategies used by secondary school students in Nigeria and their Parents Socio-economic Status. The data for this research was provided by 559 respondents who study English as a second language and belonging to three varied socio-econom...
Travis Lim; Carla Zelaya; Carl Latkin; Vu Minh Quan; Constantine Frangakis; Tran Viet Ha; Nguyen Le Minh; Vivian Go
Introduction: HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapid...
Holman C D'Arcy J
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate groups of patients with a relatively homogenous health status to evaluate the degree to which use of the Australian hospital system is affected by socio-economic status, locational accessibility to services and patient payment classification. Method Records of all deaths occurring in Western Australia from 1997 to 2000 inclusive were extracted from the WA mortality register and linked to records from the hospital morbidity data system (HMDS via the WA Data Linkage System. Adjusted incidence rate ratios of hospitalisation in the last, second and third years prior to death were modelled separately for five underlying causes of death. Results The independent effects of socioeconomic status on hospital utilisation differed markedly across cause of death. Locational accessibility was generally not an independent predictor of utilisation except in those dying from ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer. Private patient status did not globally affect utilisation across all causes of death, but was associated with significantly decreased utilisation three years prior to death for those who died of colorectal, lung or breast cancer, and increased utilisation in the last year of life in those who died of colorectal cancer or cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion It appears that the Australian hospital system may not be equitable since equal need did not equate to equal utilisation. Further it would appear that horizontal equity, as measured by equal utilisation for equal need, varies by disease. This implies that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach to further improvements in equity may be over simplistic. Thus initiatives beyond Medicare should be devised and evaluated in relation to specific areas of service provision.
Angela, Xavier; Fábio Silva de, Carvalho; Roosevelt da Silva, Bastos; Magali de Lourdes, Caldana; José Roberto de Magalhães, Bastos.
Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate oral health-related quality of life of preschool children of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, and associate it with socioeconomic profile of households. METHODS: The sample consisted of 229 preschool children between 3 and 5 years and the dmft (decayed, missing due to caries, fill [...] ed teeth) index was adopted for assessment children's dental caries in accordance with the standards recommended by the World Health Organization. Questionnaires were used for evaluation oral health-related quality of life (Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale) and socioeconomic profile of parents or guardians of the preschool children. Statistical analysis was performed descriptively by relative and absolute frequencies and by Spearman's correlation and Kruskal-Wallis test (p
Buka, Stephen L.
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the literature on racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in morbidity and mortality, focusing on substance use and abuse. OBSERVATIONS: In most populations and societies, people of higher social position live longer and remain healthier than those of lower position. Disparities in morbidity and mortality across ethnic groups also exist. Mortality rates for African Americans are about 1.6 times higher than those for white, with much higher disparities for...
Borchert Lea B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with 397 mothers or guardians of young children. Respondents were grouped according to their socio-economic situation, using scores. The condition of the bed nets was evaluated during a home visit. Results Socio-economic factors of wellbeing were negatively associated with bed net use, such as living in a stone house (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.48, running water in the house (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.92, shower/flush toilet in the house (OR 0.39/0.34, 95% CI 0.21–0.75/0.16–0.73, ownership of a freezer (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.67. In contrast, similar factors were positively associated with a good maintenance condition of the bed nets: higher monthly income (OR 5.64, 95% CI 2.41–13.19 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.19 – 5.45. Conclusion Among the poorest families in Lambaréné the coverage with untreated nets (UTNs is the highest, but the condition of these UTNs is the worst. To achieve a broad implementation of ITNs in Lambaréné, there is an urgent need for educational programmes as well as need-tailored marketing strategies for ITNs.
Ken Sexton; Jennifer Gay; Jennifer J. Salinas; Abdelbary, Bassent E.; Elizabeth Rocha
The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hispanic ethnic concentration is associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and, if this relationship exists, whether it is affected by the socioeconomic environment. The study uses the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) linked to 2000 census data to access the relationship between prevalence of obesity, Hispanic ethnic concentration, poverty and level of education at a county-level. The findings suggest that the asso...
The energy expenditure of lower (group 1) and upper socioeconomic group females (group 2) from a marginal community in Guatemala City was determined by using the doubly labelled water method. Energy expenditure values were 1925 +/- 66 (mean, SEM) kcal/d (group 1) and 2253 +/- 145 kcal/d group 2 (p less than 0.03). About half of this difference can be attributed to size
Gyan P., Sharma; Karen J., Esler; James N., Blignaut.
Full Text Available We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with v [...] arious socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI), the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP) among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.
Full Text Available Introduction: HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. Results: There was little urban–rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087, and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (p<0.05. For individuals, higher education was significantly associated with lower stigma (HIV and drug related reported by both PWID and community members. Part-time employed PWID reported more experiences and perceptions of drug-related stigma, while conversely unemployed community members reported enacting lower drug-related stigma. Multi-level analysis revealed that the relationship between education inequality and HIV-related stigma is superseded by the effect of individual-level education. Conclusions: The results of the study confirm that socioeconomic factors at both the individual level and community level affect different types of stigma in different ways. Attention should be paid to these differences when planning structural or educational interventions to reduce stigma, and additional research should investigate the mechanisms with which SES and inequality affect social relationships and, in turn, stigma.
Sanjeet Kumar Tiwari; Jubraj Khamari; Parvinder Hanspal; Mirza Mahmood Baig
The present research work intent to study the impact of socio-economic status on personality and life style of pupil teachers (B.Ed.) trainee on the basis of gender. Hence the researchers aim at to find out the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on the Personality of male and female pupil teachers and to study the life style of pupil teachers according to gender. Researchers selecting 1000 samples out of total population on the basis random sampling techniques with the help...
Kumar, Santhosh; Kroon, Jeroen; Lalloo, Ratilal
Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children’s OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL...
Thorell, Kristine; Skoog, Jessica
There is a great variability in licit prescription drug use in the population and among patients. Factors other than purely medical ones have proven to be of importance for the prescribing of licit drugs. For example, individuals with a high age, female gender and low socioeconomic status are more likely to use licit prescription drugs. However, these results have not been adjusted for multi-morbidity level. In this study we investigate the odds of using licit prescription drugs among individuals in the population and the rate of licit prescription drug use among patients depending on gender, age and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multi-morbidity level.
Full Text Available Abstract Non-communicable diseases account for more than 50% of deaths in adults aged 15–59 years in most low income countries. Depression and diabetes carry an enormous public health burden, making the identification of risk factors for these disorders an important strategy. While socio-economic inequalities in chronic diseases and their risk factors have been studied extensively in high-income countries, very few studies have investigated social inequalities in chronic disease risk factors in low or middle-income countries. Documenting chronic disease risk factors is important for understanding disease burdens in poorer countries and for targeting specific populations for the most effective interventions. The aim of this review is to systematically map the evidence for the association of socio-economic status with diabetes and depression comorbidity in low and middle income countries. The objective is to identify whether there is any evidence on the direction of the relationship: do co-morbidities have an impact on socio-economic status or vice versa and whether the prevalence of diabetes combined with depression is associated with socio-economic status factors within the general population. To date no other study has reviewed the evidence for the extent and nature of this relationship. By systematically mapping the evidence in the broader sense we can identify the policy and interventions implications of existing research, highlight the gaps in knowledge and suggest future research. Only 14 studies were found to analyse the associations between depression and diabetes comorbidity and socio-economic status. Studies show some evidence that the occurrence of depression among people with diabetes is associated with lower socio-economic status. The small evidence base that considers diabetes and depression in low and middle income countries is out of step with the scale of the burden of disease.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting CSHCN's receiving needed specialty care among different socioeconomic levels. Previous literature has shown that Socioeconomic Status (SES is a significant factor in CHSHCN receiving access to healthcare. Other literature has shown that factors of insurance, family size, race/ethnicity and sex also have effects on these children's receipt of care. However, this literature does not address whether other factors such as maternal education, geographic location, age, insurance type, severity of condition, or race/ethnicity have different effects on receiving needed specialty care for children in each SES level. Methods Data were obtained from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2000–2002. The study analyzed the survey which studies whether CHSCN who needed specialty care received it. The analysis included demographic characteristics, geographical location of household, severity of condition, and social factors. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed for SES levels defined by federal poverty level: Results For the poorest children (,199% FPL being uninsured had a strong negative effect on receiving all needed specialty care. Being Hispanic was a protective factor. Having more than one adult in the household had a positive impact on receipt of needed specialty care but a larger number of children in the family had a negative impact. For the middle income group of children (200–299% of FPL severity of condition had a strong negative association with receipt of needed specialty care. Children in highest income group (> 300% FPL were positively impacted by living in the Midwest and were negatively impacted by the mother having only some college compared to a four-year degree. Conclusion Factors affecting CSHCN receiving all needed specialty care differed among socioeconomic groups. These differences should be addressed in policy and practice. Future research should explore the CSHCN population by income groups to better serve this population
Gopal K. Singh, PhD
Full Text Available Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI, socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII, and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates.Results: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks.Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing inequalities in socioeconomic conditions, availability of preventive health services, and women’s social status.
Erik E. Morales
Full Text Available Utilizing resilience theory and original research conducted on fifty academically resilient low socioeconomic status students of color, this article presents specific objectives and values institutions of higher learning can adopt and emphasize to increase the retention and graduation of their most statistically at-risk students. Major findings and suggestions include: constantly build students’ self-efficacy; help students realistically appraise their own strengths and weaknesses; encourage help seeking tendencies; and provide clear linkages between academic success and future economic security. According to a recent report from National Center for Education Statistics, by the year 2022, White and Asian students will increase their attendance on college campuses by 7%, whereas the rate will be 26% for African American students and 27% for Hispanics, two groups with disproportionately higher poverty rates (Hussar & Bailey, 2014. These students will continue to make up larger and larger percentages of students on college campuses nationwide. While these can be viewed as positive and exciting forecasts, they bring with them new sets of challenges. Given the changing racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic demographics of the United States, as well as shifts in expectations as to who seeks a college degree, a majority of institutions of higher education are struggling with one essential question: How do we retain and graduate greater numbers of ethnic minorities and students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds? The consequences of not meeting this challenge can be viewed on both a macro and micro level. From a societal perspective, unemployment rates, reliance on public social service agencies, incarceration rates, and America’s place in the global hierarchy are all either directly or indirectly linked with the successful education of working class and poor students, many of whom are ethnic minorities. On a more local level, as more and more first generation college students enter colleges across the country (Jehangir, 2010, institutions are increasingly recognizing the value of effectively meeting their needs (Bastedo & Gumport, 2003, for if they don’t, current and future enrollment targets may not be met. Furthermore, those with the most influence over the potential success of these students, college faculty, already acknowledge the need for, and desire, effective ways of meeting their needs (Erisman & Looney 2007. The difficulties colleges face in effectively teaching and graduating lower socioeconomic status students, often from ethnic minority backgrounds, continues to be a pressing issue. However, the issue is not a new one. Back in the early 1970s K. Patricia Cross (1971 famously talked specifically of the inability of colleges to adjust to the needs of the changing student bodies of the time. Since then, the numbers of poorer and first generation college students have only increased. Furthermore, many noted researchers in the field still acknowledge that not enough is known about how low socioeconomic college students experience and manage college life (Pascarella, Pierson, Wolniak, & Terenzini, 2004; Pike & Kuh, 2005. The rest of this paper will further define and explore the parameters of these issues and then utilize original research on academically resilient students to provide specific approaches faculty can adopt to increase the degree of resilience and persistence among first generation college students. These suggestions will be categorized and explained, then justified through related research literature.
JABIR HASAN KHAN; MENKA; FALAK BUTOOL
Beggars in India are the victim of an imbalanced socio-economic system. Theyare the most vulnerable people in our society. They are the example of humandegradation to the lowest extent, and they are a menace to the healthy society. Most ofthem are the product of economic deprivation, destitution and neglect (Cama, 1945).Begging is commonly defined as the act of stopping people on the street to ask forassistance, for example in the form of food or money (Bose & Hwang, 2002 and Collins& Blomley...
Full Text Available This paper investigated the impact of the North Coast Highway development on the socio-economic well-being of residents living in Bogue Village, St. James, Jamaica. It points out the connection between the new road infrastructure development and the survey respondents’ socio-economic status, while investigating the impact of the North Coast Highway on family life. Time spent with families and creation of new economic opportunities were the main indicators of family life. The paper uses questionnaires and interview questions to test the hypothesis, “The North Coast Highway will improve the quality of life of the citizens through increased economic opportunities, reduced travel time and traffic congestion resulting in more time spent with families.” The study found that the majority of the survey respondents use the North Coast Highway. Two-fifths of the questionnaire respondents and just over two-thirds of the respondents interviewed reported that they spent the same amount of time with their families; one-quarter of the questionnaire and interview respondents reported that they spent more time with their families; three-tenths and one-eighth of the questionnaire and interview respondents respectively spent less time with their families after the construction of the North Coast Highway. There is greater transport mobility and connectivity with surrounding communities and Montego Bay, and hence increased access to the various economic opportunities and amenities of life.
Issler Roberto M.S.
Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES districts in Istanbul. Participants 510 randomly selected children aged 12 and 13 years old (257 boys, 253 girls. Results The prevalence of overweight (15.2% and the energy intake (p Conclusion The findings of the current study revealed a coexistence of both overweight and higher energy intake in middle/ high SES children, as well as a coexistence of underweight and lower physical activity levels in low SES children. These observations should guide the public health policy in developing appropriate intervention strategies to efficiently tackle these health and social issues early in life.
The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES) in New Jersey (NJ), a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologists and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic) radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques
Full Text Available This study sets out to find out whether parental socioeconomic status, family structure and living environment are predictors of violence against children. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and the population of the study consisted of all the children in public primary schools and in junior secondary schools within Lagos state of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was adopted for the study. Random samples of twenty five children were picked from each of the sixteen schools selected. This gives a total 400 participants that were used for the study. Experts in Sociology, measurement and evaluation certified the content validity of the questionnaire, while the co-efficient of the reliability of the four sections of the questionnaire were ascertained to be 0.63; 0.68; 0.66 and 0.73, respectively for sections A,B,C and D. Chi-square statistical tools was used to test the hypotheses formulated. Major findings of the study include the fact that parental socioeconomic status significantly influence violence against children, family structure significantly influence violence against children and that living environment also significantly influence violence against children. This study conclude by recommending among others that the Lagos State government should put machinery in motion to improve the poverty level of individuals living in Lagos State of Nigeria and should also make available social services and amenities that are supportive of family well being in order to avoid any form of violence against children.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hispanic ethnic concentration is associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and, if this relationship exists, whether it is affected by the socioeconomic environment. The study uses the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS linked to 2000 census data to access the relationship between prevalence of obesity, Hispanic ethnic concentration, poverty and level of education at a county-level. The findings suggest that the association of Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity varies by socioeconomic environment. Although little influence was observed for % poverty, the relationship between Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity differed by county-level educational attainment. High proportion of residents with a bachelor’s degree is associated with a low prevalence of obesity; counties with both high % Hispanic and high % with Bachelor’s degrees had the lowest prevalence of obesity. Our results suggest that promoting and improving education, perhaps including training on healthful living, may serve as an effective means of curbing current obesity trends and associated health problems in Hispanic and possibly other ethnic communities.
Bhurosy, Trishnee; Jeewon, Rajesh
Obesity is a significant public health concern affecting more than half a billion people worldwide. Obesity rise is not only limited to developed countries, but to developing nations as well. This paper aims to compare the mean body mass index trends in the World Health Organisation- (WHO-) categorised regions since 1980 to 2008 and secondly to appraise how socioeconomic disparities can lead to differences in obesity and physical activity level across developing nations. Taking into account past and current BMI trends, it is anticipated that obesity will continue to take a significant ascent, as observed by the sharp increase from 1999 to 2008. Gender differences in BMI will continue to be as apparent, that is, women showing a higher BMI trend than men. In the coming years, the maximum mean BMI in more developed countries might be exceeded by those in less developed ones. Rather than focusing on obesity at the individual level, the immediate environment of the obese individual to broader socioeconomic contexts should be targeted. Most importantly, incentives at several organisational levels, the media, and educational institutions along with changes in food policies will need to be provided to low-income populations. PMID:25379554
The paper discusses to which extent climatic and seasonal effects can influence living habits and socio-economic activities in such a way that consequences of a nuclear accident might be affected. A number of examples from Sweden are given, related to dwellings (building standards and location), diet, seasonal effects in agriculture and tourism. The reindeer are discussed separately. Although climate and season do change man's habits in a way relevant to accident consequences, the conclusion of this paper is that in most cases this mechanism is severely mixed with other, sometimes more important ones
Bakker, Jessie P.; O'Keeffe, Karyn M.; Neill, Alister M.; Campbell, Angela J.
Study Objectives: We aimed to investigate the influence of ethnicity on adherence with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in a sample of New Zealand patients. Design: Observational study over one month. Setting: A university-based sleep laboratory. Patients: 126 consecutively consenting CPAP-naïve patients (19.8% M?ori, mean±SD apnea-hypopnea index 57.9 ± 38.9 events/h, CPAP 11.1 ± 3.1 cm H2O). Interventions: Patients underwent a 4-week supervised home trial of CPAP following pressure titration. Measurements and Results: Self-identified ethnicity (M?ori/non-M?ori), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Self-Efficacy Measure for Sleep Apnea, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, New Zealand Deprivation Index (calculated from residential address), New Zealand Individual Deprivation Index (validated 8-item questionnaire), educational history, income, and employment assessed at baseline were compared to objective CPAP adherence after one month. M?ori demonstrated significantly lower usage than non-M?ori (median 5.11, interquartile range 2.24 h/night compared with median 5.71, interquartile range 2.61 h/night, P = 0.05). There were no significant relationships between adherence and subjective sleepiness, health literacy, or self-efficacy. In a multivariate logistic regression model incorporating 5 variables (ethnicity, eligibility for government-subsidized healthcare, individual deprivation scores, income, and education), non-completion of tertiary education, and high individual socioeconomic deprivation remained significant independent predictors of average CPAP adherence not reaching ? 4 h (odds ratio 0.25, 95% CI 0.08-0.83, P = 0.02; odds ratio 0.10, 95% CI 0.02-0.86, P = 0.04, respectively). The overall model explained approximately 23% of the variance in adherence. Conclusions: The disparity in CPAP adherence demonstrated between M?ori and non-M?ori can be explained in part by lower education levels and socioeconomic status. Citation: Bakker JP; O'Keeffe KM; Neill AM; Campbell AJ. Ethnic disparities in CPAP adherence in New Zealand: effects of socioeconomic status, health literacy and self-efficacy. SLEEP 2011;34(11):1595-1603. PMID:22043130
Jorge La Rosa
Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar o efeito do sexo, nível sócio-econômico (NSE e ordem de nascimento em ansiedade traço-estado. Participaram 437 estudantes do 1° e 2° graus, de ambos os sexos, de níveis sócio-econômicos médio-alto e baixo, primogênitos e não-primogênitos. No que se refere à ansiedade estado (AE, observaram-se efeitos principais de sexo e NSE. As mulheres apresentaram escores mais altos que os homens, e também os sujeitos de NSE baixo com relação aos de NSE médio-alto. Houve interação entre NSE e ordem de nascimento. Os estudantes primogênitos de NSE médio-alto evidenciaram menor AE que os primogênitos e não-primogênitos de NSE baixo. Em outra interação, as mulheres primogênitas de NSE baixo apresentaram maior AE que os homens de NSE médio-alto, primogênitos e não-primogênitos, e, também, que as mulheres primogênitas de NSE médio-alto. Nos resultados de ansiedade-traço, as mulheres obtiveram pontuação mais alta que os homens, e também os sujeitos de NSE baixo com relação aos de NSE médio-alto. Não houve interações. Discutem-se os resultados enfatizando-se a importância do sexo, nível sócio-econômico e ordem de nascimento nos níveis de ansiedade traço-estado.The objective of this study was to verify the effect of sex, socioeconomic status (SES and birth order on state-trait anxiety. The subjects were 437 primary and secondary school students of both sexes, firt-borns and non-first-borns, belonging to both upper-middle and lower socioeconomic levels. Regarding state-anxiety (SA, main effects of the variables sex and SES could be observed. Women presented higher scores than men, and so did the subjects from lower SES in relation to the subjects of upper-middle SES. There was an interaction between SES and birth order. Students who were first-borns of the upper-middle SES showed lower SA than first-borns and non first-borns of lower SES. In another interaction, female first-borns of lower SES showed higher SA than males of upper-middle SES, both first-borns and non-first-borns, and also higher than female first-borns of upper-middle SES. The results of trait-anxiety showed taht women obtained higher scores than men, as well as subjects of low SES did in relation to subjects of upper-middle SES. There were no significant interactions. The results are discussed by emphasizing the importance of sex, socioeconomic status and birth order on levels of state-trait anxiety.
Jorge, La Rosa.
Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar o efeito do sexo, nível sócio-econômico (NSE) e ordem de nascimento em ansiedade traço-estado. Participaram 437 estudantes do 1° e 2° graus, de ambos os sexos, de níveis sócio-econômicos médio-alto e baixo, primogênitos e não-primogênitos. No que se refere à ansied [...] ade estado (AE), observaram-se efeitos principais de sexo e NSE. As mulheres apresentaram escores mais altos que os homens, e também os sujeitos de NSE baixo com relação aos de NSE médio-alto. Houve interação entre NSE e ordem de nascimento. Os estudantes primogênitos de NSE médio-alto evidenciaram menor AE que os primogênitos e não-primogênitos de NSE baixo. Em outra interação, as mulheres primogênitas de NSE baixo apresentaram maior AE que os homens de NSE médio-alto, primogênitos e não-primogênitos, e, também, que as mulheres primogênitas de NSE médio-alto. Nos resultados de ansiedade-traço, as mulheres obtiveram pontuação mais alta que os homens, e também os sujeitos de NSE baixo com relação aos de NSE médio-alto. Não houve interações. Discutem-se os resultados enfatizando-se a importância do sexo, nível sócio-econômico e ordem de nascimento nos níveis de ansiedade traço-estado. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to verify the effect of sex, socioeconomic status (SES) and birth order on state-trait anxiety. The subjects were 437 primary and secondary school students of both sexes, firt-borns and non-first-borns, belonging to both upper-middle and lower socioeconomic levels. Re [...] garding state-anxiety (SA), main effects of the variables sex and SES could be observed. Women presented higher scores than men, and so did the subjects from lower SES in relation to the subjects of upper-middle SES. There was an interaction between SES and birth order. Students who were first-borns of the upper-middle SES showed lower SA than first-borns and non first-borns of lower SES. In another interaction, female first-borns of lower SES showed higher SA than males of upper-middle SES, both first-borns and non-first-borns, and also higher than female first-borns of upper-middle SES. The results of trait-anxiety showed taht women obtained higher scores than men, as well as subjects of low SES did in relation to subjects of upper-middle SES. There were no significant interactions. The results are discussed by emphasizing the importance of sex, socioeconomic status and birth order on levels of state-trait anxiety.
Kahraman, Nurcan; Sungur-Vural, Semra
This study aimed to investigate how well gender, socio-economic status of family, and socio-cultural influences (perceived parents' achievement goals, and perceived teachers' achievement goals) predict middle school students' task value beliefs in science. Background Characteristics Survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning…
Miller, Byron; Taylor, John
Stress research shows that race, socioeconomic status (SES), and family context significantly impact an adolescent's psychological well-being, yet little is known about the mediating effects of family context on racial and SES differences in depressive symptoms among Black and White youth. We investigate these associations using a sample of 875…
Lewis, Phyllis Trujillo; Shipman, Virginia C.; May, Philip A.
The relationship of selected demographic, socioeconomic status (SES), and psychological characteristics was examined in interviews with 176 Northern Plains American Indian mothers whose children were referred to diagnostic clinics for evaluation of developmental disabilities, including fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Thirty-nine mothers…
Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…
Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel
The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…
Dahly, Darren L; Adair, Linda S
Objective To test the hypothesis that lower birth order amplifies the positive association between socioeconomic status and central adiposity in young adult males from a lower-income, developing country context. Design The Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey is an ongoing community-based, observational study of a one year birth cohort (1983). Subjects 970 young adult males, mean age 21.5 y (2005). Measurements Central adiposity measured by waist circumference; birth order; perinatal maternal characteristics including height, arm fat area, age, and smoking behavior; socioeconomic status at birth and in young adulthood. Results Lower birth order was associated with higher waist circumference and increased odds of high waist circumference, even after adjustment for socioeconomic status in young adulthood, and maternal characteristics that could impact later offspring adiposity. Furthermore, the positive association between socioeconomic status and central adiposity was amplified in individuals characterized by lower birth order. Conclusions This research has failed to reject the mismatch hypothesis, which posits that maternal constraint of fetal growth acts to program developing physiology in a manner that increases susceptibility to the obesogenic effects of modern environments. PMID:20065964
Stránská, Petra; Velemínský, P.; Polá?ek, Lumír
Ro?. 60, ?. 1 (2015), s. 62-76. ISSN 0003-9969 R&D Projects: GA ?R GB14-36938G Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : bioarchaeology * early medieval population * Great Moravia * non-adult individuals * dental caries * socio-economic status Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2013
Geelan, David; Louden, William; Wildy, Helen
A variety of factors are associated with students' achievement in secondary school physics, including cohort size--the total number of students studying Physics in the school--and socioeconomic status. Earlier studies also showed boys achieving better in Physics, while more recent research has shown better results for girls. Statistical…
Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.
This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…
Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin
In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…
Rubin, Mark; Denson, Nida; Kilpatrick, Sue; Matthews, Kelly E.; Stehlik, Tom; Zyngier, David
This review provides a critical appraisal of the measurement of students' social class and socioeconomic status (SES) in the context of widening higher education participation. Most assessments of social class and SES in higher education have focused on objective measurements based on the income, occupation, and education of students'…
O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Mugridge, Anna C.
Health-related behaviors [physical activity (PA), nutritional quality of breakfast and sleep]; personal variables (self-esteem, attitudes to PA and gender) and socioeconomic status (SES) (school SES and parental education), were examined in relation to literacy and numeracy scores of 824 grade 3-7 children. Participants completed a questionnaire,…
Wu, Ching-Ling; Bao, Wei
This study analyzes the effects of individual characteristics, socioeconomic status, and political engagement among Chinese university students with respect to their attainment of student leadership roles. The study investigated 10,930 students from elite Chinese universities. The results showed that female and only-child students were more likely…
Prevoo, Mariëlle J. L.; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; Emmen, Rosanneke A. G.; Yeniad, Nihal; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus; Linting, Mariëlle
When bilingual children enter formal reading education, host language proficiency becomes increasingly important. This study investigated the relation between socioeconomic status (SES), maternal language use, reading input, and vocabulary in a sample of 111 six-year-old children of first- and second-generation Turkish immigrant parents in the…
Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov
Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced changes in economic conditions, educational levels, and labor markets at the same time as cultural changes have taken place in relation to processes of individualization and reflexivity. Based on empirical data the aim of this paper is to investigate whether and to what extent changes in the structural preconditions for volunteering have had an effect on factors that are commonly associated with volunteering. We use survey data from Denmark collected over a period from 1990 to 2008.
Richardson, Andrea S; Meyer, Katie A; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lewis, Cora E; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Cross-sectional studies suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the U.S.-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For most classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (pfast food and non-fast food restaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities. PMID:25280107
Nonnemaker, James M.; Allen, Jane A.; Davis, Kevin C.; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C.; Farrelly, Matthew C.
Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and microvascular complications. We evaluated cigarette smoking in people with diabetes mellitus in a socio-economically deprived area. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of people registered with diabetes mellitus at 29 general practices in inner London. Responses were analysed for 1,899 (64% respondents out of 2,983 eligible. Results There were 1,899 respondents of whom 968 (51% had never smoked, 296 (16% were current smokers and 582 (31% were ex-smokers. Smoking was more frequent in white Europeans (men 22%, women 20%, than in African Caribbeans (men 15%, women 10% or Africans (men 8%, women 2%. Smoking prevalence decreased with age. Smokers were more likely to be living in rented accommodation (odds ratio, OR 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 2.74. After adjusting for confounding, current smokers had lower SF-36 scores than subjects who had never smoked (mean difference in physical functioning score -5.6, 95% confidence interval -10.0 to -1.2; general health -6.1, -9.7 to -2.5. Current smokers were less likely to have attended a hospital diabetic clinic in the last year (OR 0.59, 0.44 to 0.79, and their hypertension was less likely to be treated (OR 0.47, 0.30 to 0.74. Conclusions Compared with non-smokers, smokers had lower socio-economic status and worse health status, but were less likely to be referred to hospital or treated for their hypertension. People with diabetes who smoke can be regarded as a vulnerable group who need more intensive support and treatment.
Numerous studies have shown that married women and men experience the lowest mortality. Legal marital status, however, does not necessarily reflect today's social reality because individuals are classified as never married, widowed, or divorced even when they are living with a partner. Denmark is one of the forerunners of developments in…
Full Text Available The association of socioeconomic status (SES with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266 who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05. After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, ? = ?0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, ? = ?0.046, P = 0.003. SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032. Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers.
Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro
The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, ? = ?0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, ? = ?0.046, P = 0.003). SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032). Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers. PMID:23478398
Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F
Importance: Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. Objective: To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's genetic liability so that specific subgroups are particularly risk prone; and (4) to what extent a proband's genetic makeup mediates the risk associated with familial background. Design, Settings, and Participants: We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers. The study consisted of 866 patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34?600 cases and 45?968 control individuals) were applied to calculate polygenic risk scores. Exposures: Polygenic risk scores, parental socioeconomic status, and family psychiatric history. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratios (ORs), attributable risks, liability R2 values, and proportions mediated. Results: Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for parental socioeconomic status, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for family history. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric history accounted for 45.8% (95% CI, 36.1-55.5) and 25.8% (95% CI, 21.2-30.5) of cases, respectively. There was an interaction between the polygenic risk score and family history (P?=?.03). A total of 17.4% (95% CI, 9.1-26.6) of the effect associated with family history of schizophrenia/psychoses was mediated through the polygenic risk score. Conclusions and Relevance: Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score, family psychiatric history, and socioeconomic status. Our study demonstrated that family history of schizophrenia/psychoses is partly mediated through the individual's genetic liability.
Campbell, Rebecca K.; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Christian, Parul; Leclerq, Steven C.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Wu, Lee S. F.; West, Keith P.
Despite widespread nutritional deficiencies, investigations of usual diet in rural South Asia remain sparse. The present study characterizes year-round and seasonal dietary patterns of women in the Terai of Nepal by sociodemographic status, using a novel, weekly single-visit and usual food frequency questionnaire that links recall to the agricultural season. The study was conducted across seasons in 2006-2008 among 15,899 women of reproductive age in Sarlahi district. Intakes were tabulated f...
de Castro Marcia
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is commonly considered a disease of the poor, but there is very little evidence of a possible two-way causality in the association between malaria and poverty. Until now, limitations to examine that dual relationship were the availability of representative data on confirmed malaria cases, the use of a good proxy for poverty, and accounting for endogeneity in regression models. Methods A simultaneous equation model was estimated with nationally representative data for Tanzania that included malaria parasite testing with RDTs for young children (six-59?months, and accounted for environmental variables assembled with the aid of GIS. A wealth index based on assets, access to utilities/infrastructure, and housing characteristics was used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Model estimation was done with instrumental variables regression. Results Results show that households with a child who tested positive for malaria at the time of the survey had a wealth index that was, on average, 1.9 units lower (p-value? Conclusion If malaria is indeed a cause of poverty, as the findings of this study suggest, then malaria control activities, and particularly the current efforts to eliminate/eradicate malaria, are much more than just a public health policy, but also a poverty alleviation strategy. However, if poverty has no causal effect on malaria, then poverty alleviation policies should not be advertised as having the potential additional effect of reducing the prevalence of malaria.
Full Text Available Quality of life of older people is becoming an important public health concern and should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate quality of life of older subjects living in Metropolitan Santiago, Chile. A qualitative phase with focus groups of older subjects was carried out first. According to the conclusions of the Focus groups, a questionnaire about quality of life was devised and added to the WHOQoLOld and WhoQoL brief questionnarires. The final document with 85 questions was applied to healthy older subjects living in the community.A total of 1676 subjects aged 71.8 ± 7.4 years (1189 women, were surveyed. A multiple stepwise regression model showed that a higher socioeconomic level, a better educational level, performing voluntary work, having a partner, participating in groups with other older people and having a lower age, were factors independently associated with a higher quality of life. A principal components analysis showed that psychological health and social relationships were the main domains explaining the total quality of life score. Psychological health and social relationships were the main determinants of quality of life in this sample of Chilean older people living in Metropolitan Santiago.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find the prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Materials and Methods: A total of 813 children aged 2-6 years were screened for the present study from randomly selected three kindergarten schools each from Government, Government aided, and private managements. Clinical examination was done inside the respective schools. At the time of examination, a proforma was filled for each child comprising of DFS index. The questionnaire by Winter et al. was modified and used in this study. The completed proformas were statistically analyzed to find if any correlation existed between the nursing caries to the feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Results: Duration of breastfeeding increases the number of children with nursing caries and the mean DFS. There is a strong and significant relationship between the severity of nursing caries and the degree of feeding abuse. Children from low socioeconomic status have increased early childhood caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of nursing caries was 19.2% in Davangere preschool population. Nursing caries were more in children who were taking a feeding bottle to bed at night and were increasingly seen in large families and lower socioeconomic groups.
Carlos Garcia-Alonso; Luis Salvador-Carulla; Salinas-Perez, Jose A; Maria Luisa Rodero-Cosano; Emma Motrico; Javier Alvarez-Galvez
Studies show that the association between socio-economic status (SES) and self-rated health (SRH) varies in different countries, however there are not many country-comparisons that examine this relationship over time. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of three SES measures on SRH in 29 countries according to findings in European Social Surveys (2002–2008), in order to study how socio-economic inequalities can vary our subjective state of health. In line with prev...
To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidt. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age-adjusted odds ratio in male subjects was 1.9 (0.9, 3.9) but this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, a lower socio-economic class, categorised either by occupational or educational level, was an additional risk factor for diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese who had known risk factors for glucose intolerance. These subjects should have increased priority for health education and regular diabetes screening. Our findings further emphasise the complex relationships between societal affluence, personal income and educational level
Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads
BACKGROUND: There is insufficient knowledge of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the very young. OBJECTIVES: This nationwide study sought to examine age-stratified OHCA characteristics and the role of parental socioeconomic differences and its contribution to mortality in the young population. METHODS: All OHCA patients in Denmark, ?21 years of age, were identified from 2001 to 2010. The population was divided into infants (<1 year); pre-school children (1-5 years); school children (6-15 years); and high school adolescents/young adults (16-21 years). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between pre-hospital factors and study endpoints: return of spontaneous circulation and survival. RESULTS: A total of 459 individuals were included. Overall incidence of OHCA was 3.3 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The incidence rates for infants, pre-school children, school children and high school adolescents were 11.5, 3.5, 1.3 and 5.3 per 100,000 inhabitants. Overall bystander CPR rate was 48.8%, and for age groups: 55.4%, 41.2%, 44.9% and 63.0%, respectively. Overall 30-day survival rate was 8.1%, and for age groups: 1.4%, 4.5%, 16.1% and 9.3%, respectively. High parental education was associated with improved survival after OHCA (OR 3.48, CI 1.27-9.41). Significant crude difference in survival (OR 3.18, CI 1.22-8.34) between high household incomes vs. low household incomes was found. CONCLUSION: OHCA incidences and survival rates varied significantly between age groups. High parental education was found to be associated with improved survival after OHCA.
Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads
BACKGROUND: There is insufficient knowledge of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the very young. OBJECTIVES: This nationwide study sought to examine age-stratified OHCA characteristics and the role of parental socioeconomic differences and its contribution to mortality in the young population. METHODS: All OHCA patients in Denmark, ? 21 years of age, were identified from 2001-2010. The population was divided into infants (<1 year); pre-school children (1-5 years); school children (6-15 years); and high school adolescents/young adults (16-21 years). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between pre-hospital factors and study endpoints: return of spontaneous circulation and survival. RESULTS: A total of 459 individuals were included. Overall incidence of OHCA was 3.3 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The incidence rates for infants, pre-school children, school children and high school adolescents were 11.5, 3.5, 1.3 and 5.3 per 100,000 inhabitants. Overall bystander CPR rate was 48.8%, and for age groups: 55.4%, 41.2%, 44.9% and 63.0%, respectively. Overall 30-day survival rate was 8.1%, and for age groups: 1.4%, 4.5%, 16.1% and 9.3%, respectively. High parental education was associated with improved survival after OHCA (OR 3.48, CI 1.27-9.41). Significant crude difference in survival (OR 3.18, CI 1.22-8.34) between high household incomes vs. low household incomes was found. CONCLUSION: OHCA incidences and survival rates varied significantly between age groups. High parental education was found to be associated with improved survival after OHCA.
Full Text Available This study examines identity formation among Golestan’s late adolescents. Its findings indicate that 94.3% of participants have not experienced an identity crisis. A majority of respondents 33.8% reflected the diffuse-avoidant identity style. No significant difference in identity style exists between late adolescent’smales and females. There isa significant difference in identity styles between different age groups. Comparative consequences showed that there isn't significant difference between girls and boys in finding identity style, while there is significant difference between different age groups, which means there is significant difference between 20- 24 year olds in confusion identity style.Correlation consequences show that there is significant relationship between confusion identity style and identity crisis. It means that those experiencing the identity crisis have more tendencies to face identity diffuse/avoidant. Thereis also significant negative correlation between confusion identity style and economic-social status, which means the higherthe economic and social status, the less is experiences in the confusion identity style. In addition, the results show that there is significant correlation between identity crisis and mental health. It means those girls experiencing identity crisis have lower psychiatric health, while this is different among boys, which means boys who experience identity crisis have higher chance of having mental health.
Julia A. Dilley
Full Text Available Background . Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design . For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods . With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alaska's 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, we used stratified analysis and logistic regression models to describe the current use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT (including iq'mik, a unique Alaska Native SLT product among the 3 populations of interest. Results . “Population segments” were created with combinations of responses for Alaska Native race, SES and community type. We identified the highest prevalence and highest proportion of tobacco users for each type of tobacco by “segment.” For cigarette smoking, while the largest proportion (nearly one-third of the state's smokers are non-Native, high SES and live in urban settings, this group also has lower smoking prevalence than most other groups. Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents had both high smoking prevalence (48% and represented a large proportion of the state's smokers (nearly 10%. Patterns were similar for SLT, with non-Native high-SES urban residents making up the largest proportion of users despite lower prevalence, and Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents having high prevalence and making up a large proportion of users. For iq'mik use, Alaska Native people in rural settings were both the highest prevalence and proportion of users. Conclusion . While Alaska Native race, low SES status and community of residence can be considered alone when developing tobacco control interventions, creating “population segments” based on combinations of factors may be helpful for tailoring effective tobacco control strategies and messaging. Other countries or states may use a similar approach for describing and prioritizing populations.
Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Rehm, Colin D; Streichert, Laura C; Drewnowski, Adam
Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1%) of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p < 0.001) and high arterial road density (p < 0.001) but not with percent of residents who were nonwhite. Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas. PMID:19630979
Streichert Laura C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1% of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas.
JØrgensen, Marie Birk; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent effect of physical workload and childhood socioeconomic status (CSES) on low back pain (LBP) and LBP-related sickness absence among female health care workers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The role of physical workload on LBP independently from CSES is still subject to controversy. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 1661 female social and health care workers responding to a questionnaire in 2004, 2005, and 2006. We collected information on CSES (parental occupation), physical workload, and LBP-prevalence (no LBP, subchronic LBP, and frequent LBP), and LBP-related sickness absence. The participants were categorized into 5 groups according to CSES (I = highest, V = lowest). Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Irrespective of CSES, high physical workload increased the odds ratio (OR) of future subchronic LBP (OR = 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.61-2.57) and frequent LBP (OR = 2.20; 95% CI, 1.65-3.00), but not LBP-related sickness absence. The odds of subchronic LBP were lower in CSES groups II (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.93) and III (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.86) referencing CSES group I, irrespective of physical workload. The odds of short-term LBP-related sickness absence were higher in CSES groups III (OR = 2.78; 95% CI, 1.41-5.47) and IV (OR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.11-4.27) referencing CSES group I, irrespective of physical workload. We found no interaction between physical workload and CSES. CONCLUSION: Physical workload and CSES are independently associated with future LBP within a group with similar occupational status. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A.
Yabroff, K Robin; Gordis, Leon
Historically, lower socioeconomic status (SES) has been reported to be associated with decreased breast cancer incidence and mortality and increased case-fatality, although recent trends in breast cancer screening and treatment may alter these relationships. This study assessed the associations between SES and breast cancer incidence, case-fatality, and mortality by stage of disease at diagnosis using recent data in the United States. Breast cancer incidence and survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) tumor registry for black and white women aged 55 and above were linked to county level SES and population data based on place of residence. Poisson regression was used to calculate age-adjusted relative rates associated with SES levels and breast cancer incidence, case-fatality, and mortality. As SES decreased, localized breast cancer incidence rates decreased, while incidence rates of distant disease increased. Five-year localized and regional breast cancer case-fatality rates increased as SES decreased. Localized breast cancer mortality rates decreased as SES declined, whereas regional breast cancer mortality rates tended to increase. These results confirm some previously reported findings and suggest that associations between lower SES and lower localized breast cancer mortality rates are influenced mainly by underlying associations between SES and localized breast cancer incidence, whereas regional breast cancer mortality rates appear to reflect the underlying association between SES and regional case-fatality rates. PMID:14572836
Manning, D T; Balson, P M; Hunter, S M; Berenson, G S; Willis, A S
The prevalence of Type A behavior in children from lower-class rural and upper-class urban backgrounds was compared using the Hunter-Wolf A-B Self-Rating Scale (H-W A-B). Analyses of variance were performed for two levels of socioeconomic status (SES), two levels of race (black and white), two levels of gender, and two levels of age (9-11 and 13-14). A significant difference for SES was found in the predicted direction with a greater prevalence of Type A being found among upper-urban children (p less than .001). There was also a significant effect for race (p less than .0001). Although there was a significant effect for gender with boys scoring higher (p less than .001), there was no difference between boys and girls within either SES group, and both boys and girls in the upper-urban group were more Type A than boys and girls in the lower-rural group (p less than .001). The possibility that the lack of sex differences within groups may reflect changing lifestyles for young women is discussed as a topic worthy of further epidemiological investigation. PMID:3655358
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES may influence cancer characteristics and behavior in several aspects. We analyzed PCa characteristics and behavior among low income uninsured men, and compare them to high income patients with health insurance in a developing country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was performed on 934 patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy between March, 1999 and July, 2009. Patients were divided in two groups, according to their SES. In group 1 (n=380, all had low income, low educational levels and couldn't afford medical insurance. In group 2 (n=554, all had higher income, higher education and had medical insurance. RESULTS: Patients from group 1 were older, had higher Gleason scores, higher rates of seminal vesicle and bladder neck involvement. The Kaplan Meier disease-free survival curve demonstrated that after a follow-up of four years, about 50% of uninsured patients had biochemical recurrence, versus 21% of insured patients (Log rank test: p < 0.001. A multivariate Cox regression analysis for the risk of disease recurrence demonstrated that only PSA levels, Gleason score, seminal vesicle involvement and SES were statistically significant variables. Patients with a low SES presented 1.8 times the risk of recurrence as compared to patients with a high SES. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low SES were older, presented more aggressive PCa characteristics and a high rate of disease recurrence. A low SES constituted an independent predictor for disease recurrence.
Armitage, Christopher J; Arden, Madelynne A
Volitional help sheets use Gollwitzer's (1993) concept of implementation intentions as a vehicle to change behaviour using Prochaska and DiClemente's (1983) processes of change. The present study designed and tested a volitional help sheet to increase physical activity in a group with low socioeconomic status (low-SES). Sixty-eight people (33 women, 35 men; mean age 27) with low-SES were randomly allocated to either an experimental group or a control group. Both groups received a questionnaire and a volitional help sheet; the only difference between the experimental and control groups was that the former were given explicit instructions to link occasions on which they were tempted not to be physically active with appropriate behavioural responses (processes of change). Physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent minutes per week) was the main outcome measure; behavioural intention and self-efficacy were the secondary outcome measures. The findings revealed significant increase in physical activity in the experimental condition, relative to the control condition, F (1, 66) = 7.28, p social cognitive variables. Furthermore, the participants who were most responsive to the intervention engaged in more than three times the physical activity at baseline than those who received the intervention but did not subsequently change. The findings provide further support for volitional help sheets to change health behaviour and extend them to a group with low-SES. Further work is required to refine this intervention tool. PMID:20309777
Victor, Srougi; Alberto A., Antunes; Sabrina, T; , Reis; Marcos F., Dall' Oglio; Adriano J., Nesrallah; Kátia R. M., Leite; Miguel, Srougi.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) may influence cancer characteristics and behavior in several aspects. We analyzed PCa characteristics and behavior among low income uninsured men, and compare them to high income patients with health insurance in a developing country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retr [...] ospective case-control study was performed on 934 patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy between March, 1999 and July, 2009. Patients were divided in two groups, according to their SES. In group 1 (n=380), all had low income, low educational levels and couldn't afford medical insurance. In group 2 (n=554), all had higher income, higher education and had medical insurance. RESULTS: Patients from group 1 were older, had higher Gleason scores, higher rates of seminal vesicle and bladder neck involvement. The Kaplan Meier disease-free survival curve demonstrated that after a follow-up of four years, about 50% of uninsured patients had biochemical recurrence, versus 21% of insured patients (Log rank test: p
Joel Gittelsohn, PhD
Full Text Available IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the California Health Interview Survey 2003, we estimated the prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight, combined as a single measure (AROW, body mass index ?85th percentile. We used logistic regression models to examine associations between AROW and risk factors.ResultsTwenty-nine percent of California adolescents were AROW. The prevalence of AROW differed significantly by sex and race. Boys were more likely than girls to be AROW (33% vs 25%. American Indians/Pacific Islanders/others (39% were at highest risk, followed by Hispanics (37%, blacks (35%, whites (23%, and Asians (15%. For boys, older age, Hispanic or American Indian/Pacific Islander/other race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and longer residence in the United States were significantly associated with AROW. For girls, Hispanic or black race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and poor dietary habits were significantly associated with AROW.ConclusionThe high prevalence of AROW among California adolescents in most racial/ethnic groups indicates the need for culturally specific and appropriate interventions to prevent and treat overweight.
Takuro Shimbo; Akiomi Inoue; Sumiko Kurioka; Akihito Shimazu; Masaya Takahashi; Norito Kawakami; Akizumi Tsutsumi; Hideki Hashimoto; Setsuko Taneichi; Yixuan Song; Koichi Miyaki
The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The degree of depre...
Hanscombe, Ken B; Maciej Trzaskowski; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S.P.; Dale, Philip S; Robert Plomin
The environment can moderate the effect of genes - a phenomenon called gene-environment (GxE) interaction. Several studies have found that socioeconomic status (SES) modifies the heritability of children's intelligence. Among low-SES families, genetic factors have been reported to explain less of the variance in intelligence; the reverse is found for high-SES families. The evidence however is inconsistent. Other studies have reported an effect in the opposite direction (higher heritability in...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The district resource allocation formula in Malawi was recently reviewed to include stunting as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status. In many countries where the concept of need has been incorporated in resource allocation, composite indicators of socioeconomic status have been used. In the Malawi case, it is important to ascertain whether there are differences between using single variable or composite indicators of socioeconomic status in allocations made to districts, holding all other factors in the resource allocation formula constant. Methods Principal components analysis was used to calculate asset indices for all districts from variables that capture living standards using data from the Malawi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006. These were normalized and used to weight district populations. District proportions of national population weighted by both the simple and composite indicators were then calculated for all districts and compared. District allocations were also calculated using the two approaches and compared. Results The two types of indicators are highly correlated, with a spearman rank correlation coefficient of 0.97 at the 1% level of significance. For 21 out of the 26 districts included in the study, proportions of national population weighted by the simple indicator are higher by an average of 0.6 percentage points. For the remaining 5 districts, district proportions of national population weighted by the composite indicator are higher by an average of 2 percentage points. Though the average percentage point differences are low and the actual allocations using both approaches highly correlated (? of 0.96, differences in actual allocations exceed 10% for 8 districts and have an average of 4.2% for the remaining 17. For 21 districts allocations based on the single variable indicator are higher. Conclusions Variations in district allocations made using either the simple or composite indicators of socioeconomic status are not statistically different to recommend one over the other. However, the single variable indicator is favourable for its ease of computation.
Ashley Deanna; Samms-Vaughan Maureen; Knight-Madden Jennifer M; Younger Novie OM; Tulloch-Reid Marshall K; Ferguson Trevor S; Van den Broeck Jan; Wilks Rainford J.
Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome has a high prevalence in many countries and has been associated with socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components among Jamaican young adults and evaluate its association with parental SES. Methods A subset of the participants from the 1986 Jamaica Birth Cohort was evaluated at ages 18-20 years between 2005 and 2007. Trained research nurses obtained blood pressure and anthropomet...
ROBBINS, J; Vaccarino, V.; Zhang, H.; Kasl, S
OBJECTIVE—To examine whether socioeconomic status (SES) explains differences in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes between African-American and non-Hispanic white women and men.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study of diabetes prevalence, SES, and other risk factors ascertained by physical examination and interview.?SETTING—Interviews were conducted in subjects' homes; physical examinations were conducted in mobile examination centres.?PARTICIPANTS—961 African-American women, 1641 non-...
Dossa, Luc; Buerkert, Andreas; Schlecht, Eva
This study explores the relation between household socioeconomic status (SES) and participation in urban and periurban agriculture (UPA) in three West African cities. We used a structured questionnaire to survey 700 randomly selected households: 250 in Kano, Nigeria, 250 in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, and 200 in Sikasso, Mali. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied on household asset variables to create an index of assets which was used as a proxy for household SES. The results showed...
Paula Janice S; Leite Isabel CG; Almeida Anderso B; Ambrosano Glaucia MB; Pereira Antônio C; Mialhe Fábio L
Abstract Background The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Methods A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically e...
Singh, Tapan; Singh, Ronauk; Singh, Jatinder Pal
Background: A better knowledge about the Interdental space is important since it provides insights on the prevalence of malocclusion. To date, there is conflicting evidence on the impact of body mass index (BMI) and Socioeconomic status (SES) on interdental space. A recent review concluded that a greater understanding is required of the interdental space. Therefore, there is a need for a more comprehensive and rigorous assessments of the interdental space and impacts of BMI and SES.
Erik E. Morales
Utilizing resilience theory and original research conducted on fifty academically resilient low socioeconomic status students of color, this article presents specific objectives and values institutions of higher learning can adopt and emphasize to increase the retention and graduation of their most statistically at-risk students. Major findings and suggestions include: constantly build students’ self-efficacy; help students realistically appraise their own strengths and weaknesses; encourag...
Brian J. Thomas
Post-secondary education is often seen as an important factor for individual success and is positively correlated with factors ranging from income to happiness. Unfortunately, access to higher-education varies greatly in the United States. In this paper, I examine the relationship between socioeconomic status and the post-secondary plans of current high-school students and recent high-school graduates. Through in-depth interviews, I explore the relationship between students’ socioeconomi...
Blignaut, James N.; Sharma, Gyan P.; Esler, Karen J.
We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relations...
Sternthal, Michelle J.; Coull, Brent A.; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Cohen, Sheldon; Wright, Rosalind J.
Background Independent of current socioeconomic status (SES), past maternal SES might influence asthma outcomes in children. Objective We examined associations among the mother’s SES in the first 10 years of her life (maternal childhood SES), increased cord blood IgE levels (upper 20% [1.37 IU/mL]), and repeated wheeze (?2 episodes by age 2 years) in an urban pregnancy cohort (n = 510). Methods Data on sociodemographics, discrimination, financial strain, community violence, interpersonal trauma, and other negative events were obtained prenatally. Prenatal household dust was assayed for cockroach and murine allergens, and traffic-related air pollution was estimated by using spatiotemporal land-use regression. Maternal childhood SES was defined by parental home ownership (birth to 10 years). Maternally reported child wheeze was ascertained at 3-month intervals from birth. Using structural equation models, we examined whether outcomes were dependent on maternal childhood SES directly versus indirect relationships operating through (1) cumulative SES-related adversities, (2) the mother’s socioeconomic trajectory (adult SES), and (3) current prenatal environmental exposures. Results Mothers were largely Hispanic (60%) or black (28%), 37% had not completed high school, and 56% reported parental home ownership. When associations between low maternal childhood SES and repeated wheeze were examined, there were significant indirect effects operating through adult SES and prenatal cumulative stress (? = 0.28, P = .003) and pollution (? = 0.24, P = .004; P value for total indirect effects ? .04 for both pathways). Low maternal childhood SES was directly related to increased cord blood IgE levels (? = 0.21, P = .003). Maternal cumulative adversity (interpersonal trauma) was also associated with increased cord blood IgE levels (? = 0.19, P = .01), although this did not explain maternal childhood SES effects. Conclusion Lower maternal childhood SES was associated with increased cord blood IgE levels and repeated wheeze through both direct and indirect effects, providing new insights into the role of social inequalities as determinants of childhood respiratory risk. PMID:21704362
Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems to apply for girls more than for boys and for parental occupation more than family affluence. For future studies it might be important to look at the effects of socio-economic status within the context of other peer, family and school related factors in order to assess to what extent those factors might mediate the effects of social class background.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are well-established socio-economic differences in the prevalence of smoking in the UK, but conventional socio-economic measures may not capture the range and degree of these associations. We have used a commercial geodemographic profiling system, Mosaic, to explore associations with smoking prevalence in a large primary care dataset and to establish whether this tool provides new insights into socio-economic determinants of smoking. Methods We analysed anonymised data on over 2 million patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN database, linked via patients' postcodes to Mosaic classifications (11 groups and 61 types and quintiles of Townsend Index of Multiple Deprivation. Patients' current smoking status was identified using Read Codes, and logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the available measures of socioeconomic status and smoking prevalence. Results As anticipated, smoking prevalence increased with increasing deprivation according to the Townsend Index (age and sex adjusted OR for highest vs lowest quintile 2.96, 95% CI 2.92-2.99. There were more marked differences in prevalence across Mosaic groups (OR for group G vs group A 4.41, 95% CI 4.33-4.49. Across the 61 Mosaic types, smoking prevalence varied from 8.6% to 42.7%. Mosaic types with high smoking prevalence were characterised by relative deprivation, but also more specifically by single-parent households living in public rented accommodation in areas with little community support, having no access to a car, few qualifications and high TV viewing behaviour. Conclusion Conventional socio-economic measures may underplay social disparities in smoking prevalence. Newer classification systems, such as Mosaic, encompass a wider range of demographic, lifestyle and behaviour data, and are valuable in identifying characteristics of groups of heavy smokers which might be used to tailor cessation interventions.
RajeevD S Raizada
Full Text Available The study of socioeconomic status (SES and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research.
Potijk, Marieke R; de Winter, Andrea F; Bos, Arend F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
Moderately preterm (MP) birth is associated with higher rates of behavioural and emotional problems. To determine the extent to which low socioeconomic status (SES) contributes to these higher rates, we assessed independent and joint effects of MP birth and low SES, overall and by gender. Dutch preventive child health care centres provided a population-based sample of 915 MP children (32-36 weeks gestation) and 543 term-born children, born in 2002/2003. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, we determined the risk of behavioural and emotional problems per standard deviation (SD) decrease in gestational age and SES, using standardized measures for both. We also assessed three SES categories, being low (1SD or more below mean of standardized SES), intermediate (mean ± 1SD), and high (greater than mean + 1SD). The Child Behavior Checklist for 1.5-5 years was used to assess behavioural (externalizing), emotional (internalizing), and total problems at age 4 years. MP children with low SES had significantly higher total problem scores than those with high SES (11.3 vs. 5.1 %, respectively). Each SD decrease in SES was associated with a 42 % higher odds of elevated total problem scores (OR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.14-1.77). No joint effects were found, meaning that lower gestational age independently added to the risk of behaviour problems (OR 1.24, 95 % CI 1.00-1.56). Effects of MP birth and low SES were more pronounced in girls. In conclusion, MP birth and low SES multiply the risk of behavioural and emotional problems. The combination of risk factors identifies children who could benefit greatly from early intervention. PMID:25293643
Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs and other electroencephalographic (EEG evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc. and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc. may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in two matched-samples of fourteen lower-SES and higher-SES adolescents. ERP and EEG activation were measured during a task probing selective attention to sequences of tones. Pre- and post-task salivary cortisol and self-reported emotional states were also measured. At similar performance level, the higher-SES group showed a greater ERP differentiation between attended (relevant and unattended (irrelevant tones than the lower-SES group. EEG power analysis revealed a cross-over interaction, specifically, lower-SES adolescents showed significantly higher theta power when ignoring rather than attending to tones, whereas, higher-SES adolescents showed the opposite pattern. Significant theta asymmetry differences were also found at midfrontal electrodes indicating left hypo-activity in lower-SES adolescents. The attended vs. unattended difference in right midfrontal theta increased with individual SES rank, and (independently from SES with lower cortisol task reactivity and higher boredom. Results suggest lower-SES children used additional compensatory resources to monitor/control response inhibition to distracters, perceiving also more mental effort, as compared to higher-SES counterparts. Nevertheless, stress, boredom and other task-related perceived states were unrelated to SES. Ruling out presumed confounds, this study confirms the midfrontal mechanisms responsible for the SES effects on selective attention reported previously and here reflect genuine cognitive differences.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES. Results Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Conclusions Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship.
Full Text Available Background: This study is carried out with aims to assess socio-economic and health status of the miners in Sorya Village of Karauli district of Rajasthan, India. Mining has always been among the most hazardous of occupations and rapidly increasing demand for metal and minerals to meet the demand for growing infrastructure has greatly increased the importance of mining. The quarrying and crushing are carried out in many parts of India and majority of stone mines are unorganized. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 126 miners in Sorya village, Karauli during 20 to 30 May 2014. Results: Average ages of miner were 41 and average household sizes of the miners were six. Around 80 % miners addicted to substance abuse and spend average Rs. 17 daily. Average monthly incomes of them were Rs. 3200 and 39 % has miners are in debt of more than 1 lakh. One of the reasons of debt was father died in debt and carried forward to the children. Seventy-seven percent of miners belong to lower caste and rest of them belongs to other backward class. Average BMI of miners was 19.7 kg/m2 and 38% miner were malnourished (BMI <18.5 kg/m2. Health problem reported by most of them were TB, silicosis, chest pain, back pain, Cough and Musculoskeletal disorder. Some of miners reported about low vision and hearing loss too. Conclusion: From the study, it can be concluded that one reason for miner's indebtedness is father carry forward. Sandstone mining leads to Silicosis, TB and body pain and musculoskeletal disorder. Large sample size studies will give a clearer picture that will helpful in policy implication for more than 2.5 million miners in Rajasthan, India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1159-1164
Olson Nicole A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB in developed countries has historically been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES. In the past quarter century, TB in the United States has changed from primarily a disease of native-born to primarily a disease of foreign-born persons, who accounted for more than 60% of newly-diagnosed TB cases in 2010. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of SES with rates of TB in U.S.-born and foreign-born persons in the United States, overall and for the five most common foreign countries of origin. Methods National TB surveillance data for 1996–2005 was linked with ZIP Code-level measures of SES (crowding, unemployment, education, and income from U.S. Census 2000. ZIP Codes were grouped into quartiles from low SES to high SES and TB rates were calculated for foreign-born and U.S.-born populations in each quartile. Results TB rates were highest in the quartiles with low SES for both U.S.-born and foreign-born populations. However, while TB rates increased five-fold or more from the two highest to the two lowest SES quartiles among the U.S.-born, they increased only by a factor of 1.3 among the foreign-born. Conclusions Low SES is only weakly associated with TB among foreign-born persons in the United States. The traditional associations of TB with poverty are not sufficient to explain the epidemiology of TB among foreign-born persons in this country and perhaps in other developed countries. TB outreach and research efforts that focus only on low SES will miss an important segment of the foreign-born population.
Muchomba, Felix M; Chan, Christine; El-Bassel, Nabila
The socioeconomic status (SES) of women is increasingly considered an important factor for HIV/STI risk. The HIV/STI literature has largely focused on women's absolute levels of SES, and therefore, the importance of their SES relative to their male sexual partners remains understudied. This paper examines the association between women's relative SES and frequency of safer sex communication among heterosexual couples. A convenience sample of 342 couples (N?=?684) recruited in New York City was asked about frequency of discussions with their partner about the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention in the previous 90 days. Differences between partners in education, income, employment, housing, and incarceration history were combined using principal component analysis to form an index of women's relative SES. Negative binomial regression models assessed associations between woman's relative SES and communication frequency controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, and relationship type using a generalized estimating equation framework. On average, participants had 2.5, 4.2, and 4.8 discussions regarding the need to use male condoms, about HIV prevention, and about STI prevention, respectively. A one standard deviation increase in a woman's relative SES score was associated with increased frequency of discussions about male condom use (adjusted rate ratio [aRR], 1.15; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.29), about HIV prevention (aRR, 1.25; CI, 1.14-1.37), and about STI prevention (aRR, 1.29; CI, 1.18-1.41). Women's relative SES may be an important factor for sexual communication, and further research on its role in HIV/STI risk may uncover avenues for intervention. PMID:25665522
Tandon Pooja S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children in households of lower socioeconomic status (SES are more likely to be overweight/obese. We aimed to determine if home physical activity (PA environments differed by SES and to explore home environment mediators of the relation of family SES to children’s PA and sedentary behavior. Methods Participants were 715 children aged 6 to 11 from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids (NIK Study. Household SES was examined using highest educational attainment and income. Home environment was measured by parent report on a survey. Outcomes were child’s accelerometer-measured PA and parent-reported screen time. Mediation analyses were conducted for home environment factors that varied by SES. Results Children from lower income households had greater media access in their bedrooms (TV 52% vs. 14%, DVD player 39% vs. 14%, video games 21% vs. 9% but lower access to portable play equipment (bikes 85% vs. 98%, jump ropes 69% vs. 83% compared to higher income children. Lower SES families had more restrictive rules about PA (2.5 vs. 2.0. Across SES, children watched TV/DVDs with parents/siblings more often than they engaged in PA with them. Parents of lower SES watched TV/DVDs with their children more often (3.1 vs. 2.5?days/week. Neither total daily and home-based MVPA nor sedentary time differed by SES. Children’s daily screen time varied from 1.7 hours/day in high SES to 2.4 in low SES families. Media in the bedroom was related to screen time, and screen time with parents was a mediator of the SES--screen time relationship. Conclusions Lower SES home environments provided more opportunities for sedentary behavior and fewer for PA. Removing electronic media from children’s bedrooms has the potential to reduce disparities in chronic disease risk.
Lucia N.M., Meko; Marthinette, Slabber-Stretch; Corinna M., Walsh; Salome H., Kruger; Mariette, Nel.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The continued existence of undernutrition, associated with a steady increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, necessitates identification of factors contributing to this double burden of disease, in order for effective treatment and prevention prog [...] rammes to be planned AIM: To determine the nutritional status of 13-15-year-old children in Bloemfontein and its association with socioeconomic factors SETTING: Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa (2006 METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Randomly selected children (n = 415) completed structured questionnaires on socioeconomic status. The children's weight and height were measured and body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores were computed according to World Health Organization growth standards in order to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and stunting. Waist circumference was measured to classify the children as having a high or very high risk for metabolic disease RESULTS: Of the 415 children who consented to participate in the study, 14.9% were wasted and 3.4% were severely wasted. Only 6% of the children were overweight/obese. Significantly more boys (23.0%) were wasted than girls (10%) and severe stunting was also significantly higher in boys than in girls (10.3% and 4.2%, respectively). Children whose parents had graduate occupations were significantly more overweight/obese than those with parents working in skilled occupations. Stunting was significantly higher in low (31.4%) and medium (30.4%) socioeconomic groups compared to the high socioeconomic group (18.1% CONCLUSION: A coexistence of underweight and overweight was found and gender and parental occupation were identified as being predictors of nutritional status
Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna
BACKGROUND: Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (cohort study); investigation of the effect of working hours or overtime work; incident diabetes as an outcome; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and international open-access data archives. Effect estimates from published and unpublished data from 222?120 men and women from the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: During 1·7 million person-years at risk, 4963 individuals developed diabetes (incidence 29 per 10?000 person-years). The minimally adjusted summary risk ratio for long (?55 h per week) compared with standard working hours (35-40 h) was 1·07 (95% CI 0·89-1·27, difference in incidence three cases per 10?000 person-years) with significant heterogeneity in study-specific estimates (I(2)=53%, p=0·0016). In an analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, the association between long working hours and diabetes was evident in the low socioeconomic status group (risk ratio 1·29, 95% CI 1·06-1·57, difference in incidence 13 per 10?000 person-years, I(2)=0%, p=0·4662), but was null in the high socioeconomic status group (1·00, 95% CI 0·80-1·25, incidence difference zero per 10?000 person-years, I(2)=15%, p=0·2464). The association in the low socioeconomic status group was robust to adjustment for age, sex, obesity, and physicalactivity, and remained after exclusion of shift workers. INTERPRETATION: In this meta-analysis, the link between longer working hours and type 2 diabetes was apparent only in individuals in the low socioeconomic status groups. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, European Union New and Emerging Risks in Occupational Safety and Health research programme, Finnish Work Environment Fund, Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Research, German Social Accident Insurance, Danish National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Academy of Finland, Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment (Netherlands), Economic and Social Research Council, US National Institutes of Health, and British Heart Foundation.
Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Frauke
Various twin studies revealed that the influence of genetic factors on psychological diseases or behavior is more expressed in socio?economically advantaged environments. Other studies predominantly show an inverse relation between socio?economic status (SES) and childhood obesity in western developed countries. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the FTO gene interacts with the socio?economic status (SES) on childhood obesity in a subsample of the IDEFICS cohort (N=4406). A structural equation model (SEM) is applied with the latent constructs obesity, dietary habits, physical activity and fitness habits, and parental SES to estimate the main effects of the latter three variables and a FTO polymorphism on obesity. Further, a multiple group SEM is used to explore whether an interaction effect between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 within the FTO gene and SES exists. Overall model fit was inconsistent (RMSEA=0.05; CFI=0.79). Significant main effects are shown for SES (standardized ?s=?0.057), the FTO homozygous risk genotype AA (?s=0.177) and physical activity and fitness habits (?s=?0.113). The explained variance of obesity is about 9%. The multiple group SEM shows that SES and FTO interact in their effect on childhood obesity (??2=7.3, df=2, p=0.03) insofar as children carrying the protective TT genotype are more susceptible to a favorable social environment.
Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite de; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann
As part of the World Health Organization (WHO) project focused on assessing the performance of national health systems, the World Health Survey (WHS) was carried out in many member countries. In order to enable comparison of self-rated health between different cultures of the same country or between different nations, the WHS questionnaire included vignettes of sample cases, that is, hypothetical stories that describe the health problems of third parties. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the possibility of using vignette ratings to implement a socioeconomic calibration scale for self-rated health in Brazil. Using Brazilian WHS data, perceptions of state of health, measured through two different strategies (self-rating and vignette-rating), were compared. The effects of socioeconomic status (educational level and number of household assets) on health domain ratings were estimated via multiple regression models, controlled for age and sex. The effects of socioeconomic status were significant for the majority of health domains in the case of self-perception, but statistically null in the case of third party ratings. It is concluded that the WHO vignettes are not appropriate for calibrating self-rated health measures in Brazil. PMID:16462998
Chan, Moon Fai
This study aimed to examine the impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographic changes on life expectancy in Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. This was a cross-country study to collect annual data (1980-2008) from each target country. Life expectancy was the dependent variable and health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics were the 3 main determinants. Structural equation modeling was employed, and the results indicate that the availability of more health care resources (Indonesia: coefficient = .47, P = .008; Philippines: coefficient = .48, P = .017; Vietnam: coefficient = .48, P = .004) and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages (Indonesia: coefficient = .41, P = .014; Vietnam: coefficient = .34, P = .026) are more likely to increase life expectancy. In contrast, demographic changes are more likely to increase life expectancy because of the wide range of health care resources. These findings suggest that more effort, particularly during economic downturns, should be put into removing the barriers that impede access to health care services and increasing preventive care for the population that currently has less access to health care in communities where there is a shortage of medical resources. PMID:23417906
Relação entre níveis de fenilalanina, inteligência e condição socioeconômica de pacientes com fenilcetonúria / Relationships between phenylalanine levels, intelligence and socioeconomic status of patients with phenylketonuria
Isabel Pimenta Spínola, Castro; Juliana Martins, Borges; Heloísa Alves, Chagas; Jacqueline, Tibúrcio; Ana Lúcia Pimenta, Starling; Marcos José Burle de, Aguiar.
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar inteligência e relação com concentrações sanguíneas de fenilalanina e condição socioeconômica de fenilcetonúricos entre 6 e 12 anos em tratamento. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e três crianças, classificadas por níveis de fenilalanina e condição socioeconômica, realizaram Wechsler Intelligenc [...] e Scale for Children. Utilizou-se o programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) para analisar níveis de fenilalanina; testes ANOVA para avaliar quociente de inteligência (QI) e níveis de fenilalanina; e regressão logística ordinal para avaliar chances de melhor desempenho em QI. RESULTADOS: Classificaram-se entre limítrofe e nível muito superior em QI total, 90,5% das crianças; em QI verbal, 96,8%; em QI de execução, 92,1%. Tiveram avaliação socioeconômica entre níveis baixo e médio superior, 98,4% das famílias. As chances de apresentar QI superior e médio foram 4,29 vezes maiores nas crianças com controle adequado e 4,03 vezes maiores nas de níveis socioeconômicos melhores. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento preveniu o retardo mental em 90,5% dos pacientes. O controle dos níveis de fenilalanina e melhor nível socioeconômico se associaram aos melhores desempenhos em QI. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To assess intelligence and its relationship with blood phenylalanine concentrations and socioeconomic status in patients with phenylketonuria after 6 to 12 years of treatment. METHODS: Sixty-three children were classified according to phenylalanine levels and socioeconomic status and ass [...] essed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze phenylalanine; ANOVA was used to analyze intelligence quotients (IQ) and phenylalanine levels; and ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the likelihood of higher IQ. RESULTS: The overall IQ scores of 90.5% of the children were within a range from borderline intellectual deficiency to very high intelligence; for verbal IQ this proportion was 96.8% and 92.1% had performance IQ scores within this band. The categories from low to upper-medium socioeconomic status contained 98.4% of patients' families. The likelihood of having medium to high IQ was 4.29 times greater for children with good phenylalanine control and 4.03 greater for those from higher socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment prevented mental retardation in 90.5% of the patients. Control of phenylalanine levels and higher socioeconomic status were associated with higher IQ scores.
For this report, conference proceedings, patents and other types of literature have been collected to present an account of the current status of uranium enrichment by way of chemical exchange reactions. The report further presents a new concept along with the relevant process strategy developed by the authors. The principal process of the new concept is a chemical exchange process with crown ethers, complexed or free, playing an important part in the reactions. The authors also describe their experiments carried out for establishing suitable chemical systems. (orig./PW)
Votaw, Nikki L.
Studies suggest that students have difficulty connecting science to their own lives (Lee & Fradd, 1998; Aikenhead, 1996). This difficulty results in a decline in students' attitudes toward science, leading to low science achievement. These factors result in fewer students interested in careers related to science, specifically for urban, minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that a ten day informal learning immersion science camp had on the participants, both urban, low-socioeconomic status middle school students and teacher-leaders. The students were incoming seventh grade students involved in a community-based scholar program designed to recruit and support socioeconomically disadvantaged, academically talented students. The teacher-leaders were professional educators working toward an advanced degree. This ten day camp included seven visits to different sites and complementary classroom-based activities. The purpose of the camp was to immerse the students in informal learning environments that affect their daily lives. Students and teacher-leaders visited facilities that provide public utility services (i.e. power plant, sewage treatment facility, and water company), zoo, large commercial cave system, planetarium, university based electrooptics and nanotechnology center, and forest and arboretum. These site visits were supported by activities that were provided by teacher-leaders. A model used as a framework for studying learning in the context of this ten day camp as Falk and Dierking's (2000) Contextual Model for Learning. This model described three basic intersecting elements that contributed to learning within the given context. The three contexts (personal, sociocultural, and physical) intersect affecting the learning that takes place. A mixed methodology design was employed to determine the impact of the camp on students' content knowledge and attitudes toward science. Qualitative data were collected to determine the impact of the camp on teacher-leaders' content knowledge and pedagogy. A variety of data sources were used including data collected before, during, and immediately following the camp as well as data collected several months after the conclusion of the camp. Results of the study indicated that both students and teacher-leaders were positively impacted by their experience at the camp. Data from the content assessments, interviews, and student journals indicate that students' content knowledge was enhanced and expanded through the learning of factual knowledge as well as understanding of the importance of broad scientific processes. Through their new experiences, students developed an awareness of the natural world and a foundation for future learning. Students also developed an awareness of science as it applies to their own lives. Data from students' letters to themselves, student interviews, and parent focus groups indicated that students' attitudes toward science were positively impacted through development of an increased resource appreciation, positive social experiences, and experiential sharing with others. Teacher-leader experiences with the camp also had positive results. Teacher-leaders entered the camp with a variety of unique personal contexts, and in spite of this variability each reported that this was a value-added experience for their teaching. These personal contexts helped to enhance the sociocultural context which provided a rich environment to support teacher-leader learning. Among the pedagogical impacts, teacher-leaders expressed enhanced teaching capacity through acquisition of: new classroom activities; new connections among science content; new stories and experiences to share with future classes; and new contexts for situating the understanding of science principles. Along with the positive impacts, teacher-leaders also identified and articulated several barriers to implementing site visits in their own classrooms. This camp is unique in that it is an immersion experience within informal learning contexts where seven sites were visited with
Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Buerkert, Andreas; Schlecht, Eva
This study explores the relation between household socioeconomic status (SES) and participation in urban and periurban agriculture (UPA) in three West African cities. We used a structured questionnaire to survey 700 randomly selected households: 250 in Kano, Nigeria, 250 in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, and 200 in Sikasso, Mali. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied on household asset variables to create an index of assets which was used as a proxy for household SES. The results showed no significant differences in households' rate of participation in UPA across socioeconomic groups. Participation in UPA was rather significantly (P?gardening were more common among households in the low and medium SES groups while those in the high SES group were more likely to keep livestock. PMID:22039313
Baublitz, C. B.; Henderson, B. H.; Pachon, J. E.; Galvis, B. R.
Colombia has strict economic divisions, which may be represented by six strata assigned by the National Planning Department. These are assigned by housing conditions and are arranged such that the divisions with subpar living conditions (strata levels one through three) may receive support from those with better than acceptable living conditions (strata levels five and six). Notably, division three no longer receives aid, and division four neither contributes to this system nor receives support. About ten percent of the population is in the upper three strata, while the remaining populace experiences subpar living conditions. Bogotá, DC has poor air quality that sometimes puts sensitive populations at risk due to particulate matter (PM). The local environmental agency has developed seven strategies to reduce air pollution, predominantly by regulating fixed and mobile sources, for the promotion of public health. Preliminary mapping of results indicates there may be higher concentrations of pollutants in areas whose residents are of a lower socioeconomic status (SES). Because it's more difficult for impoverished people to miss work or afford healthcare, higher exposure could have more significance for the city's overall health burden. The aim of this project is to determine the effective impactful regulatory strategy for the benefit of public health as a result of emission reductions. This will be done by using CMAQ results and BenMAP with information for long-term relative risk estimates for PM to find premature mortality rates per source type and location, segregated by strata division. A statistical regression will define the correspondence between health impact and SES. The benefit per reduction will be given in premature mortalities avoided per ton of PM emissions reduced per source type. For each of seven proposed regulatory strategies, this project provides results in mortalities avoided per ton of emissions of PM reduced per source type. It also compares these results against the strata divisions to analyze the correspondence between SES and exposure to air pollution. Because there are many industrial facilities close to residential areas of the lower three strata, it's predicted that fixed sources are the main contributor to health impacts for citizens of a lower SES.
Storgaard, Rikke Lynge; Hansen, Henning Sten
Background: Recently it has been documented that sedentary behaviour (SB) is a risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mortality, independent of level of physical activity. It is important to understand the determinants of sedentary behaviours, in particular the role of the neighbourhood, since health behaviour may be shaped by the contextual characteristics. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of small area socioeconomic deprivation (neighbourhood SES) on SB, independent of individuals’ characteristics. Furthermore to examine the cross level interaction between individual and neighbourhood SES in relation to sedentary behaviour, to show whether the effect differ among individuals of different SES. Methods: The study was based on a random sample of 49,806 adults aged 16 + who answered a questionnaire in 2010, including SB. This was combined with data on SES from national registers used at the individual level and aggregated within small neighbourhoods created to suit our investigation.This was done by use of Geographical Information System (GIS). A multilevel logistic regression including cross level interaction was performed. Results: 72 % of respondents from low SES neighbourhoods were sedentary during leisure time, corresponding to 60 % in high SES neighbourhoods. Decreasing neighbourhood SES was associated with larger OR being sedentary (OR 1.45 (1.35-1.54)), after adjusting for individual characteristics. The interaction analysis showed that individuals of low SES, being unemployed, early retired and retired, have a higher likelihood of sedentary behaviour if living in high SES neighbourhoods. Conclusions: Neighbourhood SES contribute to unhealthy behaviour. Low SES individuals living in high SES neighbourhoods are particularly at risk of unhealthy behaviour.Our findings demonstrate the importance of politicians and planners to understand health behaviour within a context.
Denisse L., Manrique Millones; Pol, Ghesquière; Karla, Van Leeuwen.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la relación entre dos dimensiones de crianza (crianza positiva y control negativo del comportamiento) y factores psicosociales infantiles (auto-valía y problemas de conducta). Se investigó (a) si el nivel socioeconómico moderaba la relación entre crianza y el [...] funcionamiento psicosocial del niño, (b) si la crianza actuaba como mediador en la relación entre nivel socioeconómico y el funcionamiento psicosocial, por último, (c) si existían efectos de interacción entre crianza positiva y control negativo del comportamiento. La información fue obtenida de 591 niños peruanos y sus familias en zonas urbanas de Lima Metropolitana. Se utilizó Análisis de Regresión Múltiple Jerárquica con el fin de investigar los efectos directos e indirectos (mediación y moderación). Los resultados revelaron un efecto mediador de crianza positiva y control negativo del comportamiento en la relación entre el nivel socioeconómico y la auto-valía. Se discuten implicaciones sobre el importante rol desempeñado por el contexto. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between two dimensions of parenting (Positive Parenting and Negative Behavioral Control) and child psychosocial functioning, such as self-worth and problem behavior. We investigated (a) whether socioeconomic status moderates the relationship betw [...] een parenting and child psychosocial outcomes, (b) whether parenting mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in a Peruvian context and finally, (c) whether there are interaction effects between positive parenting and negative behavioral control. Information was gathered on 591 Peruvian children and their families from the normal population in urban zones of Metropolitan Lima. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate direct and indirect effects (mediation and moderation). Results revealed a significant mediation effect of positive parenting and negative behavioral control in the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-worth. Implications about the role played by context are discussed.
Eduardo Fasce H
Full Text Available Objetivos: Relacionar perímetro abdominal y condición socioeconómica con presión arterial (PA en comunidad urbana de Concepción. Métodos: Se midió el perímetro abdominal (PeA de 8472 residentes mayores de 15 años de edad, proporcionados por edad, género y nivel socioeconómico. La PA fue medida con normas estandarizadas, realizando dos visitas en diferentes días, la segunda si la PA era mayor de 140/90 mm Hg. Los Pe A se distribuyeron en cuartiles, relacionando cada cuartil con los respectivos promedios de presión sistólica y diastólica y se establecieron coeficientes de correlación lineal mediante "r" de Pearson entre PeA y PA. Además, se estableció la frecuencia de cada cuartil de Pe A por nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: Los Pea tuvieron la siguiente distribución (cm: 1er cuartil, 96. La prevalencia de hipertensión para niveles socioeconómicos alto, medio y bajo fue 17,9%, 19,5% y 24,5%, respectivamente. La PA promedio (mmHg en hombres y en mujeres del 1er cuartil de PeA fue 112 y 109; en el 2º cuartil 118 y 118; en el 3er cuartil 123 y 122 y en el 4º cuartil 129 y 129, respectivamente. Los coeficientes de correlación entre PeA y presión sistólica y presión diastólica resultaron significativos en ambos géneros: r = 0,343, pAim: To correlate abdominal circumference (AC and socio-economic status with blood pressure( BP in an urban community of Concepción, Chile Methods: AC was measured in 8472 subjects above 15years of age, stratified by age, gender and socio-economic status. BP was measured by standard procedures, with a repeat recording when the initial valué was > 140/90mmHg. BP was compared in quartiles of abdominal circumference and according to socio-economic status. Pearson "r" was used to correlate BP and AC Results: Cut points for quartiles of AC were 78, 87, and 96 cm. Prevalence of hypertension in high, médium and low socio-economic status was 17.9%, 19.5% and 24.5%, respectively Mean systolic BP was 112 - 109 mmHg (males - females in the first AC quartile, 118 - 118, 123-122 and 129-129 in the second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively. A significant correlation between AC and BP (systolic and diastolic was observed in both genders (r 0.345 and 0.281 for males and females, respectively, p<0.00001. 22% of low socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile compared to 28.8% in the 4th quartile. In contrast 38.9% of high socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile while 15.5% did so in the 4th quartile (p<0001. Conclusion: A positive correlation ofAC and blood pressure was shown in both genders. A greater AC in low socio-economic subjects maybe related to a higher prevalence of hypertension in this group.
Dak-albab, Rahaf J.; Dashash, Mayssoon A.
Objectives: To investigate the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among Syrian children with cleft lip, or palate, or both (CL/P). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Pediatric Dentistry Department, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria from April 2010 to May 2011. After excluding subjects with mental disorders, dumb and/or deaf, as well, 87 cleft-children have completed the Arabic version of the Child Oral Health-Relate...
Salonen, J. T.
The association of socioeconomic status with the risk of death from ischaemic heart disease and any disease as well as the risk of cerebral stroke and any cancer was studied in 3644 men aged 30-59, based on a random sample from the population of eastern Finland. Age, smoking, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol concentration were allowed for in multiple logistic models. On the basis of these data, not being married, short education, and low income are associated with an excessive risk of de...
Yang, Suwen; Hoshi, Tanji; Wang, Shuo; Nakayama, Naoko; Kong, Fanlei
This study aimed to explore the structural contributions of socioeconomic status (SES), comorbidity, and activity limitation to the healthy life expectancy (HALE) of Japanese suburban elderly. A questionnaire survey was distributed to all residents aged 65 years and older in Tama City, Tokyo, in 2001; a follow-up study was conducted in 2004; and individual vital status data from the municipal residents' registry were tracked until 2007. In all, 7,905 respondents were included for analysis. Data analysis was performed by structural equation modeling (SEM). The data were well fit by the models, and HALE was found to be well explained by SES, comorbidity, and activity limitation (R (2) = .59 for men and R (2) = .71 for women). In conclusion, elderly people with higher SES were more likely to live longer with good self-rated health, via living with less chronic diseases and better performance in daily living activities, especially for elderly women. PMID:24652922
Érico Felden Pereira
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir as relações entre percepção da imagem corporal e fatores socioeconômicos como renda, grau de escolaridade e etnia em adolescentes. FONTES DE DADOS: Artigos selecionados nas bases PubMed e SciELO, sem limite de data de publicação, com amostras de adolescentes, nos idiomas inglês, espanhol, português ou francês, utilizando os descritores: "percepção da imagem corporal", "nível socioeconômico" e "adolescentes". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A influência do contexto socioeconômico na percepção da imagem corporal e satisfação/insatisfação com o corpo é tema relevante no entendimento da saúde dos adolescentes. Identificou-se que as relações entre imagem corporal e nível socioeconômico são complexas e os resultados dos estudos publicados não são conclusivos. As principais tendências observadas foram: jovens norte-americanos de classe baixa apresentaram maior chance de serem obesos ao contrário dos brasileiros; moças e rapazes apresentaram comportamentos diferenciados na percepção da imagem corporal, independentemente da etnia e do nível socioeconômico; moças brancas apresentaram maior insatisfação com a imagem corporal e maior busca por dietas do que moças negras, as quais parecem sofrer menos influência dos padrões de beleza em voga; jovens de menor nível socioeconômico apresentaram uma tendência a desejarem corpos maiores. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se amostras estrangeiras, houve uma tendência de maiores índices de insatisfação com o corpo em adolescentes de classe socioeconômica mais privilegiada. Em amostras brasileiras, análises sobre o assunto são escassas e pesquisas são necessárias, especialmente pelo fato de a população estar passando por modificações tanto econômicas como nutricionais.OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationships between body image perceptions and socioeconomic factors such as income, level of education, and ethnicity among adolescents. DATA SOURCE: Articles were selected from PubMed and SciELO databases, involving adolescents, without limits of publication dates, in English, Spanish, Portuguese, or French, with the following keywords: "body image perception", "socioeconomic status", and "adolescents". DATA SYNTHESIS: The influence of the socioeconomic context upon body image perceptions and satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body is a relevant subject in understanding adolescent's health. This study identified that relationships between body image and socioeconomic levels are complex and the results of published studies are not conclusive. The main findings are: North-American lower class youths present greater chances for obesity, but this is not true in Brazil; girls and boys have different behaviors concerning body image perceptions, despite ethnicity or socioeconomic status; Caucasian girls show more dissatisfaction with their body images and greater search for diets than African American girls, who seem to suffer less influence of the current beauty patterns; youth of lower socioeconomic status presents a tendency to desire larger bodies. CONCLUSIONS: Considering foreign samples, there was a tendency for greater levels of dissatisfaction with the body among adolescents of higher socioeconomic classes. In Brazilian samples, studies about this subject are scarce and further research is needed, especially because Brazilian population is experiencing economical and nutritional modifications.
Érico Felden, Pereira; Clarissa Stefani, Teixeira; Bruna Dalcin, Gattiboni; Lidiane Amanda, Bevilacqua; Susana Cararo, Confortin; Tatiana Rodrigues da, Silva.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir as relações entre percepção da imagem corporal e fatores socioeconômicos como renda, grau de escolaridade e etnia em adolescentes. FONTES DE DADOS: Artigos selecionados nas bases PubMed e SciELO, sem limite de data de publicação, com amostras de adolescentes, nos idiomas inglês, e [...] spanhol, português ou francês, utilizando os descritores: "percepção da imagem corporal", "nível socioeconômico" e "adolescentes". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A influência do contexto socioeconômico na percepção da imagem corporal e satisfação/insatisfação com o corpo é tema relevante no entendimento da saúde dos adolescentes. Identificou-se que as relações entre imagem corporal e nível socioeconômico são complexas e os resultados dos estudos publicados não são conclusivos. As principais tendências observadas foram: jovens norte-americanos de classe baixa apresentaram maior chance de serem obesos ao contrário dos brasileiros; moças e rapazes apresentaram comportamentos diferenciados na percepção da imagem corporal, independentemente da etnia e do nível socioeconômico; moças brancas apresentaram maior insatisfação com a imagem corporal e maior busca por dietas do que moças negras, as quais parecem sofrer menos influência dos padrões de beleza em voga; jovens de menor nível socioeconômico apresentaram uma tendência a desejarem corpos maiores. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se amostras estrangeiras, houve uma tendência de maiores índices de insatisfação com o corpo em adolescentes de classe socioeconômica mais privilegiada. Em amostras brasileiras, análises sobre o assunto são escassas e pesquisas são necessárias, especialmente pelo fato de a população estar passando por modificações tanto econômicas como nutricionais. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationships between body image perceptions and socioeconomic factors such as income, level of education, and ethnicity among adolescents. DATA SOURCE: Articles were selected from PubMed and SciELO databases, involving adolescents, without limits of publication dates, in E [...] nglish, Spanish, Portuguese, or French, with the following keywords: "body image perception", "socioeconomic status", and "adolescents". DATA SYNTHESIS: The influence of the socioeconomic context upon body image perceptions and satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body is a relevant subject in understanding adolescent's health. This study identified that relationships between body image and socioeconomic levels are complex and the results of published studies are not conclusive. The main findings are: North-American lower class youths present greater chances for obesity, but this is not true in Brazil; girls and boys have different behaviors concerning body image perceptions, despite ethnicity or socioeconomic status; Caucasian girls show more dissatisfaction with their body images and greater search for diets than African American girls, who seem to suffer less influence of the current beauty patterns; youth of lower socioeconomic status presents a tendency to desire larger bodies. CONCLUSIONS: Considering foreign samples, there was a tendency for greater levels of dissatisfaction with the body among adolescents of higher socioeconomic classes. In Brazilian samples, studies about this subject are scarce and further research is needed, especially because Brazilian population is experiencing economical and nutritional modifications.
Full Text Available The most difficult and challenging area in the sphere of aggression among individuals is that of aggression among adolescents. The research was designed as an initial attempt to assess aggression of adolescent and its relation to sex, socioeconomic and socioeconomic status. A sample of 250 students of 10th class was randomly taken from government and private schools of Jammu district of J&K State. The students ranged in age from 15 to 17 years. All subjects completed Aggression inventory. Socio economic scale was used to assess the socioeconomic status of the subjects. Three way ANOVA was employed to assess the correlation between aggression, sex and socioeconomic status. Results provide evidence that aggression has a positive correlation with Sex, type of institution and socioeconomic status. Further findings indicate that low socioeconomic students are significantly more aggressive than high socioeconomic status adolescents. Finally results show that boys are more aggressive in comparison to girls.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence.
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1 construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2 estimate concentration indices (CI to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3 perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa.
Shtarkshall, Ronny A.
When socioeconomically and educationally disadvantaged late adolescent women project themselves into the future, they see themselves as mothers. This creates direct transition from daughter role to mother role, excluding spouse or career roles, and distinguishes these women from other female adolescents. Discusses possible explanations and…
This article examines the high school search activities, choices, and final assignments of academically similar, but ethnically and socioeconomically different, eighth-grade students attending one New York City middle school. Despite being comparable candidates for admission to academically competitive high schools, the middle-class children of…
Museus, Samuel D.; Vue, Rican
The purpose of this study is to examine socioeconomic differences in the interpersonal factors that influence college access among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). Data on 1,460 AAPIs from the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS: 02/06) were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Findings suggest that parental…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of subpopulations at high risk of overweight and obesity is crucial for prevention and management of obesity in different socioeconomic status (SES categories. The objective of the study was to describe disparities in the prevalence of overweight and obesity across socioeconomic status (SES groups in 18–74 year-old French adults. Methods Analyses were based on a multistage stratified random sample of non-institutionalized adults aged 18–74-years-old from the French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS, a cross-sectional national survey carried out in 2006/2007. Collected data included measured anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference (WC, demographic and SES data (occupation, education and frequency of holiday trips as a marker of family income. SES factors associated with overweight (BMI ? 25 and central obesity (WC above gender-specific references were identified using multiple logistic regression. Results Almost half (49.3% of French adults were overweight or obese and 16.9% were obese. In men, the risk of overall overweight or obesity was associated with occupation (p -3 and p -3 and frequency of holiday trips (respectively p -3. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be similar to that of several neighbouring western European countries, and lower than the UK and eastern Europe. Risk of being overweight or obese varied across SES groups both in men and women, but associations were different between men and women, indicating differing determinants.
Østergaard, Jeanette; Andrade, Stefan Bastholm
Aim: To examine young people’s main motive for pre-drinking in the United Kingdom, how much they drink on an event-specific night out, and whether motives or socioeconomic status (particularly their income level) explain the alcohol quantities they drink. Methods: Multilevel logit and poisson models were used on a survey of 628 people (aged 18-35) conducted on-site in 26 bars, clubs and pubs in four cities and towns. Results: Young males drink on average 9.8 and females 7.4 standard units of alcohol before a night out. Saving money is the most prevalent motive for pre-drinking. Although lower income levels cannot explain whether a young person will pre-drink on an event-specific night out, young people’s income level and their motives explain the quantities they consume. Lower-earning males who pre-drank to save money consumed larger quantities of alcohol at home and lower-earning females also pre-drank larger quantities either because they wanted to get out of control or because they wanted to be social. Conclusions: Prevention strategies likely to be effective in reducing the alcohol quantities that young people pre-drink should take into account both socioeconomic status and motives for pre-drinking.
Full Text Available Studies show that the association between socio-economic status (SES and self-rated health (SRH varies in different countries, however there are not many country-comparisons that examine this relationship over time. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of three SES measures on SRH in 29 countries according to findings in European Social Surveys (2002–2008, in order to study how socio-economic inequalities can vary our subjective state of health. In line with previous studies, income inequalities seem to be greater not only in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian countries, but especially in Eastern European countries. The impact of education is greater in Southern countries, and this effect is similar in Eastern and Scandinavian countries, although occupational status does not produce significant differences in southern countries. This study shows the general relevance of socio-educational factors on SRH. Individual economic conditions are obviously a basic factor contributing to a good state of health, but education could be even more relevant to preserve it. In this sense, policies should not only aim at reducing income inequalities, but should also further the education of people who are in risk of social exclusion.
Dental pain prevalence and association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in schoolchildren, Southern Brazil, 2002 Prevalência de dor de dente e associação com cárie e condições socioeconômicas em escolares, sul do Brasil, 2002
Lincon Hideo Nomura; João Luiz Dornelles Bastos; Marco Aurélio Peres
The objective of this study was to assess the relation between dental pain, dental caries and socioeconomic status among 12- and 13-year-old schoolchildren enrolled in a public school in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil in 2002. This study was a cross-sectional study involving 181 schoolchildren. Dental pain experience was the dependend variable analyzed. Socioeconomic data of the children's families were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMF...
Niveles de actividad física de la población colombiana: desigualdades por sexo y condición socioeconómica / Physical activity levels among Colombian adults: Inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status
Silvia, González; Óscar, Lozano; Andrea, Ramírez.
Full Text Available Introducción. Las desigualdades en los niveles de actividad física son evidentes a nivel mundial. En Colombia, uno de los países más desiguales de Latinoamérica, la información es limitada; por tal razón, es imperativo conocer las disparidades en actividad física en el país para orientar el diseño d [...] e programas y políticas públicas encaminadas a promoverla. Objetivos. Estimar las prevalencias del cumplimiento de recomendaciones sobre actividad física y sus factores asociados, identificar desigualdades por sexo y condición socioeconómica en el cumplimiento de estas recomendaciones en el año 2010 y evaluar la tendencia de las prevalencias de actividad física en un período de cinco años. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un análisis secundario de la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional, 2005-2010. La muestra total incluyó 27.243 adultos. Los niveles de actividad física se midieron con el cuestionario internacional de actividad física. La condición socioeconómica se midió por el nivel del Sisbén. Resultados. La prevalencia del cumplimiento de las recomendaciones de actividad física en todos los dominios fue menor entre las mujeres. Los adultos de menor nivel socioeconómico tuvieron la menor prevalencia en "tiempo libre" y la mayor en "uso de la bicicleta como medio de transporte". Los factores asociados con el cumplimiento de las recomendaciones difirieron según el sexo y el dominio de actividad física. Las variables individuales y del hogar explicaron 13,6 % de las desigualdades por sexo y 23,2 % de las desigualdades por nivel socioeconómico. En un período de cinco años la prevalencia de "actividad física en el tiempo libre" disminuyó y aumentó en "caminar como medio de transporte". Conclusiones. Son preocupantes las bajas prevalencias de cumplimiento de las recomendaciones sobre actividad física en el tiempo libre en las mujeres y las personas de menor nivel socioeconómico. En futuras intervenciones para incrementar los niveles de actividad física deberán considerarse las desigualdades por sexo y condición socioeconómica, así como sus factores asociados. Abstract in english Introduction: Worldwide studies show inequalities in physical activity levels related to socio-demographic characteristics. In Colombia, among the countries in Latin America with the highest inequality, the evidence related to inequalities in physical activity is limited. It is imperative to identif [...] y disparities in physical activity in the country, to guide the design of public policies aimed at promoting physical activity. Objectives: 1) To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of meeting physical activity recommendations; 2) to assess inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status in meeting physical activity recommendations, and 3) to assess the trends in physical activity prevalence within a five-year period. Materials and methods: A secondary analysis of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey was conducted. The sample included 27,243 adults. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure leisure time and transport domains. Socioeconomic status was measured by the Sisben level. Results: Compared to men, women were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations in all domains. Compared to adults from high socioeconomic-status households, low socioeconomic-status adults had a lower prevalence of meeting physical activity recommendations during leisure time and the highest prevalence of using a bicycle for transport. The factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations differed by gender and physical activity domain. Household and individual variables explained 13.6% of the inequalities observed by gender, and 23.2% of the inequalities by socioeconomic status. In a five-year period, the prevalence of physical activity in leisure time decreased, while the physical activity of walking for transport increased and biking for transport did not change. Conclusions: Future interventions to increase physical activit
...Acquisition Regulation: Socioeconomic Program Parity AGENCY: Department...among the small business socioeconomic contracting programs. Accordingly...clarify the existence of socioeconomic parity and that contracting...information pertaining to status or publication...
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the level of motor abilities of 7-9-year-old girls and boys in relation to the socioeconomic status of their families . Material and Methods: The research was conducted in 12 primary schools in two regions of Poland namely of Warmia & Mazury and Pomorskie voivodeship, on the total of 1205 pupils (584 boys and 621 girls aged 7-9. Selected economic factors such as the type of school (public or private, monthly income per household member, and the number of children in a given family were accepted as the independent variables. The factors behind social status included the place of residence and parents’ educational background. In order to determine the level of motor abilities, 13 motor tests were applied. Results: The research revealed that motor tests such as 1 and 3 min. Burpee test and medicine ball throws (forward and backward appeared to show the biggest differences in the level of motor abilities of the children whose social and economic status varied. The results of these tests as well as those of the shuttle run were significantly higher for the girls from the families of high social status than for the boys of low social status. Social status to a greater extent than economic one differentiated the tested motor abilities, especially in the case of the girls from families marked by high social status, who scored better than boys. The exception is the skipping with clapping of hands – 8 s trial, which differentiated only the tested categories of economic status, especially when referred to the girls. Conclusions: Owing to the small number of significant differences between high and low social and economic status in both sex groups in the motor tests applied, it can be assumed that in the less developed, agriculture and tourism-oriented areas there has occurred blurring of the differences in the level of children’s motor abilities depending on their social and economic status.
Nutritional status of urban schoolchildren of high and low socioeconomic status in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala Estado nutricional de escolares urbanos de niveles socioeconómicos alto y bajo en Quetzaltenango, Guatemala
Iris F. Groeneveld
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing in children in many developing countries, increasing chronic disease risk. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren 8 to 10 years old who were of high or low socioeconomic status (SES in Quetzaltenango, which is the second largest city in Guatemala METHODS: Between April and June 2005 we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 583 children in private and public elementary schools, in which we measured height and weight. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 2000 height-for-age z-scores, weight-for-age z-scores, and body mass index-for-age centiles were used to define stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity. RESULTS: Mean height, weight, and body mass index were significantly higher in the 327 children of high SES than in the 256 children of low SES, across sexes and age groups. The prevalence of stunting was significantly higher in low-SES children than in high-SES ones (27.0% vs. 7.3%, P OBJETIVO: En muchos países en desarrollo se elevan las prevalencias de sobrepeso y de obesidad en niños, con el incremento del riesgo de enfermedades crónicas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las prevalencias de retraso en el crecimiento, peso bajo, sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de 8 a 10 años de edad de niveles socioeconómicos (NSE alto o bajo en Quetzaltenango, la segunda mayor ciudad de Guatemala. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal entre abril y junio de 2005 en el que se midió el peso y la talla de 583 niños de escuelas primarias privadas y públicas. Para evaluar el retraso en el crecimiento, el peso bajo, el sobrepeso y la obesidad se utilizaron como referencias las puntuaciones z de la talla para la edad y del peso para la edad y los centiles de los índices de masa corporal para la edad, propuestos por los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de las Enfermedades (CDC de los Estados Unidos de América en 2000. RESULTADOS: La talla, el peso y el índice de masa corporal medios fueron significativamente mayores en los 327 niños de NSE alto que en los 256 niños de NSE bajo en todos los grupos de edad y sexo. La prevalencia de retraso en el crecimiento fue significativamente mayor en los niños con NSE bajo que en los de NSE alto (27,0% frente a 7,3%; P < 0,01, al igual que la prevalencia de peso bajo (14,1% frente a 4,6%, P < 0,01. En contraste, la prevalencia de sobrepeso fue mayor en los niños con NSE alto que en los de NSE bajo (17,7% frente a 10,5%, P < 0,01, al igual que la prevalencia de obesidad (14,4% frente a 2,3%, P < 0,01. Las prevalencias de retraso en el crecimiento en los niños de NSE bajo y de sobrepeso y obesidad en los de NSE alto fueron mucho mayores que las referencias establecidas por los CDC en el año 2000. CONCLUSIONES: Se encontraron elevadas prevalencias de retraso en el crecimiento y de peso corporal excesivo en esta población urbana de Guatemala, con notables contrastes entre las clases sociales. La obesidad en los niños de familias con ingresos elevados indica que la ciudad está experimentando la transición nutricional, con las implicaciones que con lleva para los riesgos de enfermedades crónicas en el futuro. Se requieren intervenciones nutricionales y de salud para reducir esos riesgos.
Koefoed, Mette M; SØndergaard, Jens
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status is known to influence the prevalence, severity and mortality of obstructive lung diseases, but it is uncertain whether it affects the use of diagnostic spirometry in patients initiating treatment for these conditions. The objective of this paper was to examine a possible association between education, income, labour market affiliation, cohabitation status and having spirometry performed when initiating medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study. Danish national registers were linked, retrieving data on prescriptions, spirometry testing, socioeconomic and demographic variables in all first time users of medication targeting obstructive lung disease in 2008. RESULTS: A total of 37,734 persons were included and approximately half of the cohort had spirometry performed. Among medication users under 65 years of age, being unemployed was significantly associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed, the strongest association was seen in men (OR = 0.82, CI = 0.73-0.91). Medium income was associated with increased odds of having spirometry performed in men (OR = 1.18, CI = 1.06-1.30) and high educational level (>12 years) was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed in women (OR = 0.86, CI = 0.78-0.94). Cohabitation status was not associated with having spirometry performed. Among medication users over 65 years of age, living alone was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed among men (OR = 0.78, CI = 0.69-0.88). CONCLUSION: Social inequity in spirometry testing among patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease was confirmed in this study. Increased focus on spirometry testing among elderly men living alone, among the unemployed and among women with higher education is required when initiating medication.
Prevention of waterborne illness is of great concern all over the world. Waterborne diseases represent significant burden of diseases in the globe. Nearly 4% of diseases are attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene, and approximately 2.2 million people die every year due to diarrheal diseases worldwide. This study was carried out to find association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age groups and gender with prevalence of water borne diseases in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A research questionnaire was designed with questions related to demographic data, drinking water data and prevalence of water borne disease. The research questionnaire was interviewed to different respondents above 18 years of age randomly selected from different settings of Rawalpindi and Islamabad belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Data was analysed by employing cross tabulation and chi-square test with help of statistical software. The more frequent age group (47%) was 30 to 45 years. Proportion of diarrhea in females and males of middle age group were calculated as 36.11 % and 11.11 %, respectively. The second more frequent reported disease was jaundice with 15.9% of the target population being males and 16.7% females. Diarrhea was observed to be the major waterborne disease constituting 41 % of the population with poor hygiene practices. The hygienic practices were significantly associated with waterborne diseases (P = <0.001). Waterborne diseases were also, associat). Waterborne diseases were also, associated with financial status (P=0.02) and literacy rate (p=0.03). The current study concludes that improvement in the hygienic conditions and hygienic practices will playa pivotal role to prevent faeco-oral infections and reduce the waterborne disease burden. In targeted areas due to poor economic conditions, the population failed to achieve better hygienic practices and therefore there is a need to strengthen water filtration system and awareness of hygienic routine practices in these areas. (author)
Jaime Galindo-Quintero; Hector Fabio Mueses-Marin; David Montaño-Agudelo; Virginia Pinz Xf N-fern Xe Ndez, Mar Xed A.; Constanza Tello-bol Xed Var, In Xe S.; Beatriz Eugenia Alvarado-Llano; Jorge Luis Martinez-Cajas
HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS) has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care provider...
Gopal K Singh, Phd; Romuladus E Azuine, Drph; Mohammad Siahpush, Phd
Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regre...
Full Text Available Olatunde Aremu School of Health, Sport, and Bioscience, Health Studies Field, University of East London, London, United Kingdom Background: Contraceptives are one of the most cost effective public health interventions. An understanding of the factors influencing users' preferences for contraceptives sources, in addition to their preferred methods of contraception, is an important factor in increasing contraceptive uptake. This study investigates the effect of women’s contextual and individual socioeconomic positions on their preference for contraceptive sources among current users in Nigeria. Methods: A multilevel modeling analysis was conducted using the most recent 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years old. The analysis included 1,834 ever married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation, including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. Three outcome variables, private, public, and informal provisions of contraceptive sources, were considered in the modeling. Results: There was variability in women's preferences for providers across communities. The result shows that change in variance accounted for about 31% and 19% in the odds of women's preferences for both private and public providers across communities. Younger age and being from the richest households are strongly associated with preference for both private and public providers. Living in rural areas and economically deprived neighborhoods were the community level determinants of women's preferences. Conclusion: This study documents the independent association of contextual socioeconomic characteristics and individual level socioeconomic factors with women's preferences for contraceptive commodity providers in Nigeria. Initiatives that seek to improve modern contraceptive uptake should jointly consider users’ preferences for sources of these commodities in addition to their preference for contraceptive type.Keywords: abortion, contraceptive, multilevel choice, Nigeria, preference, socioeconomic disadvantaged
Taraprasad Das; Anjli Hussain; Thomas Naduvilath; Savitri Sharma; Subhadra Jalali.; Ajit B. Majji
Purpose. We investigated acute endophthalmitis incidence following cataract surgery vis-a-vis the current technological and postoperative care changes in higher and lower socioeconomic categories of patients in South India. Methods. In a retrospective case control study, we analyzed 62 cases of acute endophthalmitis and 5 controls for each endophthalmitis case from 46,095 cataract surgeries done between years 1993 and 1998. The time period covered the transition of surgical technique and afte...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of population health. Explanatory approaches on how SES determines health have so far included numerous factors, amongst them psychosocial factors such as social relationships. However, it is unclear whether social relationships can help explain socioeconomic differences in general subjective health. Do different aspects of social relationships contribute differently to the explanation? Based on a cohort study of middle and older aged residents (45 to 75 years from the Ruhr Area in Germany our study tries to clarify the matter. Methods For the analyses data from the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study is used. As indicators of SES education, equivalent household income and occupational status were employed. Social relations were assessed by including structural as well as functional aspects. Structural aspects were estimated by the Social Integration Index (SII and functional aspects were measured by availability of emotional and instrumental support. Data on general subjective health status was available for both baseline examination (2000–2003 and a 5-year follow-up (2006–2008. The sample consists of 4,146 men and women. Four logistic regression models were calculated: in the first model we controlled for age and subjective health at baseline, while in models 2 and 3, either functional or structural aspects of social relationships were introduced separately. Model 4 then included all variables. As former studies indicated different health effects of SES and social relations in men and women, analyses were conducted with the overall sample as well as for each gender alone. Results Prospective associations of SES and subjective health were reduced after introducing social relationships into the regression models. Percentage reductions between 2% and 30% were observed in the overall sample when all aspects of social relations were included. The percentage reductions were strongest in the lowest SES group. Gender specific analyses revealed mediating effects of social relationships in women and men. The magnitude of mediating effects varied depending on the indicators of SES and social relations. Conclusions Social relationships substantially contribute to the explanation of SES differences in subjective health. Interventions for improving social relations which especially focus on socially deprived groups are likely to help reducing socioeconomic disparities in health.
Gooderham, Paul N.
The degree to which age and gender influence completion of higher secondary education (HSE) and employment status was measured with a sample of 350 Norwegian adults. Application of a Status Attainment model revealed that post-HSE educational attainment is an important determinant of socioeconomic status for both men and women. (SK)
Estrato Socioeconómico y Habilidades Cognitivas en Niños Escolarizados: Variables Predictoras y Mediadoras / Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Skills in School-Age Children: Predicting and Mediating Variables
Vanessa, Arán Filippetti.
Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue analizar el efecto del estrato socioeconómico (ESE) y de la edad sobre el desempeño en tareas de lenguaje, atención y memoria de niños escolarizados y examinar las variables socioeconómicas que predicen su ejecución. Se seleccionó una muestra intencionada de 228 niños ar [...] gentinos de 8 a 11 años de edad de dos ESE (bajo y medio). Se empleó análisis multivariado de varianza y análisis de regresión jerárquica. Los resultados indicaron un efecto significativo del ESE y de la edad sobre las tareas cognitivas evaluadas. De las variables socioeconómicas analizadas, el nivel de instrucción de la madre (NIM) fue el principal predictor del desempeño cognitivo del niño. Además, el NIM explicó un porcentaje de la varianza del desempeño obtenido por el niño, aun después de controlar su edad y nivel de lenguaje comprensivo. Se discuten los resultados en función de la influencia del ESE sobre el desempeño cognitivo y de los posibles factores predictores y mediadores de esta asociación. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and age on school-age children's performance in language, attention, and memory tasks and to examine the socioeconomic variables that predict their execution. An intentional sample of 228 Argentinean children aged 8-11 y [...] ears from two SES (low and medium) was used. Multivariate analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis were employed. Results revealed a significant effect of SES and age on the cognitive functions studied. Based on the socioeconomic variables analyzed, maternal instruction level (MIL) was found to be the main predictor of the child's cognitive performance. In addition, MIL explained a percentage of variance in the child's performance, even after controlling for the child's age and receptive language level. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of SES on cognitive performance and the possible predicting and mediating factors of this association.
Estrato Socioeconómico y Habilidades Cognitivas en Niños Escolarizados: Variables Predictoras y Mediadoras Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Skills in School-Age Children: Predicting and Mediating Variables
Vanessa Arán Filippetti
Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue analizar el efecto del estrato socioeconómico (ESE y de la edad sobre el desempeño en tareas de lenguaje, atención y memoria de niños escolarizados y examinar las variables socioeconómicas que predicen su ejecución. Se seleccionó una muestra intencionada de 228 niños argentinos de 8 a 11 años de edad de dos ESE (bajo y medio. Se empleó análisis multivariado de varianza y análisis de regresión jerárquica. Los resultados indicaron un efecto significativo del ESE y de la edad sobre las tareas cognitivas evaluadas. De las variables socioeconómicas analizadas, el nivel de instrucción de la madre (NIM fue el principal predictor del desempeño cognitivo del niño. Además, el NIM explicó un porcentaje de la varianza del desempeño obtenido por el niño, aun después de controlar su edad y nivel de lenguaje comprensivo. Se discuten los resultados en función de la influencia del ESE sobre el desempeño cognitivo y de los posibles factores predictores y mediadores de esta asociación.The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of socioeconomic status (SES and age on school-age children's performance in language, attention, and memory tasks and to examine the socioeconomic variables that predict their execution. An intentional sample of 228 Argentinean children aged 8-11 years from two SES (low and medium was used. Multivariate analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis were employed. Results revealed a significant effect of SES and age on the cognitive functions studied. Based on the socioeconomic variables analyzed, maternal instruction level (MIL was found to be the main predictor of the child's cognitive performance. In addition, MIL explained a percentage of variance in the child's performance, even after controlling for the child's age and receptive language level. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of SES on cognitive performance and the possible predicting and mediating factors of this association.
Natalia Zienczuk; Egeland, Grace M.
Objectives. To evaluate the socio-economic correlates of overweight and obesity among Inuit undergoing rapid cultural changes. Study design. A cross-sectional health survey of 2,592 Inuit adults from 36 communities in the Canadian Arctic. Methods. Main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, respectively) and as characteristics were similar, groups were combined into an at-risk BMI category (BMI>25 kg/m2). Logistic regression was used to ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although socioeconomic status (SES has been focused on as a key determinant of cancer stage at diagosis in western countries, there has been no systemic study on the relationship of SES and breast cancer stage at diagnosis in China. Methods The medical charts of 4,211 eligible breast cancer patients from 7 areas across China who were diagnosed between 1999 and 2008 were reviewed. Four area-based socioeconomic indicators were used to calculate area-based SES by cluster analysis. The associations between area-based SES and stage at diagnosis were analyzed by trend chi-square tests. Binary logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios for individual demographic characteristics' effects on cancer stages, stratified by area-based SES. Results The individual demographic and pathologic characteristics of breast cancer cases were significantly different among the seven areas studied. More breast cancer cases in low SES areas (25.5% were diagnosed later (stages III & IV than those in high (20.4% or highest (14.8% SES areas (?2 for trend = 80.79, P Conclusions In China, women in low SES areas are more likely to be diagnosed at later breast cancer stages than those in high SES areas.
Sweitzer, Maggie M.; Halder, Indrani; Flory, Janine D.; Craig, Anna E.; Gianaros, Peter J.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Manuck, Stephen B.
Inconsistent or null findings among studies associating behaviors on the externalizing spectrum—addictions, impulsivity, risk-taking, novelty-seeking traits—with presence of the 7-repeat allele of a common length polymorphism in the gene encoding the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) may stem from individuals’ variable exposures to prominent environmental moderators (gene?×?environment interaction). Here, we report that relative preference for immediate, smaller rewards over larger rewards delayed in time (delay discounting), a behavioral endophenotype of impulsive decision-making, varied by interaction of DRD4 genotype with childhood socioeconomic status (SES) among 546 mid-life community volunteers. Independent of age, sex, adulthood SES and IQ, participants who were both raised in families of distinctly low SES (low parental education and occupational grade) and carried the DRD4 7-repeat allele discounted future rewards more steeply than like-reared counterparts of alternate DRD4 genotype. In the absence of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage, however, participants carrying the 7-repeat allele discounted future rewards less steeply. This bidirectional association of DRD4 genotype with temporal discounting, conditioned by participants’ early life circumstances, accords with a recently proposed developmental model of gene?×?environment interaction (‘differential susceptibility’) that posits genetically modulated sensitivity to both adverse and salubrious environmental influences. PMID:22345368
Dribe, Martin; Hacker, J. David; Scalone, Francesco
Most previous work on the historical fertility transition has been macro-oriented, using aggregate data to examine economic correlates of demographic behaviour at regional or national levels, while much less has been done using micro data, and specifically looking at behavioural differentials among social groups. In this paper we study at the impact of socioeconomic status on net fertility during the fertility transition in five Northern American and European Countries (Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the USA). We use micro-level census data in 1900, containing information on number of children by age, occupation of the mother and father, place of residence and household context. The results show highly similar patterns across countries, with the elite and upper middle classes having considerably lower net fertility early in the transition. These patterns remain also after controlling for a range of individual and community-level fertility determinants and geographical unobserved heterogeneity. PMID:24684711
Full Text Available Life expectancy was well known to associate with lifestyle habits, socioeconomic condition, and three health-related dimensions (physical, mental and social health status. However, the causal effect relationship among these variables remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the causal relationships among health and life conditions, socioeconomic status, dietary and lifestyle habits and three health-related dimensions in elderly urban dwellers in Tokyo, Japan. Of 16,462 eligible elderly individuals aged 65 years and older, 13,195 participants responded to the questionnaire survey conducted in September 2001 (a response rate of 80.2%. A follow-up survey was conducted in September 2004 and a total of 8162 survivors were followed until the end of August 2007 through the municipal resident's registry. Exploratory factor analysis defined five latent variables based on the 13 observed variables. From a cross-lagged effects variation model using structural equation modeling, causal relationships were analyzed using longitudinal data obtained at the 2001 and 2004 survey and the number of survival days between 2004 and 2007. After estimating a best-fit model, we discovered that health and life conditions were not determined by current dietary and lifestyle habits, which many studies showed. However, the conditions were more directly affected by three health-related dimensions three years earlier, and indirectly affected by educational attainment and previous annual income as well. The current model suggests that it might be of great importance for elderly individuals to emphasize the maintenance of psychological well being, physical activity, social communication and participation, as well as income, rather than focusing on improvements in diet and health-related lifestyles per se.
Cota, D; Vicennati, V; Ceroni, L; Morselli-Labate, A M; Pasquali, R
This study analyses the relationships between body fat distribution and socioeconomic and psychological factors in a cohort of 426 healthy middle-aged women living in Virgilio, Mantua (Northern Italy). The information concerning their occupational, social and psychological conditions and smoking habits were obtained by means of questionnaires. Psychological factors were investigated using the Italian version of the Illness Behaviour Questionnaire and the Symptom Questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements, body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), waist/hip ratio (WHR) and clinical/hormonal menopausal status were also collected for each subject. The women reported significantly higher or lower psychological factor scores (symptoms of conversion: p=0.005; perception of disease: p=-0.018; denial: p=0.021; hostility: p=0.57; and laxity: p=0.047) as their WHR increased, thus indicating some concern about their health. In a multiple regression model, their WHR and waist circumference (W) significantly correlated with symptoms of conversion (p=0.005 and p=0.029), and W was also significantly related to the perception of disease (p=0.043). There was a significant inverse correlation between the WHR and educational level (pentrepreneurs or self-employed also decreased as WHR increased (pwomen living in the centre of town significantly diminished, whereas those living in the suburbs or in the country significantly increased (p=0.005). However, using age, BMI and menopausal status as covariates, only the partner's work significantly and negatively correlated with the WHR (p=0.029). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that psychological and socio-economic handicaps are associated with a higher prevalence of abdominal fatness in middle-aged women living in Northern Italy PMID:11808816
Ross, Nancy A; Garner, Rochelle; Bernier, Julie; Feeny, David H; Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson; Orpana, Heather M; Oderkirk, Jillian
Background Mortality and morbidity have been shown to follow a ‘social gradient’ in Canada and many other countries around the world. Comparatively little, however, is known about whether ageing amplifies, diminishes or sustains socio-economic inequalities in health. Methods Growth curve analysis of seven cycles of the Canadian National Population Health Survey (n=13 682) for adults aged 20 and older at baseline (1994/95). The outcome of interest is the Health Utilities Index Mark 3, a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQL). Models include the deceased so as not to present overly optimistic HRQL values. Socio-economic position is measured separately by household-size-adjusted income and highest level of education attained. Results HRQL is consistently highest for the most affluent and the most highly educated men and women, and is lower, in turn, for middle and lower income and education groups. HRQL declines with age for both men and women. The rate of the decline in HRQL, however, was related neither to income nor to education for men, suggesting stability in the social gradient in HRQL over time for men. There was a sharper decline in HRQL for upper-middle and highest-income groups for women than for the poorest women. Conclusion HRQL is graded by both income and education in Canadian men and women. The grading of HRQL by social position appears to be ‘set’ in early adulthood and is stable through mid- and later life. PMID:21441176
The occurrence of goitre is dependent on genetic and environmental factors, but the associations with socio-economic and life-style factors have only been examined briefly. A cohort of 4649 participants from the general population was examined with questionnaires, thyroid ultrasonography, clinical examination and blood tests. Data were analysed in linear models and logistic regression analysis. Thyroid volume and serum thyroglobulin were closely associated with educational level with higher values in the group with the lowest levels of education (p < 0.001). The same pattern applied to thyroid multinodularity at ultrasonography (p = 0.002) and palpable goitre (p = 0.01). Physical activity in leisure time was negatively associated with thyroid enlargement (p = 0.02) and serum thyroglobulin (p < 0.001). These associations diminished markedly if adjustment was made for smoking habits, alcohol consumption and iodine intake. Familial occurrence of goitre was associated with goitre prevalence (Odds Ratio 2.5, 95% CI: 1.6-3.9), but did not confound the socio-economic associations. In conclusion, social imbalances in the occurrence of goitre were identified. These imbalances could in part be explained by differences in smoking habits and iodine intake
Raju, P. Mohan; Asfaw, Abebech
The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economic status. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants…
Djazayery, A; Keshavarz, A; Ansari, F; Mahmoudi, M
Iron intake and status were investigated in 471 mothers (age range: 16-53 years) from rural areas in Khorramabad, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although average total iron intake was acceptable, only 6.4% of women derived at least 4% of their total intake from animal iron. Average energy and protein intakes were inadequate. Low iron status was seen in 8.2%-28.7%, depending on the parameter used, with 28.3% experiencing iron-deficiency anaemia. Significantly higher animal iron intakes were found in literate or employed women, or those of family size fewer than six people. Increasing employment opportunities, income levels and literacy rates for women will result in better iron intake and status and should receive particular attention in national planning. PMID:15332762
In a gigantic step towards establishing Jordan's nuclear power program, Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) is building the first nuclear research and test reactor in the Kingdom. The new reactor will serve as the focal point for Jordan Center for Nuclear Research (JCNR), a comprehensive state of the art nuclear center not only for Jordan but for the whole region, the center will include in addition to the reactor a radioisotopes production plant, a nuclear fuel fabrication plant, a cold neutron source (CNS), a radioactive waste treatment facility, and education and training center. The JRTR reactor is the only research reactor new build worldwide in 2010, it is a 5 MW light water open pool multipurpose reactor, The reactor core is composed of 18 fuel assemblies, MTR plate type, with 19.75% enriched uranium silicide (U3Si2) in an aluminum matrix. It is reflected on all sides by beryllium and graphite blocks. Reactor power is upgradable to 10 MW with a maximum thermal flux of 1.45x1014 cm-2s-1. The reactor reactivity is controlled by four Hafnium Control Absorber Rods (CAR). Jordan Center for Nuclear Research is located in Ramtha city, it is owned by Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC), and is contracted to Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Daewoo E and C. The JCNR project is a 56 months EPC fixed price contract for the design engineering, construction, and commissioning the JCNR reactor, andn, and commissioning the JCNR reactor, and other nuclear facilities. The project presents many challenges for both the owner and the contractor, being the first nuclear reactor for Jordan, and the first nuclear export for Korea. The driving forces, present status and the way ahead will be presented in this paper. (author)
Kimoto, Riko; Ronquillo, Dolores; Caamaño, Maria C; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schubert, Lisa; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga; Long, Kurt Z
Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were used to explore how women from low socioeconomic rural households in Queretaro State, Mexico perceived and reacted to their obesogenic environment. Reduced availability of healthy food options and household financial constraints along with reduced agency of women in this setting were factors that limited women's ability to access and consume diets consistent with the promotion of good health. The cultural values that emphasised obesity as a desirable state for women and the women's social networks that promoted these values were also identified as playing a role in reinforcing certain behaviours. Public health advocates wanting to design interventions in such settings need to be sensitive to the cultural as well as the environmental context described for rural Mexican women. PMID:24216027
Hassan district of Karnataka (India) plays an important role of providing processing grade potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) during September to December months when there is real dearth of such potatoes in the country. However, shallow soils, low soil carbon, inadequate irrigation water (126% cropping intensity in study area) and heat stress have been bothering farmers of this area for a long time. In addition, severe late blight infestations during recent years have played havoc for Potato farmers, dragging average potato productivity in the area to sub seven tonne/ hectare levels. Current study was carried out to analyse socio-economics of potato farmers in Hassan district of Karnataka so that policy makers and development agencies take right decisions towards upliftment of potato farmers of this area. District wise annual compound growth rates (ACGRs) of potato area, production and productivity were estimated for the period during 1999-00 to 2009-10. During this period, potato area in Hassan district expanded at 11.5% ACGR, the corresponding production and productivity figures decelerated by 2 and 12%, respectively. The study of various socio-economic factors revealed that the sampled households were deprived of even the basic household necessities such as food security (33% total and 65% landless labourer respondents), personal water connection (72% respondents) and toilets (68% respondents). Potato contract farming arrangements between potato farmers and the leading contractor, PepsiCo India were also studied. This article recommends enhanced emphasis of Indian government on irrigation development under various rural development schemes and consolidation of land holdings in order to facilitate farm mechanization and improved agricultural profitability. (author)