WorldWideScience

Sample records for ways socioeconomic status

  1. Tourette syndrome and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Mark; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2015-09-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by multiple motor and vocal tics. Co-morbid behavioural problems are common and include obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Both tics and behavioural symptoms tend to have a chronic course and can affect patients' health-related quality of life; however, little is known about the relationship between TS, social status and occupation. We conducted an exploratory study on a clinical sample of 137 adult patients with TS to investigate the association between the core features of TS (both tic severity ratings and behavioural co-morbidities) and socioeconomic class. Both clinician- and patient-reported tic severity ratings were significantly higher amongst unemployed patients, compared to patients in the highest socioeconomic class (P = 0.004 and P tic severity can have far-reaching consequences on patients' life, as it appears to be selectively associated with unemployment and lower socioeconomic status. These observations prompt further research into the complex relationship between TS and social status. PMID:25896624

  2. Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani Kh

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionConnection of socioeconomic status measures (such as income and education and parental addiction to childhood leukemia are likely to vary with place and time. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between socioeconomic status and childhood leukemia.Materials and Methodsa case- control study conducted on 86 case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia age 0-14 years in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd and matched on age and sex to 188 healthy controls. Data was collected by interview using a questionnaire.Data analyzed by chi-square test. Odds ratio (Ors and 95% confidence intervals were used to measure the risk of childhood A.L.L associated with parental smoking, alcohol drinking & addiction.ResultsThere was a significant difference in parental education level (P-value=0, P-value=0.001, income status (P-value =0.001, father's job (0.002 between two groups. The risk of childhood A.L.L was associated with paternal smoking (P-value =0.001, OR=2.6, CI 95%, 1.5-4.5, alcohol drinking (P-value=0.003, OR=3.33, CI 95%, 2.7-3.9, addiction (P-value =0, OR=42.7, CI95%, 5.56-328.34.ConclusionThe results suggest that socioeconomic factors and paternal smoking and alcohol drinking are related to risk of childhood leukemia. It should be considered for planning support.

  3. Socioeconomic status and structural brain development

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Natalie H.; Noble, Kimberly G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made accessible new ways of disentangling the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that influence structural brain development. In recent years, research investigating associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain development have found significant links between SES and changes in brain structure, especially in areas related to memory, executive control, and emotion. This review focuses on studies examining links ...

  4. Socioeconomic Status and Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Abdollahi; Masumeh Gholizadeh; Hamid Allahverdipour; Hossein Matlabi; Ali Janati

    2011-01-01

    Background: Iran has undergone a remarkable demographic transition over the last threedecades. Socioeconomic status (SES) indicators including education, income, and occupationare associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Theaim of the present study was to describe demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, theirassociation to the diseases, and to explore the predictive risk of CHD in Tabriz, the fourthlargest city in Iran and the capital of East...

  5. SUBJECTIVE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND HEALTH: RELATIONSHIPS RECONSIDERED

    OpenAIRE

    Nobles, Jenna; Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda; Adler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Subjective status, an individual’s perception of her socioeconomic standing, is a robust predictor of physical health in many societies. To date, competing interpretations of this correlation remain unresolved. Using longitudinal data on 8,430 older adults from the 2000 and 2007 waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test these oft-cited links. As in other settings, perceived status is a robust predictor of self-rated health, and also of physical functioning and nurse-assessed general ...

  6. Socioeconomic Status, Family Processes, and Individual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine J.; Martin, Monica J.

    2010-01-01

    Research during the past decade shows that social class or socioeconomic status (SES) is related to satisfaction and stability in romantic unions, the quality of parent-child relationships, and a range of developmental outcomes for adults and children. This review focuses on evidence regarding potential mechanisms proposed to account for these…

  7. Socioeconomic Status, Subcultural Definitions, and Violent Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of national longitudinal survey data on 918 adolescent males and their parents shows that violent delinquency is a product of learning definitions favorable to violence; such learning is determined by association with aggressive peers, socioeconomic status, parenting practices, and prior violent delinquency. Emphasizes joint contributions…

  8. Dream recall frequency by socioeconomic status of Chinese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Whereas the effect of sex and age on dream recall have been studied widely, socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated. However, two studies reported that higher socioeconomic status was related to greater frequency of dream recall. In the present sample of 612 Chinese students from three different schools, one elite (high socioeconomic status), one rural (low socioeconomic status) and one intermediate, analysis of variance indicated no significant association between frequency of dream recall and socioeconomic status. Researchers could investigate whether "dream socialization," e.g., encouragement of a child to remember his dreams, depends on socioeconomic background, whether these processes are mediated by culture. PMID:18065085

  9. Socioeconomic status and the developing brain

    OpenAIRE

    Hackman, Daniel A.; Farah, Martha J.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with cognitive achievement throughout life. How does SES relate to brain development, and what are the mechanisms by which SES might exert its influence? We review studies in which behavioral, electrophysio-logical and neuroimaging methods have been used to characterize SES disparities in neurocognitive function. These studies indicate that SES is an important predictor of neurocognitive performance, particularly of language and executive fun...

  10. Associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade Socioeconomic status and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana CarolinaReiff e Vieira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos nacionais indicam comportamento epidêmico da obesidade, e ênfase tem sido dada sobre os determinantes sociais do excesso de peso. O status socioeconômico tem sido avaliado por ocupação, educação e renda. Vários fatores relacionados à obesidade, como atividade física, consumo alimentar e hábitos familiares sofrem também influência do status socioeconômico. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre a associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade e também foram apresentados dados de uma pesquisa de base populacional sobre obesidade em mulheres do município do Rio de Janeiro. A ocorrência da obesidade entre os diferentes níveis de status socioeconômico é influenciada pelo sexo e idade, e são discutidos fatores ambientais que determinam a possibilidade de acesso aos alimentos saudáveis e a oportunidade de prática de atividade física. Por fim, é discutido como os hábitos familiares influenciam nas escolhas dos alimentos e como o status socioeconômico pode modificar esse efeito, bem como a disponibilidade de alimentos e o preço destes, levando a um maior consumo de alimentos de alta densidade energética, fator de risco dietético para obesidade.An epidemic of obesity has been revealed by Brazilian nationwide surveys, and emphasis is being given to socioeconomic status as one of the main determinants of weight gain. Other factors also associated to obesity are influenced by socioeconomic status, such as physical activity, food consumption, and family habits. Socioeconomic status has been evaluated based on occupation, education, and income. A review of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity has been conducted, and data from a population-based survey regarding obesity among women in the city of Rio de Janeiro were also included. The occurrence of obesity among different levels of socioeconomic status as influenced by sex and age, and environmental factors that determine the possibility of access to healthy foods and to opportunities of practicing physical activity are also discussed. Finally, we discussed how family habits influence the choices of food, and how socioeconomic status can modify this effect, along with availability of foods and their prices, leading to a greater consumption of foods with high density of energy, a dietary risk factor for obesity.

  11. Associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade / Socioeconomic status and obesity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana CarolinaReiff e, Vieira; Rosely, Sichieri.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos nacionais indicam comportamento epidêmico da obesidade, e ênfase tem sido dada sobre os determinantes sociais do excesso de peso. O status socioeconômico tem sido avaliado por ocupação, educação e renda. Vários fatores relacionados à obesidade, como atividade física, consumo alimentar e h [...] ábitos familiares sofrem também influência do status socioeconômico. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre a associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade e também foram apresentados dados de uma pesquisa de base populacional sobre obesidade em mulheres do município do Rio de Janeiro. A ocorrência da obesidade entre os diferentes níveis de status socioeconômico é influenciada pelo sexo e idade, e são discutidos fatores ambientais que determinam a possibilidade de acesso aos alimentos saudáveis e a oportunidade de prática de atividade física. Por fim, é discutido como os hábitos familiares influenciam nas escolhas dos alimentos e como o status socioeconômico pode modificar esse efeito, bem como a disponibilidade de alimentos e o preço destes, levando a um maior consumo de alimentos de alta densidade energética, fator de risco dietético para obesidade. Abstract in english An epidemic of obesity has been revealed by Brazilian nationwide surveys, and emphasis is being given to socioeconomic status as one of the main determinants of weight gain. Other factors also associated to obesity are influenced by socioeconomic status, such as physical activity, food consumption, [...] and family habits. Socioeconomic status has been evaluated based on occupation, education, and income. A review of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity has been conducted, and data from a population-based survey regarding obesity among women in the city of Rio de Janeiro were also included. The occurrence of obesity among different levels of socioeconomic status as influenced by sex and age, and environmental factors that determine the possibility of access to healthy foods and to opportunities of practicing physical activity are also discussed. Finally, we discussed how family habits influence the choices of food, and how socioeconomic status can modify this effect, along with availability of foods and their prices, leading to a greater consumption of foods with high density of energy, a dietary risk factor for obesity.

  12. Socioeconomic Status and Stress Rate during Pregnancy in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Shishehgar; Mahrokh Dolatian; Hamid Alavi Majd; Maryam Bakhtiary

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stress during pregnancy can have serious adverse outcomes on the mother, the fetus, newborn, children and even adolescents. Socioeconomic status has been recognized as a predictor of stress amongst pregnant women. Objectives: The first aim of this study was to investigate the role of socioeconomic status in pregnancy stress rates. The second aim was to examine the most important items of socioeconomic status including monthly family income, husband occupational status as well as m...

  13. EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Saifullah Saifi; Tariq Mehmood

    2011-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a combined measure of an individual's or family’s economic and social position relative to others, based on income, education, and occupation. When analyzing a family’s SES, the mother's and father’s education and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, versus with an individual, when their own attributes are assessed (GOP,2008). The article is based on a study, which is an attempt to explore the various factors that have an impact on achievement, d...

  14. SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND MICROSOCIAL STRUCTURE WITHIN FEMALE HANDBALL TEAM

    OpenAIRE

    Dodi Mihaljevi?; Joško Sindik

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 18 players, members of the senior major league handball team, the correlation between the micro structure of handball in relation to their socioeconomic status, using the sociometric procedure, was analyzed. The research results lead to the acceptance of the hypothesis that the players of the same socioeconomic status, have better mutual emotional acceptance. The hypothesis of a better mutual functional accepting players of the same socioeconomic status, may be only partially ...

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Abdollahi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iran has undergone a remarkable demographic transition over the last threedecades. Socioeconomic status (SES indicators including education, income, and occupationare associated with coronary heart disease (CHD risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Theaim of the present study was to describe demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, theirassociation to the diseases, and to explore the predictive risk of CHD in Tabriz, the fourthlargest city in Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to explore and analyze thecurrent SES status of CHD patients. The study was conducted in Tabriz and all patients(n=189 refereed to the Central Referral Hospital for cardiac patients (Shahid Madani Hospitalfrom 2009 to 2010 were considered. A researcher structured questionnaire with 15 questionswas used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the basic SES featuresof the CHD patients and data analysis was done using SPSS ver. 16.Results: Less educated participants were more susceptible to CHD. Regarding to occupationalstatus, housewives and retired men were in higher risk of CHD than the rest of the people.Studied patients also reported to be mostly from urban areas that were living in apartmentcomplexes.Conclusion: In line with some international research evidence the study results suggested thatpeople from lower/middle social classes were in greater CHD risk than higher social classes.This epidemic might be halted through the promotion of healthier lifestyles and the support ofenvironmental and policy changes.

  16. Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) Treaty Status Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Socioeconomic Data and Application Center (SEDAC) Treaty Status Dataset contains comprehensive treaty information for multilateral environmental agreements,...

  17. Neurocognitive development in socioeconomic context: Multiple mechanisms and implications for measuring socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to functioning across a variety of neurocognitive domains including language, memory, executive functioning, and social-emotional processing. We review these findings and discuss the ways in which socioeconomic context may shape neural processes such that these skills are supported by different neurobiological pathways in children from lower versus higher SES backgrounds. Moreover, we consider the mechanisms by which SES may be related to specific neurocognitive functions. Specifically, we focus on linguistic exposure and stress as two main pathways through which SES could influence neurocognitive processes and shape relations between the neural and behavioral levels of functioning. Finally, suggestions for conceptualizing and measuring SES in future work are offered. PMID:26681619

  18. Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors?

    OpenAIRE

    van de Mheen, H. (Dike); Stronks, K.; Looman, C W N; Mackenbach, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS: Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands (13 854 respondents, aged between 25 and 74). Childhood socioeconomic group was ...

  19. Cognitive function in older adults according to current socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P age 60 years. PMID:25565407

  20. Evaluation of Nutritional Status in Turkish Adolescents as Related to Gender and Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Özgüven, I??l; Ersoy, Betül; Özgüven, Ali Aykan; Erbay, P?nar Dündar

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of Turkish high school adolescents using anthropometric indicators and to determine the relationship of nutritional status with gender and socioeconomic status (SES) in adolescents.

  1. Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure

  2. The Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Working Memory Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Working memory is the temporary storage mechanism that underlies our ability to hold and process information over a brief period of time. It is a pre-requisite for the long-term storage of information, reading, problem-solving and language comprehension. Research examining the relationship between working memory and socioeconomic status remains inconclusive. The present study brings together educational, cognitive ageing, intelligence and socioeconomic status (SES) research in order to det...

  3. Relation between Socioeconomic Status of Parents and Health of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Zulkifle; Manchala Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    The wealth of country in terms of man power totally depends upon the children, the future citizen. Apart from this, children also determine the socio-cultural values of the future. Physical, mental and social well beings of the children are closely related to the socioeconomic well beings of the parents. To know the Relationship between socioeconomic status of parents and health of children of Government primary school of Bangalore, a one-time observational cross sectional study was conducted...

  4. The effects of socioeconomic status on stroke risk and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Iain J; Wang, Yanzhong; Crichton, Siobhan; McKevitt, Christopher; Rudd, Anthony G; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2015-12-01

    The latest evidence on socioeconomic status and stroke shows that stroke not only disproportionately affects low-income and middle-income countries, but also socioeconomically deprived populations within high-income countries. These disparities are reflected not only in risk of stroke but also in short-term and long-term outcomes after stroke. Increased average levels of conventional risk factors (eg, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, excessive alcohol intake, smoking, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle) in populations with low socioeconomic status account for about half of these effects. In many countries, evidence shows that people with lower socioeconomic status are less likely to receive good-quality acute hospital and rehabilitation care than people with higher socioeconomic status. For clinical practice, better implementation of well established treatments, effective management of risk factors, and equity of access to high-quality acute stroke care and rehabilitation will probably reduce inequality substantially. Overcoming barriers and adapting evidence-based interventions to different countries and health-care settings remains a research priority. PMID:26581971

  5. The Effect of Socio-economic Status on Authoritarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Pour Afkari

    2013-02-01

    The population of this study was students of Shahid Chamran University. Based on Krejcie and Morgan table, a sample of 377 individuals is representative of a population of 20000 individuals. In this study, 420 were selected through systematic random sampling. In that the list of student names was taken from each faculty and then students' names were randomly selected and they were asked to refer to a class and complete the devised questionnaire. 13 incomplete questionnaires were excluded and 407 remained for final analysis. In our sample, 191 were males and 216 females. Respondents' age was 21.84 with a standard deviation of 2.34. Ethnic composition of the sample was as follows: 33 Turks, 51 Arabs, 84 Kord, 103 Lor and 136 were Fars. Authoritarianism Scale items were composed of 9 items derived from well-known scales measuring these variables. In this study, instead of using an objective socioeconomic base approach, the mental approach was applied. In this way, instead of assessing respondent's status based on achieved data with regard to their income and education and ranking them in three levels, the respondent self-assesses his economic status. To measure parental authoritarian control variable, we used 10 items which were derived from Daniel Shek's (2006 scale and have been used in various studies by different researchers and have a high ability to measure thi

  6. The Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Lexical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Esther; Peppe, Sue; Gibbon, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    The British Picture Vocabulary Scale, second edition (BPVS-II), a measure of receptive vocabulary, is widely used by speech and language therapists and researchers into speech and language disorders, as an indicator of language delay, but it has frequently been suggested that receptive vocabulary may be more associated with socio-economic status.…

  7. Gameplay, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status in Two American High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    In a study of 195 high school students, differences by gender and socioeconomic status (SES) were found in their gaming habits and game literacy practices. Low-SES students generally preferred console video games, particularly those in the sports genre. They expressed frustration with the controls involved in long-form computer games such as those…

  8. Supermarket Speak: Increasing Talk among Low-Socioeconomic Status Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Katherine E.; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Ilgaz, Hande; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn A.; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2015-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic status (SES) families often fall behind their middle-class peers in early language development. But interventions designed to support their language skills are often costly and labor-intensive. This study implements an inexpensive and subtle language intervention aimed at sparking parent-child interaction in a place…

  9. Socioeconomic Status and Child Development: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Duffett-Leger, Linda; Levac, Leah; Watson, Barry; Young-Morris, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is widely accepted to have deleterious effects on the well-being and development of children and adolescents. However, rigorous meta-analytic methods have not been applied to determine the degree to which SES supports or limits children's and adolescents behavioural, cognitive and language development. While…

  10. Parenting, Race, and Socioeconomic Status: Links to School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Pungello, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and school readiness, testing whether parenting (maternal sensitivity and negative behavior/intrusiveness) and financial stress mediated this association and if race moderated these paths. Participants included 164 mother-child dyads from African American and European American…

  11. Socioeconomic status and patterns of care in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study aims to explore any associations between socioeconomic factors and lung cancer management and outcome in the Australian setting. The study population consisted of patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer in 1996 who were living in the Northern Sydney Area Health Service (NSAHS) or South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS). These two Area Health Services differ in socioeconomic profiles based on socioeconomic indexes for areas (SEIFA), median income, education level and unemployment rate. Data on patient demographics, tumour characteristics, management details, recurrence and survival were collected, and the patterns of care were analysed. Socioeconomic status indicators of the two Area Health Services were imputed from the Australian Bureau of Statistics data. There were 270 and 256 new cases of lung cancer identified in NSAHS and SWSAHS respectively. Patients in NSAHS were slightly older (median age 73 versus 68 years) and there was less male predominance. The stage distributions and performance status of the two cohorts were similar. There were no significant differences in the utilisation rates of different treatment modalities between the two areas: radiotherapy (54% in NSAHS and 55% in SWSAHS), chemotherapy (34% and 25%), surgery (26% and 21%) and no treatment (22% and 25%). The 5-year overall survival was slightly in favour of NSAHS (10.5% and 7.4%), but did not reach statistical significance. Despite differences in socioeconomic profiles between the two area health services, patients with lung cancer had similar patterns of care and survival

  12. Socioeconomic Status Modifies the Seasonal Effect on Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cois, Annibale; Ehrlich, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Seasonal variations in blood pressure have been consistently reported. However, uncertainty remains about the size of the seasonal effect in different regions, and about factors that explain the differences observed across and within populations. Using data from a national panel study, we investigated seasonal variations in blood pressure in the South African adult population, and whether these variations differed across socioeconomic strata. We estimated age-specific seasonal effects on blood pressure using a multilevel structural equation model, with repeated measurements nested within subjects. Effect modification by socioeconomic status was assessed by repeating the analyses in the subpopulations defined by levels of education, household income per capita, and type of housing. In men and women, season had a statistically significant effect on blood pressure, with higher levels in winter and lower levels in summer. For systolic blood pressure, the magnitude of the seasonal effect was 4.25/4.21?mmHg (women/men) and was higher in the older age groups. For diastolic blood pressure, the effect size was 4.00/4.01?mmHg, with no evident age trend. Seasonal effects were higher among subjects in the lowest socioeconomic classes than in the highest, with differences between 2.4 and 7.7?mmHg, depending on gender, whether systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and socioeconomic status indicator. In the South African adult population, blood pressure shows seasonal variation modified by age and socioeconomic status. These variations have epidemiological, clinical, and public health implications, including the prospect of population level intervention to reduce elevated risk of cold weather cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:26334893

  13. Cutting Class: Socioeconomic Status and Education. Culture and Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincheloe, Joe L., Ed.; Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In these vivid, thought-provoking essays, leading scholars draw from their own life experiences to explore the ways in which socio-economic class has shaped their lives and educational practices. Some experienced the sting of poverty as students, while others tell stories of a privileged upbringing and moments of epiphany when they recognized the…

  14. Socio-economic status of Muslim women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatty, Z

    1994-01-01

    The Indian sociological literature neglects the role of women in social relationships within the family system, their status in society, and the interactions between Indian minorities and the majority community. Indian institutions and cultural norms have perpetuated the role of Indian women as subservient. Orthodox Muslims uphold the low position of women as a symbol of cultural identity. Indian Muslims have tried to prevent conversion and integration of other views, but have failed to eliminate the Hindu influence on the general pattern of living, the system of social stratification, and customs and attitudes regarding women. Muslims hold conformist ideals and beliefs from the Quran and the Hadis. Although Indian women live under the Hindu Code Bill that gives equal rights to women, most Muslim women are restricted under the Muslim Personal Law. Muslims who are ignorant of the Quran are unaware of the allowances in the Shariat for social adjustment, change, and accommodation. In fact, Indian Muslim communities follow four different Shariats: the Hanafi, the Shaafi, the Hambali, and the Maliki. Islamic scholars state that the Shariat is not unchangeable. There is also disparity between the actual practice of polygamy and the Quran's strict provision that all wives must be treated equally. Islamic practices have been manipulated to suit male interests. Indian Muslims are either Ashrafs or nonAshrafs. Ashrafs are the upper social class and are made up of the Sayyads, the Sheikhs, the Mughals, and the Pathans, in descending order of hierarchy. There are differences in the treatment of women within this stratification. For instance, many nonAshraf women do not observe purdah, but the tendency among the Ashraf is to impose purdah. PMID:12347368

  15. The Influences of Socioeconomic Status of Primary Schools' Students on Their Respiratory Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASOUD MOSTAFAEE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although researchers in this decade have proposed several answers concerning the association between socio-economic levels of health, still one question is not well understood: whether in school or domestic environments, low and high socio-economic status may influence asthma and respiratory symptoms on primary school students. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which primary school with environment low and high socio-economic status, and respiratory health among the students. Respiratory symptoms and asthma among Australian school students' within high and low socio-economic backgrounds were studied in 2007. A cross sectional study in three stages questionnaire survey, indoor air quality monitoring in schools and indoor air quality assessment in houses were carried out to explain the impact of school and domestic air quality on respiratory symptoms among primary school students at schools with high and low socio-economic backgrounds. The data were analysed using statistical tests like Correlation, One- Way ANOVA and T-test. The study results have shown that school children with low socio-economic backgrounds showed more respiratory symptoms. Also, there was a significant difference between boys and girls respiratory symptoms.  Those who studied in schools with higher SES had fewer asthma and respiratory symptoms. Several elements such as smoking at home, the amount of particular matters and volatile organic compounds inside the house and usage of detergents inside the classrooms were the main reasons to student's respiratory symptoms. This study concluded that there is a negative correlation between SES and respiratory symptoms among school students and low socio-economic status of school's environments itself is a risk factor for respiratory symptoms and astma among school childrens.

  16. How Does Socio-Economic Status Shape a Child's Personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Deckers, Thomas; Falk, Armin; Kosse, Fabian; Schildberg-Hörisch, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    We show that socio-economic status (SES) is a powerful predictor of many facets of a child's personality. The facets of personality we investigate encompass time preferences, risk preferences, and altruism, as well as crystallized and fluid IQ. We measure a family's SES by the mother's and father's average years of education and household income. Our results show that children from families with higher SES are more patient, tend to be more altruistic and less likely to be risk seeking, and sc...

  17. Is socioeconomic status associated with biological aging as measured by telomere length?

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, T.; Batty, G.S.; G.,; Fenton, C.; Shiels, P.G.; Benzeval, M

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that one way in which lower socioeconomic status (SES) affects health is by increasing the rate of biological aging. A widely used marker of biological aging is telomere length. Telomeres are structures at the ends of chromosomes that erode with increasing cell proliferation and genetic damage. We aimed to identify, through systematic review and meta-analysis, whether lower SES (greater deprivation) is associated with shorter telomeres. Thirty-one articles, including ...

  18. Socioeconomic status and the incidence of child injuries in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Jing, Ruiwei; Zeng, Guang; Linnan, Huan Wan; Zhu, Xu; Linnan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Injuries are the major cause of morbidity among children and one of the leading causes of death for children ages 1-17 years in developing countries. Of particular importance is whether child injuries are equally distributed across all socioeconomic groups and the implications of this question for child injury prevention, but there is a lack of research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and risk of child injuries in developing countries, including China. This study used a provincially-representative, population-based sample of 98,385 Chinese children under age 18 to investigate the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and child injuries. Despite the lack of a SES gradient in the overall incidence of nonhospitalized injuries, evidence of SES disparity was found for the overall incidence of H/PD injuries (injuries resulting in hospitalization or permanent disability) and fatal injuries. The odds of getting injured in the poorest wealth quintile were about 1.3 and 3.5 times greater than the odds found in the richest wealth quintile for H/PD and fatal injuries respectively. Further analyses showed that the associations between SES and injuries varied by type and severity of injury, and across different life stages. The findings have important implications for identifying at-risk populations and the optimal times for interventions to reduce different types and severity levels of child injuries. PMID:24565139

  19. Socioeconomic status and functional brain development - associations in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H; Kushnerenko, Elena

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject comparisons of infants from low- and high-income families revealed significantly lower frontal gamma power in infants from low-income homes. Similar power differences were found when comparing infants according to maternal occupation, with lower occupational status groups yielding lower power. Infant sleep, maternal education, length of gestation, and birth weight, as well as smoke exposure and bilingualism, did not explain these differences. Our results show that the effects of socioeconomic disparities on brain activity can already be detected in early infancy, potentially pointing to very early risk for language and attention difficulties. This is the first study to reveal region-selective differences in functional brain development associated with early infancy in low-income families. PMID:24033573

  20. Perceptions on healthy eating, physical activity and lifestyle advice: opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions to individuals with low socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Bukman, A.J.; Teuscher, D.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Baak , M.A. van; Meershoek, A.; Renes, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) are generally less well reached through lifestyle interventions than individuals with higher SES. The aim of this study was to identify opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions in such a way that they are more appealing for individuals with low SES. To this end, the study provides insight into perspectives of groups with different socioeconomic positions regarding their current eating and physical activity behaviour; trigger...

  1. Ecuadorian Andean women's nutrition varies with age and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Barbara; Johns, Timothy; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Receveur, Olivier

    2004-09-01

    An agricultural project in Highland Ecuador provided a model context to better understand the nutrition of rural women. The adequacy of women's nutrition and the strength of associations with age and socioeconomic status were studied in 104 rural households over four rounds (two seasons) during the 1995-1996 agricultural year using a cross-sectional with repeated-measures design. Women were at high risk for micronutrient deficiencies (calcium, iron, riboflavin, and vitamin B12) due to low intakes of animal products. Two distinct constructs representing socioeconomic status were identified: modern lifestyle and farming wealth. In multivariate models, farming wealth was associated with quality of women's diet (animal protein adjusted for energy, p = 0.01). Diet quality, in turn, was positively associated with anthropometric status (p = 0.02). Women over the age of 50 weighed approximately 3.7 kg less than younger women and consumed less energy (300 kcal) and micronutrients (p < 0.05). Age was positively associated with respiratory morbidity (p = 0.01). These findings, while directly relevant to a specific context, suggest the need for cross-cultural studies to identify the extent of, and factors contributing to, the risk of nutritional inadequacy in postreproductive women in developing countries. PMID:15460267

  2. Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Habibollah Esmaeeli; Rana Amiri; Ahmadshah Farhat; Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on ...

  3. Pathways between Socioeconomic Status and Modifiable Risk Factors Among African American Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Costello, Tracy J; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Jasjit S Ahluwalia; Wetter, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Although socioeconomic status is a major contributing factor to health disparities, the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status influences health remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an a priori conceptual model of the pathways between socioeconomic status and modifiable health risk factors in a sample of 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment. A latent variable modeling approach was utilized to characterize the interrelationships among soc...

  4. Effect of socioeconomic status on survival from cervical cancer in Sheffield.

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, P C; Watts, M

    1987-01-01

    The relation between age at registration, socioeconomic status, and survival from cervical cancer for women resident in Sheffield was examined using the 556 such cases registered with the Trent Cancer Registry from 1971 to 1984. The address and electoral ward at registration were used to categorize the socioeconomic status of 99% of the women. Five year survival for all cases was 49%, increasing age having a predictable deleterious effect. Socioeconomic status seemed to have little effect on ...

  5. Socioeconomic status and blood pressure reactivity in healthy black adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D K; Kliewer, W; Plybon, L; Sica, D A

    2000-01-01

    Adolescents in low-socioeconomic-status environments are more susceptible to illnesses, such as hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. This study examined the influence of both neighborhood- and family-level socioeconomic status (SES) on blood pressure (BP) reactivity in a healthy sample of 76 black adolescents. It was hypothesized that a higher level of parental education and/or income would reduce the elevated BP reactivity associated with living in poorer neighborhoods. Census-derived data were obtained using each participant's address. Neighborhood level of SES was based on percentage of households below the poverty line, female-headed households, owner-occupied housing, percentage vacant housing, and average number of persons per household. Family level of SES was based on self-reported level of parental education and annual family income. Adolescents participated in a competitive video game to establish their BP reactivity scores. As predicted, adolescents who lived in poorer neighborhoods had lower diastolic BPs if their parents were more (versus less) educated (P<0.05; 7+/-8 versus 13+/-6 mm Hg). Adolescents who lived in poorer neighborhoods also had significantly lower diastolic BP reactivity (P<0.05) if their family had a higher (versus lower) annual income (7+/-7 versus 12+/-8 mm Hg). These data are the first to demonstrate the buffering effect of family SES on the negative health consequences of living in low-SES neighborhoods in healthy black adolescents. PMID:10642348

  6. Childhood leukaemia and socioeconomic status: What is the evidence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this systematic review are to summarise the current literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of childhood leukaemia, to highlight methodological problems and formulate recommendations for future research. Starting from the systematic review of Poole et al. (Socioeconomic status and childhood leukaemia: a review. Int. J. Epidemiol. 2006;35(2):370-384.), an electronic literature search was performed covering August 2002-April 2008. It showed that (1) the results are heterogeneous, with no clear evidence to support a relation between SES and childhood leukaemia; (2) a number of factors, most importantly selection bias, might explain inconsistencies between studies; (3) there is some support for an association between SES at birth (rather than later in childhood) and childhood leukaemia and (4) if there are any associations, these are weak, limited to the most extreme SES groups (the 10-20% most or least deprived). This makes it unlikely that they would act as strong confounders in research addressing associations between other exposures and childhood leukaemia. Future research should minimise case and control selection bias, distinguish between different SES measures and leukaemia subtypes and consider timing of exposures and cancer outcomes. (authors)

  7. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in a low socioeconomic status population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Carlos AB

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil. Methods We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n = 768, 35–60 years old. Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain. They were then invited to be clinically assessed (304 accepted. Pain was estimated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, as well as screening for tender points using dolorimetry. Statistical analyses included Bayesian Statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis Anova test (significance level = 5%. Results From the phone-interview screening, we divided participants (n = 768 in three groups: No Pain (NP (n = 185; Regional Pain (RP (n = 388 and Widespread Pain (WP (n = 106. Among those participating in the clinical assessments, (304 subjects, the prevalence of fibromyalgia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [2.6%; 6.3%]. Symptoms of pain (VAS and FIQ, feeling well, job ability, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depression were statically different among the groups. In multivariate analyses we found that individuals with FM and WP had significantly higher impairment than those with RP and NP. FM and WP were similarly disabling. Similarly, RP was no significantly different than NP. Conclusion Fibromyalgia is prevalent in the low socioeconomic status population assisted by the public primary health care system. Prevalence was similar to other studies (4.4% in a more diverse socioeconomic population. Individuals with FM and WP have significant impact in their well being.

  8. Effects of neighbourhood socioeconomic status and convenience store concentration on individual level smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Y.; Cubbin, C.; Ahn, D.; Winkleby, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effects of neighbourhood level socioeconomic status (SES) and convenience store concentration on individual level smoking, after consideration of individual level characteristics.

  9. Socioeconomic status and obesity in Abia State, South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuonye II

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye,1 Abali Chuku,2 Ikechi Gareth Okpechi,3 Ugochukwu Uchenna Onyeonoro,4 Okechukwu Ojoemelam Madukwe,5 Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka Okafor,6 Okechukwu Samuel Ogah5,71Division of Renal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 3Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, 5Ministry of Health, Nnamdi Azikiwe Secretariat, 6Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 7Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, NigeriaBackground and objectives: Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria.Material and method: This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity. Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance.Results: Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity in individuals with no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education was 6.3%, 14.9%, 10.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. Educational status was found to be significantly associated with obesity in women, but not in men, or in the combined group. However, level of income was observed to be significantly associated with obesity in men, women, and in the combined group.Conclusion: Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are important determinants of obesity in our study population, and therefore may be indirectly linked to the prevalence and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Nigeria.Keywords: obesity, body mass index, BMI, income, education, socioeconomic status, Naira (?

  10. Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors Involved in Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MOGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The high number of suicides drew attention to medical professionals. In Europe suicide is one of the leading cause of death caused by intentional and unintentional injuries. We tried to evaluate the suicide rates and methods of suicide during a 3 years period. There were collected all the date provided by the archives of forensic services of Brasov county between 2011 and 2013 regarding age, sex, marital status, occupation, socio-economic status, methods of suicide and alcohol consumption before suicide. The statistics included 545 subjects included in the study, 293 were male (53.8%, and 252 were female (46.2% who were admitted at the ER of Brasov County Emergency Hospital during study period. Of 545 patients with suicide attempt, 355 (65.15% survived and were referred to the Psychiatry and Neurology Hospital for psychiatric treatment and psychological counseling. The number of male who died after a suicide attempt was significantly higher than in female cases (134 vs.56, p<0.001. Previous suicide attempts, depression, alcohol abuse and unemployment are strong factors for fatal suicide. Poor economic status and life events may contribute to suicide attempt in those individuals.

  11. Relation between Socioeconomic Status of Parents and Health of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Zulkifle

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The wealth of country in terms of man power totally depends upon the children, the future citizen. Apart from this, children also determine the socio-cultural values of the future. Physical, mental and social well beings of the children are closely related to the socioeconomic well beings of the parents. To know the Relationship between socioeconomic status of parents and health of children of Government primary school of Bangalore, a one-time observational cross sectional study was conducted in the three primary schools of Kottigepalya. 456 children were included in the study. A complete physical examination of the children was done and deviations from normal were recorded. A large number, 319 (69.96%, school children were found to be sick, in which 39 (12.23% children were belonging to SES lower middle (III, 239 (74.92% were to SES upper lower (IV and 41 (12.85% children were to SES lower (V. This results show that the SES of parents is truly affects the health of children.

  12. Learning Motivation Mediates Gene-by-Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Mathematics Achievement in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences…

  13. Socioeconomic Status and Financial Coping Strategies: The Mediating Role of Perceived Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Leslie J.; Schooler, Carmi

    2007-01-01

    We examine the relations among socioeconomic status, control beliefs, and two coping styles (problem-focused vs. emotion-focused) in the context of financial stress. Findings indicate that low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked to greater use of emotion-focused financial coping and lesser use of problem-focused financial coping. The effects of…

  14. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients – risk and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oml

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lars Haukali Omland,1 Merete Osler,2 Peter Jepsen,3,4 Henrik Krarup,5 Nina Weis,6 Peer Brehm Christensen,7 Casper Roed,1 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Niels Obel1 On behalf of the DANVIR Cohort Study1Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Research Center for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 6Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, DenmarkBackground and aims: It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection or a prognostic factor following infection.Methods: From Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on three markers of SES: employment, income, and education. In a case control design, we examined HCV infected patients and controls; conditional logistic regression was employed to obtain odds ratios (ORs for HCV infection for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity, and substance abuse. In a cohort design, we used Cox regression analysis to compute mortality rate ratios (MRRs for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity level, age, substance abuse, and gender.Results: When compared to employed persons, ORs for HCV infection were 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24–3.26 for disability pensioners and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.83–2.72 for the unemployed. When compared to persons with a high income, ORs were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.34–2.01 for low income persons and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.02–1.40 for medium income persons. The OR was 1.35 (95% CI: 1.20–1.52 for low education (no more than basic schooling. When compared to employed patients, MRRs were 1.71 (95% CI: 1.22–2.40 for unemployed patients and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.63–3.08 for disability pensioners. When compared to high income patients, MRRs were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.05–2.05 for medium income patients and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.13–2.34 for low income patients. Educational status was not associated with mortality.Conclusion: Low SES was associated with an increased risk of HCV infection and with poor prognosis in HCV infected patients.Keywords: survival, socioeconomic status, risk factor, prognosis

  15. The effects of socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and mastery on health status in a youth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Richard K

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the influence of socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination, and sense of mastery over one's life on the health status of a sub-sample of a US cohort of youth (N = 969). When controlling for a variety of social characteristics and personal attributes, only sense of mastery over one's life, measured by the Pearlin Mastery Scale, affected physical and mental health statuses. Perceived discrimination affected only mental health status, while SES over the life course affected only physical health. Findings affirmed the efforts of professions like social work that stress self-determination and empowerment enabling individuals to enhance their own social functioning and improve conditions in their communities and in society at large. They also suggested that in regard to mental health advocacy efforts to decrease health disparities can find social justice related grounds based on gender. PMID:12959485

  16. Extra-curricular physical activity and socioeconomic status in Italian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Langiano Elisa; De Vito Elisabetta; Masala Daniele; Torre Giuseppe La; Capelli Giovanni; Ricciardi Walter

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between physical activity and health status has been thoroughly investigated in several studies, while the relation between physical activity and socio-economic status (SES) is less investigated. The aim of this study was to measure the extra-curricular physical activity of adolescents related to the socio-economic status (SES) of their families. Methods The survey was carried out by submitting an anonymous questionnaire to junior high school students in t...

  17. Pediatric Pulmonologists' Perceptions of Family Socioeconomic Status in Asthma Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara B; Gordon, Brian J; Jennings, Jacky M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Adler, Nancy E; Okelo, Sande O

    2014-09-01

    Background: Physicians' assumptions about patients' socioeconomic status (SES) have been shown to influence clinical decision making in adult patients. The goal of this study is to assess the factors associated with pediatric pulmonologists' (PPs') subjective ratings of their patients' SES, and whether these factors differ by patient race/ethnicity. Methods: Parents of children with asthma (n=171) presenting for pulmonary care reported their SES using the MacArthur Subjective SES 10-rung ladder. The PPs (n=7) also estimated each family's SES. Two-level linear regression models with random intercepts (level 1: PP's SES ratings; level 2: PPs) were used to assess the predictors of PP-estimated family SES. The analyses were then stratified by race/ethnicity. Results: Parental educational, insurance type, age, and race/ethnic background were associated with PPs' SES ratings. Black/African American families were rated lower than white families, accounting for other demographic factors (b=-0.60, plevel of parental education, black/African American families, but not families of other backgrounds, were judged to have lower SES than white families (from 0.77 rungs lower among parents with some college, to 1.2 rungs lower among parents with high school or less; both pability to estimate families' subjective SES in asthma care may be a function of unconscious societal biases about race and class. Collecting subjective SES from families and PPs during the office visit could facilitate discussions about material and psychosocial needs and resources that influence treatment effectiveness. PMID:25276485

  18. Socioeconomic Status and Functional Brain Development--Associations in Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G.; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Kushnerenko, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject…

  19. Evaluation of the Interactionist Model of Socioeconomic Status and Problem Behavior: A Developmental Cascade across Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Dogan, Shannon J.; Widaman, Keith F.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2010-01-01

    The current multigenerational study evaluates the utility of the Interactionist Model of Socioeconomic Influence on human development (IMSI) in explaining problem behaviors across generations. The IMSI proposes that the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and human development involves a dynamic interplay that includes both social causation (SES influences human development) and social selection (individual characteristics affect SES). As part of the developmental cascade proposed ...

  20. EFFECT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that socioeconomic status is the main cause of inequality among students in schools and other educational systems. The most significant reason of this is that a person’s education is clearly linked to their life chances, income and well-being. The impact of the parent’s socioeconomic status on their child’s educational achievement has been of great concern to many researchers especially in the field of sociology. Many studies have showed the positive and significant relationship between students’ socioeconomic status and students’ achievement. The present paper contains an overview of the researches related to the effect of socio-economic status on academic achievement of students.

  1. Socioeconomic status and prognosis of COPD in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association between length of school education and 5-year prognosis of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), including exacerbations, hospital admissions and survival. We used sample of general population from two independent population studies: The Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study. A total of 6,590 individuals from general population of Copenhagen with COPD defined by the Global initiative for obstructive lung disease criteria were subdivided into 4 groups based on the length of school education: 1,590 with education < 8 years; 3,131 with education 8-10 years, 1,244 with more than 10 years, but no college/university education and 625 with college/university education. Compared with long education, short education was associated with current smoking (p < 0.001), higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms (p < 0.001) and lower forced expiratory volume in the first second in percent of predicted value (FEV1%pred) (p < 0.001). Adjusting for sex, age, FEV1%pred, dyspnea, frequency of previous exacerbations and smoking we observed that shortest school education (in comparison with university education), was associated with a higher risk of COPD exacerbations (hazards ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.15-2.37) and higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.28-2.99). We conclude that even in an economically well-developed country with a health care system (which is largely free of charge), low socioeconomic status, assessed as the length of school education, is associated with a poorer clinical prognosis of COPD.

  2. Socioeconomic Status and Prognosis of COPD in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association between length of school education and 5-year prognosis of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), including exacerbations, hospital admissions and survival. We used sample of general population from two independent population studies: The Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study. A total of 6,590 individuals from general population of Copenhagen with COPD defined by the Global initiative for obstructive lung disease criteria were subdivided into 4 groups based on the length of school education: 1,590 with education < 8 years; 3,131 with education 8-10 years, 1,244 with more than 10 years, but no college/university education and 625 with college/university education. Compared with long education, short education was associated with current smoking (p < 0.001), higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms (p < 0.001) and lower forced expiratory volume in the first second in percent of predicted value (FEV1%pred) (p < 0.001). Adjusting for sex, age, FEV1%pred, dyspnea, frequency of previous exacerbations and smoking we observed that shortest school education (in comparison with university education), was associated with a higher risk of COPD exacerbations (hazards ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.15-2.37) and higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.28-2.99). We conclude that even in an economically well-developed country with a health care system (which is largely free of charge), low socioeconomic status, assessed as the length of school education, is associated with a poorer clinical prognosis of COPD.

  3. Socioeconomic status and cutaneous malignant melanoma in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Wulf, H C

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), also in Northern Europe despite equal access to health care. SES per se is not responsible for this association which must be ascribed to important risk factors for CMM such as intermittent UVR exposure, and screening for CMM possibly owing to a greater knowledge and understanding of CMM. Our review of the literature showed that high SES is associated with increased risk of CMM, thinner tumours, increased survival, and decreased mortality from CMM - the latter shown among women, and in recent studies also among men. There is evidence that high SES is associated with sun holidays, whereas low SES is associated with use of sunbeds. Findings suggest that high SES is associated with use of physicians and dermatologists for marks and moles, possibly due to more knowledge and better understanding of CMM. We conclude that there has been a true increase in CMM incidence among high SES individuals in Northern Europe probably due to past intense intermittent UVR exposure, especially in connection with sun holidays. However, the increased risk of CMM and a better outcome of CMM in high SES individuals may also be conditioned by frequent recourse to physicians, which may be ascribed to more knowledge and better understanding of CMM, although more studies on this subject are warranted. Thicker CMM tumours and increased CMM mortality among low SES individuals in recent decades may reflect exposure to intermittent UVR such as use of sunbeds, as well as delayed diagnosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic factors influence the clustering of depression among individuals with lower socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    López León, S.; Choy, W.C.; Aulchenko, Y. S.; Claes, S.; B.A. Oostra; Mackenbach, J.P.; van Duijn, C M; Janssens, A.C.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which shared genetic factors can explain the clustering of depression among individuals with lower socioeconomic status, and to examine if neuroticism or intelligence are involved in these pathways. Methods: In total 2,383 participants (1,028 men and 1,355 women) of the Erasmus Rucphen Family Study were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADSD). Socioeconomic status ...

  5. Learning Motivation Mediates Gene-by-Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Mathematics Achievement in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children’s entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences on early achievement is by facilitating the processes by which children select, evoke, and attend to learning experiences that are consistent with g...

  6. Socioeconomic Status and Health Communication Inequalities in Japan: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Hayashi, Hanae; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable evidence suggests that communication inequality is one potential mechanism linking social determinants, particularly socioeconomic status, and health inequalities. This study aimed to examine how dimensions of health communication outcomes (health information seeking, self-efficacy, exposure, and trust) are patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan. Methods: Data of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 2,455 people aged 15–75 years in Japan were used...

  7. Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Nyberg, Solja T; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjørner, Jakob; Borritz, Marianne; Brunner, Eric J; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Jokela, Markus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (cohort stu...

  8. The relationship between socio-economic status and cancer detection at screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.

  9. Relationships between Family Levels of Socioeconomic Status and Distribution of Breast Cancer Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Mohaghegh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Not only the expand development of knowledge for reducing risk factors, but also the improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and socioeconomic inequalities could affect cancer incidence, diagnosis stage, and mortality. The aim of this study was investigation the relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study has conducted on 526 patients who were suffering from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2008 to December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status has filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS19. Results: The mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41. According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between family socioeconomic status and patient's age at diagnosis of breast cancer (p value 0.001. In the multiple logistic regressions, the relationship between excellent socioeconomic status and number of abortions was significant (p value> 0.007. Furthermore, the relationships between moderate and good socioeconomic statuses and smoking were significant (p value=0.05 and p value=0.02, respectively. Conclusion: The results have indicated that among those patients having better socioeconomic status, age at cancer diagnosis, number of pregnancies and duration of breast feeding was lower, and then number of abortions was more than the others. According to the results of this study, it was really important to focus on family socioeconomic status as a critical and effective variable on breast cancer risk factors among the Iranian women.

  10. Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed M. A. Hanifi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES. Objective: The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design: We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4. The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results: Analysing cause of death (CoD revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were the leading causes of deaths (37%, followed by communicable diseases (CDs (22%, perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%, and injury and accidents (6%; the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years, which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04. For adult and the elderly (15 years and older, NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%, followed by CDs (23%. For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005, and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0.001. Conclusions: Epidemiologic transition is taking place with a shift from the dominance of CDs to NCDs. SES inequity in mortality still persists – the poor suffer from CDs in all age groups, whereas those better off suffer more from NCDs than CDs. Policy makers thus need to consider the social distribution of diseases before developing any public health action targeted towards reducing mortality and the extent of disease burden in an equitable manner.

  11. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, and Health: A Test of Competing Theories of Cumulative Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampel, Fred C.; Rogers, Richard G.

    2004-01-01

    Although both low socioeconomic status and cigarette smoking increase health problems and mortality, their possible combined or interactive influence is less clear. On one hand, the health of low status groups may be harmed least by unhealthy behavior such as smoking because, given the substantial health risks produced by limited resources, they…

  12. Ethnic Background, Socioeconomic Status, and Problem Severity as Dropout Risk Factors in Psychotherapy with Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Anna M.; Boon, Albert E.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Hoeve, Machteld; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dropout from child and adolescent psychotherapy is a common phenomenon which can have negative consequences for the individual later in life. It is therefore important to gain insight on dropout risk factors. Objective: Several potential risk factors [ethnic minority status, a lower socioeconomic status (SES), and higher problem…

  13. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraei, Mina; Mohajery, Artmiz

    2013-01-01

    The stratification system in India has resulted in the socioeconomic inequality in society and defines women domestic workers as one of the lowest segments of society. This qualitative and quantitative study aims at describing the problems of female domestic workers, the relationship of their employers with them, and exploring the impact of…

  14. Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Monteiro; Erly C. Moura; Conde, Wolney L.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2004-01-01

    A landmark review of studies published prior to 1989 on socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity supported the view that obesity in the developing world would be essentially a disease of the socioeconomic elite. The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity. Although more studies are necessary to clarify the exact nature of this relationship, partic...

  15. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Age: Exploring Intersections in Preterm Birth Disparities among Teen Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Coley, Sheryl L; Nichols, Tracy R.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Aronson, Robert E.; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L.; Morrison, Sharon D.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined disparities in adverse birth outcomes and compared contributing socioeconomic factors specifically between African-American and White teen mothers. This study examined intersections between neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income), maternal age, and racial disparities in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes between African-American and White teen mothers in North Carolina. Using a linked dataset with state birth record data and s...

  16. Profiles of Risk: Maternal Health, Socioeconomic Status, and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Landale, Nancy S.

    2013-01-01

    Child health is fundamental to well-being and achievement throughout the life course. Prior research has demonstrated strong associations between familial socioeconomic resources and children’s health outcomes, with especially poor health outcomes among disadvantaged youth who experience a concentration of risks, yet little is known about the influence of maternal health as a dimension of risk for children. This research used nationally representative U.S. data from the National Health Interv...

  17. Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudette D. Ncho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates ofmorbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Dueto the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health ina low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gainan understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due totheir socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory usingpurposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realisedas 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in SoshanguveExtension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using opencoding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and geneticconstitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and workingconditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of peopleliving in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approachfrom registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned andimplemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in thecommunity without evidence based on a family perspective.

  18. Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudette D., Ncho; Susan C.D., Wright.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situ [...] ation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch's approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.

  19. The Correlation between the Family Levels of Socioeconomic Status and Stage at Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Mohaghegh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stage is one of the most important prognostic factors for the cancer diagnosis, including the breast cancer. Studies have found that the rate of breast cancer late-stage diagnosis, among the women with lower socioeconomic status, is more than the others. The aim of this study was investigation the relationship between family levels of socioeconomic status and stage at diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive study has conducted on 526 patients who have suffered from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti university of Medical science, from March 2008 till December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family status of socioeconomic status, have filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS 19. Results: The results have indicated that the mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41. There was a significant relationship between stage at diagnosis of breast cancer and family levels of socioeconomic status at the time of diagnosis (p=0.024. Also, the relationship between stage at diagnosis and living place (in or out of Tehran was significant (p=0.044. In the Multiple logistic regressions, these associations were significant. There wasn’t any significant relationship between stage of diagnosis of breast cancer and age, marital status and family history. Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study, deep paying attention to the family socioeconomic status as an important variable in stage at diagnosis of breast cancer, among Iranian women, was too important, and then providing the prevention plans related to this topic has seemed necessary.

  20. ARE UNDER WEIGHT ADOLESCENTS BOYS ASSOCIATED TO A LOWER SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN INDONESIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A good understanding of the association between under nutrition and socioeconomic status (SES has many important public health and policies implications for the prevention and management of underweight. Objective: To examine the relation of SES, education level, working status, urban-rural and age on the Body mass index (BMI. Methods: The data were part of Basic Health Research in Indonesia, 2010. It was a cross sectional study that covered the whole households' members that were chosen through a multistage random sampling. Data was gathered using structured questionnaire. Frequency distributions and logistic regression were used for assessment of statistical association between variables. Results: It covered 20,819 boys, their mean age: 14.1+2.9 years, the prevalence of underweight and normal weight was 51.3% and 39.9%. The prevalence of underweight at 10 years and 19 years were 73.6% and 21.5%; the prevalence of normal weight at 10 years and 19 years were 18.3% and 63.7%. The adjusted odds ratios for the association With underweight for aged 13-15 years were: 0.53 (95% CI:0.48-0.57; for aged 16-19 years 0.23(0.21-0.26; for status of not working 0.89(0.82-0.95; for status of working 0.59(0.54-0.66; for finished elementary school 1.29(1.14-1.48; for no schooling/did not finished elementary school1.73(1.50-2.00; for medium socio-economic status 1.16(1.0Er 1.29; for low socio-economic status 1.23(1.11-1.37. Conclusions: Younger adolescents, lack of schooling and those with lower socioeconomic were more likely to be underweight. This study will help the government for developing programs to assist underweight adolescents.   Key words: Adolescents, boys, underweight, education, socio-economic status

  1. Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Esmaeeli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on weight, heighting and BMI of school age children. Healthy six years old children who were screened before enter, to school were eligible for participating in our study between 6 June 2006 and 31 July. Weight and standing height were documented at birth and measured at 6 years old. Then, their BMI were calculated in childhood period. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. Result. Results show that some socio-economic variables and birth weight is associated with and, perhaps, influence the variation of growth in the children. The variables which show the most consistent and significant association were birth weight, sex, economic status and education of parents. Conclusion. In this paper, we found that birth weight, economic status and education parents of neonates have directly significant effect on growth childhood period. We recommended that paying attention to these criteria for improving growth of children in our society should be considered by authorities.

  2. Relationship between socioeconomic status, health status, and lifestyle practices of American Indians: evidence from a Plains reservation population.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheadle, A; Pearson, D.; Wagner, E.; Psaty, B.M.; Diehr, P; Koepsell, T

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents information on the prevalence of a variety of health behaviors and health conditions on an American Indian reservation in the Plains region of the western United States. In addition, data from two non-Indian comparison groups were used to examine the extent to which differences in health status and health behaviors between Indians and non-Indians could be explained by differences in socioeconomic status. The American Indian data were from a survey conducted in 1988 during ...

  3. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Depression, and Health Status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pi-Sunyer F Xavier; Patricio Jennifer; Wesche-Thobaben Jacqueline; Pham Luu; Baptiste-Roberts Kesha; Gary-Webb Tiffany L; Brown Arleen F; Jones-Corneille LaShanda; Brancati Frederick L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a trial of long-term weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes, were linked ...

  4. Quality of life in lung cancer patients: does socioeconomic status matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milroy Robert

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of a prospective study on quality of life in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients an investigation was carried out to examine whether there were differences among patients' quality of life scores and their socioeconomic status. Methods Quality of life was measured at two points in time (baseline and three months after initial treatment using three standard instruments; the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP, the European Organization for Research and Cancer Treatment Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 and its lung cancer supplement (QLQ-LC13. Socioeconomic status for each individual patient was derived using Carstairs and Morris Deprivation Category ranging from 1 (least deprived to 7 (most deprived on the basis of the postcode sector of their address. Results In all, 129 lung cancer patients entered into the study. Of these data for 82 patients were complete (at baseline and follow-up. 57% of patients were of lower socioeconomic status and they had more health problems, less functioning, and more symptoms as compared to affluent patients. Of these, physical mobility (P = 0.05, energy (P = 0.01, role functioning (P = 0.04, physical functioning (P = 0.03, and breathlessness (P = 0.02 were significant at baseline. However, at follow-up assessment there was no significant difference between patient groups nor did any consistent pattern emerge. Conclusion At baseline assessment patients of lower socioeconomic status showed lower health related quality of life. Since there was no clear trend at follow-up assessment this suggests that patients from different socioeconomic status responded to treatment similarly. In general, the findings suggest that quality of life is not only the outcome of the disease and its treatment, but is also highly dependent on each patients' socioeconomic characteristics.

  5. Neuropsychiatric and Socioeconomic Status Impact Antiretroviral Adherence and Mortality in Rural Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Birbeck, Gretchen L.; Michelle P. Kvalsund; Byers, Peter A.; Bradbury, Richard; Mang'ombe, Charles; Organek, Natalie; Kaile, Trevor; Sinyama, Alex M.; Sinyangwe, Sylvester S.; Malama, Kennedy; Malama, Costantine

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study of 496 adults starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) to determine the impact of neuropsychiatric symptoms and socioeconomic status on adherence and mortality. Almost 60% had good adherence based upon pharmacy records. Poor adherence was associated with being divorced, poorer, food insecure, and less educated. Longer travel time to clinic, concealing one's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and experiencing side effects predicted poor adherence....

  6. Food Reinforcement Partially Mediates the Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Henry; Carr, Katelyn A.; Fletcher, Kelly D; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2013-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (low SES), as defined by income or educational attainment, has been associated with obesity in industrialized nations. Low SES persons have limited resources and may experience food insecurity that increases food reinforcement. Food reinforcement has been positively related to energy intake and weight status, and increased food reinforcement may explain the higher prevalence of obesity among low SES individuals who have restricted access to low-energy-dense foods and ...

  7. The Gradient in Sub-Saharan Africa: Socioeconomic Status and HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    FORTSON, JANE G.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Burkina Faso (2003), Cameroon (2004), Ghana (2003), Kenya (2003), and Tanzania (2003), I investigate the cross-sectional relationship between HIV status and socioeconomic status. I find evidence of a robust positive education gradient in HIV infection, showing that, up to very high levels of education, better-educated respondents are more likely to be HIV-positive. Adults with six years of schooling are as much as three percentage p...

  8. Does the FTO Gene Interact with the Socio?Economic Status on the Obesity Development Among Young European Children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Frauke; Gwozdz, Wencke; Reisch, Lucia; Russo, Paola; Lauria, Fabio; Siani, Alfonso; Veidebaum, Toomas; Tornaritis, Michael; Iacoviello, Licia; Vyncke, Krishna; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Mårild, Staffan; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A.; Bammann, Karin; Pigeot, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Various twin studies revealed that the influence of genetic factors on psychological diseases or behavior is more expressed in socio?economically advantaged environments. Other studies predominantly show an inverse relation between socio?economic status (SES) and childhood obesity in western developed countries. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the FTO gene interacts with the socio?economic status (SES) on childhood obesity in a subsample of the IDEFICS cohort (N=4406). A structur...

  9. Inequalities in maternal care in Italy: the role of socioeconomic and migrant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lauria

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal care is affected by socioeconomic factors. This study analyses the effect of maternal education, employment and citizenship on some antenatal and postnatal care indicators in Italy. METHODS: Data are from two population-based follow-up surveys conducted to evaluate the quality of maternal care in 25 Italian Local Health Units in 2008/9 and 2010/1 (6942 women. Logistic models were applied and interactions among independent variables were explored. RESULTS: Education and employment status affect antenatal and postnatal care indicators and migrant women are less likely to make use of health opportunities. Low education status exacerbates the initial social disadvantage of migrants. Migrant women are also more affected by socioeconomic pressure to restart working early, with negative impact on postnatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions focusing on women's empowerment may tackle inequalities in maternal care for those women, Italians or migrants, who have a worse initial maternal health literacy due to their lower socioeconomic conditions.

  10. Inequalities in maternal care in Italy: the role of socioeconomic and migrant status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Lauria; Manila, Bonciani; Angela, Spinelli; Michele E., Grandolfo.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Maternal care is affected by socioeconomic factors. This study analyses the effect of maternal education, employment and citizenship on some antenatal and postnatal care indicators in Italy. METHODS: Data are from two population-based follow-up surveys conducted to evaluate the quality [...] of maternal care in 25 Italian Local Health Units in 2008/9 and 2010/1 (6942 women). Logistic models were applied and interactions among independent variables were explored. RESULTS: Education and employment status affect antenatal and postnatal care indicators and migrant women are less likely to make use of health opportunities. Low education status exacerbates the initial social disadvantage of migrants. Migrant women are also more affected by socioeconomic pressure to restart working early, with negative impact on postnatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions focusing on women's empowerment may tackle inequalities in maternal care for those women, Italians or migrants, who have a worse initial maternal health literacy due to their lower socioeconomic conditions.

  11. Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status in primary school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)

  12. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  13. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BelstrØm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. RESULTS: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy) were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01). Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

  14. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

  15. Linking Socioeconomic Status to Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors: A Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Preschoolers' Mathematical Knowledge: The Contribution of Home Activities and Parent Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlorio, Lydia; Beliakoff, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) enter kindergarten with less developed mathematical knowledge compared to children from middle SES families. This discrepancy is present at age 3 years and likely stems from differences in the home learning environment. This study reports SES-related differences both in…

  17. Socio-economic status of Dog owners in Nagpur city of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Sawaimul

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey was carried out to study socioeconomic status of 50 dog owners in Nagpur of Maharashtra.The result revealed the businessmen (38% are more interested in dog keeping followed by government servants (16% and student (12%. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 229-229

  18. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  19. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  20. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…

  1. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  2. Relations of Gender and Socioeconomic Status to Physics through Metacognition and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Pesman, Haki

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) predicted physics achievement as mediated by metacognition and physics self-efficacy. Data were collected from 338 high school students. The model designed for exploring how gender and SES-related differences in physics achievement were explained through metacognition and physics…

  3. Reward Experience, Socioeconomic Status, and Sex: Exploring Parameters of the Overjustification Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Deanna E.

    The overjustification hypothesis predicts decreased intrinsic motivation when persons are paid to perform an interesting task. The factors of reward experience, socioeconomic status (SES), and sex are examined while testing conflicting predictions of the hypothesis and reinforcement theory. Children from grade 1 at two public elementary schools…

  4. Student Performance and Family Socioeconomic Status: Results from a Survey of Compulsory Education in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…

  5. Family Socioeconomic Status and Student Adaptation to School Life: Looking beyond Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Renato G.; Novo, Rosa F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In this quantitative, cross-sectional study we analyse the relationship between family socioeconomic status (SES) and students' adaptation to school life, as expressed through several indicators of achievement, integration (adaptation to transitions, behaviour problems, risk behaviours, interpersonal difficulties, participation in…

  6. Serum magnesium levels in preterm labour in relation to socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    SHARMA, Anjali; Kharb, Simmi; Vineeta; Gulati, Nirmal

    1998-01-01

    The present study revealed significantly lower levels of serum magnesium in patients with preterm labour without any apparent cause as compared to normal term pregnant women in labour. The values were also lower in women with low socioeconomic status, older age and consuming vegetarian diet. Hence, estimation of serum magnesium levels in pregnancy may be a useful parameter in preterm labour.

  7. Profiles of Cognitive Developmental Performance in Gifted Children: Effect of Bilingualism, Monolingualism, and Socioeconomic Status Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    This quasiexperimental research studies the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), language learning, and culture on gifted Hispanic children's performance in an alternative developmental scale (Qualitative Use of English and Spanish Tasks) of cognitive ability for generating developmental profiles. Results show the effect of SES and language…

  8. Children's Sleep and Cognitive Functioning: Race and Socioeconomic Status as Moderators of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Race and socioeconomic status (SES) moderated the link between children's sleep and cognitive functioning. One hundred and sixty-six 8- to 9-year-old African and European American children varying in SES participated. Sleep measures were actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-report; cognitive measures were from the Woodcock-Johnson III and reaction…

  9. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…

  10. Socioeconomic status and impact of treatment on families of children with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the socioeconomic status, treatment being offered and the impact of congenital heart disease treatment on families. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital / Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from first March to 31 August 2010. Methodology: All patients undergoing a cardiac surgical or angiographic intervention were enrolled. Socioeconomic status was assessed by Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale with income group modification. The impact was measured by the source of financing, effect on family financing source and schooling and health of siblings. Results: Of 211 patients undergoing treatment in the study period, surgery was the definitive treatment in 164 (77.7%) and angiographic intervention in 47 (22.3%) patients. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The mean age of the patient was 39.1 +- 3.2 months (range 01 day to 15 years). Majority of families belonged to middle (66.4%, n=140) and lower (27%, n=57) socioeconomic class. The mean cost of medicines and disposable was PKR 78378.2 +- 8845.9 (US$ 933.1 +- 105.3) in open heart surgery, PKR 12581 +- 7010.8 (US$ 149.8 +- 83.5) in closed heart surgery and PKR 69091 + 60906 in angiographic interventions. In 63.1% patients, families contributed towards these costs either completely (12.3%) or partly (50.8%) with significant contribution from the hospital. Adverse effect on families ranged from leave without pay to losing jobs or business (46%), and selling their assets (11.3%). It also affected schooling and health of siblings (22.7% and 26.1% respectively). Conclusion: Majority of children with congenital heart disease belonged to middle and lower socioeconomic status in this study. Main definitive treatment was surgery. The cost of health care facilities posed a marked socioeconomic burden on those families. (author)

  11. Socioeconomic Status, Youth’s Eating Patterns and Meals Consumed away from Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hejazi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was design to determine whether there is a difference in the number of meals consumed away from home (restaurant or fast food between low socioeconomic status (SES and high SES adolescents. Additionally, this study sought to determine if the nutrients and food group chosen differs among children who consume meals away from home versus those who do not. Eighty four adolescences (51 boys and 33 girls ages 12-16 years and their parents from Shiraz, Iran completed the three 24 h diet recalls (one weekend and two week days. The demographics questionnaire was also completed from each participant. Data analyzed using SPSS and hypothesis tested using one way ANOVA. There was no significant difference in the number of meals consumed away from home in low SES adolescents compared to high SES (p = 0.464. However, those who consumed meals away from home reported a higher percentage of calories from fat (p = 0.007 and serving of fried vegetables (p = 0.010 compared to those who consumed no meals away from home. These findings suggest that intervention for adolescents eating patterns should provide information on choosing healthy meals away from home.

  12. Socioeconomic status and organ damage in Mexican systemic lupus erythematosus women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Pinto, C; Méndez-Martínez, S; Soto-Santillán, P; Galindo Herrera, J; Pérez-Contreras, I; Macías-Díaz, S; Taboada-Cole, A; García-Carrasco, M

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine relationships between socioeconomic status and organ damage in Mexican systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Demographic and clinical variables were assessed. Socioeconomic status was evaluated using the Graffar method and monthly household income. Lupus activity and organ damage were measured using the SLE disease activity scale, validated for the Mexican population (Mex-SLEDAI), and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) scale. The 143 Mexican female SLE patients included (mean age 40.1?±?8.9 years, mean disease duration 8.9?±?6.3 years) had a mean monthly household income of $ 407.2?±?326.5. According to the Graffar index, 18.9%, 52.5%, and 28.7% had high/medium-high, medium, and medium-low/low socioeconomic status, respectively. Organ damage was observed in 61 patients (42.7%). Patients with organ damage had lower monthly household incomes ($241.4?±?152.4 vs. $354.8?±?288.3) and were more frequently unemployed (57.3% vs. 35.3%; p?=?0.01) than those without. Low monthly income was not associated with lupus activity or self-reported health status. In the adjusted multivariate analysis, low monthly income (?

  13. REVISED SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS SCALE FOR URBAN AND RURAL INDIA – REVISION FOR 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru Raj M.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The health status of any country depends on the socio economic status (SES and the per capita income of the citizens of that country. The SES also decides the affordability and utilization of the health facilities. Socioeconomic status (SES refers to an individual’s position within a hierarchical social structure, which is one of the important determinants of health status. Composite scales are generally used to measure the SES, which has a combination of social and economic variables. Several studies namely hospital and community based require assessment of socio-economic status of an individual/family. This reflects the affordability of health services, necessities and purchasing power of the same. Several methods or scales have been proposed for classifying different populations by socioeconomic status: Rahudkar scale 1960, Udai Parikh scale 1964, Jalota Scale 1970, Kulshrestha scale 1972, Kuppuswamy scale 1976, Shrivastava scale 1978, Bharadwaj scale 2001. Kuppuswamy classification is used in urban and peri urban areas which consider the education of the head of family, occupation of head of the family and per capita monthly income. Uday Pareekh classification is used for rural areas which takes into account following characteristics namely caste, occupation of family head, education of family head, and level of social participation of family head, landholding, housing, farm power, material possessions and type of family. B.G Prasad’s classification, Standard of living index and poverty line assessment are used in both urban and rural areas. Standard of living indices(SLI is based on following items- type of house, own/ rented house, possession of agricultural land, irrigated land, possession of live stalk, separate kitchen, fuel used for cooking, source of lighting, source of drinking water, type of toilet, items owned by the family e.g. cooker, TV, telephone. Measurement of poverty line is based on the following Scoreable Socio- Economic indicators: Size of operational landholding, Type of house, Availability of clothes, Food security, Sanitation, Ownership of consumer durables, Literacy status, Status of household labour force, Means of livelihood, Status of children (going to school,Type of indebtedness, Reason for migration from household and Preference for financial assistance. However, social transformation and fast growing economy have rendered these scales ineffective in measuring the SES at present. Hence considering present factors two most commonly used classifications i.e. Kuppuswamy classification and the B G Prasad classification has been revised.This revision enables and equips community related scientists in their quest for socioeconomic status.

  14. Socioeconomic status and cumulative disadvantage processes across the life course: implications for health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Jamie A; Avison, William R

    2012-02-01

    Given the complexity surrounding various interactions among health determinants and the challenge of being able to adequately describe the dynamic processes through which health determinants have their effects, the purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual overview demonstrating the effects of socioeconomic status and cumulative disadvantage on producing health disparities across the life course. The idea underlying cumulative disadvantage is that socioeconomic-based health inequalities will increase across the life course, mostly because of differential exposure to risk factors and access to protective resources. The advantage of life course sociology is its consideration of early life experiences, and the social and historical context of their occurrences, as important contingencies in producing these systematic socioeconomic differences in health gradients. PMID:22586837

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina DIMA-COZMA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Systemic hypertension is a common disease in the population and is one of the most important risk factors whose prevalence reaches 28% in U.S.A, 44% in Europe, so that in 2025, it is estimated that hypertensive persons will reach 1.56 billion worldwide. In our country, the overall prevalence was 44.92%, mainly higher in males (50.17% than females (41.11%. We conducted an assessment of social and psychological factors in association with medical and biological routine quantification in a group of 80 hypertensives newly diagnosed, compared with a control group. Questionnaires were for studying the marital status, education level, quantifying the number of working hours per day, the level of physical training and professional socio-familial stress, smoking, alcohol consumption, after which patients were tested to assess the psychometric anxiety and depression using the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The results may support an increased risk of hypertension in individuals who are undergoing to social and family stress, working over 10 hours/day and who record mild or moderate levels of anxiety and depression at evaluation tests. These data support the implementation of complex programs to decrease the risk of hypertension by working professionals in the medical, social and psychological fields of expertise.

  16. Socioeconomic status influences physical fitness in European adolescents independently of body fat and physical activity: the HELENA Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Pavón, David; Ortega, Francisco B.; Jonatan R. Ruiz; España Romero, Vanesa; García Artero, E.; Moliner Urdiales, Diego; Gómez Martínez, Sandra; Vicente Rodríguez, Germán; Manios, Y.; L. Béghin; J. Répasy; Sjöstrom, Michael; Luis A. Moreno; M. González Gross; Castillo, Manuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The influence of socioeconomic status on health-related fitness is not clear. Aim: To examine the influence of socioeconomic status on health-related fitness in adolescents. Methods: A total of 3,259 adolescents (15.0 ± 1.3 y) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Ado- lescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) partici- pated in the study. Socioeconomic status was assessed by the family affluence scale (FAS). Speed-agility, muscular strength and cardiorespi...

  17. Socioeconomic Status Modifies the Seasonal Effect on Blood Pressure: Findings From a National Panel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cois, Annibale; Ehrlich, Rodney

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal variations in blood pressure have been consistently reported. However, uncertainty remains about the size of the seasonal effect in different regions, and about factors that explain the differences observed across and within populations. Using data from a national panel study, we investigated seasonal variations in blood pressure in the South African adult population, and whether these variations differed across socioeconomic strata.We estimated age-specific seasonal effects on blood pressure using a multilevel structural equation model, with repeated measurements nested within subjects. Effect modification by socioeconomic status was assessed by repeating the analyses in the subpopulations defined by levels of education, household income per capita, and type of housing.In men and women, season had a statistically significant effect on blood pressure, with higher levels in winter and lower levels in summer. For systolic blood pressure, the magnitude of the seasonal effect was 4.25/4.21 mmHg (women/men) and was higher in the older age groups. For diastolic blood pressure, the effect size was 4.00/4.01 mmHg, with no evident age trend. Seasonal effects were higher among subjects in the lowest socioeconomic classes than in the highest, with differences between 2.4 and 7.7 mmHg, depending on gender, whether systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and socioeconomic status indicator.In the South African adult population, blood pressure shows seasonal variation modified by age and socioeconomic status. These variations have epidemiological, clinical, and public health implications, including the prospect of population level intervention to reduce elevated risk of cold weather cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:26334893

  18. A STUDY ON RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACHIEVEMENT LEVELAND THEIR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF SECONDARY CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOUTAM CHAKRABORTY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environment is a global concept today. Environmental Education is an approach to learning. Environmental Education means the educational process dealing with man's relationship of population, pollution resource, conservation, technology, energy, urban and rural planning to the total biosphere.A self-made questionnaire was made in order to find the relationship between the Environmental Education aptitude and socioeconomic status among class IX Children of rural, urban and semi urban. The question paper contents fifty (50 questions and it divided into two sector. In sector-I content (10 questions by which the socioeconomic status of the children can be known and Sector-II consists of four type questions by which Environmental Education aptitude can be understood.Socioeconomic status is evaluated from the response of sector-I questions by analyzing the educational status of the family, occupation of the parents & the monthly income of the family of a particular student or sample. After classifying the samples into 3 classes of status (upper, middle & lower according to their socioeconomic condition, the mean of the marks was computed. The mean score of every status group is then analyzed to know the relationship between Environmental Education achievement level and socioeconomic status. Although there are many factor are responsible for the academic achievements in Environmental Education. But from this observation it may conclude that there is a strong relationship between Environmental Education achievement and socio-economic status.

  19. Influence of the socioeconomic status on the prevalence of malocclusion in the primary dentition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiene Silva, Normando; Regina Fátima Feio, Barroso; David, Normando.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência da condição socioeconômica na prevalência de má oclusão na dentição decídua em uma população amazônica. MÉTODOS: esse estudo transversal compreendeu 652 crianças, de ambos os sexos, entre 3 e 6 anos de idade. Os indivíduos estavam matriculados na pré-escola na rede pr [...] ivada de ensino (alto nível socioeconômico; n = 312) ou, rede pública (baixo nível socioeconômico; n = 340), em Belém, no Pará. O teste chi-quadrado e estatística binominal foram usados para avaliar as diferenças entre os grupos socioeconômicos, com nível de significância considerado em p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of socioeconomic background on malocclusion prevalence in primary dentition in a population from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 652 children (males and females) aged between 3 to 6 years old. Subjects were enrolled in private p [...] reschools (higher socioeconomic status - HSS, n = 312) or public preschools (lower socioeconomic status - LSS, n = 340) in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Chi-square and binomial statistics were used to assess differences between both socioeconomic groups, with significance level set at P

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OF SOME ANTHROPOMETRIC, FUNCTIONAL, AND MOTOR INDICATORS ON YOUNG EXAMINEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seryozha Gontarev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on 2,083 children from elementary schools in the municipality of Kisela Voda, Republic of Macedonia, their ages ranging from 6 to 10 years old.. The aim of this research is to verify the effects of the socioeconomic status on some anthropometric, functional and motor measurements. Two anthropometric measurements, two functional measurements (diastolic and systolic pressure, three measurements for determining body structure and six motor tests have been used to complete the research. The results have been processed with the appropriate multivariate and univariate statistical procedures. According to the results we can conclude that the socioeconomic status affects the body weight, height, percentage of adipose tissue and some tests that measure the fitness level in the body. These effects are more common within the female respondents

  1. Associations between Children’s Socioeconomic Status and Prefrontal Cortical Thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Gwendolyn M.; Duda, Jeffrey T; Avants, Brian B; Wu, Jue; Farah, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function performance and measures of prefrontal cortical function, but little is known about its anatomical correlates. Structural MRI and demographic data from a sample of 283 healthy children from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development were used to investigate the relationship between SES and prefrontal cortical thickness. Specifically, we assessed the association between two principal measures of childhood SES, family income an...

  2. Socioeconomic status and stress in Mexican–American women: a multi-method perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Linda C.; Shivpuri, Smriti; Gonzalez, Patricia; Fortmann, Addie L.; de los Monteros, Karla Espinosa; Roesch, Scott C; Talavera, Gregory A; Matthews, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    Stress is a hypothesized pathway in socioeconomic status (SES)-physical health associations, but the available empirical data are inconsistent. In part, this may reflect discrepancies in the approach to measuring stress across studies, and differences in the nature of SES-stress associations across demographic groups. We examined associations of SES (education, income) with general and domain-specific chronic stressors, stressful life events, perceived stress, and stressful daily experiences ...

  3. Impact of socioeconomic status on mortality and unplanned readmission in septic intensive care unit patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnegelsberg, A; Mackenhauer, J; Nibro, H L; Dreyer, P; Koch, K; Kirkegaard, H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the potential association between socioeconomic status (SES) and prognosis after sepsis. We analysed how SES impacted mortality and readmission in septic patients treated at the intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital. METHODS: We performed a cohort study including all adult patients admitted to a general tertiary ICU with severe sepsis or septic shock during 2008-2010. Data on SES (educational level, personal income, and cohabitation), comorbidity, r...

  4. Association between weight perception and socioeconomic status among adults in the Seychelles

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Julita; Paccaud Fred; Viswanathan Bharathi; Alwan Heba; Bovet Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have examined the association between weight perception and socioeconomic status (SES) in sub-Saharan Africa, and none made this association based on education, occupation and income simultaneously. Methods Based on a population-based survey (n = 1255) in the Seychelles, weight and height were measured and self-perception of one's own body weight, education, occupation, and income were assessed by a questionnaire. Individuals were considered to have appropriate...

  5. Geographic Variability in the Association between Socioeconomic Status and BMI in the USA and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lebel, Alexandre; Kestens, Yan; Clary, Christelle; Bisset, Sherri; Subramanian, S.V

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Reported associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity are inconsistent depending on gender and geographic location. Globally, these inconsistent observations may hide a variation in the contextual effect on individuals' risk of obesity for subgroups of the population. This study explored the regional variability in the association between SES and BMI in the USA and in Canada, and describes the geographical variance patterns by SES category. Methods: The 2009–2010 sam...

  6. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Melanoma, Ultraviolet Radiation, and Socioeconomic Status

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  7. Impact of socioeconomic status on the use of inhaled corticosteroids in young adult asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Søndergaard, Jens; Hallas, Jesper; Siersted, Hans Christian; Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Andersen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based longitudinal study was to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and anti-asthmatic treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) among young Danish adult asthmatics, and to investigate whether these associations were consistent over time. METHODS: We extracted data on prescription drug use, education, and income in 97 665 users of anti-asthmatic drugs, aged 18-44 years, identified in Statistics Denmark during 1997-2005. Individual ...

  8. Polygenic Risk Score, Parental Socioeconomic Status, Family History of Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk for Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Hollegaard, Mads V; Meier, Sandra; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ripke, Stephan; Wray, Naomi R; Mortensen, Preben B

    2015-01-01

    Importance: Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. Objective: To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's gen...

  9. Personality, socio-economic status and inflammation: cross-sectional, population-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Millar, Keith; Lloyd, Suzanne M; McLean, Jennifer S.; Batty, David G.; Burns, Harry; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Deans, Kevin A.; Ford, Ian; McConnachie, Alex; McGinty, Agnes; Mottus, Réne; Packard, Chris J.; Sattar, Naveed; Shields, Paul G; Nathan, Yoga

    2013-01-01

    Background: Associations between socio-economic status (SES), personality and inflammation were examined to determine whether low SES subjects scoring high on neuroticism or hostility might suffer relatively higher levels of inflammation than affluent subjects. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 666 subjects were recruited from areas of high (most deprived – “MD”) and low (least deprived – “LD”) deprivation. IL-6, ICAM-1, CRP and fibrinogen were measured along with demographic ...

  10. Knowledge of cardiovascular disease risk factors among the Canadian population: relationships with indicators of socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Potvin, L; L. Richard; Edwards, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined the ability of adult Canadians to recall cardiovascular disease risk factors to determine the associations between their ability to recall risk factors for cardiovascular disease and their socioeconomic status. METHODS: This study used the database assembled by the Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group between 1986 and 1992--a stratified representative sample comprising 23,129 Canadian residents aged 18 to 74. Nurses administered a standard questionnaire asking ...

  11. Pathways linking socioeconomic status to obesity through depression and lifestyle factors among young US adults

    OpenAIRE

    Beydoun, May A; Wang, Youfa

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and depression are two diseases of major public health importance. While both correlate with each other, potential pathways involving depression that would link socioeconomic status (SES) to lifestyle factors and obesity have not been systematically examined using nationally representative data. Using rich data on 2,217 US young adults aged 20–39 years from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) and multivariate linear and logistic regression models, we examined ...

  12. Independent Effects of Bilingualism and Socioeconomic Status on Language Ability and Executive Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the la...

  13. Differential association of socioeconomic status in ethnic and age defined suicides

    OpenAIRE

    Purselle, David C.; Heninger, Michael; Hanzlick, Randy; Garlow, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide rates vary among racial- and age-defined groups, yet little is known about how suicide risk factors differentially impact individual groups. This study assessed differential associations of socioeconomic status among age- and race-defined groups of suicide victims. A database containing demographic information on declared suicides in Fulton County, GA from 01/01/1988 through 12/31/2003 was combined with annual per capita income by zip code in Atlanta, GA. Analyses were performed to ev...

  14. Still unequal at birth - birth weight, socioeconomic status and outcomes at age 9

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Birth weight is an important aspect of public health which has been linked to increased risk of infant death, increased cost of care, and a range of later life outcomes. Using data from a new Irish cohort study, I document the relationship between birth weight and socioeconomic status. A strong association with maternal education does not appear to be due to the timing of birth or complications during pregnancy, even controlling for a wide range of background characteristics. However, results...

  15. Effects of infants’ birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status on birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed J. Gaemmaghami; Leila Nikniaz; Reza Mahdavi; Zeinab Nikniaz; Farzad Razmifard; Farzaneh Afsharnia

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of infants’ birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. Methods. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants’ first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants’ birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression ...

  16. Motor vehicle driver injury and socioeconomic status: a cohort study with prospective and retrospective driver injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, G.; Norton, R.; Clark, T.; Pledger, M; JACKSON, R; MACMAHON, S

    2003-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between motor vehicle driver injury and socioeconomic status. DESIGN: Cohort study with prospective and retrospective outcomes. SETTING: New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: 10 525 adults (volunteer sample of a multi-industry workforce, n=8008; and a random sample of urban electoral rolls, n=2517). OUTCOME MEASURE: Motor vehicle driver injury resulting in admission of the driver to hospital or the driver's death, or both, during the period 1988-98; hospit...

  17. Time series analysis of air pollution and mortality: effects by cause, age and socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, N; Fletcher, T

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between outdoor air pollution and mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.?DESIGN—Time series study?METHODS—All causes, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality were analysed and the role of age and socioeconomic status in modifying associations between mortality and air pollution were investigated. Models used Poisson regression and included terms for temporal patterns, meteorology, and autocorrelation.?MAIN RESULTS—All causes all ages mortality showed much sm...

  18. Socioeconomic status and health in the second half of life: findings from the German Ageing Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Schöllgen, Ina; Huxhold, Oliver; Tesch-Römer, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    This study examined social inequalities in health in the second half of life. Data for empirical analyses came from the second wave of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS), an ongoing population-based, representative study of community dwelling persons living in Germany, aged 40–85 years (N = 2,787). Three different indicators for socioeconomic status (SES; education, income, financial assets as an indicator for wealth) and health (physical, functional and subjective health) were employed. It coul...

  19. Access to health care in relation to socioeconomic status in the Amazonian area of Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Charlotte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Hugo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Tomson, Göran; Hartvig, Per

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drugs in relation to household socioeconomic status for children in two small Amazonian urban communities of Peru; Yurimaguas, Department of Loreto and Moyobamba, Department of San Martin, Peru. METHODS: Cro...

  20. IS POSTURE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN ASSOCIATED WITH SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OF THEIR PARENTS?

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrzad Zandi; Reza Rajabi

    2011-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with health is well-established. Nevertheless; theunderlying mechanisms linking SES to adverse health outcomes have yet to be established. Wehypothesized that poor posture as a risk factor in general health would be directly related to SESand as such; eventually influences health. In eepresentative clustered sample of 100 childrenaged 7-11; kyphosis; lordosis; head and shoulder posture were examined. SES data wascollected from parents. Poor postur...

  1. Socioeconomic Status and Chronic Kidney Disease at Presentation to a Renal Service in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, Aminu K.; Peters, Jean; Rigby, Jan; Rahman, Alhussein A.; El Nahas, Meguid

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with both development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The impact of SES on severity of CKD at presentation to a renal service is less well known. This study investigated the relationship between SES and severity of CKD in a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis involving 1657 patients at the Sheffield Kidney Institute (Sheffield, UK).

  2. Do agreements between adolescent and parent reports on family socioeconomic status vary with household financial stress?

    OpenAIRE

    Chou Yiing-Jenq; Huang Nicole; Pu Christy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many studies compared the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parents' reports on family socioeconomic status (SES). However, none of these studies analyzed whether the degree of concordance varies by different levels of household financial stress. This research examines whether the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parent reports for the three traditional SES measures (parental education, parental occupation and household income) varied with parent...

  3. Socio-Economic Status and Parental Savings for Higher Education among Malaysian Bumiputera Families

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Rashidah Zainal; Rohana Kamaruddin; Siti Badariah Saiful Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic status of a family is a benchmark for a student in Malaysia to get financial aid in education, on top of their academic performance. As the number of students obtaining good grades in their Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia examination increases, entry to public universities become more competitive and the chances to get a full education financing become smaller. Most students resort to loans provided by PTPTN as many still do not have any form of saving to finance their higher education...

  4. Socioeconomic Determinants of Nutritional Status of Children in Lao PDR: Effects of Household and Community Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-i...

  5. Socioeconomic Status, Negative Affect, and Modifiable Cancer Risk Factors in African American Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Kendzor, Darla E; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had a...

  6. Association between socio-economic status and sexual behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukovi? Dejana S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of contextual factors as determinants of sexual behavior of adolescents. It has been found that lower socioeconomic status is associated with risky sexual behavior. Sexual behavior is individual but develops under strong influence of cultural and other influences. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of family’s socioeconomic status and risky sexual behavior of adolescents in Belgrade. Method. Self-administered questionnaire was used in secondary schools in Belgrade, and 1,782 adolescents attending first grade filled the questionnaire. For the analyses of predictors of risky sexual behavior, multiple logistic regression was used. Results. Parents’ occupations did not show significant association with any of analyzed behaviors. Adolescents who received weekly disposable money above average were 2.5 times more likely to ever have had sexual intercourse, and if sexually active were more likely to use contraception. Perceived family’s wealth was a significant predictor of ever having sex (OR=1.9; CI 1.2-2.8 and not using contraception (OR=4.3; CI 1.2-15.0. Conclusion. Socioeconomic status is associated with sexual behaviors of adolescents. Fifteen-year olds who perceive their families as wealthier are more likely to ever have had sex and not use any kind of contraception. Adolescents with higher weekly income are more likely to ever have had sex and use contraception than their counterpats with less weekly disposable money. .

  7. A pilot study of differences in play behavior between children of low and middle socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zuben, M V; Crist, P A; Mayberry, W

    1991-02-01

    Although play is an important activity of childhood, it is often a neglected modality in occupational therapy. Poverty has been identified as a factor that adversely affects the play of children when a limited number of factors are studied. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore multiple play behaviors that may be related to socioeconomic status. The developmental play ages of 41 middle socioeconomic status preschool children (22 boys, 19 girls) and 43 low socioeconomic status preschool children (24 boys, 19 girls) were assessed with a modified version of the Preschool Play Scale (Bledsoe & Shepherd, 1982; Knox, 1974). Teachers rated the children's play behavior after a minimum of 2 months of interaction in their preschool classrooms. No significant differences between these two groups of children were found for developmental play age, play dimensions, or play categories. It was concluded that the exposure to positive experiences, such as peer interaction and preschool setting, may minimize the effects of poverty conditions on the play behavior of children. PMID:2035587

  8. Ethnicity, socio-economic status, and health research: Insights from and implications of Charles Tilly’s theory of Durable Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Lorant, Vincent; Bhopal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. Ethnic inequalities in health status and health care remain substantial in Europe and addressing them is becoming a priority. However, the best way to respond to such a challenge is, as yet, unclear. The research community is grappling with the contribution of socio-economic discrimination to ethnic inequalities. Methods. We present a new theoretical analysis, based on the landmark work of Charles Tilly on ‘Durable Inequality’ and we apply it to the publ...

  9. Socioeconomic status as determinant for participation in mammography screening: assessing the difference between using women's own versus their partner's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellén, Malin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2010-01-01

    Earlier research has shown that participation in mammography screening tends to vary across socioeconomic levels. We assessed the difference between using the woman's own socioeconomic status (SES) and using that of her household or partner as determinant of participation in mammography screening.

  10. A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

  11. Associations of Socioeconomic Status with Diet and Physical Activity in Migrant Bougainvilleans in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengiau, Gwendalyn; Umezaki, Masahiro; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Siba, Peter; Watanabe, Chiho

    2014-01-01

    Urban migrants in Papua New Guinea have undergone a nutritional transition. The present study investigated associations of socioeconomic status with dietary and physical activity patterns among migrant Bougainvilleans from Nassioi territory in the capital city of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. All adults Naasioi migrants residing in Port Moresby were identified (N = 185) and 70 were included. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity, and dietary patterns were assessed by per-week consumption frequency of food items. Principal component analysis was applied to produce a composite score for socioeconomic status. Least square regression analysis indicated that socioeconomic status was positively correlated with consumption of a traditional diet (p = .03) and negatively with walking-related physical activity (p = .02), but it was not correlated with MET-minutes of moderate/vigorous activity. Different patterns of nutritional transition occur among migrants in urban Papua New Guinea, depending on socioeconomic status. PMID:25105859

  12. Maternal Body Mass Index, Dietary Intake and Socioeconomic Status: Differential Effects on Breast Milk Zinc, Copper and Iron Content

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab Nikniaz; Seyed Jamal Gayem-magami; Bahram Pourghassem Gargari; Reza Mahdavi; Leila Nikniaz

    2011-01-01

    Background: As breast milk micronutrients content are essential for health and growth of the infants, this study was conducted to determine the breast milk zinc, copper and iron concen-trations and their possible correlations with maternal nutritional status, dietary intakes as well as socioeconomic status.Methods: Breast milk samples and information on maternal anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake were collected from 90 Iranian lactating women with 3 different socioeco-nomic sta...

  13. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Novignon Jacob; Nonvignon Justice

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Me...

  14. Prevalence of COPD and its association with socioeconomic status in China: Findings from China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Yong; Li Yichong; Zhang Mei; Yin Peng; Zhao Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Socioeconomic status is likely an independent risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), but little research has been done in China to study this association in a nationwide sample. Methods We used data from the 2007 China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance of 49,363 Chinese men and women aged 15-69 years to examine the association between the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnosed COPD and socioeconomic status defined by both educational ...

  15. Childhood Trauma and Chronic Illness in Adulthood: Mental Health and Socioeconomic Status as Explanatory Factors and Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, Steven E.; Arai, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typic...

  16. Childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood: mental health and socioeconomic status as explanatory factors and buffers

    OpenAIRE

    SusanM Arai

    2011-01-01

    Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typ...

  17. Influence of socioeconomic status on community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in elderly patients requiring hospitalization: a multicenter observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Carratalà Jordi; Bayas Jose-María; Nebot Manel; Vera Isabel; Sintes Xavier; Ruiz Laura; Oviedo Manuel; Izquierdo Conchita; Varona Wenceslao; Sousa Dolores; Celorrio Jose-Miguel; Salleras Luis; Domínguez Angela

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The associations between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in adults have been studied although studies did not always document a relationship. The aim of this multicenter observational study was to determine the association between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in the elderly, in the context of a public health system providing universal free care to the whole population. Methods A total of 651 patients aged ?65...

  18. Is Socioeconomic Status Associated With Biological Aging as Measured by Telomere Length?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Tony; Batty, G. David; Der, Geoff; Fenton, Candida; Shiels, Paul G.; Benzeval, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that one way in which lower socioeconomic status (SES) affects health is by increasing the rate of biological aging. A widely used marker of biological aging is telomere length. Telomeres are structures at the ends of chromosomes that erode with increasing cell proliferation and genetic damage. We aimed to identify, through systematic review and meta-analysis, whether lower SES (greater deprivation) is associated with shorter telomeres. Thirty-one articles, including 29 study populations, were identified. We conducted 3 meta-analyses to compare the telomere lengths of persons of high and low SES with regard to contemporaneous SES (12 study populations from 10 individual articles), education (15 study populations from 14 articles), and childhood SES (2 study populations from 2 articles). For education, there was a significant difference in telomere length between persons of high and low SES in a random-effects model (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.060, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.002, 0.118; P = 0.042), although a range of sensitivity analyses weakened this association. There was no evidence for an association between telomere length and contemporaneous SES (SMD = 0.104, 95% CI: ?0.027, 0.236; P = 0.119) or childhood SES (SMD = ?0.037, 95% CI: ?0.143, 0.069; P = 0.491). These results suggest weak evidence for an association between SES (as measured by education) and biological aging (as measured by telomere length), although there was a lack of consistent findings across the SES measures investigated here. PMID:23258416

  19. Impact of socioeconomic status on Brazilian elderly health / Impacto do status socioeconômico na saúde de idosos brasileiros

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marília, Ramos.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar o impacto do status socioeconômico na saúde de idosos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a base de dados transversal Inquérito sobre a Saúde, o Bem estar o Envelhecimento na América Latina e Caribe. Analisaram-se 2.143 idosos (60 anos ou mais) residentes em domicílios, na área urbana de São [...] Paulo, no ano de 2000. Modelos de regressões lineares estimaram o efeito dos indicadores de status socioeconômico (anos de estudo completos, ocupação e poder de compra) nos indicadores de saúde: depressão, auto-avaliação da saúde, morbidade e capacidade de memória. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: Observou-se efeito significativo dos anos de estudo e do poder de compra na auto-avaliação da saúde e na capacidade da memória, quando controlado pelas variáveis: número de doenças antes dos 15 anos de idade, ter ficado na cama ao menos por um mês por problema de saúde antes dos 15 anos, auto-avaliação da saúde na infância, arranjos de vida, sexo, idade, estado civil, tipo de seguro de saúde, ingestão de remédios. Somente a capacidade de compra apresentou efeito na depressão. Apesar das análises bivariadas indicarem uma associação entre status socioeconômico e o número de doenças (morbidade), este efeito desapareceu quando os controles entraram no modelo. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam a associação entre indicadores socioeconômicos e a saúde dos idosos brasileiros, mas somente entre alguns indicadores e certos aspectos da saúde. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on elderly health. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean. The sample comprised 2,143 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 years and older livin [...] g in the urban area of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Linear regression models estimated the effect of socioeconomic status indicators (years of schooling completed, occupation and purchasing power) on each one of the following health indicators: depression, self-rated health, morbidity and memory capacity. A 5% significance level was set. RESULTS: There was a significant effect of years of education and purchasing power on self-rated health and memory capacity when controlled for the variables number of diseases during childhood, bed rest for at least a month due to health problems during childhood, self-rated health during childhood, living arrangements, sex, age, marital status, category of health insurance, intake of medicines. Only purchasing power had an effect on depression. Despite the bivariate association between socioeconomic status indicators and number of diseases (morbidity), this effect was no longer seen after including the controls in the model. CONCLUSIONS: The study results confirm the association between socioeconomic status indicators and health among Brazilian elderly, but only for some dimensions of socioeconomic status and certain health outcomes.

  20. Socio-economic status is related to incidence of asthma and respiratory symptoms in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, U; Eriksson, K; Rönmark, E

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the association between socio-economic status and impaired respiratory health in a 10-yr follow-up of a population-based postal survey in Northern Sweden. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios in relation to socio-economic class, using age, sex, a family history of asthma, smoking habits, and occupational exposures to dust, gases and fumes as possible confounders. The study comprised 2,341 males and 2,413 females. Cumulative incidences were generally lowest in professionals, including executives and civil servants at intermediate and higher levels, who were chosen as reference group. Manual workers in industry showed a significantly increased risk of developing asthma, recurrent wheeze, attacks of shortness of breath or a combination of the two, and chronic productive cough. Manual workers in service showed a similar pattern for attacks of shortness of breath, recurrent wheeze, or a combination of the two, and chronic productive cough. The corresponding population attributable risks were approximately 10%. Low socio-economic status was a risk factor for the development of asthma, symptoms common in asthma and chronic productive cough. PMID:16540503

  1. Household and community socioeconomic and environmental determinants of child nutritional status in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongou Roland

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine the household and community level socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with child nutritional status in Cameroon, and changes in the effects of these factors during the 1990s economic crisis. We further consider age-specific effects of household economic status on child nutrition. Methods Child nutritional status was measured by weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores. Data were from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1991 and 1998. We used analysis of variance to assess the bivariate association between the explanatory factors and nutritional status. Multivariate, multilevel analyses were undertaken to estimate the net effects of both household and community factors. Results Average WAZ and HAZ declined respectively from -0.70 standard deviations (SD, i.e. 0.70 SD below the reference median, to -0.83 SD (p = 0.006 and from -1.03 SD to -1.14 SD (p = 0.026 between 1991 and 1998. These declines occurred mostly among boys, children over 12 months of age, and those of low socioeconomic status. Maternal education and maternal health seeking behavior were associated with better child nutrition. Household economic status had an overall positive effect that increased during the crisis, but it had little effect in children under 6 months of age. Improved household (water, sanitation and cooking fuel and community environment had positive effects. Children living in the driest regions of the country were consistently worst off, and those in the largest cities were best off. Conclusion Both household and community factors have significant impact on child health in Cameroon. Understanding these relationships can facilitate design of age- and community-specific intervention programs.

  2. [Effect of socioeconomic status on mortality in urban areas: a systematic critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Barreira, Ángel; Estany-Gestal, Ana; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2014-08-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities cause more disease and death than most risk factors, especially in cities. This systematic review of the scientific evidence included articles in English, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian and excluded studies with low levels of evidence and those that did not analyze associations between mortality and socioeconomic status in urban settings. Articles were selected by two independent reviewers, and data extraction used evidence tables. A total of 1,509 records were obtained, and 24 were included. All the studies showed higher mortality rates in poorer areas. Six studies showed an association with cardiovascular diseases, four with lung diseases, and three with AIDS, infectious and parasitic diseases, and cirrhosis. The selected studies showed low consistency in the results and important methodological limitations that prevented comparisons between studies or the extraction of relevant conclusions. PMID:25210902

  3. Engaging women volunteers of high socioeconomic status in supporting socioeconomically disadvantaged tuberculosis patients in Chiang Rai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacharee Kantipong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The 2008 tuberculosis (TB surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736 defaulted from treatment. Context: TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. Action: We engaged Chiang Rai women’s organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic status to support poor TB patients financially and socially. A group of women formed a team to support these TB patients (n = 192 by raising and sustaining funds and providing home visits (n = 37. TB surveillance and patient-fund register data were used to evaluate TB treatment outcomes. Outcome: The success of TB treatment was significantly higher for patients receiving financial support (relative risk [RR]: 1.351; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.53; P < 0.000. Lower death rates in all groups were observed among patients receiving financial support. However, financial assistance alone did not improve treatment outcomes for migrant patients. Thirty-seven patients (25 Thai, eight hill tribe, four migrants who were visited by women volunteers at home achieved 95% TB treatment success. Discussion: It is possible to involve volunteers to support poor TB patients. Willingness to support TB patients was driven by presenting provincial TB epidemiology information, research data on the experience of poor patients and the inspiring experiences of other women volunteers. Future research should investigate the reasons for the high treatment success among patients who received home visits.

  4. A Study on Socio-Economic Status of Maid-Servant in Purulia Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHYAMAL KUMAR BISWAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over last few decades, there have been rapid growths in the number of women employee in India and majority of them being engaged in informal sector of the economy where jobs are often low paid and repetitive. An attempt has been made in this study to trace out the socio-economic status of maid-servant as well as the manner in which they lives in the informal sector in Purulia Municipal area of the same district of West Bengal. The study has been carried out through personal interview and observation. Results indicate that most of the maid-servants (78% are satisfied in their profession and most of the respondents (82.35% do not engaged with other work except maid-servant for earning. However, economic compulsion is the main hardship for taking the job as maid-servants. The general educational status of the maid-servants is not satisfactory and wages of the maid-servants are very low. The maid-servants are subject to variety of exploitations starting from low wages to maltreatment and sexual harassment by the employer. In view of this exploitation it is necessary to improve their socio-economic status and working conditions.

  5. Health literacy, socioeconomic status and self-rated health in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Yoko; Kondo, Naoki; Yamagata, Zentaro; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy (HL) is a key determinant of health in a contemporary society characterized by abundant information. Previous studies have suggested that basic or functional HL is positively associated with health, whereas evidences on the association between health and communicative/critical HL are scarce. Furthermore, confounding by socioeconomic status on HL-health association has been poorly tested. Using cross-sectional data from a nationally representative community-based survey in Japan, we investigated whether communicative/critical HL is associated with self-rated health independent of socioeconomic status. A total of 1237 subjects participated in this study; the response rate was 62%. To measure communicative/critical HL, we used three questions assessing the respondents' ability to select, to communicate to others and to evaluate specific health-related information. Potential confounders included demographic factors, household income, employment status, and educational attainment. A multivariate model revealed that good self-reported health was significantly associated with younger age [odds ratio (OR), 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-0.99], employment (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.06-7.88) and higher communicative/critical HL scores (OR 2.75; 95%CI, 1.93-3.90). Respondents with lower education were likely to have poorer communicative/critical HL. These results imply that to close the health gap, policy interventions should focus on the promotion of HL among deprived sociodemographic groups. PMID:24131729

  6. Socioeconomic Status, Parental Investments, and the Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes of Low-Income Children from Immigrant and Native Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, R.S.; Biesanz, J.C.; Chien, N.; Howes, C.; Benner, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes and if these relations are mediated by the quality of children's home environment and moderated by family nativity status. Data come from 1459 low-income families (n=257 and 1202 immigrant and native families,…

  7. Prospective Associations Between Socio-economic Status and Dietary Patterns in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenandez-Alviraa, Juan Miguel; Börnhorst, Claudia; Bammann, Karin; Gwozdz, Wencke; Krogh, Vittorio; Hebestreit, Antje; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Reisch, Lucia; Eiben, Gabriele; Iglesia, Iris; Veidebaum, Toomas; Kourides, Yiannis; Kovács, Eva; Huybrechts, Inge; Pigeot, Iris; Moreno, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes in children's diet over time and the relationship between these changes and socio-economic status (SES) may help to understand the impact of social inequalities on dietary patterns. The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns by applying a cluster analysis to 9301 children participating in the baseline (2–9 years old) and follow-up (4–11 years old) surveys of the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Inf...

  8. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, P.; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 ...

  9. Still Unequal at Birth: Birth Weight, Socio-economic Status and Outcomes at Age 9

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of low birth weight is an important aspect of public health which has been linked to increased risk of infant death, increased cost of care, and a range of later life outcomes. Using data from a new Irish cohort study, I document the relationship between birth weight and socio-economic status. The association of maternal education with birth weight does not appear to be due to the timing of birth or complications during pregnancy, even controlling for a wide range of background...

  10. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX - An unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitati...

  11. Associations between adolescent and adult socioeconomic status and risk of obesity and overweight in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boylan, Sinead M; Gill, Timothy P; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Andersen, Lars B; Heitmann, Berit L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that socioeconomic status (SES) may influence the risk of obesity; however it is important to consider individual changes in SES over the life-course in addition to SES at specific time-points to better understand the complex associations with obesity. We explored the relationship between lifetime-specific and life-course SES and risk of obesity and overweight in Danish adults. METHODS: Data were used from the Danish Youth and Sports Study (DYSS) – a 20–22 year ...

  12. Socioeconomic Status, Youth’s Eating Patterns and Meals Consumed away from Home

    OpenAIRE

    N. Hejazi; Z. Mazloom

    2009-01-01

    This study was design to determine whether there is a difference in the number of meals consumed away from home (restaurant or fast food) between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high SES adolescents. Additionally, this study sought to determine if the nutrients and food group chosen differs among children who consume meals away from home versus those who do not. Eighty four adolescences (51 boys and 33 girls) ages 12-16 years and their parents from Shiraz, Iran completed the three 24 h die...

  13. Subclinical psychopathology and socio-economic status in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg Christensen, Maj; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most potent risk factor for affective disorders is a family history of affective disorder but the specific factors that are transmitted in families are unknown. It is possible to investigate the relation between risk factors and affective disorder by using a high-risk design e.g.: a study of the healthy relatives of patients with affective disorders. AIM: To compare psychopathology and socio-economic status between twins with a co-twin history of affective disorder and twins with...

  14. Density and type of food retailers surrounding Canadian schools: variations across socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura M; Pickett, William; Boyce, William F; Janssen, Ian

    2009-09-01

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods may have differential access to food retailers, potentially explaining the varying area-level obesity rates. The food retail environment around 188 schools across Canada was examined, including full-service restaurants, fast food restaurants, sub/sandwich retailers, donut/coffee shops, convenience stores, and grocery stores. School addresses were linked to census data to obtain area-level SES measures. Access to food retailers was generally not associated with the neighbourhood SES in the immediate proximity. Within the broader neighbourhood, lower SES neighbourhoods had access to fewer food retailers of all types. This effect was diminished after taking population density into account. PMID:19121973

  15. Is socioeconomic status of the rearing environment causally related to obesity in the offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontaine, Kevin R; Robertson, Henry T; Holst, Claus; Desmond, Renee; Stunkard, Albert J; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Allison, David B

    2011-01-01

    We attempt to elucidate whether there might be a causal connection between the socioeconomic status (SES) of the rearing environment and obesity in the offspring using data from two large-scale adoption studies: (1) The Copenhagen Adoption Study of Obesity (CASO), and (2) The Survey of Holt Adoptees and Their Families (HOLT). In CASO, the SES of both biological and adoptive parents was known, but all children were adopted. In HOLT, only the SES of the rearing parents was known, but the children ...

  16. Amerind ancestry, socioeconomic status and the genetics of type 2 diabetes in a Colombian population.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, DD; Parra, MV; Duque, C.; Gallego, N; Franco, L; A Tandon; Hu?nemeier, T.; Bortolini, C; Villegas, A.; Bedoya, G.; Mccarthy, MI; Price, A.; Reich, D.; Ruiz-Linares, A.

    2012-01-01

    The “thrifty genotype” hypothesis proposes that the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Native Americans and admixed Latin Americans has a genetic basis and reflects an evolutionary adaptation to a past low calorie/high exercise lifestyle. However, identification of the gene variants underpinning this hypothesis remains elusive. Here we assessed the role of Native American ancestry, socioeconomic status (SES) and 21 candidate gene loci in susceptibility to T2D in a sample of 876 T2D c...

  17. Effects of adolescent physical abuse, exposure to neighborhood violence, and witnessing parental violence on adult socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Herbert C; Menard, Scott; Franzese, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    Research on the effects of adolescent physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, and perceptions of community violence have generally, with few exceptions, found them to be predictive of subsequent negative behavioral outcomes, such as substance abuse, crime, and other problem behaviors. Less frequently studied is the relationship of these adverse adolescent experiences to adult socioeconomic statuses. This study utilizes longitudinal self-report data from the National Youth Survey Family Study to investigate how these three factors influence future socioeconomic statuses: marital status, educational attainment, employment, income, and wealth (net worth). Significant associations with adult socioeconomic statuses are found most often for physical abuse, but neighborhood violence is the only one of the three that is predictive of adult employment. Witnessing parental violence is associated with adult income and net worth. Limitations and policy implications of the present research, in the context of past research in this area, are considered. PMID:23420296

  18. Socioeconomic Status and Coronary Heart Disease Risk: The Role of Social Cognitive Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer E.; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine existing research on social cognitive factors that may, in part, mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We focus on how social status is ‘carried’ in the mental systems of individuals, and how these systems differentially affect CHD risk and associated behaviors. To this end, literatures documenting the association of various social cognitive factors (e.g., social comparison, perceived discrimination, and self-efficacy) with cardiovascular disease are reviewed as are literatures regarding the relationship of these factors to SES. Possible mechanisms through which social cognitions may affect health are addressed. In addition, directions for future research are discussed, and a model identifying the possible associations between social cognitive factors, SES, and coronary disease is provided. PMID:21785652

  19. The associations between socioeconomic status and obesity in Korean children from 1998 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Young Nam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing interests have been shown in associations between socioeconomic status (SES and obesity in relation to health inequality. The research objectives were 1 to examine associations between SES and child obesity (including overweight in Korea over 10 years and 2 to explore possible underlying mechanisms of relationships between SES and obesity. This study used the nationally representative data (KNHA-NES from 1998, 2005, to 2009. Children (10-18 year-old were grouped by household income (low, middle-low, middle-high and high adjusted for the number of family members. Z-scores of height, weight, and BMI for each child were calculated from measured anthropometric data using the 2007 Korean national growth charts. No statistically significant associations were found, however, changes in association patterns were noted. The lower SES group showed shorter height as well as lighter weight among Korean children. More research should be conducted to understand the effects of socioeconomic status on child obesity.  

  20. RELATIONSHIP OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS WITH OBESITY INDICATORS AND DIETARY HABITS OF COLLEGE GIRLS

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    Mukesh Kumar Mishra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study of was to find out Tthe relationship of Socioeconomic Status (SES with Obesity Indicators and Dietary Habits (DH of college girls. For the present study 43 adult female students, age ranged 20-25 years from the various departments of the Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur were selected as subjects of the study. For determining the relationship of selected variables, descriptive statistics and the Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation were used, the data analyzed with the help of SPSS (16.0 version software and the level of significance was set at 0.05 level of confidence. The results indicate that there was a significant relationship of Socioeconomic Status with Fat%, WHR, BMI and DH as the p-values were less than 0.05. Results also shows that the SES have positive relationship with fat% (r=0.425, WHR (r=0.396 and BMI (r=0.657 another hand SES have negative relationship with DH (r=0.434.

  1. Widowers' accounts of maternal mortality among women of low socioeconomic status in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Ezebunwa Ethelbert

    2012-09-01

    The research is based on information collected on 50 deceased Nigerian women of low socioeconomic status in different locations of the country including Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Zaria, Minna, Enugu, and Port-Harcourt among others. They had some common characteristics such as low levels of education, involvement in petty trading and were clients of a microfinance bank as small loan receivers. Primary data were generated mainly through verbal autopsy with widowers employing in-depth interviews and key informant interviews. In addition, unobtrusive observation was carried out in these locations to ascertain in some instances the distance between the deceased homes and health facilities patronised by the women. Secondary data were specific to death certificates of the deceased supplied by the widowers. Both ethnographic summaries and content analysis were employed in data analysis to account for contextual differences, especially in a multicultural society like Nigeria. The findings implicated several issues that are taken for granted at the micro-family and macro-society levels. It specifically revealed that small loans alone are not sufficient to empower poor women to make meaningful contributions to their own reproductive health in a patriarchal society like Nigeria. Results also indicated that cultural differences as well as rural-urban dichotomy were not proximate determinants of maternal behaviour; the latter rather finds expression in low socioeconomic status. Consequently, policy relevant recommendations that could contribute to significant maternal mortality reduction were proffered. PMID:23437504

  2. Socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water in Spain

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    Serra Consol

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disinfection by-products in drinking water are chemical contaminants that have been associated with cancer and other adverse effects. Exposure occurs from consumption of tap water, inhalation and dermal absorption. Methods We determined the relationship between socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in 1271 controls from a multicentric bladder cancer case-control study in Spain. Information on lifetime drinking water sources, swimming pool attendance, showering-bathing practices, and socioeconomic status (education, income was collected through personal interviews. Results The most highly educated subjects consumed less tap water (57% and more bottled water (33% than illiterate subjects (69% and 17% respectively, p-value = 0.003. These differences became wider in recent time periods. The time spent bathing or showering was positively correlated with attained educational level (p Conclusions The most highly educated subjects were less exposed to chlorination by-products through ingestion but more exposed through dermal contact and inhalation in pools and showers/baths. Health risk perceptions and economic capacity may affect patterns of water consumption that can result in differences in exposure to water contaminants.

  3. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX - An unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Juul, Svend

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX personsretired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated.

  4. The HUNT study: participation is associated with survival and depends on socioeconomic status, diseases and symptoms

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    Langhammer Arnulf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population based studies are important for prevalence, incidence and association studies, but their external validity might be threatened by decreasing participation rates. The 50 807 participants in the third survey of the HUNT Study (HUNT3, 2006-08, represented 54% of the invited, necessitating a nonparticipation study. Methods Questionnaire data from HUNT3 were compared with data collected from several sources: a short questionnaire to nonparticipants, anonymous data on specific diagnoses and prescribed medication extracted from randomly selected general practices, registry data from Statistics Norway on socioeconomic factors and mortality, and from the Norwegian Prescription Database on drug consumption. Results Participation rates for HUNT3 depended on age, sex and type of symptoms and diseases, but only small changes were found in the overall prevalence estimates when including data from 6922 nonparticipants. Among nonparticipants, the prevalences of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders were higher both in nonparticipant data and data extracted from general practice, compared to that reported by participants, whilst the opposite pattern was found, at least among persons younger than 80 years, for urine incontinence, musculoskeletal pain and headache. Registry data showed that the nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status and a higher mortality than participants. Conclusion Nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status, higher mortality and showed higher prevalences of several chronic diseases, whilst opposite patterns were found for common problems like musculoskeletal pain, urine incontinence and headache. The impact on associations should be analyzed for each diagnosis, and data making such analyses possible are provided in the present paper.

  5. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen Pauline W; Verlinden Marina; Berkel Anke Dommisse-van; Mieloo Cathelijne; van der Ende Jan; Veenstra René; Verhulst Frank C; Jansen Wilma; Tiemeier Henning

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimiza...

  6. Differences in risk factors for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) receiving needed specialty care by socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Bae Sejong; Fulda Kimberly G; Lykens Kristine A; Singh Karan P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting CSHCN's receiving needed specialty care among different socioeconomic levels. Previous literature has shown that Socioeconomic Status (SES) is a significant factor in CHSHCN receiving access to healthcare. Other literature has shown that factors of insurance, family size, race/ethnicity and sex also have effects on these children's receipt of care. However, this literature does not address whether other factors suc...

  7. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Trine Rønde; Jensen, Signe Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explai...

  8. Adolescent Socioeconomic and School-Based Social Status, Smoking, and Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Relationships between subjective social status (SSS) and health-risk behaviors have received less attention than those between SSS and health. Inconsistent associations between school-based SSS and smoking or drinking might be because it is a single measure reflecting several status dimensions. We investigated how adolescent smoking and drinking are associated with “objective” socioeconomic status (SES), subjective SES, and three dimensions of school-based SSS. Methods Scottish 13–15 years-olds (N = 2,503) completed questionnaires in school-based surveys, providing information on: “objective” SES (residential deprivation, family affluence); subjective SES (MacArthur Scale youth version); and three school-based SSS dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”). We examined associations between each status measure and smoking (ever and weekly) and drinking (ever and usually five or more drinks) and investigated variations according to gender and age. Results Smoking and heavier drinking were positively associated with residential deprivation; associations with family affluence and subjective SES were weak or nonexistent. Both substances were related to each school-based SSS measure, and these associations were equally strong or stronger than those with deprivation. Although SSS-peer was positively associated with both smoking and (especially heavier) drinking, SSS-scholastic and SSS-sports were negatively associated with both substances. There were no gender differences in the associations and few according to age. Conclusions Subjective school-based status has stronger associations with adolescent smoking and drinking than “objective” or subjective SES. However, different dimensions of school-based status relate to adolescent smoking and drinking in opposing directions, meaning one measure based on several dimensions might show inconsistent relationships with adolescent substance use. PMID:26095407

  9. Psychiatric illness, socioeconomic status, and marital status in people committing suicide: a matched case-sibling-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Qin, Ping

    2006-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Suicides cluster in both families and persons with psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages. This study compares these factors between suicide cases, their siblings, and population based controls in an attempt to evaluate both the familial and the individual element of these factors. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Information on causes of death, psychiatric admission, marital status, children, and socioeconomic factors was obtained from routine registers. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 985 suicide cases, 1104 sex-age (+/-3 years) matched siblings, and 16 619 controls. MAIN RESULTS: The suicide rate ratios obtained from the case-sibling and the case-control analysis, respectively, were of similar magnitude. For example, in the case-sibling analysis the adjusted suicide rate ratios associated with discharge from a psychiatric hospital within the previous 365 days, being unemployed the previous year, having a postgraduate degree and being single were 42.13 (95% CI 17.75 to 100.02), 1.78 (1.35 to 2.36), 0.51 (0.21 to 1.26), and 2.69 (1.91 to 3.79), respectively. The corresponding rate ratios obtained from the case-control analysis were 47.91 (35.41 to 64.83), 1.76 (1.49 to 2.08), 0.45 (0.26 to 0.76), and 2.39 (1.87 to 3.07). Moreover, the analogous ratios when comparing siblings and controls were 1.98 (1.08 to 3.63), 1.22 (1.06 to 1.41), 0.65 (0.44 to 0.95), and 0.89 (0.75 to 1.06). CONCLUSIONS: People who commit suicide deviate similarly from siblings and controls in exposure to hospitalised psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic disadvantages, although these factors contribute to the familial aggregation of suicides.

  10. Emergent Literacy: Ways to Foster These Skills in Preschool Children from Low-Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Kavin; Powell, Tenisha

    2010-01-01

    Emergent literacy skills are important for children's academic achievement. Many preschool children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds have limited access to experiences that allow them to acquire emergent literacy skills such as letter knowledge, concepts of print, and phonological awareness. This article describes purposeful and age-appropriate…

  11. Do relationships between environmental attributes and recreational walking vary according to area-level socioeconomic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Howard, Natasha J; Paquet, Catherine; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Residents of areas with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are known to be less physically active during leisure time. Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be related to recreational walking equally in low and high SES areas. This cross-sectional study tested whether associations of specific environmental attributes, measured objectively and subjectively, with walking for recreation were moderated by area-level SES. The data of the North West Adelaide Health Study collected in 2007 (n?=?1500, mean age 57) were used. Self-reported walking frequency was the outcome of the study. Environmental exposure measures included objectively measured walkability components (residential density, intersection density, land use mix, and net retail area ratio) and perceived attributes (access to destinations, neighborhood esthetics, walking infrastructure, traffic/barriers, and crime safety). Participants' suburbs were categorized into low and high SES areas using an indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage. Low SES areas had lower scores in residential density, neighborhood esthetics, walking infrastructure, traffic/barriers, and crime safety. Recreational walking was associated with residential density, access to destinations, esthetics, traffic/barriers, and crime safety. Effect modification was observed for two attributes (out of nine): residential density was associated with walking only in low SES areas, while walking infrastructure was associated with walking only in high SES areas. The associations of neighborhood environmental attributes with recreational walking were largely consistent across SES groups. However, low SES areas were disadvantaged in most perceived environmental attributes related to recreational walking. Improving such attributes in low SES neighborhoods may help close socioeconomic disparities in leisure time physical activity. PMID:25604935

  12. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Depression, and Health Status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Sunyer F Xavier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes, a trial of long-term weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes, were linked to neighborhood-level SES (% living below poverty from the 2000 US Census (tracts. Dependent variables included depression (Beck Inventory, and health status (Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36 scale. Multi-level regression models were used to account simultaneously for individual-level age, sex, race, education, personal yearly income and neighborhood-level SES. Results Overall, the % living in poverty in the participants' neighborhoods varied, mean = 11% (range 0-67%. Compared to their counterparts in the lowest tertile of neighborhood poverty (least poverty, those in the highest tertile (most poverty had significantly lower scores on the role-limitations(physical, role limitations(emotional, physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, and vitality sub-scales of the SF-36 scale. When evaluating SF-36 composite scores, those living in neighborhoods with more poverty had significantly lower scores on the physical health (?-coefficient [?] = -1.90 units, 95% CI: -3.40,-0.039, mental health (? = -2.92 units, -4.31,-1.53 and global health (? = -2.77 units, -4.21,-1.33 composite scores. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with poorer health status. Whether these associations might influence response to the Look AHEAD weight loss intervention requires further investigation.

  13. Direct and Indirect Effects of Brain Volume, Socioeconomic Status and Family Stress on Child IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus Jenkins, Jade V; Woolley, Donald P; Hooper, Stephen R; De Bellis, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    1.1. Background A large literature documents the detrimental effects of socioeconomic disparities on intelligence and neuropsychological development. Researchers typically measure environmental factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), using income, parent's occupation and education. However, SES is more complex, and this complexity may influence neuropsychological outcomes. 1.2. Methods This studyused principal components analysis to reduce 14 SES and 28 family stress indicators into their core dimensions (e.g. community and educational capital, financial resources, marital conflict). Core dimensions were used in path analyses to examine their relationships with parent IQ and cerebral volume (white matter, grey matter and total brain volume), to predict child IQ in a sample of typically developing children. 1.3. Results Parent IQ affected child IQ directly and indirectly through community and educational capital, demonstrating how environmental factors interact with familial factors in neuro-development. There were no intervening effects of cerebral white matter, grey matter, or total brain volume. 1.4. Conclusions Findings may suggest that improving community resources can foster the intellectual development of children. PMID:24533427

  14. Socio-economic status of fishermen of the Marjat Baor at Kaligonj in Jhenidah district, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Banerjee Bappa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the socio-economic status of fishermen of the Marjat Baor at Kaligonj of Jhenidah district. Fifty fishermen from 50 families were interviewed. Results revealed that 94% respondents were married and age varied between 30 and 45 years. Almost all the fishermen were Hindus (96%. Most of the people of the community were illiterate (60% and among all of the school going children (58% were boys and (42% were girls. Above fifty percent people lived in nuclear family. 40% people lived in earthen house, constructed by grass leaves and mud. Only a few (18% of them were found to be use electricity. Primary occupation of 60% respondents was fishing and few were also involved in agriculture. They were often found to suffer from various diseases due to lack of pure drinking water. Majority of them got fever and receive treatment from quack. Only twelve percent (12% women were engaged in making nets for fishing. Annual household income of maximum beneficiaries (44% was below BDT 30,000 and above BDT 50,000 found in only 4% cases. In the present study, educational, organizational, and technical credit support were very crucial to develop their better socio-economic conditions.

  15. Adult food intake patterns are related to adult and childhood socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. Dietary data were collected at follow-up using a 195-item FFQ. Food patterns were derived from principal component analysis. Two food patterns labeled "traditional-western food pattern" and "green food pattern" were identified. In men, adult SES was inversely associated with adherence to the traditional-western food pattern. High adherence to the green food pattern was positively related to high adult SES in both sexes. Among women, those with high SES in childhood had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low childhood SES, regardless of adult SES. Among men, those with high adult SES had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low adult SES, regardless of childhood SES. In conclusion, socioeconomic position is important for the development of adult food intake patterns. However, childhood SES seems more important for adult female food intake patterns, whereas adult SES seems more important for adult male food intake patterns.

  16. Adult Food Intake Patterns Are Related to Adult and Childhood Socioeconomic Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. Dietary data were collected at follow-up using a 195-item FFQ. Food patterns were derived from principal component analysis. Two food patterns labeled "traditional-western food pattern" and "green food pattern" were identified. In men, adult SES was inversely associated with adherence to the traditional-western food pattern. High adherence to the green food pattern was positively related to high adult SES in both sexes. Among women, those with high SES in childhood had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low childhood SES, regardless of adult SES. Among men, those with high adult SES had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low adult SES, regardless of childhood SES. In conclusion, socioeconomic position is important for the development of adult food intake patterns. However, childhood SES seems more important for adult female food intake patterns, whereas adult SES seems more important for adult male food intake patterns.

  17. Education and Socioeconomic Status of Parents - Factors of Influence For Income Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionu? Constantin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of income inequality is a general and constant concern of both the public and researchers and politicians. This subject, though, and has been widely debated, never becomes obsolete and does not lose its importance or valence mobilizing the more as he becomes more present with the onset of the recent economic crisis. This interest framework, on the one hand and the difficult context generated the economic crisis, on the other hand, bring forward decisions and policy choices implemented or required to restore economic balance and well-being of citizens. Causes (factors of influence of income inequality differ from country to country, there is dispute among economists on the preponderance of cases compared to the others. However in this paper I will analyze two of these factors: education and socioeconomic status of their parents.

  18. Socioeconomic status & returning for a second screen in the Ontario breast screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatla, R K; Paszat, L F; Bondy, S J; Chen, Z; Chiarelli, A M; Mai, Verna

    2003-08-01

    In a retrospective cohort study involving 57902 women initially screened between January 1, 1995 and December 31 1997 by the Ontario Breast Screening Program (OBSP), we examined the relationship between geographically derived socioeconomic status (SES) and returning for a second screen. We controlled for age, rurality, preferred language, initial mammography results, previous mammography history, and referral by a health professional. Although SES was related to returning, rurality was an effect modifier of this relationship, a finding not previously reported. Compared to women in the highest ('richest') quintile, urban women in the first and second quintile were less likely to return; this relationship was not found in rural women. Low SES women, particularly in urban areas, should be specifically targeted to increase their likelihood of re-attendance for breast cancer screening within an organized program. PMID:14659307

  19. Socioeconomic status and health: what we know and what we don't.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, N E; Ostrove, J M

    1999-01-01

    In the past 15 years, we have seen a marked increase in research on socioeconomic status (SES) and health. Research in the first part of this era examined the nature of the relationship of SES and health, revealing a graded association; SES is important to health not only for those in poverty, but at all levels of SES. On average, the more advantaged individuals are, the better their health. In this paper we examine the data regarding the SES-health gradient, addressing causal direction, generalizability across populations and diseases, and associations with health for different indicators of SES. In the most recent era, researchers are increasingly exploring the mechanisms by which SES exerts an influence on health. There are multiple pathways by which SES determines health; a comprehensive analysis must include macroeconomic contexts and social factors as well as more immediate social environments, individual psychological and behavioral factors, and biological predispositions and processes. PMID:10681884

  20. Mastery in middle adolescence: the contributions of socioeconomic status, maternal mastery and supportive-involved mothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Kristin L; Shen, Yuh-Ling

    2014-02-01

    Mastery, or the feeling of power or control over one's life, is a vital yet understudied covariate of wellbeing in adolescence and adulthood. The goal of the current study was to explore the effects of demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES)), maternal mastery, and supportive-involved mothering on children's mastery at ages 16-17 years. 855 teens (47.6% female) and their mothers provided study data as part of the 1992 and 1998 waves of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (NLSY-79; 24.1% Hispanic, 36.6% Black). Hybrid path models indicated that only maternal parenting during middle childhood was linked directly to levels of children's mastery in middle adolescence; a small portion of the association between parenting and adolescent mastery was attributable to SES. The discussion centers on significance of these findings for future research and theory development. PMID:23605690

  1. Independent Effects of Bilingualism and Socioeconomic Status on Language Ability and Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children’s development irrespective of the child’s level on the other factor. PMID:24374020

  2. The Assessment of Relations between Socioeconomic Status and Number of Complications among Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    B Mohebbi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Iranian aged 25-64 estimated to be about 7.7%.The aim of current study was the assessment of socioeconomic status of diabetic patients and their complications.Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted on type 2 diabetic patients with complications in four major teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS during July 2009 to March 2010. All patients (530 were interviewed through a questionnaire with 85% response rate (450 patients. Skilled nurses were assigned as responsible for data collection. Collected data analyzed by Exact Fisher and ?2 tests using SPSS version 11.5.Results: The majority of patients had experienced one or more complications. Findings revealed that 50%, 33.6% and 16.4% of the patients suffered from one, two, and three complications of type 2 diabetes, respectively. Patients with cardiovascular complications included 22.2%, with both cardiovascular and eye complications (12.7%, and with cardiovascular, eye and foot ulcer together 14% of the respondents. Frequency of complications demonstrated significant relation with sex,age,educational level,type of occupation, duration of diabetes (P<0.001 and social class (P=0.002.The majority of patients (54.2% belonged to low income group.Conclusion: It seems patients with low socioeconomic status face more challenges in their social environment together with less psychological support. Health care systems are responsible to empower them to control their illness and feel a better life to live.

  3. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, transfusions and risk of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, N; Basuki, B; Mulyanto; Garabrant, D H; Sulaiman, A; Noer, H M

    1997-11-01

    This study identifies the risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and measures the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis C (anti-HCV) in the general population of Jakarta. A population-based sample of 985 people aged 15 and above was surveyed. Risk factors were identified through questionnaires and home visits. Serum was analysed for HBsAg, antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), anti-HCV, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The seroprevalence was: 4.0% (39/985) for HBsAg, 17.2% (170/985) for anti-HBs, and 3.9% (38/985) for anti-HCV. The risk factors for hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection had little in common. Low socioeconomic status was a strong risk factor for HBsAg (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 18.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.35-139.50). In addition, the Chinese group has 2.97 higher risk of having HBV infection compared with the Malayan ethnic group (adjusted OR 2.97; 95% CI 1.22-7.83). There was moderate positive trend between family size and risk of HBsAg positivity (P = 0.130). Age over 50 (adjusted OR 14.72; 95% CI 4.35-49.89) and history of transfusion were significant risk factors for hepatitis C (adjusted OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.25-7.33). Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections have different risk factors in Jakarta, a high risk in population for both diseases. Hepatitis B transmission is associated with low socioeconomic status, Chinese ethnic group and large family size, while hepatitis C is associated with an older age and a history of transfusions. PMID:9430042

  4. Variety more than quantity of fruit and vegetable intake varies by socioeconomic status and financial hardship. Findings from older adults in the EPIC cohort?

    OpenAIRE

    Conklin, Annalijn I.; Forouhi, Nita G; Suhrcke, Marc; Surtees, Paul; Nicholas J. Wareham; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    •Eating a variety of many fruits and vegetables is critical for healthy aging.•Variety is as important as quantity of fruits and vegetables for disease prevention.•Fruit and vegetable consumption is strongly graded by socioeconomic status.•Variety was strongly patterned by socioeconomic status and by financial hardships.•Economic inequalities were greater in women for fruit and men for vegetable variety.

  5. Influence of socioeconomic and demographic status on spirometry testing in patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Mette M; Søndergaard, Jens; Christensen, René Depont; Jarbøl, Dorte E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status is known to influence the prevalence, severity and mortality of obstructive lung diseases, but it is uncertain whether it affects the use of diagnostic spirometry in patients initiating treatment for these conditions. The objective of this paper was to examine a possible association between education, income, labour market affiliation, cohabitation status and having spirometry performed when initiating medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: ...

  6. Association between socioeconomic status and self-reported diabetes in India: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Corsi, Daniel J; Subramanian, S. Venkata

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and type 2 diabetes in India. Design: Nationally representative cross-sectional household survey. Setting: Urban and rural areas across 29 states in India. Participants: 168 135 survey respondents aged 18–49 years (women) and 18–54 years (men). Primary outcome measure: Self-reported diabetes status. Results: Markers of SES were social caste, household wealth and education. The overall prevalence of self-reported diab...

  7. Association of Socioeconomic Status and Exercise Capacity in Adults With Coronary Heart Disease (from the Heart and Soul Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Beth; VITTINGHOFF, ERIC; Whooley, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with reduced treadmill exercise capacity and predicted adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Why patients with low SES had reduced exercise capacity and whether this relation existed in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) was not known. Using data from the Heart and Soul Study, the association of 4 indicators of SES (household income, education, housing status, and occupation) with treadmill exercise capacity was analyzed in 943 men and women ...

  8. Engaging women volunteers of high socioeconomic status in supporting socioeconomically disadvantaged tuberculosis patients in Chiang Rai, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pacharee Kantipong; Jirapohn Wongyai; Supalert Nedsuwan; Sarmwai Luangjina; Jintana Ngamvithayapong-Yanai; Nobukatsu Ishikawa

    2013-01-01

    Problem: The 2008 tuberculosis (TB) surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736) defaulted from treatment. Context: TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. Action: We engaged Chiang Rai women’s organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic statu...

  9. The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

  10. Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

  11. Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…

  12. Family Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement among Korean Adolescents: Linking Mechanisms of Family Processes and Adolescents' Time Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Dayoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined pathways through which family socioeconomic status may influence adolescents' academic achievement. We focused on parental monitoring and adolescents' after-school time-use patterns as linking mechanisms. Participants were 441 twelve- to fourteen-year-old Korean adolescents who participated in the Korea Welfare Panel Study.…

  13. Mexican American Mothers of Low and Middle Socioeconomic Status: Communication Behaviors and Interactive Strategies during Shared Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Hines, Rachel; Montiel, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to describe and compare the communication behaviors and interactive reading strategies used by Mexican American mothers of low- and middle-socioeconomic status (SES) background during shared book reading. Method: Twenty Mexican American mother-child dyads from the Southwestern United States were observed…

  14. Alcohol-related sickness absence of young employees in Norway: The impact of social roles and socioeconomic status

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    Schou Line

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – First, to establish whether there are differences in alcohol-related sickness absence according to socioeconomic status and family situation among young employees in Norway. Second, if differences are found, to assess whether they can be attributed mainly to differences in drinking patterns.

  15. Brief Report: Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescents in Belgrade--Association with Socioeconomic Status and Family Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Dejana S.; Bjegovic, Vesna M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and family structure with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A total of 1782 15-year-old Belgrade schoolchildren (47.5% boys and 52.5% girls) completed a questionnaire from the WHO study, "Health behavior of schoolchildren." Results:…

  16. Prevalence of COPD and its association with socioeconomic status in China: Findings from China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance 2007

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    Jiang Yong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status is likely an independent risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, but little research has been done in China to study this association in a nationwide sample. Methods We used data from the 2007 China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance of 49,363 Chinese men and women aged 15-69 years to examine the association between the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnosed COPD and socioeconomic status defined by both educational level and annual household income. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was performed with adjustement for potential confounders. Results Both low educational attainment and low household income were independently associated with higher risk of physician-diagnosed COPD. Compared to subjects with high educational level, subjects with low educational level had a significantly increased risk of COPD (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.32-2.13, p for trend Conclusions Socioeconomic status is a risk factor for self-reported physician-diagnosed COPD independently of current or passive smoking. Prospective studies are needed in China to better understand the association between socioeconomic status and COPD.

  17. Social Consciousness of Low-Income College Students in Taiwan: The Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Collegiate Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic status (SES), collegiate involvement, and social consciousness of low-income college students (LICSs) and higher-income college students (HICSs) in Taiwan. The study analyzed 1,453 LICSs and 1,453 HICSs from 156 colleges in Taiwan. The results showed that the two student groups exhibited different SESs and…

  18. Parents' Socioeconomic Status and Health Literacy Domains among Shokrof Preparatory School Students , Shokrof Village, Algarbia Governorate, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alseraty, Wafaa Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Parents' socioeconomic status is mainly impact their children health outcomes, cognitive, social and emotional development. It also had a great impact on children health-related knowledge, health-related attitudes, health-related communication, health-related behavior, and self-efficiency level. Enhancing health literacy domains are the keystone…

  19. Social Support and Socioeconomic Status Predict Secondary Students' Grades and Educational Plans Indifferently across Immigrant Group and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulriksen, Robin; Sagatun, Åse; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Waaktaar, Trine; Lervåg, Arne Ola

    2015-01-01

    Social support and socioeconomic status (SES) have received considerable attention in explaining academic achievement and the achievement gap between students with ethic majority and immigrant background, and between boys and girls. Using a Structural Equation Modeling approach we examine (1) if there exist a gap in school achievements between…

  20. The Association Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Violence Onset: Does it Vary by Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2005-01-01

    The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…

  1. Effect Of Stress On The Academic Achievement Of Students In Relation To Socio-economic Status And Sex

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    Bharti Sharma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Children feel stress long before they grow up. Many children have to cope with family conflict, divorce, constant changes in schools, neighbourhood and child care arrangements, peer pressure and sometimes even violence in their homes or communities. The impact of a stressor depends on the academic achievement of students. It is the stress which does not allow students to perform well in classroom situation, the study objectives The objectives tested in this part of the study are as under 1. To study the differences in scores of academic achievement between the students possessing different levels of stress belonging to different socio-economic status and sex. 2. To study the nature of interaction between stress and socio-economic status, stress and sex, and among stress, socioeconomic status and sex when academic achievement was taken as a dependent variable. The study reveals that students belonging to High Socio-economic Status are academically sound as compared to their counterparts while as when male and female students compared together they have an equal chance of being academically sound or poor. This reveals that when stress and sex, and SES and Sex taken jointing they do effect on dependent variable i.e. academic achievement.

  2. Examination of Science Learning Equity through Argumentation and Traditional Instruction Noting Differences in Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, O.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared student scientific reasoning and conceptual knowledge in argumentation-based and traditional instruction, taught in school regions with low and high socio-economic status (SES) respectively. Furthermore, concrete and formal reasoning students' scientific reasoning and conceptual knowledge were compared during both instructions…

  3. Contribution of ethnic group and socioeconomic status to degree of disability in rheumatoid arthritis in Chilean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Ana M; Muñoz, Sergio; Kaufman, Jay S; Martínez, Carlos; Riedemann, Pablo; Kaliski, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the contributions of ethnic group and socioeconomic status as social determinants related to disability and disease activity in Chilean Mapuche and non-Mapuche patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Descriptive cross-sectional study with a stratified hospital-based sample of 189 patients in treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. We assessed disability as categorical variable with the Health Assessment Questionnaire, disease activity with the Disease Activity Score instrument, and socioeconomic status with a standard questionnaire used by the Chilean government. Measures of association, stratified analyses and a multiple logistic regression model were used to analyze the data using the Stata 12.1 software package. Low socioeconomic status (annual income below US$ 7,200) is associated with disability (OR 3.87 CI 1.68-9.20) and Mapuche ethnic identity also contributes to disability (OR 2.48, CI 1.09-5.89). Relevant but not statistically significant in multivariable models were variables such as age, gender and place of residence. RA patients with a low socioeconomic status have almost three times the odds of having a moderate to high disability, independent of their ethnic group, gender or place of residence. Therefore, healthcare efforts should be aimed at promoting early diagnosis and prompt treatment among populations with high levels of poverty, which in the region of the Araucanía means primarily indigenous rural areas. PMID:25178741

  4. Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Feeding and Childhood Obesity among Mothers of Lower Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…

  5. Parental Socioeconomic Status, Communication, and Children's Vocabulary Development: A Third-Generation Test of the Family Investment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Martin, Monica J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna; Conger, Rand

    2013-01-01

    This third-generation, longitudinal study evaluated a family investment perspective on family socioeconomic status (SES), parental investments in children, and child development. The theoretical framework was tested for first-generation parents (G1), their children (G2), and the children of the second generation (G3). G1 SES was expected to…

  6. Attentional Processes in Low-Socioeconomic Status Bilingual Children: Are They Modulated by the Amount of Bilingual Experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladas, Aristea I.; Carroll, Daniel J.; Vivas, Ana B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research indicates that bilingual children are more proficient in resolving cognitive conflict than monolinguals. However, the replicability of such findings has been questioned, with poor control of participants' socioeconomic status (SES) as a possible confounding factor. Two experiments are reported here, in which the main attentional…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Family Socioeconomic Status (SES) Variables as Predictors of Socio-Emotional Resilience among Mentored Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Corsello, Maryann; McReynolds, Samuel; Conklin-Powers, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explored socioeconomic status (SES) and family structure as predictors of resiliencies among "at-risk" youth before and after participating in schools-based mentoring programs. Twenty-four youths (13 girls) aged 13-18 ("M" = 16.21, SD = 1.76) participated. Youths completed pre- and post-test…

  8. Socioeconomic status and obesity in Cairo, Egypt: a heavy burden for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Mona; Khadr, Zeinab; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V; Hill, Allan; Bennett, Gary G

    2014-03-01

    Studies have generally shown a positive association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity in low-income countries, but few have tested this relationship in the Middle East where obesity prevalence is extraordinarily high and the nutrition profile more closely resembles developed world contexts. The objective of this study is to examine the SES-obesity association in Cairo, Egypt. Multinomial regression analyses were conducted and predicted probabilities were found for overweight and obesity status among adult men and women in a stratified analysis. Data were taken from the 2007 Cairo Urban Inequity Study which collected information on 3993 individuals from 50 neighborhoods in the Cairo Governorate. Five different measures of SES were utilized - education, household expenditures, household assets, subjective wealth, and father's education. No significant associations were found between most measures of SES and overweight/obesity in this population. Overweight and obesity are prevalent across the SES spectrum. These findings suggest that obesity programs and policies should be targeted at all SES groups in Cairo, although specific mechanisms may vary by SES and should be explored further in future studies. PMID:24534331

  9. The Women's Health Initiative: The food environment, neighborhood socioeconomic status, BMI, and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Eibner, Christine; Slaughter, Mary E; Fernandes, Meenakshi; Whitsel, Eric A; Bird, Chloe E; Jewell, Adria; Margolis, Karen L; Li, Wenjun; Michael, Yvonne L; Shih, Regina A; Manson, Joann E; Escarce, José J

    2012-04-01

    Using data (n = 60,775 women) from the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial (WHI CT)-a national study of postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years-we analyzed cross-sectional associations between the availability of different types of food outlets in the 1.5 miles surrounding a woman's residence, census tract neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), BMI, and blood pressure (BP). We simultaneously modeled NSES and food outlets using linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for multiple sociodemographic factors, population density and random effects at the tract and metropolitan statistical area (MSA) level. We found significant associations between NSES, availability of food outlets and individual-level measurements of BMI and BP. As grocery store/supermarket availability increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile of its distribution, controlling for confounders, BMI was lower by 0.30 kg/m(2). Conversely, as fast-food outlet availability increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile, BMI was higher by 0.28 kg/m(2). When NSES increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile of its distribution, BMI was lower by 1.26 kg/m(2). As NSES increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile, systolic and diastolic BP were lower by 1.11 mm Hg and 0.40 mm Hg, respectively. As grocery store/supermarket outlet availability increased from the 10th and 90th percentiles, diastolic BP was lower by 0.31 mm Hg. In this national sample of postmenopausal women, we found important independent associations between the food and socioeconomic environments and BMI and BP. These findings suggest that changes in the neighborhood environment may contribute to efforts to control obesity and hypertension. PMID:21660076

  10. Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Carlos A; Moura, Erly C; Conde, Wolney L; Popkin, Barry M

    2004-12-01

    A landmark review of studies published prior to 1989 on socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity supported the view that obesity in the developing world would be essentially a disease of the socioeconomic elite. The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity. Although more studies are necessary to clarify the exact nature of this relationship, particularly among men, three main conclusions emerge from the studies reviewed: 1. Obesity in the developing world can no longer be considered solely a disease of groups with higher SES. 2. The burden of obesity in each developing country tends to shift towards the groups with lower SES as the country's gross national product (GNP) increases. 3. The shift of obesity towards women with low SES apparently occurs at an earlier stage of economic development than it does for men. The crossover to higher rates of obesity among women of low SES is found at a GNP per capita of about US$ 2500, the mid-point value for lower-middle-income economies. The results of this review reinforce the urgent need to: include obesity prevention as a relevant topic on the public health agenda in developing countries; improve the access of all social classes in these countries to reliable information on the determinants and consequences of obesity; and design and implement consistent public actions on the physical, economic, and sociocultural environment that make healthier choices concerning diet and physical activity feasible for all. A significant step in this direction was taken with the approval of the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health by the World Health Assembly in May 2004. PMID:15654409

  11. Contribution of health behaviors to the association between area-level socioeconomic status and cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastert, Theresa A; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Beresford, Shirley A A; Sheppard, Lianne; White, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Cancer mortality is higher among residents of low-socioeconomic status (SES) areas than those of high-SES areas; however, the contribution of modifiable risk factors to this disparity is not known. We used data from 54,737 participants in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) Study, aged 50-76 with no history of cancer at baseline (2000-2002). Of these, 1488 died of cancer over an average of 7.7 years of follow-up. Data on modifiable risk factors including body mass index (BMI), physical activity, diet, alcohol, smoking and screening were taken from baseline questionnaires. We constructed a block group-level SES index using data from the 2000 United States Census and fit Cox proportional hazards models estimating the association between area-level SES and total cancer mortality with and without control for modifiable risk factors. All statistical tests are 2-sided. Cancer mortality was 77% (95% CI: 50%, 111%) higher in the lowest-SES areas compared with the highest. Modifiable risk factors accounted for 45% (95% CI: 34%, 62%) of this association. Smoking explained the greatest proportion (29%; 95% CI: 22%, 40%) of the observed association, followed by diet (11%; 95% CI: 7%, 17%), physical activity (10%; 95% CI: 7%, 16%), screening (9%; 6%, 13%), and BMI (5%; 95% CI: 1%, 10%). Results were similar in models controlling for individual education and income. The association between area-level SES and cancer mortality is partially explained by modifiable risk factors, which could suggest the appropriate targets to reduce socioeconomic disparities. PMID:26650930

  12. Sub-optimal birth weight in newborns of a high socioeconomic status population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sub-optimal birth weight (2,500 to 2,999 g term newborns to appropriate for gestational age (birth weight ? 3,000 g term newborns, regarding maternal data and newborn morbidity and mortality. Methods: Single term newborns, appropriate for gestational age from a high socioeconomic population (n = 1,242 with birth weight ranging from 2,500 to 2,999 g (Group I were compared to 4,907 newborns with birth weight ? than 3,000 g (Group II. Maternal and newborn characteristics were compared between the groups. The Mann-Whitney test, ?2 test and multivariate analysis were used. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Rresults: The frequency of sub-optimal birth weight newborns in the population studied was 20.2%. There was a significant association between sub-optimal birth weight and maternal weight before pregnancy and body mass index, maternal weight gain, height, smoking habit and hypertension. Newborns’ 1-minute Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia and hospital stay were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05. A significant relationship could not be established with the 5-minute Apgar score and pulmonary hypertension in both groups. Neonatal mortality did not differ between the groups. Cconclusions: Socioeconomic status was not a risk factor for sub-optimal birth weight in the studied population. Genetic and environmental factors were associated to sub-optimal weight and neonatal diseases. According to these data, this group of newborns should receive special attention from the health team.

  13. Associations between adolescent and adult socioeconomic status and risk of obesity and overweight in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boylan, Sinead M; Gill, Timothy P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that socioeconomic status (SES) may influence the risk of obesity; however it is important to consider individual changes in SES over the life-course in addition to SES at specific time-points to better understand the complex associations with obesity. We explored the relationship between lifetime-specific and life-course SES and risk of obesity and overweight in Danish adults. METHODS: Data were used from the Danish Youth and Sports Study (DYSS) – a 20–22 year follow-up study of Danish teenagers born between 1964 and 1969. Baseline data gathered in 1983 and 1985 included self-reported BMI, SES and physical activity. The follow-up survey (2005) repeated these assessments in addition to an assessment of diet. Complete data on adolescent and adult SES and BMI were available for 623 participants. RESULTS: Following adjustments, adolescent SES had no significant association with overweight/obesity in this sample, however females of low or medium adult SES were significantly more likely to be overweight/obese compared to those of high SES (low SES: OR: 2.7; 95% CI: (1.3–5.8); p = 0.008; medium SES: OR: 4.0, 95% CI (1.6–10.2); p = 0.003). Females who decreased in SES during adulthood were significantly more likely to be overweight/obese compared to those who remained of high SES (OR: 3.1; 95% CI (1.1–9.2); p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Effects of early life-factors may be conditional upon the environment in adulthood, particularly for the women. Further research should consider the timing of SES exposure and the mechanisms which may be responsible for the socioeconomic gradients in prevalence of obesity and overweight.

  14. Inequality, green spaces, and pregnant women: roles of ethnicity and individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvand, Payam; Wright, John; Martinez, David; Basagaña, Xavier; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Cirach, Marta; Gidlow, Christopher J; de Hoogh, Kees; Gražulevi?ien?, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-10-01

    Evidence of the impact of green spaces on pregnancy outcomes is limited with no report on how this impact might vary by ethnicity. We investigated the association between residential surrounding greenness and proximity to green spaces and birth weight and explored the modification of this association by ethnicity and indicators of individual (maternal education) and neighbourhood (Index of Multiple Deprivation) socioeconomic status. Our study was based on 10,780 singleton live-births from the Born in Bradford cohort, UK (2007-2010). We defined residential surrounding greenness as average of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in buffers of 50 m, 100 m, 250 m, 500 m and 1000 m around each maternal home address. Residential proximity to green spaces was defined as living within 300 m of a green space with an area of ? 5000 m(2). We utilized mixed effects models to estimate adjusted change in birth weight associated with residential surrounding greenness as well as proximity to green spaces. We found a positive association between birth weight and residential surrounding greenness. Furthermore, we observed an interaction between ethnicity and residential surrounding greenness in that for White British participants there was a positive association between birth weight and residential surrounding greenness whereas for participants of Pakistani origin there was no such an association. For surrounding greenness in larger buffers (500 m and 1000 m) there were some indications of stronger associations for participants with lower education and those living in more deprived neighbourhoods which were not replicated for surrounding greenness in smaller buffer sizes (i.e. 50 m, 100 m, and 250 m). The findings for residential proximity to a green space were not conclusive. Our study showed that residential surrounding greenness is associated with better foetal growth and this association could vary between different ethnic and socioeconomic groups. PMID:24997306

  15. Family socioeconomic status and the provision of motor affordances in the home

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresa C. B., Freitas; Carl, Gabbard; Priscila, Caçola; Maria I. L., Montebelo; Denise C. C., Santos.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) and stimulation provided in the home environment are influential factors in aspects of child well-being including motor development. Little is known regarding the influence of SES on specific aspects of the home environment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ava [...] ilability of affordances in the home to promote infant motor development and family SES. METHOD : The sample consisted of 300 families with infants aged 3 to 18 months. SES was assessed according to family socioeconomic class, income and parental level of education. To evaluate motor affordances found at home, the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS) was used. The AHEMD-IS was designed to assess dimensions of the home environment including Physical Space (outside and inside space), Daily Activities and Play Materials (fine-motor and gross-motor toys). RESULTS: SES indicators significantly influenced the availability of Physical Space and Play Materials. The Physical Space dimension was influenced by family economic class and income. The Play Materials dimension was influenced by all SES indicators. Daily Activities were not influenced by any of the SES indicators. Daily activities and play material were influenced by the infant's age. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that SES indicators are influential with regard to the provision of motor affordances in the home environment for infants. However, daily activities, which represent an aspect of the environment that is highly dependent on parental generation of situations that are conducive to motor skill development, are independent of family SES.

  16. Impact of socioeconomic status on the use of inhaled corticosteroids in young adult asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper RØmhild; SØndergaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based longitudinal study was to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and anti-asthmatic treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) among young Danish adult asthmatics, and to investigate whether these associations were consistent over time. METHODS: We extracted data on prescription drug use, education, and income in 97 665 users of anti-asthmatic drugs, aged 18-44 years, identified in Statistics Denmark during 1997-2005. Individual information on education and income was used as measures of SES. Education was categorised into basic school/high school, vocational training, and higher education, and income was categorised into low, middle, and high income. Associations between ICS use and SES were estimated by logistic regression models. RESULTS: High levels of education and income were independently associated with ICS use, education demonstrating the strongest association. Using basic school/high school and low income as baselines, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ICS use for higher education were 1.46 (95% CI 1.40-1.51) and 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.14) for high income. Higher education was a nearly constant factor associated with ICS use throughout the observation period, but high income did not demonstrate any association before 2001 with increasing ORs observed each year hereafter. All associations became more pronounced when restricting to 35-44 year-olds. CONCLUSION: High levels of SES were positively associated with ICS use in young adult asthmatics. To encourage ICS use, special attention should be paid to asthmatics with low educational level and low income. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for this socioeconomic inequality.

  17. Socio-economic status and types of childhood injury in Alberta: a population based study

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    Svenson Lawrence W

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood injury is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and permanent disability in children in the developed world. This research examines relationships between socio-economic status (SES, demographics, and types of childhood injury in the province of Alberta, Canada. Methods Secondary analysis was performed using administrative health care data provided by Alberta Health and Wellness on all children, aged 0 to 17 years, who had injuries treated by a physician, either in a physician's office, outpatient department, emergency room and/or as a hospital inpatient, between April 1st. 1995 to March 31st. 1996. Thirteen types of childhood injury were assessed with respect to age, gender and urban/rural location using ICD9 codes, and were related to SES as determined by an individual level SES indicator, the payment status of the Alberta provincial health insurance plan. The relationships between gender, SES, rural/urban status and injury type were determined using logistic regression. Results Twenty-four percent of Alberta children had an injury treated by physician during the one year period. Peak injury rates occurred about ages 2 and 13–17 years. All injury types except poisoning were more common in males. Injuries were more frequent in urban Alberta and in urban children with lower SES (receiving health care premium assistance. Among the four most common types of injury (78.6% of the total, superficial wounds and open wounds were more common among children with lower SES, while fractures and dislocations/sprains/strains were more common among children receiving no premium assistance. Conclusion These results show that childhood injury in Alberta is a major health concern especially among males, children living in urban centres, and those living on welfare or have Treaty status. Most types of injury were more frequent in children of lower SES. Analysis of the three types of the healthcare premium subsidy allowed a more comprehensive picture of childhood injury with children whose families are on welfare and those of Treaty status presenting more frequently for an injury-related physician's consultation than other children. This report also demonstrates that administrative health care data can be usefully employed to describe injury patterns in children.

  18. Family socioeconomic status, family health, and changes in students' math achievement across high school: A mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley Brooke

    2015-09-01

    In response to recent calls to integrate understandings of socioeconomic disparities in health with understandings of socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement, this study tested a mediational model whereby family socioeconomic status predicted gains in academic achievement across high school through its impact on both student and parent health. Data on over 8000 high school students in the U.S. were obtained from wave 1 (2009-2010) and wave 2 (2012) of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), and structural equation modeling with latent difference scores was used to determine the role of family health problems in mediating the well-established link between family SES and gains in academic achievement. Using both static and dynamic indicators of family SES, support was found for this mediational model. Higher family SES in 9th grade reduced the probability of students and their parents experiencing a serious health problem in high school, thereby promoting growth in academic achievement. In addition, parent and student health problems mediated the effect of changes in family SES across high school on math achievement gains. Results emphasize the importance of considering the dynamic nature of SES and that both student and parent health should be considered in understanding SES-related disparities in academic achievement. This relational process provides new mechanisms for understanding the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status and the status attainment process more broadly. PMID:26189011

  19. Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan

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    Takano Takehito

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.

  20. A national cohort study of parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour-the mediating role of school performance

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    Jablonska Beata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A link between low parental socioeconomic status and mental health problems in offspring is well established in previous research. The mechanisms that explain this link are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether school performance was a mediating and/or moderating factor in the path between parental socioeconomic status and the risk of hospital admission for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Methods A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-1977 was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the end of their ninth and final year of compulsory school until 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and linear regression analyses were performed to test whether the association between parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour was mediated or moderated by school performance. Results The results of a series of multiple regression analyses, adjusted for demographic variables, revealed that school performance was as an important mediator in the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and risk of non-fatal suicidal behaviour, accounting for 60% of the variance. The hypothesized moderation of parental socioeconomic status-non-fatal suicidal behaviour relationship by school performance was not supported. Conclusions School performance is an important mediator through which parental socioeconomic status translates into a risk for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Prevention efforts aimed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among young people will need to consider socioeconomic inequalities in school performance.

  1. Association of Food Insecurity and Household Socio-Economic Status with the Body Mass Index Among Urban Women in Dezful

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    A R Dorosty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Food insecurity implies a limited ability to secure adequate and safe food or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways.The nutrition transition in Iran is taking place in the context of rapid demographic change and urbanization in spite of underweight, obesity and overweight increased, especially among women. It is usually expected that food-insecure people have an inadequate food intake, less body fat, and body weight. However, several studies in developed countries have shown a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among food-insecure household members, especially women. Under weight and overweight or obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in the developed countries and is assuming to become a serious health problem in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the association between food insecurity and socio-economic factors in households and body mass index among urban women in Dezful in 2008.Materials and Methods: A total of 400 household were randomly selected by two stage sampling from different areas in Dezful. Heights and weights of all women were measured based on standard protocols, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. BMI status was defined based on cut-off values recommended by NIH( under weight = BMI<18.5, normal weight 18.5< BMI< 25, overweight 25?BMI<30 and obesity BMI?30"nWomen provided detailed demographic and food insecurity information via a face- to- face interview. Information on food insecurity was collected using the instrument originally developed by USDA. All analysis was conducted using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The prevalence of household food insecurity was %37.6 and 42.8% of the women were overweight, and 12% obese, respectively. Results showed that, BMI was positively associated with food insecurity, womens age and family size and inversely associated with , race and economic status (p <0.05.Conclusion: It is evident that household food insecurity, overweight and obesity coexist in Dezful. Women age, family size, race and economic status were recognized as associated factors with food insecurity but other factors didnt show significant relationship. There is lack of published information regarding food insecurity and some factors affecting with body weight status; therefore, it is necessary to perform such studies in other regions too.

  2. Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study

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    Crawford David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.

  3. A Study on Socioeconomic Status and Obesity in a Group of Adolescents

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    Nurcan Yabanci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of socioeconomic status (SES on obesity in a group of adolescents. METHODS: This study was performed Ankara with students of two schools with low SES (n:183 and high SES (n:187 according to data Prime Minister Republic of Turkey, Turkish Statistical Institute. The total of 370 adolescents, 11-13 years-old, joined to the study which was 186 boys and 184 girls. The anthropometric measurements and the prevalence of obesity were done on adolescents. Moreover, their nutritional statuses were assessed; daily energy and nutrient intakes were calculated. The data were evaluated as low and high SES. RESULTS: Weight, BMI, triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfold thickness, and percentage of fat mass were significantly higher in high SES than in low SES (p<0.05. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 5.5% and 2.2% for low SES; 10.7% and 6.4% for high SES, respectively. Overweight and obesity prevelance are higher in high SES than low SES (p<0.05. Daily energy intake, percentage of energy from proteins and fats and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages were higher in high SES than in low SES. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity in adolescents with high SES is more common due to high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet composition. To inform adolescents, regarding to their SES, about nutrition and physical activities would be preventive for obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 433-440

  4. Improving physical fitness and emotional well-being in adolescents of low socioeconomic status in Chile: results of a school-based controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhauser, Marco; Fernandez, Gonzalo; Püschel, Klaus; Yañez, Fernando; Montero, Joaquín; Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria

    2005-06-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality, and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Among adolescents, physical activity is associated with benefits in the prevention and control of emotional distress, and improvement of self-esteem. Countries in transitional epidemiological scenarios, such as Chile, need to develop effective strategies to improve physical activity as a way to face the epidemic of chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a school-based physical activity program on physical fitness and mental health status of adolescents living in a low socioeconomic status area in Santiago, Chile. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the program over one academic year. The study included 198 students aged 15 years old. Two ninth grade classes were randomly selected as the intervention group, with two classes of the same grade as controls. A social planning approach was used to develop the intervention. The program was designed and implemented based on student preferences, teachers' expertise and local resources. Changes in physiological and mental health status were assessed. After the intervention, maximum oxygen capacity achieved a significant increase of 8.5% in the intervention versus 1.8% in the control group (p performance scores improved significantly more in the intervention versus the control group (p > 0.01). Anxiety score decreased 13.7% in the intervention group versus 2.8% in the control group (p self-esteem score increased 2.3% in the intervention group and decreased 0.1% in the control group after the end of the program (p 80%. To conclude, a school-based program to improve physical activity in adolescents of low socioeconomic status, obtained a high level of participation and achieved significant benefits in terms of physical fitness and mental health status. PMID:15788528

  5. Infants' behavioral styles in joint attention situations and parents' socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Monika; Hutman, Ted

    2015-08-01

    In this study the eco-cultural model of parenting (Keller, H. (2007). Cultures of infancy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum) was applied to the study of joint attention behavior of children from families with different socio-economic status (SES). It was hypothesized that infants' early communication styles would differ with SES reflecting more independent or interdependent interactions with their caregivers. It was also hypothesized that infants would use the same types of behaviors whether they have declarative or imperative communication goals. The Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS, Mundy et al., 2003) was administered to 103 typically developing infants of 12 months (approximately half of them siblings of children with autism). A factor analysis, yielding four behavioral factors, namely pointing, eye contact, actions and following points, confirmed the hypothesis that infants use behaviors consistently across situations independent of their communicative intent. MANOVAs (comprising parental education and income) revealed that higher SES infants showed actions more frequently in the ESCS whereas lower SES infants followed experimenter's points more frequently. The results are discussed in the context of presumably differing socialization goals for infants and the divergent contribution of parental education and income that seem to have additive contribution to some factors (actions, following points) but divergent contributions to others (pointing, eye contact). PMID:26164418

  6. Socio-Economic Status and the Structural Change of Dietary Intake in Hungary

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    Bakucs Zoltán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Typically, big changes in the economic system lead to alterations on families’ disposable income and thus on their spending for different types of products, including food. These may imply in the long run a structural modification of the population’s diet quality. After the fall of the socialist system, in the past two decades, Central and Eastern European countries, including Hungary, went through a profound and sometimes difficult transition of their political and economic systems, shifting from a centralized plan to an open-market economy, and, perhaps more importantly, the European Union integration. Economic change in lower-income and transitional economies of the world appears to coincide with increasing rapid social change. With respect to nutrition, there is evidence that these countries are changing their diets and that changes seem to happen at a faster pace than ever before (e.g. Ivanova et al., 2006. In this paper, we analyse the evolution of Hungarian dietary patterns based on socio-economic status (SES data between 1993 and 2007. Data allows defining and profiling several clusters based on aggregated consumption data, and then inspecting the influence of SES variables using OLS and multinomial logit estimations

  7. Socioeconomic Status and Foodborne Pathogens in Connecticut, USA, 2000-2011(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Bridget M; Mainero, Christina; Humes, Elizabeth; Hurd, Sharon; Niccolai, Linda; Hadler, James L

    2015-09-01

    Foodborne pathogens cause >9 million illnesses annually. Food safety efforts address the entire food chain, but an essential strategy for preventing foodborne disease is educating consumers and food preparers. To better understand the epidemiology of foodborne disease and to direct prevention efforts, we examined incidence of Salmonella infection, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection, and hemolytic uremic syndrome by census tract-level socioeconomic status (SES) in the Connecticut Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network site for 2000-2011. Addresses of case-patients were geocoded to census tracts and linked to census tract-level SES data. Higher census tract-level SES was associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, regardless of serotype; hemolytic uremic syndrome; salmonellosis in persons ?5 years of age; and some Salmonella serotypes. A reverse association was found for salmonellosis in children <5 years of age and for 1 Salmonella serotype. These findings will inform education and prevention efforts as well as further research. PMID:26291087

  8. Socioeconomic Status and Foodborne Pathogens in Connecticut, USA, 2000–20111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainero, Christina; Humes, Elizabeth; Hurd, Sharon; Niccolai, Linda; Hadler, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens cause >9 million illnesses annually. Food safety efforts address the entire food chain, but an essential strategy for preventing foodborne disease is educating consumers and food preparers. To better understand the epidemiology of foodborne disease and to direct prevention efforts, we examined incidence of Salmonella infection, Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli infection, and hemolytic uremic syndrome by census tract–level socioeconomic status (SES) in the Connecticut Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network site for 2000–2011. Addresses of case-patients were geocoded to census tracts and linked to census tract–level SES data. Higher census tract–level SES was associated with Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli, regardless of serotype; hemolytic uremic syndrome; salmonellosis in persons ?5 years of age; and some Salmonella serotypes. A reverse association was found for salmonellosis in children <5 years of age and for 1 Salmonella serotype. These findings will inform education and prevention efforts as well as further research. PMID:26291087

  9. Lean on me: effects of social support on low socioeconomic-status pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Massey, Amber R

    2013-09-01

    This study identified how close relationships are related to low-income pregnant women's ability to cope and overall health. Previous research has shown that stress during pregnancy is related to long-term negative physical and psychological health outcomes for both the mother and the infant. Lower socioeconomic status has been related to higher morbidity and mortality across the lifespan. Women typically rely on close relationships for social support to help reduce stress. However, stress levels can be elevated when women engage in co-rumination. Co-rumination is defined as excessive problem discussion with negative-affect focus. Thirty-one low-income pregnant women from central Oklahoma, USA, reported their daily stressors, social support, communication habits with friends and family, and general health in a series of questionnaires at a prenatal visit. The results revealed that daily stressors, co-rumination with friends, and the relationship with the baby's father were related to physical pain and depressive symptoms. The results suggested that specific social support dynamics, such as co-rumination, during pregnancy have implications for the health of low-income mothers and their infants. PMID:23656532

  10. Socioeconomic status and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Nazir A; Shah, Idrees A; Bhat, Gulzar A; Makhdoomi, Muzamil A; Iqbal, Beenish; Rafiq, Rumaisa; Nisar, Iqra; Bhat, Arshid B; Nabi, Sumaiya; Masood, Akbar; Shah, Sajad A; Lone, Mohd M; Zargar, Showkat A; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Studies have persistently associated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk with low socioeconomic status (SES), but this association is unexplored in Kashmir, an area with a high incidence of ESCC in the northernmost part of India. We carried out a case-control study to assess the association of multiple indicators of SES and ESCC risk in the Kashmir valley. A total number of 703 histologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1664 controls matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence were recruited from October 2008 to January 2012. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Composite wealth scores were constructed based on the ownership of several appliances using multiple correspondence analyses. Higher education, living in a kiln brick or concrete house, use of liquefied petroleum gas and electricity for cooking, and higher wealth scores all showed an inverse association with ESCC risk. Compared to farmers, individuals who had government jobs or worked in the business sector were at lower risk of ESCC, but this association disappeared in fully adjusted models. Occupational strenuous physical activity was strongly associated with ESCC risk. In summary, we found a strong relationship of low SES and ESCC in Kashmir. The findings need to be studied further to understand the mechanisms through which such SES parameters increase ESCC risk. PMID:23721087

  11. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development. PMID:15083654

  12. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

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    Maple-Brown Louise

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.

  13. Effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on oral cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Chien, Sou-Hsin; Hung, Shih-Kai; Yang, Wei-Zhen; Su, Yu-Chieh

    2012-03-01

    This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and oral cancer mortality. A population-based follow-up study was conducted of 3607 oral cancer patients (predominantly male) who were diagnosed between 2004 and 2005. Each patient was traced to death or for 2 years. Individual SES was defined by enrollee category. Neighborhood SES was defined by income, and numbers of doctors, and neighborhoods were grouped into advantaged and disadvantaged areas. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the death-free survival rate between the different SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. In oral cancer patients aged below 65 years, death rates among those with low SES were highest in disadvantaged neighborhoods. After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, urbanization, and area of residence), tumor extent, treatment modalities (operation, adjuvant therapy), hospital characteristics (ownership, teaching level, caseload), and year of diagnosis, oral cancer patients with low individual SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods conferred a 1.46- to 1.64-fold higher risk for death, compared with patients with high individual SES in advantaged neighborhoods. No statistically significant difference was found in risk of death between different SES groups in patients aged 65 and above. Our findings indicate that oral cancer patients with low individual SES have the highest risk of mortality even under a universal health-care system. Public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group. PMID:22041306

  14. Socioeconomic status and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Louwaars, Leonie; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children's executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors. Method: The sample included 622 three-year-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed. Results: Structural Equation Modeling showed that the associations between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels differed by children's gender: (a) for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was partially mediated by difficulties in EF inhibition, and parenting practices defined by corporal punishment and inconsistent discipline obtained a quasi-significant indirect effect into the association between SES and ODD; (b) for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control) had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation. Conclusion: SES seems a good indicator to identify children at high-risk for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control. PMID:26441784

  15. Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area

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    Subhash Singh Parihar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

  16. Emerging psychopathology moderates upward social mobility: The intergenerational (dis)continuity of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2015-11-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is relatively stable across generations, but social policies may create opportunities for upward social mobility among disadvantaged populations during periods of economic growth. With respect to expanded educational opportunities that occurred in Québec (Canada) during the 1960s, we hypothesized that children's social and academic competence would promote upward mobility, whereas aggression and social withdrawal would have the opposite effect. Out of 4,109 children attending low-SES schools in 1976-1978, a representative subsample of 503 participants were followed until midadulthood. Path analyses revealed that parents' SES predicted offspring's SES through associations with offspring's likeability, academic competence, and educational attainment. Interaction effects revealed individual risk factors that moderated children's ability to take advantage of intrafamilial or extrafamilial opportunities that could enhance their educational attainment. Highly aggressive participants and those presenting low academic achievement were unable to gain advantage from having highly educated parents. They reached lower educational attainment than their less aggressive or higher achieving peers who came from a similarly advantaged family background. Growing up with parents occupying low-prestige jobs put withdrawn boys and outgoing girls at risk for low educational attainment. In conclusion, social policies can raise SES across generations, with great benefits for the most disadvantaged segments of the population. However, children presenting with emerging psychopathology or academic weaknesses do not benefit from these policies as much as others, and should receive additional, targeted services. PMID:26439072

  17. Predicting self-rated mental and physical health: the contributions of subjective socioeconomic status and personal relative deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Mitchell J.; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4–6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures.

  18. Socioeconomic status and child mental health:The role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices

    OpenAIRE

    Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge; Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Robert; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Hysing, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices as mediators of the association between familial socioeconomic status (SES) and child mental health problems. Method: The sample included 2,043 5th-7th graders (50.7% female) participating in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study. Children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parents reported family economy and education level, e...

  19. Tobacco use prevalence – disentangling associations between Alaska Native race, low socio-economic status and rural disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Dilley, Julia A; Erin Peterson; Matthew Bobo; Pickle, Kathryn E; Kristen Rohde

    2013-01-01

    Background . Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES) and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design . For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods . With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alas...

  20. Impact of Parent’s Socioeconomic Status on Perceived Parental Pressure and Test Anxiety among Chinese High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Huilin Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study carries out empirical researches among Mainland Chinese high school students to explore the impactof parent’s socioeconomic status on perceived parental pressure and test anxiety. The discoveries of the studyinclude: perceived parental pressure has significant impact on test anxiety; parents’ occupations, parents’ incomeand mother’s education have significant impact on perceived parental pressure; parents’ occupations, parents’income and mother’s education have significant impact o...

  1. Adolescent Work Intensity, School Performance, and Substance Use: Links Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Bachman, Jerald G; Patrick, Jeremy Staff; O’Malley, M.; Freedman-Doan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    High school students who spend long hours in paid employment during the school year are at increased risk of lower grades and higher substance use, although questions remain about whether these linkages reflect causation or prior differences (selection effects). Questions also remain about whether such associations vary by socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. This study examines those questions using nationally representative data from two decades (1991–2010) of annual Monitoring th...

  2. Socioeconomic status and lung cancer incidence in men in The Netherlands: is there a role for occupational exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, A.J. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kant, I.J.; Swaen, G.M.; Kremer, A.M.; van den Brandt, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of occupational exposure to carcinogens in explaining the association between socioeconomic status and lung cancer. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. Data on diet, other lifestyle factors, sociodemographic characteristics and job history were collected by means of a self administered questionnaire. Follow up for incident cancer was established by record linkage with a national pathology register and with regional cancer registries. SETTING: Populat...

  3. Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    AmedeoD'angiulli; JoanneWeinberg; TimOberlander; StefaniaMaggi

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) and other electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES) children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort) emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc.) and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc.) may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in tw...

  4. Peer Pressure and Socioeconomic Status as Predictors of Student’s Attitude to Examination Malpractice in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Nwamaka Okorodudu

    2013-01-01

    Examination malpractice has remained a serious challenge to public examinations. The paperexamined the influence of peer pressure and socioeconomic status and student’s attitudetoward examination malpractice. A survey design was employed using a sample size of 1000Junior Secondary two students. Questionnaire was used to elicit the right responses on peerpressure and students attitude toward examination malpractice. Simple regression statisticswas also used to establish the influence of peer p...

  5. Independent effect of physical workload and childhood socioeconomic status on low back pain among health care workers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Clausen, Thomas; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent effect of physical workload and childhood socioeconomic status (CSES) on low back pain (LBP) and LBP-related sickness absence among female health care workers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The role of physical workload on LBP independently from CSES is still subject to controversy. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 1661 female social and health care workers responding to a questionnaire in 2004, 2005, and 200...

  6. A STUDY ON RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACHIEVEMENT LEVELAND THEIR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF SECONDARY CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    GOUTAM CHAKRABORTY; JAYANTA META

    2012-01-01

    Environment is a global concept today. Environmental Education is an approach to learning. Environmental Education means the educational process dealing with man's relationship of population, pollution resource, conservation, technology, energy, urban and rural planning to the total biosphere.A self-made questionnaire was made in order to find the relationship between the Environmental Education aptitude and socioeconomic status among class IX Children of rural, urban an...

  7. Prosthetic status and prosthetic needs in relation to socio-economic factors among the Municipal employees of Mysore city.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Shekar

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the Prosthetic status and prosthetic needs in relation to socio-economic among the Municipal employees of Mysore city. Settings and Design: The study was cross sectional and conducted on the employees of Reader1 Mysore City Corporation. Materials and methods: All the available employees (1187) of Mysore city Corporation during the study period were considered for the study. WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997) and a preformed questionnaire were used to collect the requi...

  8. Long-term Effects of Adolescent Smoking on Depression and Socioeconomic Status in Adulthood in an Urban African American Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Carol; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite known adverse causal effects of cigarette smoking on mental health, findings for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later depression and socioeconomic status remain inconclusive. Previous studies have had shorter follow-up periods and did not have a representative portion of the African American population. Using an analytical method that matches adolescent smokers with nonsmokers on childhood and background variables, this study aims to provide evidence on the effects of ...

  9. Effort-Reward Imbalance at School and Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Adolescents: The Role of Family Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxiang Guo; Wenjie Yang; Ying Cao; Jian Li; Johannes Siegrist

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES) on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7–12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a ...

  10. Personal and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Indices of Neighborhood Walk-ability Predict Body Mass Index in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    RUNDLE, ANDREW; Field, Sam; Park, Yoosun; Freeman, Lance; Weiss, Chris; Neckerman, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Past research has observed inverse associations between neighborhood and personal level measures of socioeconomic status and body mass index (BMI), but has not assessed how personal and neighborhood level measures might interact together to predict BMI. Using a sample of 13,102 adult residents of New York City who participated in a health survey, cross-sectional multi-level analyses assessed whether personal income, education and Zip code level poverty rates were associated with BMI. Demograp...

  11. Association of Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Environmental Factors with Risk of Overweight Among Adolescents in California, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Gittelsohn, PhD; Min Kyung Ahn, MHS; Hee-Soon Juon, PhD

    2008-01-01

    IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the Californ...

  12. Home environment relationships with children’s physical activity, sedentary time, and screen time by socioeconomic status

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon Pooja S; Zhou Chuan; Sallis James F; Cain Kelli L; Frank Lawrence D; Saelens Brian E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Children in households of lower socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to be overweight/obese. We aimed to determine if home physical activity (PA) environments differed by SES and to explore home environment mediators of the relation of family SES to children’s PA and sedentary behavior. Methods Participants were 715 children aged 6 to 11 from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids (NIK) Study. Household SES was examined using highest educational attainment and income. Home ...

  13. Prospective English Language Teachers’ Perceptions of the Target Language and Culture in Relation to their Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Arda Arikan

    2011-01-01

    Prospective foreign language teachers need to have an accurate knowledge and a positive perception of the target language and target culture so that they can help their students gain further insight on culture by and large. Hence, by means of a questionnaire, prospective English language teachers’ (n= 412) perceptions of the target language and culture are sought to be answered in relation to their present knowledge of the target language and culture and their socioeconomic status. The result...

  14. The risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis : Epidemiological studies on associations with socioeconomic status, psychosocial work stress and smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory disease. Knowledge about the contribution of genetics is rapidly increasing, but data on environmental factors that may cause RA is scarce. The aim of this thesis was to contribute to better knowledge about the aetiology of the disease by investigating the association between RA and socioeconomic status, psychosocial work stress and smoking. A further aim was to evaluate participation/non-participation and late response in...

  15. Obesity, race/ethnicity and the multiple dimensions of socioeconomic status during the transition to adulthood: A factor analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Scharoun-Lee, Melissa; Adair, Linda S; Kaufman, Jay S.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2009-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in obesity widen dramatically during young adulthood in the US. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity can provide insight on these disparities. However, the delay and complexity of the transition to adulthood creates challenges for defining SES using traditional, single indicators, such as income or years of education. Our objective was to define a multidimensional measure of young adult SES using ex...

  16. Association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and screen time among pre-school children: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Cutumisu Nicoleta; Spence John C; Carson Valerie; Cargill Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and we...

  17. Socioeconomic Status is Significantly Associated with Dietary Salt Intakes and Blood Pressure in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Sumiko Kurioka; Masaya Takahashi; Akihito Shimazu; Akiomi Inoue; Norito Kawakami; Hideki Hashimoto; Akizumi Tsutsumi; Setsuko Taneichi; Yixuan Song; Koichi Miyaki; Takuro Shimbo

    2013-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and str...

  18. Socioeconomic Status and Health across the Life Course: A Test of the Social Causation and Health Selection Hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, John Robert

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the merits of the “social causation” and “health selection” explanations for associations between socioeconomic status and self-reported overall health, musculoskeletal health and depression. Using data that include information about individuals’ SES and health from childhood through late adulthood, I employ structural equation models that account for errors in measured variables and that allow for explicit tests of various hypotheses about how SES and health are re...

  19. Effect of Community Affluence on the Association Between Individual Socioeconomic Status and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, Colorado, 2007–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Abeyta, Ian Matthew; Tuitt, Nicole R.; Byers, Tim E.; Sauaia, Angela

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the hypothesis that community affluence modifies the association between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and 6 cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors: diabetes, hypertension, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and poor nutrition. We stratified data from the Colorado Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2007 and 2008 by individual SES and 3 categories of community affluence (median household income of county). People who had a low SES seemed to benefit from r...

  20. Relationship between household socio-economic status and under-five mortality in Rufiji DSS, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disparities in health outcomes between the poor and the better off are increasingly attracting attention from researchers and policy makers. However, policies aimed at reducing inequity need to be based on evidence of their nature, magnitude, and determinants. Objectives: The study aims to investigate the relationship between household socio-economic status (SES and under-five mortality, and to measure health inequality by comparing poorest/least poor quintile mortality rate ratio and the use of a mortality concentration index. It also aims to describe the risk factors associated with under-five mortality at Rufiji Demographic Surveillance Site (RDSS, Tanzania. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study included 11,189 children under-five residing in 7,298 households in RDSS in 2005. Principal component analysis was used to construct household SES. Kaplan–Meier survival incidence estimates were used for mortality rates. Health inequality was measured by calculating and comparing mortality rates between the poorest and least poor wealth quintile. We also computed a mortality concentration index. Risk factors of child mortality were assessed using Poisson regression taking into account potential confounders. Results: Under-five mortality was 26.9 per 1,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI (23.7–30.4]. The poorest were 2.4 times more likely to die compared to the least poor. Our mortality concentration index [?0.16; 95% CI (?0.24, ?0.08] indicated considerable health inequality. Least poor households had a 52% reduced mortality risk [incidence rate ratio (IRR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.30–0.80]. Furthermore, children with mothers who had attained secondary education had a 70% reduced risk of dying compared to mothers with no education [IRR = 0.30; 95% CI (0.22–0.88]. Conclusion: Household socio-economic inequality and maternal education were associated with under-five mortality in the RDSS. Targeted interventions to address these factors may contribute towards accelerating the reduction of child mortality in rural Tanzania.

  1. Intervenção psicomotora em crianças de nível socioeconômico baixo Psychomotor intervention on children of low socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Campos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Visou-se identificar o perfil psicomotor de crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico e verificar o efeito nelas de um programa de intervenção psicomotora. Participaram do estudo seis crianças do sexo masculino, na faixa de 10 a 12 anos (11,5±0,92. Os participantes foram avaliados utilizando-se uma bateria psicomotora que avalia sete fatores psicomotores: tonicidade, equilibração, lateralização, noção do corpo, estruturação espaço-temporal, praxia global e fina; de acordo com o desempenho da criança, os fatores são pontuados de 1 a 4; o escore 1 refere-se ao perfil apráxico, 2 ao dispráxico, 3 ao eupr?xico e 4 ao hiperpráxico. Com base nas dificuldades detectadas foi elaborado um programa de intervenção psicomotora, aplicado durante três meses, em 16 sessões de uma hora de duração, duas vezes por semana. Ao término da intervenção os participantes foram reavaliados. Pela avaliação inicial, o perfil dos participantes foi predominantemente eupráxico nos fatores equilibração, lateralização, noção do corpo, praxia global e praxia fina; nos fatores tonicidade e estruturação espaço-temporal o perfil foi predominantemente dispráxico. Após o programa de intervenção houve aumento estatisticamente significativo (pThis study aimed at outlining the psychomotor profile of socioeconomically disadvantaged children and at verifying the effect on them of an assessment-based psychomotor training program. Participants were six 10-to-12 year-old children (mean age 11.5±0.92, who were evaluated before and after the program by means of a psychomotor battery which assesses seven categories: tonus, equilibrium, lateralisation, body perception, time-space orientation, gross and fine praxis; scores range from 1 to 4, determining the following profiles: 1, apraxic; 2, dyspraxic; 3, eupraxic; 4, hyperpraxic. By drawing on children's difficulties, a psychomotor playing program was applied during 3 months, in 16 one-hour sessions, twice a week. The initial evaluation showed participants profile to be predominantly eupraxic in equilibrium, lateralisation, body perception, gross and fine praxis; profile was mostly dyspraxic as to tonus and time-space orientation. After the program, scores significantly improved in tonus, equilibration, time-space orientation, gross, and fine praxis (p<0.05, thus suggesting that the program applied was able to benefit psychomotor performance of low socioeconomic status children.

  2. Effects of mothers' socio-economic status on the management of febrile conditions in their under five children in a resource limited setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ayandiran Olufemi E; Adebayo Abayomi A; Olaogun Adenike AE; Olasode Olayinka A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Public health research is shifting focus to the role of socioeconomic indicators in the promotion of health. As such an understanding of the roles that socio-economic factors play in improving health and health-seeking behaviour is important for public health policy. This is because the share of resources devoted to different policy options should depend on their relative effectiveness. Objective To measure the effect of socio-economic status (age, education, occupation,...

  3. Condições socioeconômicas em saúde: discussão de dois paradigmas / Socioeconomic status and health: a discussion of two paradigms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Leopoldo Ferreira, Antunes.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Condição socioeconômica e seu impacto em saúde são objeto de grande interesse para pesquisadores e gestores de saúde. O artigo discute dois paradigmas de aferição da condição socioeconômica e revisa estudos epidemiológicos em que eles foram aplicados. Um dos paradigmas é referenciado por medidas de [...] prestígio e diferenciação positiva entre os estratos sociais, como classificações baseadas em capital social e no acesso a bens e serviços. O outro é referenciado por classificações envolvendo privação material e diferenciação negativa entre os estratos sociais, e envolve a proposta de reposição aos segmentos populacionais mais afetados pela privação pelo Estado. A reflexão sobre opções metodológicas para se aferir condição socioeconômica em estudos epidemiológicos pode contribuir para a promoção de saúde e justiça social. Abstract in english Socioeconomic status and its impact on health are in the mainstream of public health thinking. This text discusses two paradigms utilized in assessing socioeconomic status in epidemiologic studies. One paradigm refers to prestige-based measurements and positive differentiation among social strata. T [...] his paradigm is characterized by classifications assessing social capital and the access to goods and services. The other paradigm refers to the classification of social deprivation and negative differentiation among social strata. The proposal of State-funded reposition to the mostly deprived social strata is acknowledged as characteristic of this paradigm. The contrast between these paradigms, and their potential interaction and debate are discussed. Fostering reflection on methodological strategies to assess socioeconomic status in epidemiologic studies can contribute to the promotion of health and social justice.

  4. Socioeconomic and demographic factors for spousal resemblance in obesity status and habitual physical activity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Jen; Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006-2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients) in body mass index (BMI) and HPA were estimated by couples' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses' BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI???30, overweight: 30?>?BMI???25) was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women's husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women's husbands (OR?=?0.69 (95% CI?=?0.53-0.89)). Men's unemployment status was associated with wives' greater odds of obesity (OR?=?1.31 (95% CI?=?1.01-1.71)). HPA was associated with men's employment status and income level, but not with women's. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors. PMID:25332834

  5. THE STUDY OF MATERNAL ANAEMIA IN RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OF WOMEN GOING TO LABOUR IN ORISSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Socio - economic status is intimately related with the outcome of pregnancy, patient nutritional status and antenatal care. Anaemia being the commonest medical disorder in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with a two - fold risk for preterm delivery and a three - fold risk for low birth - weight as well as maternal mortality. Keeping these facts in view, the present study embodies the observation of 250 cases of maternal anaemia among 400 cases attending labour room of S. C. B. Medical College, Cuttack (Orissa, in which majority of cases 198 ( 79% belong to low socio economic status, 48 cases ( 19% belong to middle class while 4 cases ( 2% belong to upper class. As the socioeconomic status improve, the incidence of anaemia decreases in this study. It was found to be statistically significant [Z =9.14, P<0.05].

  6. Socio-economic status, racial composition and the affordability of fresh fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods of a large rural region in Texas. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn RA, Sharkey JR, Lotade-Manje J, Bouhlal Y, Nayga RM Jr. Socio-economic status, racial composition and the affordability of fresh fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods of a large rural region in Texas.

  7. Nutritional status of urban schoolchildren of high and low socioeconomic status in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala Estado nutricional de escolares urbanos de niveles socioeconómicos alto y bajo en Quetzaltenango, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Groeneveld, Iris F; Noel W. Solomons; Doak, Colleen M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing in children in many developing countries, increasing chronic disease risk. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren 8 to 10 years old who were of high or low socioeconomic status (SES) in Quetzaltenango, which is the second largest city in Guatemala METHODS: Between April and June 2005 we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 583 children in private and publi...

  8. Distance to hospital and socioeconomic status influence secondary health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Andrzej; Borgquist, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate how distance to hospital and socioeconomic status (SES) influence the use of secondary health care (SHC) when taking comorbidity into account. Design and setting. A register-based study in Östergötland County. Subjects. The adult population of Östergötland County. Main outcome measures. Odds of SHC use in the population and rates of SHC use by patients were studied after taking into account comorbidity level assigned using the Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) Case-Mix System. The baseline for analysis of SES was individuals with the lowest education level (level 1) and the lowest income (1st quartile). Results. The study showed both positive and negative association between SES and use of SHC. The risk of incurring SHC costs was 12% higher for individuals with education level 1. Individuals with income in the 2nd quartile had a 4% higher risk of incurring SHC costs but a 17% lower risk of emergency department visits. Individuals with income in the 4th quartilehad 9% lower risk of hospitalization. The risk of using SHC services for the population was not associated with distance to hospital. Patients living over 40 km from hospital and patients with higher SES had lower use of SHC services. Conclusions. It was found that distance to hospital and SES influence SHC use after adjusting for comorbidity level, age, and gender. These results suggest that GPs and health care managers should pay a higher degree of attention to this when planning primary care services in order to minimize the potentially redundant use of SHC.

  9. Country-Specific Dietary Patterns and Associations with Socioeconomic Status in European Children : The IDEFICS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives:Children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. We described country-specific dietary patterns among children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS study and assessed the association of dietary patterns with an additive SES indicator.Subjects/Methods:Children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Principal component analysis was applied to identify dietary country-specific patterns. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess their association with SES. Results:Two to four dietary patterns were identified in the participating regions. The existence of a 'processed' pattern was found in the eight regions. Also, a 'healthy' pattern was identified in seven of the eight regions. In addition, region-specific patterns were identified, reflecting the existing gastronomic and cultural differences in Europe. The 'processed' pattern was significantly inversely associated with theSES additive indicator in all countries except Sweden, whereas the 'healthy' pattern was positively associated with SES in the Belgian, Estonian, German and Hungarian regions, but was not significant in the Italian, Spanish and Swedish regions.Conclusions:A 'processed' pattern and a 'healthy' pattern were found in most of the participating countries in the IDEFICS study, with comparable food item profiles. The results showed a strong inverse association of SES with the 'processed' pattern, suggesting that children of parents with lower SES may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. Therefore, special focus should be given to parents and their children from lower SES levels when developing healthy eating promotion strategies

  10. Socioeconomic status and non-fatal injuries among Canadian adolescents: variations across SES and injury measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koval John J

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While research to date has consistently demonstrated that socioeconomic status (SES is inversely associated with injury mortality in both children and adults, findings have been less consistent for non-fatal injuries. The literature addressing SES and injury morbidity among adolescents has been particularly inconclusive. To explore potential explanations for these discrepant research findings, this study uniquely compared the relationship across different measures of SES and different causes of injury (recreation versus non-recreation injuries within a sample of Canadian adolescents. Methods The sample included adolescent participants (aged 12 to 19 years in the Canadian 1996–1997 cross-sectional National Population Health Survey (n = 6967. Five SES measures (household income, two neighbourhood-level proxy measures, two parental indicators were examined in relation to three injury outcomes (total, recreation, and non-recreation injuries using multivariable logistic regression. Results Among males, a clear relationship with injury was observed only for a parental SES index, which was positively associated with total and recreation injuries (odds ratios for the highest versus lowest SES category of 1.9 for total and 2.5 for recreation injuries. Among females, there was some evidence of a positive relationship between SES and injuries, particularly for a neighbourhood-level education measure with total and recreation injuries (odds ratios of 1.7 for total and 2.0 for recreation injuries. Conclusion The results suggest that differences related to the measures of SES chosen and the causes of injury under study may both contribute to discrepancies in past research on SES and non-fatal injuries among adolescents. To clarify the potential SES-injury relationship among youth, the findings emphasize a need for a greater understanding of the meaning and relevance of different SES measures for adolescents, and for an exploration of the pathways through which SES may be related to injury risk.

  11. Impact of socioeconomic status on mortality and unplanned readmission in septic intensive care unit patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnegelsberg, A; Mackenhauer, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the potential association between socioeconomic status (SES) and prognosis after sepsis. We analysed how SES impacted mortality and readmission in septic patients treated at the intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital. METHODS: We performed a cohort study including all adult patients admitted to a general tertiary ICU with severe sepsis or septic shock during 2008-2010. Data on SES (educational level, personal income, and cohabitation), comorbidity, readmissions, and mortality were obtained from public registries. We used Cox regression analysis to examine the impact of SES on 30- and 180-day mortality and on first unplanned readmission within 180 days after hospital discharge. RESULTS: A total of 387 patients were included of whom 111 (29%) died within 30 days after ICU admission, and 55 (20%) died within 180 days after hospital discharge. Adjusted for sex, comorbidity and SAPS II, patients with low income had a substantially greater risk of dying within 30 days of admission compared to those with high income (35.7% vs. 23.3%; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-3.21), and tended to show higher 180-day mortality (25.0% vs. 15.5%; adjusted HR 1.72; 95% CI 0.86-3.45). Among patients discharged from hospital, 125 (45%) were readmitted within 180 days. Patients with low education and low income showed a tendency towards early readmission. CONCLUSIONS: Among septic ICU patients, low income was significantly associated with increased 30-day mortality. There was a trend towards earlier readmission among surviving patients with low educational level and personal income.

  12. Socioeconomic Status and Chronic Kidney Disease at Presentation to a Renal Service in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Aminu K.; Peters, Jean; Rigby, Jan; Rahman, Alhussein A.; El Nahas, Meguid

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with both development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The impact of SES on severity of CKD at presentation to a renal service is less well known. This study investigated the relationship between SES and severity of CKD in a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis involving 1657 patients at the Sheffield Kidney Institute (Sheffield, UK). Design, setting, participants, & measurements: SES was assigned to each patient according to electoral ward of residence by postcode and ranked according to the corresponding British Index of Multiple Deprivation score, which comprises five deprivation quintiles (Q1, least deprived; Q5, most deprived). National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative classification of CKD was used for stratification and analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was applied for the association of variables/risk factors with CKD (lower GFR) at presentation. Results: The age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed CKD at presentation by area of residence, across the five deprivation quintiles, per million population was Q1 = 1495, Q2 = 3530, Q3 = 3398, Q4 = 3989, and Q5 = 19,599. Logistic regression models showed that living in the lowest SES quintile area (Q5) as compared with the highest SES (Q1) was associated with a greater risk for presenting with a lower estimated GFR, after adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical variables. Conclusions: Low SES is related to severity of CKD at presentation. Further studies are needed to examine this issue across the various SES categories in the United Kingdom. PMID:18579673

  13. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations: Differences between Families Differing in Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SarahRobins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009 that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provides preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child’s name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms, but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams. Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child’s name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children’s early literacy skills and school readiness.

  14. Duração do sono em adolescentes de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos / Sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite, Bernardo; Érico Felden, Pereira; Fernando Mazzilli, Louzada; Vânia, D' Almeida.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a duração de sono na adolescência em diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODO: Foram investigados 863 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em duas escolas de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas por meio de questionários para identificação de informações sobre os hábitos [...] de sono e nível socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: A duração média de sono nos dias da semana foi de 8,83(1,87) horas e a prevalência de adolescentes com duração de sono de oito ou menos horas diárias foi de 39,0% nos dias com aula. Adolescentes da classe baixa apresentaram menor duração do sono (p = 0,043). Na análise ajustada, a idade, o nível socioeconômico e o hábito de tirar a sesta foram os principais fatores associados a poucas horas de sono. Os participantes de 18 a 19 anos apresentaram maior prevalência de poucas horas de sono em comparação aos de 10 a 11 anos (PR = 4,78; CI95%: 1,98-11,53), assim como os adolescentes da classe alta em comparação com a classe baixa (PR = 1,48; CI95%: 1,20-1,83). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram associações entre o nível socioeconômico e os hábitos de sono de adolescentes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status. METHOD: We investigated 863 adolescents from 10 to 19 years in two schools in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Sleep habits data and socioeconomic status were obtained by questionnaires. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration [...] on days of the week was 8.83(1.87) hours and the prevalence of adolescents with eight or fewer hours/day was 39.0% on school days (p = 0.043). On adjusted analysis, age, socioeconomic status and taking a nap habit were the main factors associated with few hours of sleep. Older students (aged 18 to 19 years) showed higher prevalence of few hours of sleep when compared to younger students (10 to 11 years) (RP = 4.78; IC95%: 1.98-11.53), as well as for upper class adolescents when compared to those with lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Results showed the association between socioeconomic status and adolescents' sleep/wake habits.

  15. Duração do sono em adolescentes de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos Sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a duração de sono na adolescência em diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODO: Foram investigados 863 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em duas escolas de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas por meio de questionários para identificação de informações sobre os hábitos de sono e nível socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: A duração média de sono nos dias da semana foi de 8,83(1,87 horas e a prevalência de adolescentes com duração de sono de oito ou menos horas diárias foi de 39,0% nos dias com aula. Adolescentes da classe baixa apresentaram menor duração do sono (p = 0,043. Na análise ajustada, a idade, o nível socioeconômico e o hábito de tirar a sesta foram os principais fatores associados a poucas horas de sono. Os participantes de 18 a 19 anos apresentaram maior prevalência de poucas horas de sono em comparação aos de 10 a 11 anos (PR = 4,78; CI95%: 1,98-11,53, assim como os adolescentes da classe alta em comparação com a classe baixa (PR = 1,48; CI95%: 1,20-1,83. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram associações entre o nível socioeconômico e os hábitos de sono de adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status. METHOD: We investigated 863 adolescents from 10 to 19 years in two schools in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Sleep habits data and socioeconomic status were obtained by questionnaires. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration on days of the week was 8.83(1.87 hours and the prevalence of adolescents with eight or fewer hours/day was 39.0% on school days (p = 0.043. On adjusted analysis, age, socioeconomic status and taking a nap habit were the main factors associated with few hours of sleep. Older students (aged 18 to 19 years showed higher prevalence of few hours of sleep when compared to younger students (10 to 11 years (RP = 4.78; IC95%: 1.98-11.53, as well as for upper class adolescents when compared to those with lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Results showed the association between socioeconomic status and adolescents' sleep/wake habits.

  16. Can type of school be used as an alternative indicator of socioeconomic status in dental caries studies? A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes Fausto; Ardenghi Thiago; Pádua Monica; Piovesan Chaiana; Bonini Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the importance of collecting individual data of socioeconomic status (SES) in epidemiological oral health surveys with children, this procedure relies on the parents as respondents. Therefore, type of school (public or private schools) could be used as an alternative indicator of SES, instead of collecting data individually. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the variable type of school as an indicator of socioeconomic status as a substitute of indivi...

  17. A national cohort study of parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour-the mediating role of school performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jablonska Beata; Lindblad Frank; Östberg Viveca; Lindberg Lene; Rasmussen Finn; Hjern Anders

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A link between low parental socioeconomic status and mental health problems in offspring is well established in previous research. The mechanisms that explain this link are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether school performance was a mediating and/or moderating factor in the path between parental socioeconomic status and the risk of hospital admission for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Methods A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-1977 w...

  18. Gender, socioeconomic status, and self-rated health in a transitional middle-income setting: evidence from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew James; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2011-09-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) correlates strongly with mortality. In developed countries, women generally report worse SRH than males. Few studies have reported on SRH in developing countries. The authors report on SRH in Thailand, a middle-income developing country.The data were derived from a large nationwide cohort of 87 134 adult Open University students (54% female, median age 29 years). The authors included questions on socioeconomic and demographic factors that could influence SRH. The Thai cohort in this study mirrors patterns found in developed countries, with females reporting more frequent "poor" or "very poor" SRH (odds ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval = 1.26-1.44). Cohort males had better SRH than females, but levels were more sensitive to socioeconomic status. Income and education had little influence on SRH for females. Among educated Thai adults, females rate their health to be worse than males, and unlike males, this perception is relatively unaffected by socioeconomic status. PMID:20460290

  19. Exploring the joint effect of atmospheric pollution and socioeconomic status on selected health outcomes: an overview of the PAISARC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes-asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction-at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics-INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000-2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project

  20. Exploring the joint effect of atmospheric pollution and socioeconomic status on selected health outcomes: an overview of the PAISARC project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, D [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Laurent, O [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Filleul, L [CIRE Aquitaine, Bordeaux (France); Havard, S [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Deguen, S [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Segala, C [Sepia-Sante, Melrand (France); Pedrono, G [Sepia-Sante, Melrand (France); Riviere, E [ASPA, Schiltigheim (France); Schillinger, C [ASPA, Schiltigheim (France); Rouil, L [INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Arveiler, D [Registre des Cardiopathies Ischemiques du Bas-Rhin, Laboratoire d' epidemiologie et de sante publique-EA 1801, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Eilstein, D [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint Maurice (France)

    2007-10-15

    Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes-asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction-at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics-INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000-2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project.

  1. Aircraft Carriers : China's way to Great Power Status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NØdskov, Kim; KværnØ, Ole

    2008-01-01

    There are many indications that China is actively researching the design of an aircraft carrier. It is unknown whether China will initiate the actual acquisition of a carrier, but the indications that are available of their research into aircraft carriers and carrier-capable aircraft, as well as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status as a great power in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy, with potentially far-reaching consequences for the countries of the region. The Chinese have bought several retired carriers, which they have studied in great detail. The largest is the Russian-built carrier Varyag of the Kuznetsov class, which today is anchored in the Chinese Naval Base at Dalian. If they decide to acquire a carrier, they can either buy one or build it themselves. The easiest way would be to buy a carrier, and if that is the chosen option, then Russia would be the most likely country to build it. Technologically, it will be a major challenge for them to build one themselves and it is likely that they would have to obtain the assistance of another country. But there are indications, that China may choose this more diffi cult path, since it has bought four Russian carrier landing systems. China is very secretive about this, but when all the information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for China to complete, especially if they develop the complex catapult with which to launch the fi ghter aircraft, not to mention the possible development of a nuclear power plant for the ship. The Russian press has indicated that China is negotiating to buy SU-33 fi ghters, which Russia uses on the Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an alternative China may chose to modify the domestically produced J-10 or J-11 multirole fi ghter. If China does decide to acquire carriers, it would be operationally logical to acquire a minimum of two to three carriers to ensure an adequate and continually available combat capability. A Chinese carrier group, with the associated protection and support vessels, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new carriers. All these carriers could potentially infl uence Chinese interests in the future, and this could be a

  2. The Differences in Senior Turkish Pre-service Elementary Science Teachers’ Conceptions of Learning Science with respect to Gender and Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kapucu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the differences in the senior Turkish preservice elementary science teachers’ conceptions of learning science by gender and socio-economic status (SES. The Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS questionnaire was adapted into Turkish and administered to 379 preservice elementary science teachers from seven universities in different regions of Turkey. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was performed to explore the differences. According to results, males and females differed on their mean scores on ‘memorizing’ and ‘testing’ dimensions of COLS questionnaire. While males had higher scores on ‘memorizing’ and ‘testing’ dimensions of COLS questionnaire than females, males and females had similar scores on ‘calculate and practice’, ‘increase of knowledge’ , ‘applying’ , and ‘understanding and seeing in a new way’ dimensions of COLS questionnaire. Mean scores on dimensions of COLS questionnaire were not significantly different with respect to SES. In addition, the results pointed out that there was no significant interaction between gender and SES.

  3. Mother's socioeconomic status and breastfeeding in Savalugu Nanton District of Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kwao, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this research is to identify socioeconomic factors associated with mother's breastfeeding infants from 0-6months old in Savalugu Nanton district of Northern Ghana. Although many previous studies have focused on socioeconomic factors such as occupation, education and breastfeeding, much has not been done to tackle other factors including distance to primary fuel source, room density and their relationship with breastfeeding. Most of the recommendations from previous stud...

  4. Environmental settings and families' socioeconomic status influence mobility and the use of mobility devices by children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria C. R. Cury

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional mobility of children with cerebral palsy (CP is influenced by personal and environmental factors, serving as barriers and/or facilitators and impacting on children's strategies and functional outcome. OBJECTIVES: To describe typical mobility methods used by children with CP at home, school and community and to compare them across family's socioeconomic levels (SES. METHODS: The Functional Mobility Scale was used to assess mobility of 113 children with CP of high and low SES at home, school, and community. RESULTS: Differences in mobility methods of participants classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System levels II, III and IV were found between home and community. For levels III and IV, differences were also found between home and school. At home, participants from higher SES used wheelchairs more frequently while those from lower SES used floor mobility (crawling. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental settings and families' socioeconomic status influence mobility and use of mobility devices by children with CP.

  5. Socioeconomic status and incidence of breast cancer by hormone receptor subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Pisu, Maria; Waterbor, John W; Altekruse, Sean F

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in genetics and molecular biology have classified breast cancer into subtypes based on tumor markers of estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth Factor-2 receptors (Her-2), with the basal-like (ER-, PR-, Her2-) subtype commonly referred to as "triple negative" breast cancer (TNBC) being the most aggressive. Prior studies have provided evidence that higher socio-economic status (SES) is associated with increased breast cancer risk, likely due to hormone related risk factors such as parity and hormonal contraceptive use. However, it is unclear if the relationship between SES and overall breast cancer incidence exists within each subtype, and if this association varies by race/ethnicity. Analysis was based on data obtained from the SEER database linked to 2008-2012 American Community Survey data, and restricted to women diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010. The NCI SES census tract SES index based on measures of income, poverty, unemployment, occupational class, education and house value, was examined and categorized into quintiles. Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios were calculated comparing the lowest to the highest SES groups by subtype, separately for each race/ethnic group. We identified 47,586 women with breast cancer diagnosed in 2010. The majority was diagnosed with Her2-/HR+ tumors (73 %), while 12 % had triple negative tumors (TNBC). There was a significant trend of higher incidence with increasing SES for Her2-/HR+ (IRR Highest vs. Lowest SES: 1.32, 95 % CI 1.27-1.39; p value trend: 0.01) and Her2+/HR+ tumors (IRR Highest vs. Lowest SES: 1.46, 95 % CI 1.27-1.68; p value trend: 0.01) among White cases. There was no association between SES and incidence of HR- subtypes (Her2+/HR- or TNBC). Similar associations were observed among Black, Hispanic and Asian or Pacific Islander cases. The positive association between SES and breast cancer incidence is primarily driven by hormone receptor positive tumors. To the extent that neighborhood SES is a proxy for individual SES, future studies are still needed to identify etiologic risk factors for other breast cancer subtypes. PMID:26405628

  6. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6?years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

  7. Nutritional status, socio-economic and hygienic condition of school aged children of a village of Pune District, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puranik SS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The field of anthropometry encompasses a variety of human body measurements, such as weight, height and size; including skin fold thickness, circumference, lengths, and breadths. Anthropometry is a key component of nutritional status assessment in children and adults. Anthropometric data for children reflect general health status, dietary adequacy and growth and development over time. The main objective of the study was to diagnose and analyze the magnitude and causes of nutritional and health problems of the village. Method: Anthropometric reference data of 100 children between 7-14 years of age from a small village situated 30 km from Pune. Using this data BMI i.e. Body Mass Index was calculated which helps in determining whether an individual is overweight or underweight. Result: The overall study helped us to find out the socioeconomic condition, hygienic condition as well as nutritional status of children. All the anthropometric measurements of the girls and boys in 7-14 years age group was found to be significantly normal. Conclusion: The hygienic condition of the village was good enough and in turn BMI data shows that the socioeconomic condition of the village was also good.

  8. Socio-economic status and adherence to tuberculosis treatment : a case-control study in a district of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, P; Hansen, E H

    2005-01-01

    SETTING: A western hill district in Nepal, where tuberculosis (TB) treatment under DOTS was offered by the regional tuberculosis centre, two primary health centres, eight health posts, three sub-health posts and one ward of sub-metropolitan Pokhara. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the contribution of socioeconomic status to non-adherence to DOTS. DESIGN: Case-control study. Data were collected by questionnaire-based face-to-face interviews. The study sample consisted of 50 cases and 100 controls. The participation rate was 80% for cases (non-adherents) and 95% for controls. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of non-adherence to TB treatment was significantly associated with unemployment (odds ratio [OR] 9.2), low status occupation (OR 4.4), low annual income (OR 5.4), and cost of travel to the TB treatment facility (OR 3.0). Factors significant in the bivariate analyses--living conditions, literacy and difficulty in financing treatment--were not found to be significantly associated with non-adherence when adjusted for other risk factors in the multivariate regression model. CONCLUSION: Low socio-economic status and particularly lack of money are important risk factors for non-adherence to TB treatment in a poor country such as Nepal.

  9. Investigation into the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Stellenberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive non-experimental approach was applied to investigate and describe the prevalence of factors influencing the health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting as a dissertation for a doctorate degree. For the purpose of this article the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting are described. The study only included economically active persons < 21 ^ 50 years. The objective was to determine the relationship between the health status and the socio-economic status of economically active Coloured people in an urban area as defined. The objectives set for the study were reached through a cross sectional study. The hypothesis, an association between the health status and the socio-economic status of the Coloured people of an urban area in the Western Cape was tested using the chi square statistical test. A purposeful stratified sample of 353 participants was drawn from the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were well represented in the suburbs. Statistical associations on a 95% confidence interval were shown between the socio-economic status (i.e. educational level, income and occupation social habits, diet, and money available for food, exercise and the health status of the respondents. Recommendations were made based on the scientific evidence obtained through the study.

  10. A case–control analysis of socio-economic and marital status differentials in alcohol- and non-alcohol-related mortality among working-age Russian males

    OpenAIRE

    PRIDEMORE, William Alex; Tomkins, Susannah; Eckhardt, Krista; Kiryanov, Nikolay; Saburova, Lyudmila

    2010-01-01

    Background: We examined the role of socio-economic status (SES) and marital status in premature mortality among working-age Russian males. Life expectancy among this group dropped sharply following the collapse of the Soviet Union and has yet to recover despite the relative economic and political stability of the last decade.

  11. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

  12. Socioeconomic Status and the Risk of Suspected Autism Spectrum Disorders among 18-Month-Old Toddlers in Japan: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and the suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status of 18-month-old toddlers was investigated using a population-based sample in Japan, which has a universal healthcare system and a mandatory health checkup system for toddlers. Questionnaires including SES measurements and modified…

  13. Prevalence of chronic headache with and without medication overuse : Associations with socioeconomic position and physical and mental health status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Near-daily intake of acute symptomatic medication for frequent headache increases the risk for medication-overuse headache (MOH). Chronic headache (CH) and MOH prevalences are inversely related to socioeconomic position (SEP). It is not known how SEP influences the health status of people with these headaches. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of CH in Denmark; possible associations between CH and education, work status, and income; and the health status of people with CH across socioeconomic strata. A total of 129,150 individuals aged ?16years were invited to the 2010 Danish National Health Survey. Data on SEP indicators and purchases of prescription drugs in 2009 were retrieved from national registers. Respondents with headache ?15days per month over 3months were classified as having CH. Those with concurrent over-the-counter analgesic intake of ?15days per month or prescription medication overuse (?20 or ?30 defined daily doses per month depending on the drug or drugs) were classified as having MOH. Associations between headache and SEP were analyzed by logistic regression, and associations between headache and health status scores, by linear regression. Physical and mental health composite scores (SF-12) were summarized per headache group, stratified by SEP, and compared to the sample mean. Analyses were adjusted for stratified sampling and nonresponse. The response rate was 53.1%. CH prevalence was 3.3% with 53.0% of cases having concurrent medication overuse (MOH prevalence 1.8%). CH was more prevalent among those individuals with low SEP. Health status scores were significantly lower among persons with CH in all SEP categories. The burden of CH can be reduced by preventing and treating MOH.

  14. Drugs prescribed by general practitioners according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundAge, gender and socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with the use of prescription drugs, even after adjustment for multimorbidity. General practitioners have a holistic and patient-centred perspective and our hypothesis is that this may reflect on the prescription of drugs. In Sweden the patient may seek secondary care without a letter of referral and the liability of the prescription of drugs accompanies the patient, which makes it suitable for this type of research. In this study we examine the odds of having prescription drug use in the population and the rates of prescription drugs among patients, issued in primary health care, according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level.MethodData were collected on all individuals above 20 years of age in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The John Hopkins ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for multimorbidity level. Odds ratio (OR) of having prescription drugs issued inprimary health care in the population and rates of prescription drug use among patients in primary health care, stated as incidence rate ratio (IRR), according to age, gender and socioeconomic status were calculated and adjusted for multimorbidity.ResultsAfter adjustment for multimorbidity, individuals 80 years or older had higher odds ratio (OR 3.37 (CI 95% 3.22-3.52)) and incidence rate ratio (IRR 6.24 (CI 95% 5.79-6.72)) for prescription drug use. Male individuals had a lower odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 0.66 (CI 95% 0.64-0.69)), but among patients males had a slightly higher incidence rate of drug use (IRR 1.06 (CI 95% 1.04-1.09)). Individuals with the highest income had the lowest odds ratio of having prescription drugs and individuals with the second lowest income had the highest odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 1.10 (CI 95% 1.07-1.13)). Individuals with the highest education had the lowest odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 0.61 (CI 95% 0.54-0.67)).ConclusionAge, gender and socioeconomic status are associated with large differences in the use of prescribed drugs in primary health care, even after adjustment for multimorbidity level.

  15. Systolic Blood Pressure, Socioeconomic Status, and Biobehavioral Risk Factors in a Nationally Representative U.S Young Adult Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, Beverly H.; Babyak, Michael A; Ilene C. Siegler; Shanahan, Michael; HARRIS, KATHLEEN MULLAN; Elder, Glen H.; WILLIAMS, REDFORD B.

    2011-01-01

    In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a US longitudinal study of over 15,000 young adults, we examined the extent to which socioeconomic status is linked to systolic blood pressure, and whether biobehavioral risk factors mediate the association. Over 62% of the participants had systolic blood pressure >120 mmHg and 12% with systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg. Over 66% were classified as at least overweight (Body Mass Index>25 kg/m2), with over 36% meeting criteria for at lea...

  16. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OFWOMEN WORKERS IN ONION MARKET: A CASE STUDY OF LASALGAON , TAL- NIPHAD (NASHIK)

    OpenAIRE

    N.A. DAYAMA; S.T. AROTE

    2013-01-01

    Lasalgaon is the largest onion market in Indian and perhaps in the entire continent. Lasalgaon town is located in the Nashik district of Maharashtra. In this paper, emphasis is given on the socio-economic status of the women workers who are engaged in the "Cleaning and Sorting" work of onion in the Lasalgaon market. After purchase of onion from the farmers the onion are cleaned and sorted in to various sizes like small, medium and large according to demand from various states of ...

  17. Impact of socio-economic status in meeting the needs of people with mental illness; human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Ramachandra; Reddemma, Konduru; Math, Suresh Bada

    2014-04-01

    The present descriptive study investigated the impact of socio-economic status in meeting the human rights needs among randomly selected recovered psychiatric patients (n = 100) at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face to face interview, using structured Needs Assessment Questionnaire. The findings revealed that the participants from below poverty line were deprived of physical needs such as 'electricity facilities' (? (2) = 6.821, p physical appearance (? (2) = 8.337, p employment, disability pension, free housing, free treatment and free transportation service for people with mental illness to attend hospital or rehabilitation centres. PMID:23288490

  18. A national study of socioeconomic status and tuberculosis rates by country of birth, United States, 1996–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Olson Nicole A; Davidow Amy L; Winston Carla A; Chen Michael P; Gazmararian Julie A; Katz Dolores J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries has historically been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES). In the past quarter century, TB in the United States has changed from primarily a disease of native-born to primarily a disease of foreign-born persons, who accounted for more than 60% of newly-diagnosed TB cases in 2010. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of SES with rates of TB in U.S.-born and foreign-born persons in the United ...

  19. Work-Related Intimate Partner Violence, Acculturation, and Socioeconomic Status Among Employed Mexican Men Enrolled in Batterer Intervention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Gino; Mankowski, Eric S; Glass, Nancy

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been shown to have considerable effects on women's employment and health. The purpose of this study was to examine work-related IPV, acculturation, and socioeconomic status (SES) among Latinos enrolled in batterer intervention programs. Findings indicate that 55% of men interfered with their partner's ability to get to their work, to do their work, and to maintain their job. Positive relationships between acculturation and work-related IPV were observed, and some support was found for a moderating role of SES. Implications for employers and for the conceptualization of violence against women in an employment context are discussed. PMID:26149437

  20. Influence of socioeconomic status on community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in elderly patients requiring hospitalization: a multicenter observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carratalà Jordi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The associations between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in adults have been studied although studies did not always document a relationship. The aim of this multicenter observational study was to determine the association between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in the elderly, in the context of a public health system providing universal free care to the whole population. Methods A total of 651 patients aged ?65 years hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia through the emergency departments of five Spanish public hospitals were recruited and followed up between May 2005 and January 2007. The primary outcomes studied were: length of stay, intensive care unit admission, overall mortality and readmission. Socioeconomic status was measured using both individual and community data: occupation [categorized in six social groups (I, II, III, IVa, IVb and V], educational level (? primary level or ? secondary level and disposable family income of the municipality or district of residence [>12,500 € (high municipality family income and ?12,500 € (low municipality family income]. The six social groups were further categorized as upper/middle social class (groups I-IVb and lower class (group V. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. OR and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. All statistical tests were two tailed and statistical significance was established as p Results 17.7% of patients lived in a municipality or district with a high municipality family income and 63.6% were upper/middle social class (I-IVb. Only 15.7% of patients had a secondary education. The adjusted analysis showed no association between pneumonia outcomes and social class, educational level or municipality family income. However, length of stay increased significantly in patients in whom the factors, living alone and being a smoker or ex-smoker coincided (p Conclusions We measured socioeconomic status using both individual and community data and found no association between social class, educational level or municipality family income and the variables of pneumonia outcomes. The lack of differences between social classes supports the provision of universal, equitable health care by the public health system.

  1. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Diabetes Complications in the Northeastern United States: The Role of Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, Chandra Y; de Groot, Mary; Wagner, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    The role of socioeconomic status (SES) in explaining racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes remains unclear. We investigated disparities in self-reported diabetes complications, and the role of macro (e.g., income, education) and micro (e.g., ‘owning a home’ or ‘having a checking account’) SES indicators in explaining these differences. The sample included individuals with a diagnosis of diabetes (N=795) who were on average 55 years old, and 55.6% non-Hispanic White, 25.0% African American, an...

  2. Measures of socioeconomic status and self-reported glaucoma in the UK Biobank cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweikh, Y; Ko, F; Chan, M P Y; Patel, P J; Muthy, Z; Khaw, P T; Yip, J; Strouthidis, N; Foster, P J

    2015-10-01

    PurposeTo determine ocular, demographic, and socioeconomic associations with self-reported glaucoma in the UK Biobank.MethodsBiobank is a study of UK residents aged 40-69 years registered with the National Health Service. Data were collected on visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal biomechanics, and questionnaire from 112?690 participants. Relationships between ocular, demographic, and socioeconomic variables with reported diagnosis of glaucoma were examined.ResultsIn all, 1916 (1.7%) people in UK Biobank reported glaucoma diagnosis. Participants reporting glaucoma were more likely to be older (mean 61.4 vs 56.7 years, Pincome group (income level (Pincome categories, with highest risk among those of lowest income, and no evidence of a threshold effect.ConclusionsIn a large UK cohort, individuals reporting glaucoma had more adverse socioeconomic characteristics. Study of the mechanisms explaining these effects may aid our understanding of health inequality and will help inform public health interventions. PMID:26315700

  3. The pain of low status: the relationship between subjective socio-economic status and analgesic prescriptions in a Scottish community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Juliet Ruth Helen; Sani, Fabio; Madhok, Vishnu; Norbury, Michael; Dugard, Pat

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong positive relationship between objective measures of socio-economic status (OSS) and general health. However, there is an increasing interest in the relationship between health and subjective socio-economic status (SSS), which describes one's perceived rank in relation to the rest of the society, based on factors such as income, occupation and education. While the relationship between SSS and general health is well established, the relationship between SSS and pain has received little attention. Gathering both self-report questionnaire data and General Practitioner medical data from a large representative community sample in Scotland between 2012 and 2013 (N = 1824), we investigated the relationship between SSS and prescriptions for analgesic drugs. We found that higher levels of SSS significantly predicted lower odds of participants having been prescribed at least one analgesic drug in the previous six months. We obtained this result even after controlling for OSS-related variables (education, occupational status and geographical location) and demographic variables (age and gender). This suggests that, just like the relationship between SSS and general health, SSS has important effects on pain that go beyond the influence of OSS. PMID:25685990

  4. Nutritional advice from George Orwell : exploring the social mechanisms behind the overconsumption of un-healthy foods by people with low socio-economic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Hedegaard

    2015-01-01

    Despite of a general consensus and recognition of the importance of the “social gradient” on nutritional standards and ultimately people's health, (WHO 2013, Marmot & Wilkinson 1999, Marmot et.al 1991, Budrys 2003, Ross & Wu 1995), the body of literature identifying and describing the actual underlying social mechanisms which could explain this association is small, fragmented and not contained within one single discipline of thought – the effects of this conundrum seem easier to describe than to explain. The aim of this article is therefore to explore and identify social mechanisms, which could help explain why people with low socio-economic status consume a disproportionate amount of unhealthy foods and therefore also observe poorer diets. It is therefore in many ways an exploration into the nature of (relative) poverty. The point of departure for this exploration and identification is historical descriptions (in the form of excerpts) from George Orwell's 1937 book “The Road to Wigan Pier” on the living conditions of the British working classes. These descriptions will be aligned with results from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour. Strong similarities are identified between George Orwell's historical descriptions of the working-class's unhealthy diet and the findings from contemporary research into nutritional behaviour of people with a low socio-economic status. The article, on this basis, argues that certain social mechanisms influencing nutritional choices are readily identifiable across disciplines, and even partly reproduced in different historical, social and spatial contexts, with stronger negative (ill health) consequences for people with low socio-economic status especially. Finally the article discusses how social mechanisms affecting our nutritional choices could challenge the underlying rationalities and assumptions of the rational yet “knowledge deficient” individual consumer implicitly present in much nutritional advice - both past and present. The disregard of social mechanisms, and therefore implicitly issues of class, could indicate a general “de-socialization” of nutritional advice also in its dispersal through various health-promotion initiatives and campaigns, which raises serious questions about the usefulness of much nutritional advice, already tentatively questioned by some nutritionist (Burr et al., 2007) as well as “food” sociologist (Smith & Holm 2010).

  5. Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (?(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (?(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that renewed efforts should be made to improve sexual risk behaviour within this group. PMID:25388981

  6. The influence of antismoking television advertisements on cessation by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and mental health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M; Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N?=?53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor mental health. PMID:25033449

  7. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children of Different Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, R. O.; Koleoso, Titilayo Abiodun

    1989-01-01

    Compares incidence of caries in 60 13 to 15 year olds in 2 Nigerian schools, 1 with an affluent population and the other with students from a lower socioeconomic level. Data on parental occupations, patterns of dental practice, and eating habits were collected. Caries incidence in different categories of social standing was similar. (NH)

  8. KUPPUSWAMY’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS SCALE – A REVISION OF ECONOMIC PARAMETER FOR 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.B.P.Ravi Kumar; Dr.Shankar Reddy Dudala; Dr.A.R.Rao

    2013-01-01

    All community based studies focus on socio-economic stratification as this is the key to understanding affordability of health services, amenities and purchasability. When it is taken as a summation of education, occupation and income it reflects the value system expected for that level of education and occupation. Income is parallel to standard of living.

  9. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkelsen Sigurd

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%. Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days, medium (4-14 days and long (>14 days spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal". Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters. Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR or odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2 and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16 times for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, respectively, while the similar changes varied from 0.79 to 2.8 for the other absence outcomes. General health explained some of the social gradient. Work factors and personal factors did not. Conclusions The social gradient in sickness absence was different for absences of different duration and patterns. It was strongest for absences of medium length and "abnormal" absence. The social gradient was not explained by other factors.

  10. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

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    Louise H. Dekker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective: We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design: Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting: Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects: Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254, South Asian Surinamese (n=425, and African Surinamese (n=784 participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results: ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions: We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin participants, presumably a move towards more vegetables and fruits with higher SES but continued fidelity to the traditional diet.

  11. COMPARISON OF LITERACY, AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN MOTHERS HAVING A NORMAL OR A LOW BIRTH WEIGHT NEWBORN

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    F. Azordegan

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available In a case control study the effects of literacy, socio-economic status and the fertility behavior of mothers were fully investigated in two groups. Out of 13123 babies born in 17 hospitals during almost 8 months in 1988-1989 in Tehran 730 had a low birth weight (less than 2500 gr. As a control group, 1460 births were randomly selected from normal weight births. Some basic findings are as follows: 1Mothers who become pregnant in either age group of “less than 20” or “35 and over” will eventually have a higher chance of delivering a low birth weight baby, and as a result, such babies will gave a higher probability mortality in the first week and first month of their lives. 2 Age at marriage is positively correlated with the level of education. 3 The number of children born alive is negatively correlated with the level of education of mothers. 4 The socio-economic status of the family has a significant impact upon child spacing, and that will affect the probability of having a low birth weight newborn, and finally, will increase the mortality rate of babies.

  12. Cooking Pattern and Eating Behaviors in Association with Socioeconomic Status among Iranian Households: The NUTRI-KAP Survey

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    Forouzan SALEHI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disparities in health may relate to differences in nutrition. Among dietary determinants, Socioeconomic Status (SES plays an important role. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the association between SES and cooking pattern and consumed food among rural and urban Iranian households.    Methods: Overall, 14,136 households were selected through single-stage cluster sampling methods from urban and rural regions of 31 provinces of Iran in 2011-2012. Demographic, SES, cooking pattern and consumed food data were obtained through valid structured questionnaires by interviewing between trained interviewers with qualified people in households. Data were analyzed using STATA software ver. 11.0 (STATA Corp, College Station, Tex.Results: In households with weak SES background, 70.4% of households cooked separately for any meal. The healthy cooking method for red meat and chicken, fish, celery, vegetables stew, onion and green bean was significantly higher in good SES ( P<0.001. Households with good SES had higher intake low fat dairy, liquid oil and iodized salt (P<0.001 compared with families with weak SES. Most consumed bread in three groups was Lavash (Local name.  Conclusion: Pattern of cooking and the type of consumed foods among different SES group and their relationship with each other. So based on this information will be facilitated for interventions and training for better nutrition pattern in society.   Keywords: Socioeconomic Status, KAP, Cooking pattern, Consumed food  

  13. Oral Heath Conditions and Oral Hygiene Habits of Pregnant Women of Low Socio-Economic Status in Aracaju-SE

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    Thaysa Monteiro RAMOS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mothers exert an important role in the stablishment of the dental care habits of their children and they are the major source from which infants acquire cariogenic microorganisms. Thus, the aim of this research was to assess the oral health conditions and oral hygiene habits of pregnant women of low socioeconomic status in the city of Aracaju-SE. Method: One hundred and seventy pregnant women were randomly selected to be interviewed in accordance with a structured questionnaire about oral health, dental hygiene and socio-economic status. The oral conditions were evaluated by the DMFT, IHO-S e SI index. Results: In regard to oral hygiene habits, 58% of the interviewed women brushed their teeth three times a day. The majority (98% made use of toothpaste but only 33% made use of the dental floss. The mean DMTF was 10.43 and the mean value of the IHO-S was 1.93. Nevertheless, the prevalence of the gingival bleeding was low (10.1%. Conclusion: The pregnant women presented poor oral health conditions and undesirable oral hygiene habits justifying the necessity of a primary dental health preventive approach with targeted measures directed at the pregnant women.

  14. Socioeconomic status, parenting, and externalizing problems in African American single-mother homes: A person-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Margaret T; Jones, Deborah J; Youngstrom, Eric A

    2015-06-01

    African American youth, particularly those from single-mother homes, are overrepresented in statistics on externalizing problems. The family is a central context in which to understand externalizing problems; however, reliance on variable-oriented approaches to the study of parenting, which originate from work with intact, middle-income, European American families, may obscure important information regarding variability in parenting styles among African American single mothers, and in turn, variability in youth outcomes as well. The current study demonstrated that within African American single-mother families: (a) a person-, rather than variable-, oriented approach to measuring parenting style may further elucidate variability; (b) socioeconomic status may provide 1 context within which to understanding variability in parenting style; and (c) 1 marker of socioeconomic status, income, and parenting style may each explain variability in youth externalizing problems; however, the interaction between income and parenting style was not significant. Findings have potential implications for better understanding the specific contexts in which externalizing problems may be most likely to occur within this at-risk and underserved group. PMID:26053349

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Obesity Relationship in Non-Menopause Women Aged 15-49 Years in Tehran, Iran

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    K Mohammad

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To investigate the association between socio-economic status and obesity in non-menopause women aged 15-49 years in Tehran, Iran."nMethods: This study was based on Iran National Health Survey conducted in 1999. Obesity is defined as a Body Mass In­dex over ?30. Constructed area (per-person, educational level and job are considered as factors indicating the socioeconomic status. The results have been adjusted for age and mental health using univariate and multiple logistic regression.  "nResults: A total number of 2859 non-menopause women aged 15-49 yr from urban areas of Tehran have been studied. The preva­lence of obesity and overweight were 16.4% and 28.4% respectively. Women aged 30-49 yr had greater risk of obesity (ad­justed OR=2.53, 95%CI: 1.99-3.20. Comparing with students, homemakers and employees were at higher risk of obe­sity (adjusted OR= 4.33, 95%CI: 2.47-7.76, adjusted OR= 2.82, 95%CI: 1.41-5.63 respectively. Those with >= 12 yr of educa­tion had lower risk of obesity compared to illiterate women (adjusted OR=.57, 95%CI: 0.38-0.86."nConclusion: The role of social factors is dominant over economic factor on obesity. This fact should be considered as one of the most important research priorities in future researches.

  16. Physical activity of adult residents of Katowice and selected determinants of their occupational status and socio-economic characteristics

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    Daniel Puciato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of physical activity (PA is often addressed in the literature, but its socio-economic determinants are not fully recognized. To date no studies of the adult population of Katowice have been carried out. Research in this area is of great importance in the context of the documented influence of PA on health and extension of retirement age in Poland. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between PA and socio-economic status of adult residents of Katowice. Materials and Methods: The study carried out in 2010 comprised 2053 people (987 women and 1066 men aged 30-65 years. To evaluate PA in the study group the diagnostic survey method and a research tool in the form of an abridged version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, with specification expanded by the authors, were used. In the statistical analysis logistic regression was employed. Results: The likelihood of meeting the standards of health-enhancing PA was higher in men than in women, and it decreased with age and education level of the respondents. The highest proportion of those meeting the recommendation of health-enhancing PA was observed among blue-collar workers, operators, teachers, police and soldiers. The lowest probability of meeting the recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine was found among economists and lawyers, office workers, the unemployed, managers, and engineers, pensioners and health care professionals. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the correlation between PA and socio-economic status of the respondents. The analysis of the results indicates the necessity to promote PA programs mainly among women, the elderly, the unemployed, pensioners and representatives of professions, such as economists, lawyers, managers, engineers, and health professionals. Med Pr 2013;64(5:649–657

  17. Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries

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    Novignon Jacob

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Methods The study used data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS from Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Sierra Leone with a total of 38,990 children below age five. A multi-level random effects logistic model was fitted to examine the socioeconomic factors that influence the prevalence of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Data from the four countries were also combined to estimate this relationship, after country-specific analysis. Results The results show that children from wealthier households reported lower prevalence of fever in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Result from the combined dataset shows that children from wealthier households were less likely to report fever. In general, vaccination against fever-related diseases and the use of improved toilet facility reduces fever prevalence. The use of bed nets by children and mothers did not show consistent relationship across the countries. Conclusion Poverty does not only influence prevalence of fever at the macro level as shown in other studies but also the individual and household levels. Policies directed towards preventing childhood fevers should take a close account of issues of poverty alleviation. There is also the need to ensure that prevention and treatment mechanisms directed towards fever related diseases (such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, polio, tuberculosis etc. are accessible and effectively used.

  18. Long-term effects of adolescent smoking on depression and socioeconomic status in adulthood in an urban African American cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carol; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2014-06-01

    Despite known adverse causal effects of cigarette smoking on mental health, findings for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later depression and socioeconomic status remain inconclusive. Previous studies have had shorter follow-up periods and did not have a representative portion of the African American population. Using an analytical method that matches adolescent smokers with nonsmokers on childhood and background variables, this study aims to provide evidence on the effects of adolescent regular smoking on adult depression and socioeconomic status. Our longitudinal study is from the Woodlawn Study that followed 1,242 African Americans in Chicago from 1966-1967 (at age 6-7) through 2002-2003 (at age 42-43). We used a propensity score matching method to find a regular and a non-regular adolescent smoking group with similar childhood socioeconomic and family background and first grade academic and behavioral performance. We compared the matched samples to assess the longitudinal effects of adolescent smoking on adult outcomes. Comparing the matched 199 adolescent regular smokers and 199 non-regular smokers, we found statistical support for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later educational attainment (OR, 2.13; 95 % CI, 1.34, 3.39) and long-term unemployment (OR, 1.74; 95 % CI, 1.11, 2.75), but did not find support for the effects on adulthood major depressive disorders. With a community population of urban African Americans followed for 40 years, our study contributes to the understanding of the relationships between adolescent smoking and later educational attainment and employment. PMID:24379173

  19. Implications of Parents’ Socio-Economic Status in the Choice of English Language Learning Strategies among Nigeria’s Secondary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mallam Adamu Babikkoi; Noor Zainab binti Abdul Razak

    2014-01-01

    Studies have indicated that, less affluent families are less likely to have the financial and or time availability to provide their children with academic support compared to affluent families.This study investigated the relationship between Language Learning Strategies used by secondary school students in Nigeria and their Parents Socio-economic Status. The data for this research was provided by 559 respondents who study English as a second language and belonging to three varied socio-econom...

  20. Intake of fat and fiber-rich foods according to socioeconomic status: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Neutzling, Marilda B.; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Vieira, Maria de Fátima A.; Pedro C. Hallal; Ana M. B. Menezes; Victora, Cesar G

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the food intake of adolescents participating in the 1993 birth cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil, according to socioeconomic position. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2004-2005 follow-up visit. Food intake in the previous year was evaluated using the Block questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was evaluated based on an assets index, divided into quintiles. Foods with the highest frequency of daily intake were white bread (83%), butter o...

  1. The mediating effect of social relationships on the association between socioeconomic status and subjective health – results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Vonneilich Nico; Jöckel Karl-Heinz; Erbel Raimund; Klein Jens; Dragano Nico; Siegrist Johannes; von dem Knesebeck Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant of population health. Explanatory approaches on how SES determines health have so far included numerous factors, amongst them psychosocial factors such as social relationships. However, it is unclear whether social relationships can help explain socioeconomic differences in general subjective health. Do different aspects of social relationships contribute differently to the explanation? Based on a cohort study of middl...

  2. The effects of socioeconomic status, accessibility to services and patient type on hospital use in Western Australia: a retrospective cohort study of patients with homogenous health status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holman C D'Arcy J

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate groups of patients with a relatively homogenous health status to evaluate the degree to which use of the Australian hospital system is affected by socio-economic status, locational accessibility to services and patient payment classification. Method Records of all deaths occurring in Western Australia from 1997 to 2000 inclusive were extracted from the WA mortality register and linked to records from the hospital morbidity data system (HMDS via the WA Data Linkage System. Adjusted incidence rate ratios of hospitalisation in the last, second and third years prior to death were modelled separately for five underlying causes of death. Results The independent effects of socioeconomic status on hospital utilisation differed markedly across cause of death. Locational accessibility was generally not an independent predictor of utilisation except in those dying from ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer. Private patient status did not globally affect utilisation across all causes of death, but was associated with significantly decreased utilisation three years prior to death for those who died of colorectal, lung or breast cancer, and increased utilisation in the last year of life in those who died of colorectal cancer or cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion It appears that the Australian hospital system may not be equitable since equal need did not equate to equal utilisation. Further it would appear that horizontal equity, as measured by equal utilisation for equal need, varies by disease. This implies that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach to further improvements in equity may be over simplistic. Thus initiatives beyond Medicare should be devised and evaluated in relation to specific areas of service provision.

  3. Relation between socioeconomic status, employment, and health during economic change, 1973-93.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartley, M.; C. Owen

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the national unemployment rate and class differences in the relation between health and employment during the period 1973-93. DESIGN: Data from general household surveys, 1973-93. Comparison of rates of employment, unemployment, and economic inactivity among those with and without limiting longstanding illness in different socioeconomic groups and how these varied over 20 years. SUBJECTS: All men aged 20-59 years in each survey between 1973 an...

  4. Work, family socioeconomic status, and growth among working boys in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Hawamdeh, H; Spencer, N.; WATERSTON, T

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To describe the work, family socioeconomic characteristics, and growth of a representative sample of working children in Jordan.?METHODS—In a cross sectional survey of growth and health, 135 working children (aged 10-16 years) were studied in the areas of Irbid, Jarash, and North Jordan Valley. The children and their parents were interviewed and data collected on length of working week, income earned by the child, duration of work in years, age of starting work, type...

  5. Impact of Hispanic Ethnic Concentration and Socioeconomic Status on Obesity Prevalence in Texas Countie

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Sexton; Jennifer Gay; Salinas, Jennifer J.; Bassent E. Abdelbary; Elizabeth Rocha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hispanic ethnic concentration is associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and, if this relationship exists, whether it is affected by the socioeconomic environment. The study uses the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) linked to 2000 census data to access the relationship between prevalence of obesity, Hispanic ethnic concentration, poverty and level of education at a county-level. The findings suggest that the asso...

  6. Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country's socio-economic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gyan P., Sharma; Karen J., Esler; James N., Blignaut.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with v [...] arious socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI), the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP) among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.

  7. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, individual wealth status and patterns of delivery care utilization in Nigeria: a multilevel discrete choice analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aremu O

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Olatunde Aremu1,2, Stephen Lawoko1, Koustuv Dalal1,31Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Linköping University, SwedenBackground: High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of maternal healthcare services has been accepted as an important factor for reducing maternal deaths. This study investigates the effect of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic position on the utilization of different forms of place of delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.Methods: A population-based multilevel discrete choice analysis was performed using the most recent population-based 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years. The analysis was restricted to 15,162 ever-married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja.Results: The choice of place to deliver varies across the socioeconomic strata. The results of the multilevel discrete choice models indicate that with every other factor controlled for, the household wealth status, women's occupation, women's and partner's high level of education attainment, and possession of health insurance were associated with use of private and government health facilities for child birth relative to home delivery. The results also show that higher birth order and young maternal age were associated with use of home delivery. Living in a highly socioeconomic disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with home birth compared with the patronage of government health facilities. More specifically, the result revealed that choice of facility-based delivery is clustered around the neighborhoods.Conclusion: Home delivery, which cuts across all socioeconomic strata, is a common practice among women in Nigeria. Initiatives that would encourage the appropriate use of healthcare facilities at little or no cost to the most disadvantaged should be accorded the utmost priority.Keywords: delivery care, maternal health services utilization, multilevel discrete choice, Nigeria, socioeconomic disadvantaged, neigborhood, health policy

  8. A spatial analysis of variations in health access: linking geography, socio-economic status and access perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunsdon Chris

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes survey. Road distances to the nearest service were calculated for each respondent using a GIS. Difficulty was related to geographic distance, health status and car ownership using logistic generalized linear models. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used to explore the spatial non-stationarity in the results. Results Respondent long term illness, reported bad health and non-car ownership were found to be significant predictors of difficulty in accessing GPs and hospitals. Geographic distance was not a significant predictor of difficulty in accessing hospitals but was for GPs. GWR identified the spatial (local variation in these global relationships indicating locations where the predictive strength of the independent variables was higher or lower than the global trend. The impacts of bad health and non-car ownership on the difficulties experienced in accessing health services varied spatially across the study area, whilst the impacts of geographic distance did not. Conclusions Difficulty in accessing different health facilities was found to be significantly related to health status and car ownership, whilst the impact of geographic distance depends on the service in question. GWR showed how these relationships were varied across the study area. This study demonstrates that the notion of access is a multi-dimensional concept, whose composition varies with location, according to the facility being considered and the health and socio-economic status of the individual concerned.

  9. Differences in risk factors for children with special health care needs (CSHCN receiving needed specialty care by socioeconomic status

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    Bae Sejong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting CSHCN's receiving needed specialty care among different socioeconomic levels. Previous literature has shown that Socioeconomic Status (SES is a significant factor in CHSHCN receiving access to healthcare. Other literature has shown that factors of insurance, family size, race/ethnicity and sex also have effects on these children's receipt of care. However, this literature does not address whether other factors such as maternal education, geographic location, age, insurance type, severity of condition, or race/ethnicity have different effects on receiving needed specialty care for children in each SES level. Methods Data were obtained from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2000–2002. The study analyzed the survey which studies whether CHSCN who needed specialty care received it. The analysis included demographic characteristics, geographical location of household, severity of condition, and social factors. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed for SES levels defined by federal poverty level: Results For the poorest children (,199% FPL being uninsured had a strong negative effect on receiving all needed specialty care. Being Hispanic was a protective factor. Having more than one adult in the household had a positive impact on receipt of needed specialty care but a larger number of children in the family had a negative impact. For the middle income group of children (200–299% of FPL severity of condition had a strong negative association with receipt of needed specialty care. Children in highest income group (> 300% FPL were positively impacted by living in the Midwest and were negatively impacted by the mother having only some college compared to a four-year degree. Conclusion Factors affecting CSHCN receiving all needed specialty care differed among socioeconomic groups. These differences should be addressed in policy and practice. Future research should explore the CSHCN population by income groups to better serve this population

  10. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

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    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI, socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII, and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates.Results: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks.Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing inequalities in socioeconomic conditions, availability of preventive health services, and women’s social status.

  11. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in an asymptomatic population in the United States. Effect of age, race, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D Y; Malaty, H M; Evans, D G; Evans, D J; Klein, P D; Adam, E

    1991-06-01

    A causative role is now accepted for Helicobacter (formerly Campylobacter) pylori in type B gastritis, and evidence is accumulating that H. pylori infection plays a major contributory role in peptic ulcer disease. Preliminary studies have reported that the prevalence of H. pylori infection increases with age, but detailed information on the prevalence of the bacteria in any defined population and on the factors that may influence the pattern of distribution remains scanty. In the present study, a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a [13C] urea breath test were used to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection among 485 healthy asymptomatic volunteers between the ages of 15 and 80 residing in the Houston metropolitan area. H. pylori infection was present in 52%. The prevalence of H. pylori infection increased rapidly with age at 1%/yr for the overall population. The frequency of H. pylori infection was higher in blacks (70%) than whites (34%) (P less than 0.001); this difference remained after adjustments were made for age, gender, educational level, income, and use of tobacco or alcohol. H. pylori infection was independent of gender but was closely correlated with socioeconomic class. There were significant inverse correlations between age-adjusted frequency of H. pylori infection and income and between educational level and H. pylori infection. There was no association between H. pylori infection and consumption of alcohol or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use or smoking. Having pets was associated with a lower frequency of H. pylori infection, but this was highly associated with higher socioeconomic status. The mode(s) of transmission of H. pylori is unknown, but the social patterns of H. pylori infection are consistent with fecal-oral transmission as one important pathway. Socioeconomic factors seem to determine the age of acquisition. PMID:2019355

  12. Sub-optimal birth weight in newborns of a high socioeconomic status population

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre; Maura Aparecida Prado Vaccari Villela Boacnin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare sub-optimal birth weight (2,500 to 2,999 g) term newborns to appropriate for gestational age (birth weight ? 3,000 g) term newborns, regarding maternal data and newborn morbidity and mortality. Methods: Single term newborns, appropriate for gestational age from a high socioeconomic population (n = 1,242) with birth weight ranging from 2,500 to 2,999 g (Group I) were compared to 4,907 newborns with birth weight ? than 3,000 g (Group II). Maternal and newborn characteristi...

  13. Improved Socio-Economic Status of a Community Population Following Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Control Interventions on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanga, Joseph R.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Siza, Julius E.; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M.; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on micro-level assessment of the changes of socio-economic status following health interventions is very scarce. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in resource poor settings. In such settings information about income is usually lacking, and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 213 households in a community population in an island in the north-western Tanzania before and 3 year after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based housing construction features (e.g., type of roof, walls, and floor) and durable assets ownership (e.g., bicycle, radio, etc.). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor, and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.4376677 to 0.5001073, and the mean from -0.2605787 (SD; 2.005688) to 0.2605787 (SD; 1.831199). The difference in socio-economic status of the people between the 2 phases was highly statistically significant (P<0.001). We argue that finding of this study should be treated with caution as there were other interventions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections which were running concurrently on Kome Island apart from PHAST intervention. PMID:26537034

  14. Diabetes and depression comorbidity and socio-economic status in low and middle income countries (LMICs: a mapping of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leone Tiziana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-communicable diseases account for more than 50% of deaths in adults aged 15–59 years in most low income countries. Depression and diabetes carry an enormous public health burden, making the identification of risk factors for these disorders an important strategy. While socio-economic inequalities in chronic diseases and their risk factors have been studied extensively in high-income countries, very few studies have investigated social inequalities in chronic disease risk factors in low or middle-income countries. Documenting chronic disease risk factors is important for understanding disease burdens in poorer countries and for targeting specific populations for the most effective interventions. The aim of this review is to systematically map the evidence for the association of socio-economic status with diabetes and depression comorbidity in low and middle income countries. The objective is to identify whether there is any evidence on the direction of the relationship: do co-morbidities have an impact on socio-economic status or vice versa and whether the prevalence of diabetes combined with depression is associated with socio-economic status factors within the general population. To date no other study has reviewed the evidence for the extent and nature of this relationship. By systematically mapping the evidence in the broader sense we can identify the policy and interventions implications of existing research, highlight the gaps in knowledge and suggest future research. Only 14 studies were found to analyse the associations between depression and diabetes comorbidity and socio-economic status. Studies show some evidence that the occurrence of depression among people with diabetes is associated with lower socio-economic status. The small evidence base that considers diabetes and depression in low and middle income countries is out of step with the scale of the burden of disease.

  15. Does depression and substance abuse co-morbidity affect socioeconomic status? Evidence from a prospective study of urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; Green, Kerry M

    2015-01-30

    Studies have established a graded association between mental health and socioeconomic status (SES). However, scarce research has examined the impact of substance use disorders (SUD) and depression comorbidity on SES. We use data from the Woodlawn Study, a longitudinal cohort study, which recruited a cohort of first graders from Chicago starting 1966-1967 (N=1242). Analyses focus on those interviewed in young adulthood and followed up through midlife. Regression analyses adjusting for childhood confounders showed that young adults with depression and SUD comorbidity had higher likelihood of having any periods of unemployment, higher likelihood of being unemployed for 3 or more months, and lower household income in midlife than those with neither disorder. Moreover, young adults with SUD without depression had higher odds of having any periods of unemployment and higher odds of being unemployed for 3 or more months than those with neither disorder. Findings point to the possibility of social selection where depression and SUD comorbidity contributes to a downward drift in SES. Clinical interventions that integrate the treatment of SUD and depression may be more effective at reducing socioeconomic disparities among minority populations. PMID:25467698

  16. Value Patterns Of Teacher Trainees In Relation To Education Level, Socioeconomic Status, Place Of Residence And Caste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita , Durga Sharma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to study the value patterns of teacher trainees in relation to their education level, Socioeconomic Status, Place of residence and Caste. For the purpose of the present study, a sample of 100 B.Ed. trainees studying in a self-financed B.Ed. course at Patna Women's College, Patna was chosen. The Study of Value Test developed by Ojha and Bhargava was employed to gauge the value pattern of the teacher trainees. The data so collected was analyzed by converting raw scores into Z-scores and then inferences were drawn studying the percentage distribution of the value indicators and estimating the correlation among the value indicators. The findings of the study revealed that teacher trainees mostly belong to average and high category for the six values involved in the study

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk factors among children of different socioeconomic status in Istanbul, Turkey: Directions for public health and nutrition policy

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    Keskin Yasar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES districts in Istanbul. Participants 510 randomly selected children aged 12 and 13 years old (257 boys, 253 girls. Results The prevalence of overweight (15.2% and the energy intake (p Conclusion The findings of the current study revealed a coexistence of both overweight and higher energy intake in middle/ high SES children, as well as a coexistence of underweight and lower physical activity levels in low SES children. These observations should guide the public health policy in developing appropriate intervention strategies to efficiently tackle these health and social issues early in life.

  18. Impact of Hispanic Ethnic Concentration and Socioeconomic Status on Obesity Prevalence in Texas Counties

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    Ken Sexton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether Hispanic ethnic concentration is associated with a higher prevalence of obesity and, if this relationship exists, whether it is affected by the socioeconomic environment. The study uses the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS linked to 2000 census data to access the relationship between prevalence of obesity, Hispanic ethnic concentration, poverty and level of education at a county-level. The findings suggest that the association of Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity varies by socioeconomic environment. Although little influence was observed for % poverty, the relationship between Hispanic ethnic concentration and obesity differed by county-level educational attainment. High proportion of residents with a bachelor’s degree is associated with a low prevalence of obesity; counties with both high % Hispanic and high % with Bachelor’s degrees had the lowest prevalence of obesity. Our results suggest that promoting and improving education, perhaps including training on healthful living, may serve as an effective means of curbing current obesity trends and associated health problems in Hispanic and possibly other ethnic communities.

  19. Associations between socioeconomic status and environmental toxicant concentrations in adults in the USA: NHANES 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Melzer, David; Henley, William; Galloway, Tamara S; Osborne, Nicholas J

    2013-09-01

    Low level chronic exposure to toxicants is associated with a range of adverse health effects. Understanding the various factors that influence the chemical burden of an individual is of critical importance to public health strategies. We investigated the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and bio-monitored chemical concentration in five cross-sectional waves of the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We utilised adjusted linear regression models to investigate the association between 179 toxicants and the poverty income ratio (PIR) for five NHANES waves. We then selected a subset of chemicals associated with PIR in 3 or more NHANES waves and investigated potential mediating factors using structural equation modelling. PIR was associated with 18 chemicals in 3 or more NHANES waves. Higher SES individuals had higher burdens of serum and urinary mercury, arsenic, caesium, thallium, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid, mono(carboxyoctyl) phthalate and benzophenone-3. Inverse associations were noted between PIR and serum and urinary lead and cadmium, antimony, bisphenol A and three phthalates (mono-benzyl, mono-isobutyl, mono-n-butyl). Key mediators included fish and shellfish consumption for the PIR, mercury, arsenic, thallium and perfluorononanoic acid associations. Sunscreen use was an important mediator in the benzophenone-3/PIR relationship. The association between PIR and cadmium or lead was partially mediated by smoking, occupation and diet. These results provide a comprehensive analysis of exposure patterns as a function of socioeconomic status in US adults, providing important information to guide future public health remediation measures to decrease toxicant and disease burdens within society. PMID:23892225

  20. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Urban Elementary School Children in Northeastern Romania: Its Relationship with Socioeconomic Status and Associated Dietary and Lifestyle Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Mocanu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of obesity and to identify its potential determinants to optimize the methods of prevention to combat further increases in childhood overweight. The study was carried out on 3444 school children of 6–10 years of age attending 30 schools in northeast Romania. Schools were classified by geographical location and socioeconomic status (SES). Overweight and obesity status were determined using IOTF BMI cut-off points. Prevalence of overweight...

  1. Relational Factors of Vulnerability and Protection for Adolescent Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Portuguese Pregnant and Nonpregnant Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Maria C.; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2005-01-01

    This study explores multiple relational contexts that promote vulnerability and protection against early pregnancy in a potential risk group of Portuguese adolescents. A comparative analysis was made between two groups of female adolescents of low socioeconomic status: pregnant adolescents (n = 57) and adolescents without a history of pregnancy (n…

  2. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  3. Can Racial Disparity in Health between Black and White Americans Be Attributed to Racial Disparities in Body Weight and Socioeconomic Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Sang Kyoung

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined to what extent racial disparities in chronic health conditions (CHCs) are attributable to racial differences in body weight (measured as body mass index [BMI]) and socioeconomic status (SES) among older adults. To address this gap, using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, the current study examined…

  4. The Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships and Achievement Motivation on Students' Intentions to Dropout According to Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…

  5. Differences in Student Information and Communication Technology Literacy Based on Socio-Economic Status, Ethnicity, and Gender: Evidence of a Digital Divide in Florida Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…

  6. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  7. The prevalence and distribution of dental caries in four early medieval non-adult populations of different socioeconomic status from Central Europe.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stránská, Petra; Velemínský, P.; Polá?ek, Lumír

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 60, ?. 1 (2015), s. 62-76. ISSN 0003-9969 R&D Projects: GA ?R GB14-36938G Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : bioarchaeology * early medieval population * Great Moravia * non-adult individuals * dental caries * socio-economic status Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.735, year: 2014

  8. Cohort Size, Sex and Socio-Economic Status as Predictors of Success in Year 12 Physics in Perth, 1987-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, David; Louden, William; Wildy, Helen

    2013-01-01

    A variety of factors are associated with students' achievement in secondary school physics, including cohort size--the total number of students studying Physics in the school--and socioeconomic status. Earlier studies also showed boys achieving better in Physics, while more recent research has shown better results for girls. Statistical…

  9. Racial and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Black and White Youth: An Examination of the Mediating Effects of Family Structure, Stress and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Byron; Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    Stress research shows that race, socioeconomic status (SES), and family context significantly impact an adolescent's psychological well-being, yet little is known about the mediating effects of family context on racial and SES differences in depressive symptoms among Black and White youth. We investigate these associations using a sample of 875…

  10. Nutritional Quality of Breakfast and Physical Activity Independently Predict the Literacy and Numeracy Scores of Children after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Mugridge, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Health-related behaviors [physical activity (PA), nutritional quality of breakfast and sleep]; personal variables (self-esteem, attitudes to PA and gender) and socioeconomic status (SES) (school SES and parental education), were examined in relation to literacy and numeracy scores of 824 grade 3-7 children. Participants completed a questionnaire,…

  11. Quantitative stability, qualitative change? Changing socio-economic status and value perceptions of Danish volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov

    2013-01-01

    Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced changes in economic conditions, educational levels, and labor markets at the same time as cultural changes have taken place in relation to processes of individualization and reflexivity. Based on empirical data the aim of this paper is to investigate whether and to what extent changes in the structural preconditions for volunteering have had an effect on factors that are commonly associated with volunteering. We use survey data from Denmark collected over a period from 1990 to 2008.

  12. The Influence of Antismoking Television Advertisements on Cessation by Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Mental Health Status

    OpenAIRE

    Nonnemaker, James M.; Allen, Jane A.; Kevin C. Davis; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation ...

  13. Body weight dissatisfaction by socioeconomic status among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men: results of the cross-sectional KORA Augsburg S4 population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Lengerke Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight dissatisfaction is an important factor in preventing weight gain and promoting weight loss or maintenance. This study focuses on differences in the rates of body weight dissatisfaction among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men by socioeconomic status within a general adult population in Germany. Methods Data were analyzed from 4186 adults aged 25 to 74 who participated in a cross-sectional, representative population-based health survey (KORA S4, 1999–2001, Augsburg region/Germany. Body mass was measured anthropometrically and indexed following international standards. Among the 2123 women participating in the survey, 40.3% had a normal weight, 34.9% were preobese, and 24.8% were obese (compared to 25.9%, 51.4% and 22.6% among men, respectively. Body weight dissatisfaction, educational level, household income and occupational status were assessed by computer-aided personal interviewing. An index for socioeconomic status was calculated and categorized into quintiles. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to test for differences in the odds of body weight dissatisfaction across socioeconomic strata in normal weight, preobese and obese groups. Body mass index, age, family status, place of residence and health behaviors were adjusted for. Results Overall, being dissatisfied with one’s body weight was more prevalent in women (48.3% than in men (33.2%. In the normal weight group, no significant differences in the odds of being dissatisfied were found across socioeconomic groups among women or men. Among preobese men, compared to the lowest socioeconomic stratum, increased odds of being dissatisfied with one’s body weight were associated with the highest socioeconomic index group (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.4–3.8, middle and high educational level (OR?=?1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3, and OR?=?1.9, 95% CI: 1.3–3.7, high income (OR?=?1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.7, and middle and high occupational status (both OR?=?1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.6. Among preobese women, the odds of being dissatisfied were only significantly elevated in those with a middle educational level (OR?=?1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3. Among obese men, elevated odds were found in the highest socioeconomic index group (OR?=?3.7, 95% CI: 1.8–7.5 and in those with a high educational level (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.3–4.1, high income (OR?=?2.6, 95% CI: 1.4–4.7, and middle and high occupational status (both OR?=?2.2, 95% CI: 1.3–3.6. The odds of dissatisfaction among obese women were not associated with socioeconomic status as a whole, but were associated with a high educational level, albeit with a comparatively large confidence interval (OR?=?3.6, 95% CI: 1.0–12.8. Conclusions In Germany, body weight dissatisfaction is more prevalent among obese and preobese men in high socioeconomic status groups, a pattern not found in women. The exception to this is a greater prevalence of dissatisfaction among obese and preobese women with a high educational level (albeit inconsistently. Moreover, there is a social gradient in body weight dissatisfaction, especially in obese men, which may partly explain why obesity is more prevalent in men with low socioeconomic status. It also suggests that they are a target group for obesity care in which body weight satisfaction is an important topic.

  14. Polygenic Risk Score, Parental Socioeconomic Status, Family History of Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk for Schizophrenia : A Danish Population-Based Study and Meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2015-01-01

    Importance: Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. Objective: To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's genetic liability so that specific subgroups are particularly risk prone; and (4) to what extent a proband's genetic makeup mediates the risk associated with familial background. Design, Settings, and Participants: We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers. The study consisted of 866 patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34?600 cases and 45?968 control individuals) were applied to calculate polygenic risk scores. Exposures: Polygenic risk scores, parental socioeconomic status, and family psychiatric history. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratios (ORs), attributable risks, liability R2 values, and proportions mediated. Results: Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for parental socioeconomic status, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for family history. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric history accounted for 45.8% (95% CI, 36.1-55.5) and 25.8% (95% CI, 21.2-30.5) of cases, respectively. There was an interaction between the polygenic risk score and family history (P?=?.03). A total of 17.4% (95% CI, 9.1-26.6) of the effect associated with family history of schizophrenia/psychoses was mediated through the polygenic risk score. Conclusions and Relevance: Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score, family psychiatric history, and socioeconomic status. Our study demonstrated that family history of schizophrenia/psychoses is partly mediated through the individual's genetic liability.

  15. Socio-Economic Status of Kaman Vocational Higher School Student, Ahi Evran University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?enay Sezgin NARTGÜN

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental characteristics of the inputs of the education system which would execute production, adapt to the scientific and technological innovations, and raise skilled and qualified individuals who are required for business life should be known. Therefore, the aim of this study is to reveal the profiles of students at vocational high schools which is one of the main components of higher education system. This study is a socio-economic profile study which is a horizontal social sciences research. The purpose of the data collected in the research is two fold. While first is to introduce the results of the micro and study, the second is to reveal the data that may be an issue for many vertical studies. Accommodating the very limited analysis of the data, the very general profile is presented. To the research; 49.31% of the students graduated from college. The percentage of the students whose family live in downtown is 55.17%, 55,17 % of the students’ family live in city, whose family have social security is 85.17%, who has scholarship is 55.86%, who have part-time job is 23.10%, and who have his/her own car is 6.92%. This study is a resource for implementing contemporary and modern education at Ahi Evran University Kaman Vocational High School. In addition, this study is a database of the students for the administrators of the high school.

  16. Effect of socio-economic status on the prevalence of dermatophytosis in Madras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan S

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 462 patients living in varying socio-economic conditions were screened for tinea infection. 372/462 (70.7% were found to be culture positive for dermatophytes. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte. 35% of the infected cases were from the very low income group (group-I, 34.2% from low income group (group-II, 23.3% from middle income group (group-III and 1.8% from moderately rich group (group-IV. Recurrent, chronic and extensive dermatophytosis were found to be most common in group-I (20.3% and group-II (17.8%, whereas localized infections were common in group-IV (66.6% and group-III (65.7%. Recurrence chronicity were more frequent in tinea cruris and tinea corporis. The present study suggests that group-I and group-II may be the likely reservoirs of human ringworm infections in Madras

  17. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and food environment: a 20-year longitudinal latent class analysis among CARDIA participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Meyer, Katie A; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lewis, Cora E; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the U.S.-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For most classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (pdisadvantaged neighborhood residents had fewer fast food and non-fast food restaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities. PMID:25280107

  18. Can type of school be used as an alternative indicator of socioeconomic status in dental caries studies? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Fausto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of collecting individual data of socioeconomic status (SES in epidemiological oral health surveys with children, this procedure relies on the parents as respondents. Therefore, type of school (public or private schools could be used as an alternative indicator of SES, instead of collecting data individually. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the variable type of school as an indicator of socioeconomic status as a substitute of individual data in an epidemiological survey about dental caries in Brazilian preschool children. Methods This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a random sample of 411 preschool children aged 1 to 5 years, representative of Catalão, Brazil. A calibrated examiner evaluated the prevalence of dental caries and parents or guardians provided information about several individual socioeconomic indicators by means of a semi-structured questionnaire. A multilevel approach was used to investigate the association among individual socioeconomic variables, as well as the type of school, and the outcome. Results When all significant variables in the univariate analysis were used in the multiple model, only mother's schooling and household income (individual socioeconomic variables presented significant associations with presence of dental caries, and the type of school was not significantly associated. However, when the type of school was used alone, children of public school presented significantly higher prevalence of dental caries than those enrolled in private schools. Conclusions The type of school used as an alternative indicator for socioeconomic status is a feasible predictor for caries experience in epidemiological dental caries studies involving preschool children in Brazilian context.

  19. Is malaria illness among young children a cause or a consequence of low socioeconomic status? evidence from the united Republic of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Castro Marcia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is commonly considered a disease of the poor, but there is very little evidence of a possible two-way causality in the association between malaria and poverty. Until now, limitations to examine that dual relationship were the availability of representative data on confirmed malaria cases, the use of a good proxy for poverty, and accounting for endogeneity in regression models. Methods A simultaneous equation model was estimated with nationally representative data for Tanzania that included malaria parasite testing with RDTs for young children (six-59?months, and accounted for environmental variables assembled with the aid of GIS. A wealth index based on assets, access to utilities/infrastructure, and housing characteristics was used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Model estimation was done with instrumental variables regression. Results Results show that households with a child who tested positive for malaria at the time of the survey had a wealth index that was, on average, 1.9 units lower (p-value? Conclusion If malaria is indeed a cause of poverty, as the findings of this study suggest, then malaria control activities, and particularly the current efforts to eliminate/eradicate malaria, are much more than just a public health policy, but also a poverty alleviation strategy. However, if poverty has no causal effect on malaria, then poverty alleviation policies should not be advertised as having the potential additional effect of reducing the prevalence of malaria.

  20. Socioeconomic status and reduced kidney function in the Whitehall II Study : role of obesity and metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Qaoud, Talal M; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous US-based studies have found that chronic kidney disease (CKD) disproportionately affects those of more adverse social circumstances. Our aim was to show the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and decreased kidney function in a European context and explore the role of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We consider the potential confounding effect of lean muscle mass. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: White participants in the follow-up of the Whitehall II cohort: UK-based European population (age, 55-79 years; n = 5,533), of whom 4,066 men (73%) and 1,467 women (27%) with complete data were analyzed. PREDICTORS: Self-reported occupational grade/salary range. OUTCOMES: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using the CKD-EPI (CKD Epidemiology Collaboration) equation. MEASUREMENTS: Body mass index (BMI), serum lipid levels, blood pressure, Tanita TBF-300 body composition analyzer, impedance-derived lean mass index (LMI). RESULTS: Participants in a lower compared with higher occupational grade were at increased odds of having decreased GFR (age- and sex-adjusted OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.12-1.53; P = 0.001). Socioeconomic disparity in LMI was evident in women, but not men. After further adjustment for BMI and components of metabolic syndrome, the odds of decreased GFR in whites with a lower compared with higher occupational grade was attenuated by 23.3% (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.45; P = 0.008). Adjustment for LMI explained 15% of the association between SES and estimated GFR. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional design, missing data for subset of participants, no urinary data. CONCLUSIONS: BMI and components of metabolic syndrome may explain up to a quarter of the association between low SES and decreased GFR, suggesting potential modifiable factors.

  1. Bone mineral density by age, gender, pubertal stages, and socioeconomic status in healthy Lebanese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Asma; Nabulsi, Mona; Maalouf, Joyce; Choucair, Mahmoud; Khalifé, Hassan; Vieth, Reinhold; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2004-11-01

    Gender, ethnicity, and lifestyle factors affect bone mass acquisition during childhood, thus the need for age- and sex-adjusted Z scores using ethnic-specific data for bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. This study aimed at establishing normative data for BMD in healthy Lebanese children and adolescents. Three hundred sixty-three healthy children aged 10 to 17 years (mean+/-SD: 13.1+/-2.0) were studied. BMD, bone mineral content (BMC), and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using a Hologic 4500A device, and apparent volumetric BMD (BMAD) of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck were calculated. BMD, BMC, and BMAD were expressed by age groups and Tanner stages for boys and girls separately. There was a significant effect of age and puberty on all bone parameters, except at the femoral neck BMAD in boys. BMC and BMD were higher at cortical sites in boys, including subtotal body and hip; whereas, in girls, it was higher at a site more enriched in trabecular bone, namely the lumbar spine. At several skeletal sites, girls had significantly higher BMD adjusted for lean mass than boys. By the end of puberty, adolescents had a mean BMD that was 43-66% higher at the lumbar spine and 25-41% higher at cortical sites than pre-pubertal children, depending on the gender. Mean BMD values in the study group were significantly lower (P<0.01) than Western normative values, with Z scores ranging between -0.2 and -1.1. In both genders, children of lower socioeconomic status tended to have lower BMD than those from a higher socioeconomic background. This study allows additional insight into gender dimorphism in mineral accretion during puberty. It also provides a valuable reference database for the assessment of BMD in children with pubertal or growth disorders who are of Middle Eastern origin. PMID:15542043

  2. Socioeconomic status, area remoteness, and survival from childhood leukemia: results from the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros; Dessypris, Nick; Kanavidis, Prodromos; Skalkidis, Ilias; Baka, Margarita; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Athanassiadou, Fani; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Frangandrea, Ioanna; Moschovi, Maria; Petridou, Eleni T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present nationwide Greek study is to assess whether survival from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is modified by socioeconomic status (SES) and area remoteness. Detailed precoded information derived from a personal interview conducted by specially trained health personnel with the child guardians was available for 883 ALL and 111 AML incident childhood cases registered in the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies during the period 1996-2010. Parental socioprofessional category was recorded on the basis of ISCO68 and ISCO88 codes; the exact traveling distance between residence and the treating hospital was ad hoc calculated. Multivariate Cox's proportional hazards models were applied to examine the mutually adjusted associations between survival and potential predictors. Children from a lower parental socioprofessional category experienced 40% worse survival (P=0.02) independent of age, sex, and ALL subtype, whereas those whose parents were married had better outcomes (rate ratio: 0.47, P=0.01). Urbanization of residence at diagnosis or 'residence to treating hospital' distance was not nominally associated with survival from ALL. By contrast, no noteworthy associations implicating SES were found for AML survival, probably because of the burden of the disease and small numbers. Lower SES indicators and a single-parenthood family milieu seem to be independently associated with unfavorable outcomes from childhood ALL. Area remoteness might not be a significant outcome predictor during recent years, following considerable improvements in the motorway infrastructures and care delivery patterns. This study may provide a valuable snapshot capturing the impact of socioeconomic covariates before the burst of the Greek financial crisis. PMID:23238585

  3. The prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find the prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Materials and Methods: A total of 813 children aged 2-6 years were screened for the present study from randomly selected three kindergarten schools each from Government, Government aided, and private managements. Clinical examination was done inside the respective schools. At the time of examination, a proforma was filled for each child comprising of DFS index. The questionnaire by Winter et al. was modified and used in this study. The completed proformas were statistically analyzed to find if any correlation existed between the nursing caries to the feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Results: Duration of breastfeeding increases the number of children with nursing caries and the mean DFS. There is a strong and significant relationship between the severity of nursing caries and the degree of feeding abuse. Children from low socioeconomic status have increased early childhood caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of nursing caries was 19.2% in Davangere preschool population. Nursing caries were more in children who were taking a feeding bottle to bed at night and were increasingly seen in large families and lower socioeconomic groups.

  4. A low socio-economic status is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in high risk Hong Kong Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age-adjusted odds ratio in male subjects was 1.9 (0.9, 3.9) but this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, a lower socio-economic class, categorised either by occupational or educational level, was an additional risk factor for diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese who had known risk factors for glucose intolerance. These subjects should have increased priority for health education and regular diabetes screening. Our findings further emphasise the complex relationships between societal affluence, personal income and educational level

  5. Socioeconomic Status- and Gender-Based Differences in Students' Perceptions of E-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Leslie Jordan; Johnson, Camille S.

    2011-01-01

    Many universities are pursuing increases in on-line course offerings as a means of offsetting the rising costs of providing high-quality educational opportunities and of better serving their student populations. However, enrollments in online courses are not always sufficient to cover their costs. One possible way of improving enrollments is…

  6. Intervenção psicomotora em crianças de nível socioeconômico baixo / Psychomotor intervention on children of low socioeconomic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Carolina de, Campos; Luiz Henrique, Silva; Karina, Pereira; Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira, Rocha; Eloisa, Tudella.

    Full Text Available Visou-se identificar o perfil psicomotor de crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico e verificar o efeito nelas de um programa de intervenção psicomotora. Participaram do estudo seis crianças do sexo masculino, na faixa de 10 a 12 anos (11,5±0,92). Os participantes foram avaliados utilizando-se uma ba [...] teria psicomotora que avalia sete fatores psicomotores: tonicidade, equilibração, lateralização, noção do corpo, estruturação espaço-temporal, praxia global e fina; de acordo com o desempenho da criança, os fatores são pontuados de 1 a 4; o escore 1 refere-se ao perfil apráxico, 2 ao dispráxico, 3 ao eupráxico e 4 ao hiperpráxico. Com base nas dificuldades detectadas foi elaborado um programa de intervenção psicomotora, aplicado durante três meses, em 16 sessões de uma hora de duração, duas vezes por semana. Ao término da intervenção os participantes foram reavaliados. Pela avaliação inicial, o perfil dos participantes foi predominantemente eupráxico nos fatores equilibração, lateralização, noção do corpo, praxia global e praxia fina; nos fatores tonicidade e estruturação espaço-temporal o perfil foi predominantemente dispráxico. Após o programa de intervenção houve aumento estatisticamente significativo (p Abstract in english This study aimed at outlining the psychomotor profile of socioeconomically disadvantaged children and at verifying the effect on them of an assessment-based psychomotor training program. Participants were six 10-to-12 year-old children (mean age 11.5±0.92), who were evaluated before and after the pr [...] ogram by means of a psychomotor battery which assesses seven categories: tonus, equilibrium, lateralisation, body perception, time-space orientation, gross and fine praxis; scores range from 1 to 4, determining the following profiles: 1, apraxic; 2, dyspraxic; 3, eupraxic; 4, hyperpraxic. By drawing on children's difficulties, a psychomotor playing program was applied during 3 months, in 16 one-hour sessions, twice a week. The initial evaluation showed participants profile to be predominantly eupraxic in equilibrium, lateralisation, body perception, gross and fine praxis; profile was mostly dyspraxic as to tonus and time-space orientation. After the program, scores significantly improved in tonus, equilibration, time-space orientation, gross, and fine praxis (p

  7. The relationships among individual and regional smoking, socioeconomic status, and oral and pharyngeal cancer survival: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Logan, Henrietta L; Marks, John G; Shenkman, Elizabeth A

    2015-10-01

    Poorer survival from oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC) has been reported for populations of lower socioeconomic status (SES), adjusting for risk factors such as patient and clinical characteristics. Beyond these risk factors, higher rates of tobacco use may be a mediator for the observed poorer OPC survival for low SES populations. In this study, we aimed to examine the impact of the relationships among SES, individual smoking status, and living in a region with a higher smoking rate on OPC survival. We obtained Florida Cancer Data System data from 1996 to 2010 and merged the data with US Census data and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 1996 to 2010. We built multivariable survival models to quantify the mediational effect of individual smoking on overall and OPC-specific survival, adjusting for regional smoking, demographics, and clinical characteristics. We found that lower SES, individual smoking, and living in a region with a higher smoking rate were all strongly associated with poorer survival. We estimated that the indirect effect of individual smoking accounted for a large part (ranged from 13.3% to 30.2%) of the total effect of SES on overall and OPC-specific survival. In conclusion, individual and regional smoking are both significant and independent predictors of poor cancer survival. Higher rate of individual smoking is partially responsible for poorer cancer survival in low SES populations. Results of this study provide rationale for considering a multi-level approach that simultaneously targets both individual and contextual factors for future smoking cessation interventions. PMID:26250857

  8. Tobacco use prevalence – disentangling associations between Alaska Native race, low socio-economic status and rural disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Dilley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design . For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods . With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alaska's 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, we used stratified analysis and logistic regression models to describe the current use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT (including iq'mik, a unique Alaska Native SLT product among the 3 populations of interest. Results . “Population segments” were created with combinations of responses for Alaska Native race, SES and community type. We identified the highest prevalence and highest proportion of tobacco users for each type of tobacco by “segment.” For cigarette smoking, while the largest proportion (nearly one-third of the state's smokers are non-Native, high SES and live in urban settings, this group also has lower smoking prevalence than most other groups. Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents had both high smoking prevalence (48% and represented a large proportion of the state's smokers (nearly 10%. Patterns were similar for SLT, with non-Native high-SES urban residents making up the largest proportion of users despite lower prevalence, and Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents having high prevalence and making up a large proportion of users. For iq'mik use, Alaska Native people in rural settings were both the highest prevalence and proportion of users. Conclusion . While Alaska Native race, low SES status and community of residence can be considered alone when developing tobacco control interventions, creating “population segments” based on combinations of factors may be helpful for tailoring effective tobacco control strategies and messaging. Other countries or states may use a similar approach for describing and prioritizing populations.

  9. Association between Traumatic Dental Injury, Obesity, and Socioeconomic Status in 6- and 13-Year-Old Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Sakeenabi; Mohammad, Roshan Noor; Swamy, Hiremath Shivalinga; Sexena, Vrinda

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and poverty are independent risk factors in trauma-related morbidity in children as well as adolescents. The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between traumatic dental injury, obesity, and socioeconomic status in 6- and 13-year-old schoolchildren in Davangere city, Karnataka, India. Data were obtained from 1,550 schoolchildren. Dental trauma was classified according to Andreasen's criteria. The medical evaluation assessed the Body Mass Index. Overjet was considered a risk factor when it presented values higher than 3 mm, whereas lip coverage was classified as adequate or inadequate. With appropriate sample weighting, relationships between traumatic dental injury and other variables were assessed using the chi-squared test and multivariable logistic regression. Overall prevalence of dental injuries was 10.52% (3.6% in 6-year-olds and 17.2% in 13-year-olds). Boys experienced more injuries than girls, 11.03% and 9.97%, respectively (p>.05). There was a statistically significant difference between traumatic dental injury and overjet (95% confidence interval [CI] [2.06, 4.78], p poverty. PMID:25812163

  10. The influence of mortality and socioeconomic status on risk and delayed rewards: a life history theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Tybur, Joshua M; Delton, Andrew W; Robertson, Theresa E

    2011-06-01

    Why do some people take risks and live for the present, whereas others avoid risks and save for the future? The evolutionary framework of life history theory predicts that preferences for risk and delay in gratification should be influenced by mortality and resource scarcity. A series of experiments examined how mortality cues influenced decisions involving risk preference (e.g., $10 for sure vs. 50% chance of $20) and temporal discounting (e.g., $5 now vs. $10 later). The effect of mortality depended critically on whether people grew up in a relatively resource-scarce or resource-plentiful environment. For individuals who grew up relatively poor, mortality cues led them to value the present and gamble for big immediate rewards. Conversely, for individuals who grew up relatively wealthy, mortality cues led them to value the future and avoid risky gambles. Overall, mortality cues appear to propel individuals toward diverging life history strategies as a function of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting important implications for how environmental factors influence economic decisions and risky behaviors. PMID:21299312

  11. Sex Differences in Language Across Early Childhood: Family Socioeconomic Status does not Impact Boys and Girls Equally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Nardy, Aurélie; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre; Guellaï, Bahia; Glas, Ludivine; Juhel, Jacques; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-01-01

    Child sex and family socioeconomic status (SES) have been repeatedly identified as a source of inter-individual variation in language development; yet their interactions have rarely been explored. While sex differences are the focus of a renewed interest concerning emerging language skills, data remain scarce and are not consistent across preschool years. The questions of whether family SES impacts boys and girls equally, as well as of the consistency of these differences throughout early childhood, remain open. We evaluated consistency of sex differences across SES and age by focusing on how children (N = 262), from 2;6 to 6;4 years old, from two contrasting social backgrounds, acquire a frequent phonological alternation in French – the liaison. By using a picture naming task eliciting the production of obligatory liaisons, we found evidence of sex differences over the preschool years in low-SES children, but not between high-SES boys and girls whose performances were very similar. Low-SES boys’ performances were the poorest whereas low-SES girls’ performances were intermediate, that is, lower than those of high-SES children of both sexes but higher than those of low-SES boys. Although all children’s mastery of obligatory liaisons progressed with age, our findings showed a significant impeding effect of low-SES, especially for boys.

  12. Results of a 3-year, nutrition and physical activity intervention for children in rural, low-socioeconomic status elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kristi McClary; Ling, Jiying

    2015-08-01

    Improving children's nutrition and physical activity have become priorities in the United States. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a 3-year, school-based, health promotion intervention (i.e. nutrition and physical education, classroom physical activity, professional development and health promotion for teachers and families, and strengthening wellness policies and family/community partnerships) on children's health behaviors in four, rural, low-socioeconomic status elementary schools. A total of 999 kindergarten to third-grade children participated in data collection consisting of 4-day pedometer tracking and previous-day fruits and vegetables consumption recall from baseline in January, 2011 through 12 follow-up assessments ending May, 2013. The mixed-effects regression models showed that children's nutrition and physical activity behaviors significantly improved over the 3-year intervention. The percentages of children who met the nutrition recommendation increased from 11 to 23% for girls and 12 to 23% for boys, while the percent who met the physical activity recommendation increased from 1 to 16% for girls and 3 to 7% for boys. Further, children's age and their school impacted certain intervention effects. This school-based intervention could be disseminated to promote healthy behaviors among rural disadvantaged children. Engaging parents and community partnerships is recommended to expand the traditional, children-focused education interventions. PMID:26187912

  13. Socioeconomic status is an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence among patients with prostate cancer who undergo radical prostatectomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Victor, Srougi; Alberto A., Antunes; Sabrina, T; , Reis; Marcos F., Dall' Oglio; Adriano J., Nesrallah; Kátia R. M., Leite; Miguel, Srougi.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) may influence cancer characteristics and behavior in several aspects. We analyzed PCa characteristics and behavior among low income uninsured men, and compare them to high income patients with health insurance in a developing country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retr [...] ospective case-control study was performed on 934 patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy between March, 1999 and July, 2009. Patients were divided in two groups, according to their SES. In group 1 (n=380), all had low income, low educational levels and couldn't afford medical insurance. In group 2 (n=554), all had higher income, higher education and had medical insurance. RESULTS: Patients from group 1 were older, had higher Gleason scores, higher rates of seminal vesicle and bladder neck involvement. The Kaplan Meier disease-free survival curve demonstrated that after a follow-up of four years, about 50% of uninsured patients had biochemical recurrence, versus 21% of insured patients (Log rank test: p

  14. Socioeconomic status is an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence among patients with prostate cancer who undergo radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Srougi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES may influence cancer characteristics and behavior in several aspects. We analyzed PCa characteristics and behavior among low income uninsured men, and compare them to high income patients with health insurance in a developing country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was performed on 934 patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy between March, 1999 and July, 2009. Patients were divided in two groups, according to their SES. In group 1 (n=380, all had low income, low educational levels and couldn't afford medical insurance. In group 2 (n=554, all had higher income, higher education and had medical insurance. RESULTS: Patients from group 1 were older, had higher Gleason scores, higher rates of seminal vesicle and bladder neck involvement. The Kaplan Meier disease-free survival curve demonstrated that after a follow-up of four years, about 50% of uninsured patients had biochemical recurrence, versus 21% of insured patients (Log rank test: p < 0.001. A multivariate Cox regression analysis for the risk of disease recurrence demonstrated that only PSA levels, Gleason score, seminal vesicle involvement and SES were statistically significant variables. Patients with a low SES presented 1.8 times the risk of recurrence as compared to patients with a high SES. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low SES were older, presented more aggressive PCa characteristics and a high rate of disease recurrence. A low SES constituted an independent predictor for disease recurrence.

  15. Association of Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Environmental Factors with Risk of Overweight Among Adolescents in California, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gittelsohn, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the California Health Interview Survey 2003, we estimated the prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight, combined as a single measure (AROW, body mass index ?85th percentile. We used logistic regression models to examine associations between AROW and risk factors.ResultsTwenty-nine percent of California adolescents were AROW. The prevalence of AROW differed significantly by sex and race. Boys were more likely than girls to be AROW (33% vs 25%. American Indians/Pacific Islanders/others (39% were at highest risk, followed by Hispanics (37%, blacks (35%, whites (23%, and Asians (15%. For boys, older age, Hispanic or American Indian/Pacific Islander/other race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and longer residence in the United States were significantly associated with AROW. For girls, Hispanic or black race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and poor dietary habits were significantly associated with AROW.ConclusionThe high prevalence of AROW among California adolescents in most racial/ethnic groups indicates the need for culturally specific and appropriate interventions to prevent and treat overweight.

  16. Examining the Racial Crossover in Mortality between African American and White Older Adults: A Multilevel Survival Analysis of Race, Individual Socioeconomic Status, and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Context

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yao; Robert, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether individual and neighborhood socioeconomic context contributes to black/white disparities in mortality among USA older adults. Using national longitudinal data from the Americans' Changing Lives study, along with census tract information for each respondent, we conduct multilevel survival analyses. Results show that black older adults are disadvantaged in mortality in younger old age, but older black adults have lower mortality risk than whites after about age 80. Both indiv...

  17. Unemployment and substance use problems among young adults: Does childhood low socioeconomic status exacerbate the effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill, Karl G; Hartigan, Lacey A; Boden, Joseph M; Guttmannova, Katarina; Kosterman, Rick; Bailey, Jennifer A; Catalano, Richard F

    2015-10-01

    The current study tested whether unemployment predicted young adults' heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking, and cannabis use after taking into account individual development in substance use. Furthermore, building on the life course perspective, this study examined whether the link between unemployment and substance use among young adults differed for those who experienced low childhood SES compared to those who did not. Data for the present study came from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), a panel study examining a broad range of developmental outcomes from ages 10 to 33. A life history calendar (LHC) was administered to assess substance use and unemployment status during young adulthood. Covariates included baseline symptoms of psychopathology, baseline substance use, gender, ethnicity, and adult educational attainment. Results suggest that unemployment is associated with young adults' heavy episodic drinking and possibly cigarette use, but not cannabis use. Moreover, for all three substances, the detrimental impact of unemployment on substance use seems to be exacerbated among young adults who spent their childhood and adolescence in a lower SES household. Public health efforts that provide other viable and affordable options to cope with unemployment among young adults from low SES backgrounds are needed to address this disproportionate concentration of adverse impacts of unemployment on behavioral health. PMID:26342911

  18. Comparison of Calcium Intake Status by Region and Socioeconomic Status in Korea: The 2011-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Lee, Hae-Hyeog

    2015-01-01

    Background Calcium is an essential element nutrient in our body, and insufficient calcium intake is very common in Korean. Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to be associated with quality of diet and health. The purpose of this study was to compare between calcium intake by region and SES. Methods This study used data from a nationally represented sample of Koreans (n=19,249) from 2011 to 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We were divided into six regions: Seoul and Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do, Chungcheong-do, Jeolla-do, Gyeongsang-do, and Jeju-do. Daily calcium intake and dietary quality based on 24 hr recall data was calculated and analyzed by the sex, age, SES. Results The regions with the highest calcium intakes in both males and females were Seoul and Gyeonggi-do. The age groups with a significant difference in calcium intake, nutrient adequacy ratio, and nutrient density by region were 14 to 19, 20 to 29, and ?65 years. Calcium intake and dietary quality were lowest in the low household income group. In terms of being a recipient of the dietary life supply, the calcium intake and dietary quality of the recipient group was low. Conclusions We found that daily calcium intake was very different by region and was significantly lower in region with lower SES. The findings of this study suggest social inequalities in calcium intake by region can be addressed in the development and implementation of tailored nutritional interventions to promote calcium nutritional status of Koreans. PMID:26389087

  19. Socioeconomic status (SES) and children's intelligence (IQ): in a UK-representative sample SES moderates the environmental, not genetic, effect on IQ.

    OpenAIRE

    Ken B. Hanscombe; Maciej Trzaskowski; HAWORTH, CLAIRE M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Philip S. Dale; Robert Plomin

    2012-01-01

    The environment can moderate the effect of genes - a phenomenon called gene-environment (GxE) interaction. Several studies have found that socioeconomic status (SES) modifies the heritability of children's intelligence. Among low-SES families, genetic factors have been reported to explain less of the variance in intelligence; the reverse is found for high-SES families. The evidence however is inconsistent. Other studies have reported an effect in the opposite direction (higher heritability in...

  20. Changes in alcohol-related inpatient care in Stockholm County in relation to socioeconomic status during a period of decline in alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romelsjö, A; Diderichsen, Finn

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol sales in Stockholm County decreased by 18 per cent from 1976 to 1981. The socioeconomic status of inpatients treated for alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, alcohol intoxication, liver cirrhosis, and pancreatitis was studied by linking data from the National Housing and Population Censuses in 1975 and 1980 with the inpatient care registers for 1976 and 1981. In both years, all rates were highest for people outside the labor market and lowest among white collar employees. The employment rate f...

  1. The prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find the prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Materials and Methods: A total of 813 children aged 2-6 years were screened for the present study from randomly selected three kindergarten schools each from Government, Government aided, and private managements. Clinical examination was done inside the respective schools. At the time of examination, a p...

  2. Adapting an effective lifestyle intervention towards individuals with low socioeconomic status of different ethnic origins: the design of the MetSLIM study

    OpenAIRE

    Teuscher, D.; Bukman, A.J.; Meershoek, A.; Renes, R.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Baak, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background People with low socioeconomic status (SES) and some ethnic minorities are often underrepresented in lifestyle programmes. Therefore, a lifestyle programme was developed especially targeting these groups. Developing this lifestyle programme and designing an intervention study to test the effectiveness of this programme was an informative process in which several obstacles were encountered and choices had to be made. Study protocols, however, rarely describe these obstacles encounter...

  3. Multivariate analysis of infant death in England and Wales in 2005-06, with focus on socio-economic status and deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Oakley, L.; Maconochie, N.; DOYLE, P; Dattani, N; MOSER, K

    2009-01-01

    Current health inequality targets include the goal of reducing the differential in infant mortality between social groups. This article reports on a multivariate analysis of risk factors for infant mortality, with specific focus on deprivation and socio-economic status. Data on all singleton live births in England and Wales in 2005-06 were used, and deprivation quintile (Carstairs index) was assigned to each birth using postcode at birth registration. Deprivation had a strong independent effe...

  4. Cross-National Comparisons of Time Trends in Overweight Inequality by Socioeconomic Status Among Women Using Repeated Cross-Sectional Surveys From 37 Developing Countries, 1989–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic diseases are now among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in lower income countries. Although traditionally related to higher individual socioeconomic status (SES) in these contexts, the associations between SES and chronic disease may be actively changing. Furthermore, country-level contextual factors, such as economic development and income inequality, may influence the distribution of chronic disease by SES as well as how this distribution has changed over time. Using ov...

  5. The Association Between the Socioeconomic Status and Thyroid Cancer Prevalence; Based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seong-Woo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Han, Mi-ah; Park, Jong

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has recently increased in most industrialized countries, including Korea. To date, few studies have examined the association between thyroid cancer and socioeconomic status (SES). The current study was based on data collected from a total of 12,276 subjects (5,277 men and 6,999 women) by the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2010 and 2011. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that older age (o...

  6. Publication title: Paid work between age 60 and 70 years in Europe: a matter of socio-economic status? Publication type: Journal Article

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Komp; Theo van Tilburg; Marjolein Broese van Groenou

    2010-01-01

    Over the past years, older persons’ workforce participation has increased and, after years of studying early retirement, the focus has gradually shifted to workforce participation between age 60 and 70 years. Those are the years directly below and above the mandatory retirement age in most of the European countries. We investigate the influence of socio-economic status (SES) on older persons’ workforce participation. Moreover, we study whether the importance of private pensions in a country m...

  7. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old, Danish men. Relation to sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K; Brixen, K; Hermann, A P; Andersen, M; Hagen, C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old men and to analyze whether sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status are independent correlates of obesity and physical inactivity. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Seven hundred and eighty-three Caucasian, Danish men, aged 20-29 years recruited from 2042 respondents in a questionnaire survey of 3000 men, randomly drawn from the Danish Civil ...

  8. The influence of oral health conditions, socioeconomic status and home environment factors on schoolchildren's self-perception of quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Janice S; Leite Isabel CG; Almeida Anderso B; Ambrosano Glaucia MB; Pereira Antônio C; Mialhe Fábio L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Methods A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically e...

  9. Causes of Low Agricultural Output and Impact on Socio-economic Status of Farmers: A Case Study of Rural Potohar in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Aneesa Masood; Nazima Ellahi; Zamara Batool

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture being the key sector for economy of Pakistan occupies central place. Since its inception, this sector is subsistent and facing many risks and vulnerability. Over the time due to technological gap in developing countries, they failed to develop rapid expansion and productivity in this sector. The present study is a qualitative analysis conducted to explore the causes of low productivity in agriculture sector, and finding its impacts on the socioeconomic status of farmer. The stud...

  10. Learning from Success: How Original Research on Academic Resilience Informs what College Faculty Can do to Increase the Retention of Low Socioeconomic Status Students

    OpenAIRE

    Erik E. Morales

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing resilience theory and original research conducted on fifty academically resilient low socioeconomic status students of color, this article presents specific objectives and values institutions of higher learning can adopt and emphasize to increase the retention and graduation of their most statistically at-risk students. Major findings and suggestions include: constantly build students’ self-efficacy; help students realistically appraise their own strengths and weaknesses; encourage ...

  11. Obesity among Scottish 15 year olds 1987–2006: prevalence and associations with socio-economic status, well-being and worries about weight

    OpenAIRE

    West Patrick; Sweeting Helen; Young Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Increases in the prevalence of child and adolescent obesity have accelerated since the mid 1980s. Socio-economic status (SES)-adiposity relationships appear less clear in adolescence than childhood, and evidence on whether increasing obesity is itself patterned according to SES is inconsistent. Increasing prevalence may have increased the tolerance, and reduced recognition of, or concern about, obesity. The aim of this study is to report the prevalence of obesity and its a...

  12. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Delisle Hélène; Agueh Victoire; Fayomi Benjamin; Sodjinou Roger

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES), urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference), blood pressure, fasting plasma glu...

  13. The Impact of Parent’s Socioeconomic Status on Parental Involvement at Home: A Case Study on High Achievement Indian Students of a Tamil School in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay

    2012-01-01

    The current study focuses on the impact of parent’s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child’s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance- based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample comprised 10 students from Year Two, 10 students from Year Three, 10 students from Year Four and 10 students from Year Five. Those were the high achievement students identified based on ...

  14. Socioeconomic Status Is Significantly Associated with the Dietary Intakes of Folate and Depression Scales in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Takuro Shimbo; Akiomi Inoue; Sumiko Kurioka; Akihito Shimazu; Masaya Takahashi; Norito Kawakami; Akizumi Tsutsumi; Hideki Hashimoto; Setsuko Taneichi; Yixuan Song; Koichi Miyaki

    2013-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The degree of depre...

  15. Excess type 2 diabetes in African-American women and men aged 40-74 and socioeconomic status: evidence from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, J.; Vaccarino, V.; Zhang, H; Kasl, S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine whether socioeconomic status (SES) explains differences in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes between African-American and non-Hispanic white women and men.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study of diabetes prevalence, SES, and other risk factors ascertained by physical examination and interview.?SETTING—Interviews were conducted in subjects' homes; physical examinations were conducted in mobile examination centres.?PARTICIPANTS—961 African-American women, 1641 non-Hispanic white w...

  16. Socio-economic status and HIV/AIDS stigma in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuri, Mbaraka; Mitchell, Steve; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2011-03-01

    Tanzania has a generalised AIDS epidemic but the estimated adult HIV prevalence of 6% is much lower than in many countries in Southern Africa. HIV infection rates are reportedly higher in urban areas, among women and among those with more education. Stigma has been found to be more common in poorer, less-educated people, and those in rural areas. We examined associations between poverty and other variables and a stigmatising attitude (belief that HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning). The variables we examined in a multivariate model included: food sufficiency (as an indicator of poverty), age, sex, marital status, education, experience of intimate partner violence, condom-related choice disability, discussion about HIV/AIDS, sources of information about HIV/AIDS and urban or rural residence. Of the 1,130 men and 1,803 women interviewed, more than half (58%) did not disagree that "HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning". Taking other variables into account, people from the poorest households (without enough food in the last week) were more likely to believe HIV/AIDS is punishment for sinning (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.29, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.06-1.59). Others factors independently associated with this stigmatising attitude were: having less than primary education (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1.62); having experienced intimate partner violence in the last year (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.75); being choice disabled for condom use (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08-1.71); and living in rural areas (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.06-2.90). The level of HIV and AIDS stigma in Tanzania is high with independent associations with several disadvantages: poverty, less education and living in rural areas. Other vulnerable groups, such as survivors of intimate partner violence, are also more likely to have a stigmatising attitude. HIV prevention programmes should take account of stigma, especially among the disadvantaged, and take care not to increase it. PMID:21347901

  17. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Win; Earnest, Arul; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Tien Y.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES) with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI) in an Asian population. Methods Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004–2011) in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA) in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR?0.30), low vision (logMAR>0.30<1.00), and blindness (logMAR?1.00). Any VI was defined as low vision/blindness in the PVA of better-seeing eye. Individual-level low-SES was defined as a composite of primary-level education, monthly income<2000 SGD and residing in 1 or 2-room public apartment. An area-level SES was assessed using a socio-economic disadvantage index (SEDI), created using 12 variables from the 2010 Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%). Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of any VI was 2.11(1.88–2.37) for low-SES and 1.07(1.02–1.13) per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40–65 years and male. Conclusion In this community-based sample of Asian adults, both individual- and area-level SES were independently associated with the presence and severity of VI. PMID:26555141

  18. The effects of socioeconomic status and indices of physical environment on reduced birth weight and preterm births in Eastern Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melly Steve J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution and social characteristics have been shown to affect indicators of health. While use of spatial methods to estimate exposure to air pollution has increased the power to detect effects, questions have been raised about potential for confounding by social factors. Methods A study of singleton births in Eastern Massachusetts was conducted between 1996 and 2002 to examine the association between indicators of traffic, land use, individual and area-based socioeconomic measures (SEM, and birth outcomes (birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm births, in a two-level hierarchical model. Results We found effects of both individual (education, race, prenatal care index and area-based (median household income SEM with all birth outcomes. The associations for traffic and land use variables were mainly seen with birth weight, with an exception for an effect of cumulative traffic density on small for gestational age. Race/ethnicity of mother was an important predictor of birth outcomes and a strong confounder for both area-based SEM and indices of physical environment. The effects of traffic and land use differed by level of education and median household income. Conclusion Overall, the findings of the study suggested greater likelihood of reduced birth weight and preterm births among the more socially disadvantaged, and a greater risk of reduced birth weight associated with traffic exposures. Results revealed the importance of controlling simultaneously for SEM and environmental exposures as the way to better understand determinants of health.

  19. Insights into social disparities in smoking prevalence using Mosaic, a novel measure of socioeconomic status: an analysis using a large primary care dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szatkowski Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are well-established socio-economic differences in the prevalence of smoking in the UK, but conventional socio-economic measures may not capture the range and degree of these associations. We have used a commercial geodemographic profiling system, Mosaic, to explore associations with smoking prevalence in a large primary care dataset and to establish whether this tool provides new insights into socio-economic determinants of smoking. Methods We analysed anonymised data on over 2 million patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN database, linked via patients' postcodes to Mosaic classifications (11 groups and 61 types and quintiles of Townsend Index of Multiple Deprivation. Patients' current smoking status was identified using Read Codes, and logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the available measures of socioeconomic status and smoking prevalence. Results As anticipated, smoking prevalence increased with increasing deprivation according to the Townsend Index (age and sex adjusted OR for highest vs lowest quintile 2.96, 95% CI 2.92-2.99. There were more marked differences in prevalence across Mosaic groups (OR for group G vs group A 4.41, 95% CI 4.33-4.49. Across the 61 Mosaic types, smoking prevalence varied from 8.6% to 42.7%. Mosaic types with high smoking prevalence were characterised by relative deprivation, but also more specifically by single-parent households living in public rented accommodation in areas with little community support, having no access to a car, few qualifications and high TV viewing behaviour. Conclusion Conventional socio-economic measures may underplay social disparities in smoking prevalence. Newer classification systems, such as Mosaic, encompass a wider range of demographic, lifestyle and behaviour data, and are valuable in identifying characteristics of groups of heavy smokers which might be used to tailor cessation interventions.

  20. Association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and screen time among pre-school children: a cross-sectional study

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    Cutumisu Nicoleta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES. Results Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Conclusions Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship.

  1. A longitudinal analysis of the relationship between changes in socio-economic status and changes in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halleröd, Björn; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we contribute to discussion on the relationship between different aspects of socio-economic status (SES) and health. Separating different aspects of SES facilitates the specification of a structural relationship between SES indicators and morbidity. Longitudinal data and the utilization of growth curve modelling enable an empirical analysis of the direct relationship between changes over time in SES indicators and changes in morbidity. Our empirical analysis is based on panel data (N = 2976) derived from the annual Swedish Survey of Living Conditions. The panel, which consists of respondents that at the first panel wave were between 31 and 47 years old, is followed for 16 years, starting in 1979. Data are gathered at three points of time. A growth curve model is set up using structural equation modelling. The structural relationship and changes over time are simultaneously estimated. It is shown that in relation to health occupational position is crucial, canalising the effects of class of origin and education. More prestigious jobs are related to initially good health and to a less rapid deterioration in health. At the same time initial health affects occupational mobility, confirming a health selection into less prestigious jobs. It is also shown that change of occupation and income are related to change in health. The analysis confirms a strong relationship between SES and morbidity and shows that initial SES affects later changes in morbidity, i.e., a causal relationship exists between SES and morbidity. But, the analysis also demonstrates the existence of selection effects, meaning that initial morbidity causes less favourable changes in SES. It is finally revealed that changes in occupational prestige and income changes co-vary with changes in morbidity. Hence, the analysis provides basic information necessary to make any assumption about causality and selection in relation to SES and health. PMID:21074920

  2. A national study of socioeconomic status and tuberculosis rates by country of birth, United States, 1996–2005

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    Olson Nicole A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB in developed countries has historically been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES. In the past quarter century, TB in the United States has changed from primarily a disease of native-born to primarily a disease of foreign-born persons, who accounted for more than 60% of newly-diagnosed TB cases in 2010. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of SES with rates of TB in U.S.-born and foreign-born persons in the United States, overall and for the five most common foreign countries of origin. Methods National TB surveillance data for 1996–2005 was linked with ZIP Code-level measures of SES (crowding, unemployment, education, and income from U.S. Census 2000. ZIP Codes were grouped into quartiles from low SES to high SES and TB rates were calculated for foreign-born and U.S.-born populations in each quartile. Results TB rates were highest in the quartiles with low SES for both U.S.-born and foreign-born populations. However, while TB rates increased five-fold or more from the two highest to the two lowest SES quartiles among the U.S.-born, they increased only by a factor of 1.3 among the foreign-born. Conclusions Low SES is only weakly associated with TB among foreign-born persons in the United States. The traditional associations of TB with poverty are not sufficient to explain the epidemiology of TB among foreign-born persons in this country and perhaps in other developed countries. TB outreach and research efforts that focus only on low SES will miss an important segment of the foreign-born population.

  3. Influence of gender and socio-economic status on dietary patterns and nutrient intakes in 18-year-old Australians.

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    Milligan, R A; Burke, V; Beilin, L J; Dunbar, D L; Spencer, M J; Balde, E; Gracey, M P

    1998-06-01

    This study used two-day diet records to examine dietary behaviours in 504 Australian 18 year-olds in relation to gender, socio-economic status (SES) and national dietary guidelines. Fat intake exceeded 30% of energy in about 80% of subjects and was greater than 40% in about one-quarter. Saturated fat provided more than 10% of dietary energy in more than 90% of participants; less than 1% achieved a polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio of at least one. The major food groups contributing to fat intake were convenience foods (32% in men, 28% in women) and meat (27% in men, 25% in women). Fibre intake was less than 30 g/day in 93% of women and 77% of men. Intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins C and A, as a ratio of energy consumption, were greater in women than men, while sodium intake was significantly higher in men. Convenience foods were the greatest contributors to sodium intake (27% in men, 22% in women) followed by meat, bread, and soups and sauces. Greater consumption of cereals, fruit, vegetables and low-fat foods in young women of higher SES was reflected in their nutrient profile with higher intake of fibre and vitamin C and lower intake of fat. Men ate more cereals, meat and sugary foods and less fruit, vegetables and low-fat foods. Only 2.5% of men and 4.1% of women conformed with the health promotion message, widely publicised locally, to eat two fruits and five vegetables daily. Not eating breakfast was associated with lower calcium intake in men and women, and lower iron and fibre in take in women. Achieving behavioural changes in young adults must take into account differences in dietary behaviour related to gender and SES. PMID:9659778

  4. Socio-economic status may suppress the effect of knowledge on sexual risk among female sex workers

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    Shervin Assari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socio-economic status (SES, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV knowledge and self-efficacy influence risky behaviors and female sex workers (FSWs are not exception. Aims: This study was aimed to investigate if SES, HIV knowledge and self-efficacy predict frequency of unprotected sex with injecting drug users (IDUs among a sample of FSWs in Iran. Setting and Design: Universal Network for Health Information Dissemination and Exchange HIV Risk Study was a survey of IDUs and FSWs, conducted in eight different provinces of Iran, 2009. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 FSWs were entered in this study. Frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months was the dependent variable. Number of sexual partners during the past 6 month, SES, HIV Knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived HIV risk and intention for change were predictors. Statistical Analysis: We used hierarchical regression for data analysis. In each step, a block of predictors were added to the model. SES block composed of education level, owning a house and living alone. Results: In the absence of SES in the model, HIV knowledge and self-efficacy were not significantly associated with the frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months, However, with adding SES block to the model, HIV knowledge became significant predictor of the outcome. Thus, among our sample of Iranian FSWs, SES has a suppressor effect for the effect of HIV knowledge on frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months. Conclusion: Studies which wish to understand the role of theory-based psychological constructs such as HIV knowledge on high risk behaviors need to include SES an essential contextual factor. This finding may also explain why literature is mixed on the effect of HIV knowledge on HIV risk behaviors.

  5. Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status

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    Amedeo D'angiulli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs and other electroencephalographic (EEG evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc. and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc. may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in two matched-samples of fourteen lower-SES and higher-SES adolescents. ERP and EEG activation were measured during a task probing selective attention to sequences of tones. Pre- and post-task salivary cortisol and self-reported emotional states were also measured. At similar performance level, the higher-SES group showed a greater ERP differentiation between attended (relevant and unattended (irrelevant tones than the lower-SES group. EEG power analysis revealed a cross-over interaction, specifically, lower-SES adolescents showed significantly higher theta power when ignoring rather than attending to tones, whereas, higher-SES adolescents showed the opposite pattern. Significant theta asymmetry differences were also found at midfrontal electrodes indicating left hypo-activity in lower-SES adolescents. The attended vs. unattended difference in right midfrontal theta increased with individual SES rank, and (independently from SES with lower cortisol task reactivity and higher boredom. Results suggest lower-SES children used additional compensatory resources to monitor/control response inhibition to distracters, perceiving also more mental effort, as compared to higher-SES counterparts. Nevertheless, stress, boredom and other task-related perceived states were unrelated to SES. Ruling out presumed confounds, this study confirms the midfrontal mechanisms responsible for the SES effects on selective attention reported previously and here reflect genuine cognitive differences.

  6. Socio-economic and health status of sandstone miners: a case study of Sorya village, Karauli, Rajasthan

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    Absar Ahmad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study is carried out with aims to assess socio-economic and health status of the miners in Sorya Village of Karauli district of Rajasthan, India. Mining has always been among the most hazardous of occupations and rapidly increasing demand for metal and minerals to meet the demand for growing infrastructure has greatly increased the importance of mining. The quarrying and crushing are carried out in many parts of India and majority of stone mines are unorganized. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 126 miners in Sorya village, Karauli during 20 to 30 May 2014. Results: Average ages of miner were 41 and average household sizes of the miners were six. Around 80 % miners addicted to substance abuse and spend average Rs. 17 daily. Average monthly incomes of them were Rs. 3200 and 39 % has miners are in debt of more than 1 lakh. One of the reasons of debt was father died in debt and carried forward to the children. Seventy-seven percent of miners belong to lower caste and rest of them belongs to other backward class. Average BMI of miners was 19.7 kg/m2 and 38% miner were malnourished (BMI <18.5 kg/m2. Health problem reported by most of them were TB, silicosis, chest pain, back pain, Cough and Musculoskeletal disorder. Some of miners reported about low vision and hearing loss too. Conclusion: From the study, it can be concluded that one reason for miner's indebtedness is father carry forward. Sandstone mining leads to Silicosis, TB and body pain and musculoskeletal disorder. Large sample size studies will give a clearer picture that will helpful in policy implication for more than 2.5 million miners in Rajasthan, India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1159-1164

  7. Cumulative socioeconomic status risk, allostatic load, and adjustment: a prospective latent profile analysis with contextual and genetic protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M; Evans, Gary W; Beach, Steven R H; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Philibert, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental precursors to this pattern. Hypotheses were tested with a representative sample of 443 African American youths living in the rural South. Cumulative SES risk and protective processes were assessed at ages 11-13 years; psychological adjustment was assessed at ages 14-18 years; genotyping at the 5-HTTLPR was conducted at age 16 years; and allostatic load (AL) was assessed at age 19 years. A latent profile analysis identified 5 profiles that evinced distinct patterns of SES risk, AL, and psychological adjustment, with 2 relatively large profiles designated as focal profiles: a physical health vulnerability profile characterized by high SES risk/high AL/low adjustment problems, and a resilient profile characterized by high SES risk/low AL/low adjustment problems. The physical health vulnerability profile mirrored the pattern found in the adult health disparities literature. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that carrying an s allele at the 5-HTTLPR and receiving less peer support distinguished the physical health vulnerability profile from the resilient profile. Protective parenting and planful self-regulation distinguished both focal profiles from the other 3 profiles. The results suggest the public health importance of preventive interventions that enhance coping and reduce the effects of stress across childhood and adolescence. PMID:22709130

  8. Municipal socioeconomic status and mortality in Japan: sex and age differences, and trends in 1973-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Keiko; Takano, Takehito

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age differences and the time trends in the association between municipal socioeconomic status (SES) and all-cause mortality across Japan from 1973 to 1998. Sex-specific mortality of municipalities (N=3319 in 1995) by age groups (total, under 75-year, and over 75-year populations) was linked to municipal SES indicators related to income, education, unemployment and living space, and two SES composite indices formulated by principle component analysis (Index 1 related to lower income and education, and Index 2 related to unemployment and overcrowding). The relation was assessed using mortality gradients by SES quintiles and Bayesian hierarchical Poisson regression. The results showed that a lower SES was related to higher mortality for all SES indicators and composite indices. The mortality gradient was steeper for the under 75-year population than the total and over 75-year populations, and the relation between mortality and income- and education-related indicators/index was stronger for males than for females. The time trend showed an increase in the relation for Index 2, while a decrease for Index 1. This study demonstrated that lower municipal SES had an adverse influence on population health, and the influence was marked for males and premature death. Although a substantial health disadvantage still remained in lower SES areas, the impact of SES factors on geographical health variation changed over time; the association with mortality has weakened for income and education, while it has strengthened for unemployment and living space. PMID:15474199

  9. Smoking Cessation among Low-Socioeconomic Status and Disadvantaged Population Groups: A Systematic Review of Research Output

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    Ryan J. Courtney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking cessation research output should move beyond descriptive research of the health problem to testing interventions that can provide causal data and effective evidence-based solutions. This review examined the number and type of published smoking cessation studies conducted in low-socioeconomic status (low-SES and disadvantaged population groups. Methods: A systematic database search was conducted for two time periods: 2000–2004 (TP1 and 2008–2012 (TP2. Publications that examined smoking cessation in a low-SES or disadvantaged population were coded by: population of interest; study type (reviews, non-data based publications, data-based publications (descriptive, measurement and intervention research; and country. Intervention studies were coded in accordance with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care data collection checklist and use of biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence was assessed. Results: 278 citations were included. Research output (i.e., all study types had increased from TP1 27% to TP2 73% (?² = 73.13, p < 0.001, however, the proportion of data-based research had not significantly increased from TP1 and TP2: descriptive (TP1 = 23% vs. TP2 = 33% or intervention (TP1 = 77% vs. TP2 = 67%. The proportion of intervention studies adopting biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence had significantly decreased from TP1 to TP2 with an increased reliance on self-reported abstinence (TP1 = 12% vs. TP2 = 36%. Conclusions: The current research output is not ideal or optimal to decrease smoking rates. Research institutions, scholars and funding organisations should take heed to review findings when developing future research and policy.

  10. Home environment relationships with children’s physical activity, sedentary time, and screen time by socioeconomic status

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    Tandon Pooja S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children in households of lower socioeconomic status (SES are more likely to be overweight/obese. We aimed to determine if home physical activity (PA environments differed by SES and to explore home environment mediators of the relation of family SES to children’s PA and sedentary behavior. Methods Participants were 715 children aged 6 to 11 from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids (NIK Study. Household SES was examined using highest educational attainment and income. Home environment was measured by parent report on a survey. Outcomes were child’s accelerometer-measured PA and parent-reported screen time. Mediation analyses were conducted for home environment factors that varied by SES. Results Children from lower income households had greater media access in their bedrooms (TV 52% vs. 14%, DVD player 39% vs. 14%, video games 21% vs. 9% but lower access to portable play equipment (bikes 85% vs. 98%, jump ropes 69% vs. 83% compared to higher income children. Lower SES families had more restrictive rules about PA (2.5 vs. 2.0. Across SES, children watched TV/DVDs with parents/siblings more often than they engaged in PA with them. Parents of lower SES watched TV/DVDs with their children more often (3.1 vs. 2.5?days/week. Neither total daily and home-based MVPA nor sedentary time differed by SES. Children’s daily screen time varied from 1.7 hours/day in high SES to 2.4 in low SES families. Media in the bedroom was related to screen time, and screen time with parents was a mediator of the SES--screen time relationship. Conclusions Lower SES home environments provided more opportunities for sedentary behavior and fewer for PA. Removing electronic media from children’s bedrooms has the potential to reduce disparities in chronic disease risk.

  11. Effects of socioeconomic status on brain development, and how cognitive neuroscience may contribute to leveling the playing field

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    Rajeev D S Raizada

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of socioeconomic status (SES and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research.

  12. Effort-Reward Imbalance at School and Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Adolescents: The Role of Family Socioeconomic Status

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    Hongxiang Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7–12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a standardized question, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children. Multivariate logistic regression was applied, adjusting for age, gender, grade, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. It was found that high school-related stress and low family SES were associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms, respectively. The effect of school-related stress was particularly strong in low SES group. In adolescents with both high stress at school and low SES, the odds ratio was 9.18 (95% confidence interval = 6.53–12.89 compared to the reference group (low stress at school and high SES. A significant synergistic interaction effect was observed (synergy index = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.56–3.32. The findings indicated that perceived school-related stress, in terms of effort-reward imbalance, was related to depressive symptoms in this sample of Chinese adolescents. The strong interaction with family SES suggests that health promoting efforts in school settings should be targeted specifically at these socially deprived groups.

  13. Effort-reward imbalance at school and depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents: the role of family socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxiang; Yang, Wenjie; Cao, Ying; Li, Jian; Siegrist, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES) on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7-12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a standardized question, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children. Multivariate logistic regression was applied, adjusting for age, gender, grade, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. It was found that high school-related stress and low family SES were associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms, respectively. The effect of school-related stress was particularly strong in low SES group. In adolescents with both high stress at school and low SES, the odds ratio was 9.18 (95% confidence interval = 6.53-12.89) compared to the reference group (low stress at school and high SES). A significant synergistic interaction effect was observed (synergy index = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.56-3.32). The findings indicated that perceived school-related stress, in terms of effort-reward imbalance, was related to depressive symptoms in this sample of Chinese adolescents. The strong interaction with family SES suggests that health promoting efforts in school settings should be targeted specifically at these socially deprived groups. PMID:24919130

  14. A nationwide report on blood pressure of children and adolescents according to socioeconomic status: The CASPIAN-IV study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Zahra; Kelishadi, Roya; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Kasaeian, Amir; Asayesh, Hamid; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is a major leading factor for global burden of diseases. Blood pressure (BP) tracks from childhood to adulthood. So, it is important to investigate its aff ecting factors. In this study we aimed to compare the BP status in the Iranian pediatric population according to the socioeconomic status (SES) of their living area. Materials and Methods: In this nationwide study, a representative sample of 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years was chosen by multistage random cluster sampling from 30 provinces in Iran. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured. A validated questionnaire, including the questions of the World Health Organization Global School-based Student Health Survey was completed. Findings were compared across the four regions of the country, categorized based on their elevating SES: Southeast, north-northeast, west, and central. Results: Participants consisted of 13,486 children and adolescents, that is, a participation rate of 90.6%, composed of 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents. The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 12.47 (3.36) years. The region with highest SES (central) had the lowest rate of high BP (HBP), that is, 3.0% (95% of confidence interval [CI]: 2.4-3.9), and the region with lowest SES (southeast) had the highest rate, that is, 7.4% (4.4-12.2). The mean (95% CI) values of systolic BP for the four regions from lowest to highest SES were 100.5 (99.6-101.3), 100.9 (100.3-101.4), 101.7 (101.3-102), and 101.7 (101.2-102.1) mmHg. The corresponding mean Diastolic BP values were as follows: 65.4 (64.6-66.1), 63.4 (62.9-63.8), 65.6 (65.3-65.8), and 64.4 (64.0-64.7) mmHg. Conclusion: We found significant differences in mean BP and the frequency of HBP according to the SES of the living area. Further studies are necessary to find the underlying factors resulting in such differences.

  15. School environment, socioeconomic status and weight of children in Bloemfontein, South Africa / Environnement scolaire, Statut socioéconomique et poids des enfants à Bloemfontein, Afrique du Sud

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucia N.M., Meko; Marthinette, Slabber-Stretch; Corinna M., Walsh; Salome H., Kruger; Mariette, Nel.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The continued existence of undernutrition, associated with a steady increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, necessitates identification of factors contributing to this double burden of disease, in order for effective treatment and prevention prog [...] rammes to be planned AIM: To determine the nutritional status of 13-15-year-old children in Bloemfontein and its association with socioeconomic factors SETTING: Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa (2006 METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Randomly selected children (n = 415) completed structured questionnaires on socioeconomic status. The children's weight and height were measured and body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores were computed according to World Health Organization growth standards in order to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and stunting. Waist circumference was measured to classify the children as having a high or very high risk for metabolic disease RESULTS: Of the 415 children who consented to participate in the study, 14.9% were wasted and 3.4% were severely wasted. Only 6% of the children were overweight/obese. Significantly more boys (23.0%) were wasted than girls (10%) and severe stunting was also significantly higher in boys than in girls (10.3% and 4.2%, respectively). Children whose parents had graduate occupations were significantly more overweight/obese than those with parents working in skilled occupations. Stunting was significantly higher in low (31.4%) and medium (30.4%) socioeconomic groups compared to the high socioeconomic group (18.1% CONCLUSION: A coexistence of underweight and overweight was found and gender and parental occupation were identified as being predictors of nutritional status

  16. Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes : a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from 222?120 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (cohort study); investigation of the effect of working hours or overtime work; incident diabetes as an outcome; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and international open-access data archives. Effect estimates from published and unpublished data from 222?120 men and women from the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: During 1·7 million person-years at risk, 4963 individuals developed diabetes (incidence 29 per 10?000 person-years). The minimally adjusted summary risk ratio for long (?55 h per week) compared with standard working hours (35-40 h) was 1·07 (95% CI 0·89-1·27, difference in incidence three cases per 10?000 person-years) with significant heterogeneity in study-specific estimates (I(2)=53%, p=0·0016). In an analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, the association between long working hours and diabetes was evident in the low socioeconomic status group (risk ratio 1·29, 95% CI 1·06-1·57, difference in incidence 13 per 10?000 person-years, I(2)=0%, p=0·4662), but was null in the high socioeconomic status group (1·00, 95% CI 0·80-1·25, incidence difference zero per 10?000 person-years, I(2)=15%, p=0·2464). The association in the low socioeconomic status group was robust to adjustment for age, sex, obesity, and physical activity, and remained after exclusion of shift workers. INTERPRETATION: In this meta-analysis, the link between longer working hours and type 2 diabetes was apparent only in individuals in the low socioeconomic status groups. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, European Union New and Emerging Risks in Occupational Safety and Health research programme, Finnish Work Environment Fund, Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Research, German Social Accident Insurance, Danish National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Academy of Finland, Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment (Netherlands), Economic and Social Research Council, US National Institutes of Health, and British Heart Foundation.

  17. Current status of uranium enrichment by way of chemical exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For this report, conference proceedings, patents and other types of literature have been collected to present an account of the current status of uranium enrichment by way of chemical exchange reactions. The report further presents a new concept along with the relevant process strategy developed by the authors. The principal process of the new concept is a chemical exchange process with crown ethers, complexed or free, playing an important part in the reactions. The authors also describe their experiments carried out for establishing suitable chemical systems. (orig./PW)

  18. Does the FTO Gene Interact with the Socio?Economic Status on the Obesity Development Among Young European Children? : Results from the IDEFICS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Frauke

    Various twin studies revealed that the influence of genetic factors on psychological diseases or behavior is more expressed in socio?economically advantaged environments. Other studies predominantly show an inverse relation between socio?economic status (SES) and childhood obesity in western developed countries. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the FTO gene interacts with the socio?economic status (SES) on childhood obesity in a subsample of the IDEFICS cohort (N=4406). A structural equation model (SEM) is applied with the latent constructs obesity, dietary habits, physical activity and fitness habits, and parental SES to estimate the main effects of the latter three variables and a FTO polymorphism on obesity. Further, a multiple group SEM is used to explore whether an interaction effect between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 within the FTO gene and SES exists. Overall model fit was inconsistent (RMSEA=0.05; CFI=0.79). Significant main effects are shown for SES (standardized ?s=?0.057), the FTO homozygous risk genotype AA (?s=0.177) and physical activity and fitness habits (?s=?0.113). The explained variance of obesity is about 9%. The multiple group SEM shows that SES and FTO interact in their effect on childhood obesity (??2=7.3, df=2, p=0.03) insofar as children carrying the protective TT genotype are more susceptible to a favorable social environment.

  19. Relação entre níveis de fenilalanina, inteligência e condição socioeconômica de pacientes com fenilcetonúria / Relationships between phenylalanine levels, intelligence and socioeconomic status of patients with phenylketonuria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Pimenta Spínola, Castro; Juliana Martins, Borges; Heloísa Alves, Chagas; Jacqueline, Tibúrcio; Ana Lúcia Pimenta, Starling; Marcos José Burle de, Aguiar.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar inteligência e relação com concentrações sanguíneas de fenilalanina e condição socioeconômica de fenilcetonúricos entre 6 e 12 anos em tratamento. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e três crianças, classificadas por níveis de fenilalanina e condição socioeconômica, realizaram Wechsler Intelligenc [...] e Scale for Children. Utilizou-se o programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) para analisar níveis de fenilalanina; testes ANOVA para avaliar quociente de inteligência (QI) e níveis de fenilalanina; e regressão logística ordinal para avaliar chances de melhor desempenho em QI. RESULTADOS: Classificaram-se entre limítrofe e nível muito superior em QI total, 90,5% das crianças; em QI verbal, 96,8%; em QI de execução, 92,1%. Tiveram avaliação socioeconômica entre níveis baixo e médio superior, 98,4% das famílias. As chances de apresentar QI superior e médio foram 4,29 vezes maiores nas crianças com controle adequado e 4,03 vezes maiores nas de níveis socioeconômicos melhores. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento preveniu o retardo mental em 90,5% dos pacientes. O controle dos níveis de fenilalanina e melhor nível socioeconômico se associaram aos melhores desempenhos em QI. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To assess intelligence and its relationship with blood phenylalanine concentrations and socioeconomic status in patients with phenylketonuria after 6 to 12 years of treatment. METHODS: Sixty-three children were classified according to phenylalanine levels and socioeconomic status and ass [...] essed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze phenylalanine; ANOVA was used to analyze intelligence quotients (IQ) and phenylalanine levels; and ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the likelihood of higher IQ. RESULTS: The overall IQ scores of 90.5% of the children were within a range from borderline intellectual deficiency to very high intelligence; for verbal IQ this proportion was 96.8% and 92.1% had performance IQ scores within this band. The categories from low to upper-medium socioeconomic status contained 98.4% of patients' families. The likelihood of having medium to high IQ was 4.29 times greater for children with good phenylalanine control and 4.03 greater for those from higher socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment prevented mental retardation in 90.5% of the patients. Control of phenylalanine levels and higher socioeconomic status were associated with higher IQ scores.

  20. A Study of the Cognitive Potentials in Basic Science and Technology of Nigerian Adults with Varying Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Ojuah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, efforts have been made to investigate the level of awareness in science and technology among selected adults in Lagos metropolis. A total of one hundred and twenty-five adults, seventy-eight males and forty-seven females randomly selected, formed the population sample. One composite questionnaire containing a hundred questions on different science areas vis-à-vis: health science, local food science, management and control of home hazards, gadgetry science, environmental science and basic facts in science and technology was the major instrument for collection of raw data. A supplementary interview schedule was drawn up based on the questionnaire and used for clarification of opinions. Both instruments were validated by experts. The data obtained were analyzed using ranking, percentage, correlation and chi-square computations. The major findings were that: all adults, irrespective of their socio-economic class need one form of science and technology or the other for self-realization; the nature of adult science and technology need for self-awareness is not related to one’s occupation and socio-economic status; there is a general desirability among adults of all classes to learn those aspects of science and technology they are deficient in; the majority of adults showed preference for distance education, that is learning through television, radio and newspapers to a more effective teacher-learner interaction or face-to-face learning process. A clarion call has therefore been made for the commencement of adult science and technology education in an informal setting, with the existing adult education centres expanded to accommodate this all important scheme for national development.
    Key words: Cognitive potentials; Socio-economic status; Nigerian adults; Science; Technology; Population sample

    Résumé: Dans cette étude, des efforts ont été faits pour enquêter sur le niveau de la sensibilisation en science et technologie chez les adultes sélectionnés dans la métropole de Lagos. Une somme de 125 adultes, 78 hommes et 47 femmes sélectionnées au hasard, ont formé l'échantillon de population de cette étude. Un questionnaire contenant une centaine de questions sur des différents domaines scientifiques, y compris la science de la santé, la science de l'alimentation locale, la gestion et le contrôle des dangers à la maison, la science des gadgets, la science de l'environnement et des faits de base en sciences et technologie ont été l'instrument majeur pour collectionner des données de première main. Un calendrier d'entrevue supplémentaire a été établi sur la base du questionnaire et utilisé pour la clarification des opinions. Ces deux instruments ont été validés par des experts. Les données obtenues ont été analysées en utilisant le classement, le pourcentage, la corrélation et le chi-carré calculs. Les conclusions principales étaient les suivantes: tous les adultes, indépendamment de leur classe socio-économique, ont besoin d'une forme de science et technologie pour la réalisation de soi; le besoin de conscience de soi des adultes n'est pas lié à sa profession ou son statut socio-économique; il y a un désir général chez les adultes de toutes les classes pour apprendre des aspects de la science et technologie dans lesquels ils sont déficients; la majorité des adultes a montré leur préférence pour l'enseignement à distance, c'est- à-dire l'apprentissage à travers la télévision, la radio et les journaux, à une interaction plus efficace de l'enseignant-apprenant ou un processus d'apprentissage face-à-face. Un appel a donc été fait pour le commencement de l'éducation en science et technologie des adultes dans un cadre informel, avec les centres existants d'éducation des adultes agrandis afin d'accueillir ce dispositif important pour le développement national.
    Mots clés: Potentiels cognitifs; Statutx socio-

  1. The influence of oral health conditions, socioeconomic status and home environment factors on schoolchildren's self-perception of quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Janice S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. Methods A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically examined for presence of caries lesions (DMFT and dmft index, dental trauma, enamel defects, periodontal status (presence/absence of bleeding, dental treatment and orthodontic treatment needs (DAI. The SiC index was calculated. The participants were asked to complete the Brazilian version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 and a questionnaire about home environment. Questions were asked about the presence of general diseases and children's self-perception of their general and oral health status. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to their parents inquiring about their socioeconomic status (family income, parents' education level, home ownership and perceptions about the general and oral health of their school-aged children. The chi-square test was used for comparisons between proportions. Poisson's regression was used for multivariate analysis with adjustment for variances. Results Univariate analysis revealed that school type, monthly family income, mother's education, family structure, number of siblings, use of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs in the family, parents' perception of oral health of schoolchildren, schoolchildren's self perception their general and oral health, orthodontic treatment needs were significantly associated with poor OHRQoL (p Conclusions It was concluded that the clinical, socioeconomic and home environment factors evaluated exerted a negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren, demonstrating the importance of health managers addressing all these factors when planning oral health promotion interventions for this population.

  2. Impact of an informal learning science camp on urban, low socioeconomic status middle school students and participating teacher-leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votaw, Nikki L.

    Studies suggest that students have difficulty connecting science to their own lives (Lee & Fradd, 1998; Aikenhead, 1996). This difficulty results in a decline in students' attitudes toward science, leading to low science achievement. These factors result in fewer students interested in careers related to science, specifically for urban, minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that a ten day informal learning immersion science camp had on the participants, both urban, low-socioeconomic status middle school students and teacher-leaders. The students were incoming seventh grade students involved in a community-based scholar program designed to recruit and support socioeconomically disadvantaged, academically talented students. The teacher-leaders were professional educators working toward an advanced degree. This ten day camp included seven visits to different sites and complementary classroom-based activities. The purpose of the camp was to immerse the students in informal learning environments that affect their daily lives. Students and teacher-leaders visited facilities that provide public utility services (i.e. power plant, sewage treatment facility, and water company), zoo, large commercial cave system, planetarium, university based electrooptics and nanotechnology center, and forest and arboretum. These site visits were supported by activities that were provided by teacher-leaders. A model used as a framework for studying learning in the context of this ten day camp as Falk and Dierking's (2000) Contextual Model for Learning. This model described three basic intersecting elements that contributed to learning within the given context. The three contexts (personal, sociocultural, and physical) intersect affecting the learning that takes place. A mixed methodology design was employed to determine the impact of the camp on students' content knowledge and attitudes toward science. Qualitative data were collected to determine the impact of the camp on teacher-leaders' content knowledge and pedagogy. A variety of data sources were used including data collected before, during, and immediately following the camp as well as data collected several months after the conclusion of the camp. Results of the study indicated that both students and teacher-leaders were positively impacted by their experience at the camp. Data from the content assessments, interviews, and student journals indicate that students' content knowledge was enhanced and expanded through the learning of factual knowledge as well as understanding of the importance of broad scientific processes. Through their new experiences, students developed an awareness of the natural world and a foundation for future learning. Students also developed an awareness of science as it applies to their own lives. Data from students' letters to themselves, student interviews, and parent focus groups indicated that students' attitudes toward science were positively impacted through development of an increased resource appreciation, positive social experiences, and experiential sharing with others. Teacher-leader experiences with the camp also had positive results. Teacher-leaders entered the camp with a variety of unique personal contexts, and in spite of this variability each reported that this was a value-added experience for their teaching. These personal contexts helped to enhance the sociocultural context which provided a rich environment to support teacher-leader learning. Among the pedagogical impacts, teacher-leaders expressed enhanced teaching capacity through acquisition of: new classroom activities; new connections among science content; new stories and experiences to share with future classes; and new contexts for situating the understanding of science principles. Along with the positive impacts, teacher-leaders also identified and articulated several barriers to implementing site visits in their own classrooms. This camp is unique in that it is an immersion experience within informal learning contexts where seven sites were visited with

  3. Does Socioeconomic Status Affect Patients’ Ease of Use of a Touch-Screen (iPad) Patient Survey?

    OpenAIRE

    Zarghom, Saman; Di Fonzo, David; Leung, Fok-Han

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities influence the usage rate of advanced communication technologies in Canada. It is important to assess all patient interactions with computers and electronic devices based on these socioeconomic differences. This project studied the ease of use of a touch-screen interface program for collecting patient feedback. The interface collected feedback on physicians’ communication skills, an important health concern that has been garnering more and more attention. A concurrent...

  4. Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takano Takehito; Nakamura Keiko; Fukuda Yoshiharu

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women), the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, exc...

  5. Socio-economic status of horse owners vis-a-vis horse feeding and management in Rajasthan

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    P. A. Bala

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the socio-economic status, horse feeding and management adopted by horse owners of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: Primary data was collected through specially structured proforma by personal interview method from the horse owners of Hanumangarh (50, Churu (42, Jhunjhunu (30 and Jalore (40 districts of Rajasthan, India. Results: The district (Churu and Jhunjhunu is mostly rain fed, Hanumangarh is canal-irrigated whereas Jalore is tube well irrigated. Majority of respondents engaged in horse rearing were of other backward class (OBC & general category. Literacy (% among the horse owners was more than 80% in Hanumangarh and Jhunjhunu districts, whereas it was less than 50% in Churu and Jalore districts. Majority of the respondents were maintaining other livestock along with the horses. The average dry roughages provided were 4.82±0.22, 8.143±0.348, 5.267±0.69 and 6.105±0.196kg per horse in Hanumangarh, Churu, Jhunjhunu and Jalore, respectively. The average concentrate offered was 2.81±0.138, 2.452±0.145, 2.933±0.160 and 1.950±0.200kg per horse in Hanumangarh, Churu, Jhunjhunu and Jalore, respectively. It was observed that horse owners were providing green fodder, dry roughages and concentrate depending up on the availability/production of these items in that region. Majority of horse owners were allowing covering of estrus mares between 3rd and 5th day of estrus. Paucity of quality stallions for covering the mares was observed throughout the area surveyed. The respondents had to pay between Rs. 1100/- to 5100/- as covering fee with no guarantee of conception. Most of mares were rebred during foal heat and majority of the respondents were not aware about the symptoms of estrus mare. Vaccination, insurance and use of disinfectants were not adopted in the study indicating the least awareness among the horse owners about the importance of vaccination, insurance and disinfectants. Conclusion: Horses were being maintained for ceremonial purposes and breeding, their feeding in terms of fodder (green & dry and concentrate were observed area specific and were fulfilling the minimum nutrient requirements. There was paucity of true to breed stallions in the areas studied. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 470-475

  6. Are adolescents with high socioeconomic status more likely to engage in alcohol and illicit drug use in early adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humensky Jennifer L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous literature has shown a divergence by age in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and substance use: adolescents with low SES are more likely to engage in substance use, as are adults with high SES. However, there is growing evidence that adolescents with high SES are also at high risk for substance abuse. The objective of this study is to examine this relationship longitudinally, that is, whether wealthier adolescents are more likely than those with lower SES to engage in substance use in early adulthood. Methods The study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (AddHealth, a longitudinal, nationally-representative survey of secondary school students in the United States. Logistic regression models were analyzed examining the relationship between adolescent SES (measured by parental education and income and substance use in adulthood, controlling for substance use in adolescence and other covariates. Results Higher parental education is associated with higher rates of binge drinking, marijuana and cocaine use in early adulthood. Higher parental income is associated with higher rates of binge drinking and marijuana use. No statistically significant results are found for crystal methamphetamine or other drug use. Results are not sensitive to the inclusion of college attendance by young adulthood as a sensitivity analysis. However, when stratifying by race, results are consistent for white non-Hispanics, but no statistically significant results are found for non-whites. This may be a reflection of the smaller sample size of non-whites, but may also reflect that these trends are driven primarily by white non-Hispanics. Conclusions Previous research shows numerous problems associated with substance use in young adults, including problems in school, decreased employment, increases in convictions of driving under the influence (DUI and accidental deaths. Much of the previous literature is focused on lower SES populations. Therefore, it is possible that teachers, parents and school administrators in wealthier schools may not perceive as great to address substance abuse treatment in their schools. This study can inform teachers, parents, school administrators and program officials of the need for addressing drug abuse prevention activities to this population of students.

  7. Evaluating the Intersections of Socioeconomic Status and Health Impacts from Exposure to Air Pollution in Bogotá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baublitz, C. B.; Henderson, B. H.; Pachon, J. E.; Galvis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Colombia has strict economic divisions, which may be represented by six strata assigned by the National Planning Department. These are assigned by housing conditions and are arranged such that the divisions with subpar living conditions (strata levels one through three) may receive support from those with better than acceptable living conditions (strata levels five and six). Notably, division three no longer receives aid, and division four neither contributes to this system nor receives support. About ten percent of the population is in the upper three strata, while the remaining populace experiences subpar living conditions. Bogotá, DC has poor air quality that sometimes puts sensitive populations at risk due to particulate matter (PM). The local environmental agency has developed seven strategies to reduce air pollution, predominantly by regulating fixed and mobile sources, for the promotion of public health. Preliminary mapping of results indicates there may be higher concentrations of pollutants in areas whose residents are of a lower socioeconomic status (SES). Because it's more difficult for impoverished people to miss work or afford healthcare, higher exposure could have more significance for the city's overall health burden. The aim of this project is to determine the effective impactful regulatory strategy for the benefit of public health as a result of emission reductions. This will be done by using CMAQ results and BenMAP with information for long-term relative risk estimates for PM to find premature mortality rates per source type and location, segregated by strata division. A statistical regression will define the correspondence between health impact and SES. The benefit per reduction will be given in premature mortalities avoided per ton of PM emissions reduced per source type. For each of seven proposed regulatory strategies, this project provides results in mortalities avoided per ton of emissions of PM reduced per source type. It also compares these results against the strata divisions to analyze the correspondence between SES and exposure to air pollution. Because there are many industrial facilities close to residential areas of the lower three strata, it's predicted that fixed sources are the main contributor to health impacts for citizens of a lower SES.

  8. The Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Status on Academic Performance of Students in Selected Schools in Edu Lga of Kwara State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femi Ogunshola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between home-based environment factors and the academic performance of students in selected secondary schools within a local government area in Kwara State is investigated. Samples were obtained with one hundred and eighty (180 students randomly selected from three secondary schools. The four factors that were examined and statistically analyses were: parental socio-economic background, parental educational background, parental educational qualification and students’ health statuses. Diverse statistical tests were performed on the various data collected to establish statistical significance of the effects on students’ academic performance. Parental socio-economic statuses and parental educational background did not have significance effect on the academic performance of the students. However, the parental educational qualification and health statuses of the students were identified tom have statistical significant effect o the academic performance of the students. The two variables that indicated significant influence do reflect nature of the student’ home environment and played notable role in the academic achievement of the respondents. Government could intervene to raise level of academic achievement among students in rural area.

  9. Parenting, socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in Peruvian families and their children / Crianza, nivel socioeconómico y funcionamiento psicosocial en familias peruanas y sus niños

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denisse L., Manrique Millones; Pol, Ghesquière; Karla, Van Leeuwen.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la relación entre dos dimensiones de crianza (crianza positiva y control negativo del comportamiento) y factores psicosociales infantiles (auto-valía y problemas de conducta). Se investigó (a) si el nivel socioeconómico moderaba la relación entre crianza y el [...] funcionamiento psicosocial del niño, (b) si la crianza actuaba como mediador en la relación entre nivel socioeconómico y el funcionamiento psicosocial, por último, (c) si existían efectos de interacción entre crianza positiva y control negativo del comportamiento. La información fue obtenida de 591 niños peruanos y sus familias en zonas urbanas de Lima Metropolitana. Se utilizó Análisis de Regresión Múltiple Jerárquica con el fin de investigar los efectos directos e indirectos (mediación y moderación). Los resultados revelaron un efecto mediador de crianza positiva y control negativo del comportamiento en la relación entre el nivel socioeconómico y la auto-valía. Se discuten implicaciones sobre el importante rol desempeñado por el contexto. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between two dimensions of parenting (Positive Parenting and Negative Behavioral Control) and child psychosocial functioning, such as self-worth and problem behavior. We investigated (a) whether socioeconomic status moderates the relationship betw [...] een parenting and child psychosocial outcomes, (b) whether parenting mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in a Peruvian context and finally, (c) whether there are interaction effects between positive parenting and negative behavioral control. Information was gathered on 591 Peruvian children and their families from the normal population in urban zones of Metropolitan Lima. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate direct and indirect effects (mediation and moderation). Results revealed a significant mediation effect of positive parenting and negative behavioral control in the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-worth. Implications about the role played by context are discussed.

  10. Relación entre perímetro abdominal, nivel socioeconómico y presión arterial Relation of abdominal circumference and socio-economic status to blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fasce H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Relacionar perímetro abdominal y condición socioeconómica con presión arterial (PA en comunidad urbana de Concepción. Métodos: Se midió el perímetro abdominal (PeA de 8472 residentes mayores de 15 años de edad, proporcionados por edad, género y nivel socioeconómico. La PA fue medida con normas estandarizadas, realizando dos visitas en diferentes días, la segunda si la PA era mayor de 140/90 mm Hg. Los Pe A se distribuyeron en cuartiles, relacionando cada cuartil con los respectivos promedios de presión sistólica y diastólica y se establecieron coeficientes de correlación lineal mediante "r" de Pearson entre PeA y PA. Además, se estableció la frecuencia de cada cuartil de Pe A por nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: Los Pea tuvieron la siguiente distribución (cm: 1er cuartil, 96. La prevalencia de hipertensión para niveles socioeconómicos alto, medio y bajo fue 17,9%, 19,5% y 24,5%, respectivamente. La PA promedio (mmHg en hombres y en mujeres del 1er cuartil de PeA fue 112 y 109; en el 2º cuartil 118 y 118; en el 3er cuartil 123 y 122 y en el 4º cuartil 129 y 129, respectivamente. Los coeficientes de correlación entre PeA y presión sistólica y presión diastólica resultaron significativos en ambos géneros: r = 0,343, pAim: To correlate abdominal circumference (AC and socio-economic status with blood pressure( BP in an urban community of Concepción, Chile Methods: AC was measured in 8472 subjects above 15years of age, stratified by age, gender and socio-economic status. BP was measured by standard procedures, with a repeat recording when the initial valué was > 140/90mmHg. BP was compared in quartiles of abdominal circumference and according to socio-economic status. Pearson "r" was used to correlate BP and AC Results: Cut points for quartiles of AC were 78, 87, and 96 cm. Prevalence of hypertension in high, médium and low socio-economic status was 17.9%, 19.5% and 24.5%, respectively Mean systolic BP was 112 - 109 mmHg (males - females in the first AC quartile, 118 - 118, 123-122 and 129-129 in the second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively. A significant correlation between AC and BP (systolic and diastolic was observed in both genders (r 0.345 and 0.281 for males and females, respectively, p<0.00001. 22% of low socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile compared to 28.8% in the 4th quartile. In contrast 38.9% of high socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile while 15.5% did so in the 4th quartile (p<0001. Conclusion: A positive correlation ofAC and blood pressure was shown in both genders. A greater AC in low socio-economic subjects maybe related to a higher prevalence of hypertension in this group.

  11. Socioeconomic status and risk of cancer, cerebral stroke, and death due to coronary heart disease and any disease: a longitudinal study in eastern Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic status with the risk of death from ischaemic heart disease and any disease as well as the risk of cerebral stroke and any cancer was studied in 3644 men aged 30-59, based on a random sample from the population of eastern Finland. Age, smoking, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol concentration were allowed for in multiple logistic models. On the basis of these data, not being married, short education, and low income are associated with an excessive risk of de...

  12. Food consumption, physical activity and socio-economic status related to BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Sandra; Santos, Rui(Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa — ISEL, 1959-007, Lisboa, Portugal); Moreira, Carla; Santos, P. C.; Mota, Jorge; Moreira, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between obesity and food group intakes, physical activity and socio-economic status in adolescents. Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008. Cole’s cut-off points were used to categorize BMI. Abdominal obesity was defined by a waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile, as well as a waist-to-height ratio at or above 0?500. Diet was evaluated using an FFQ, and the food group consumption was categorized using sex-s...

  13. The Impact of Parent’s Socioeconomic Status on Parental Involvement at Home: A Case Study on High Achievement Indian Students of a Tamil School in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the impact of parent’s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child’s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance- based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample comprised 10 students from Year Two, 10 students from Year Three, 10 students from Year Four and 10 students from Year Five. Those were the high achievement students identified based on the previous final year school examination results. Questionnaires were used by the researcher to obtain quantitative data related to the parent’s socioeconomic background and their involvement strategies in their children’s education at home from the students’ parent. In addition, in-depth interviews with twenty students, that is, five students from each Year were conducted to gather information on their parent’s involvement. The findings of this study indicate that most parents are from a higher socioeconomic background and they show a high degree of involvement in most of the involvement strategies at home to ensure their child’s educational success. Moreover, the economic and academic capital among the middle-class parents serve to enhance their understanding and knowledge on the actual values that need to be placed on their child’s education. As a result, these children gain in terms of good skills, behaviour and values, all of which are crucial to their academic success.

  14. Percepção da imagem corporal e nível socioeconômico em adolescentes: revisão sistemática / Adolescent body image perceptions and socioeconomic status: a systematic review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Érico Felden, Pereira; Clarissa Stefani, Teixeira; Bruna Dalcin, Gattiboni; Lidiane Amanda, Bevilacqua; Susana Cararo, Confortin; Tatiana Rodrigues da, Silva.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir as relações entre percepção da imagem corporal e fatores socioeconômicos como renda, grau de escolaridade e etnia em adolescentes. FONTES DE DADOS: Artigos selecionados nas bases PubMed e SciELO, sem limite de data de publicação, com amostras de adolescentes, nos idiomas inglês, e [...] spanhol, português ou francês, utilizando os descritores: "percepção da imagem corporal", "nível socioeconômico" e "adolescentes". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A influência do contexto socioeconômico na percepção da imagem corporal e satisfação/insatisfação com o corpo é tema relevante no entendimento da saúde dos adolescentes. Identificou-se que as relações entre imagem corporal e nível socioeconômico são complexas e os resultados dos estudos publicados não são conclusivos. As principais tendências observadas foram: jovens norte-americanos de classe baixa apresentaram maior chance de serem obesos ao contrário dos brasileiros; moças e rapazes apresentaram comportamentos diferenciados na percepção da imagem corporal, independentemente da etnia e do nível socioeconômico; moças brancas apresentaram maior insatisfação com a imagem corporal e maior busca por dietas do que moças negras, as quais parecem sofrer menos influência dos padrões de beleza em voga; jovens de menor nível socioeconômico apresentaram uma tendência a desejarem corpos maiores. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se amostras estrangeiras, houve uma tendência de maiores índices de insatisfação com o corpo em adolescentes de classe socioeconômica mais privilegiada. Em amostras brasileiras, análises sobre o assunto são escassas e pesquisas são necessárias, especialmente pelo fato de a população estar passando por modificações tanto econômicas como nutricionais. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationships between body image perceptions and socioeconomic factors such as income, level of education, and ethnicity among adolescents. DATA SOURCE: Articles were selected from PubMed and SciELO databases, involving adolescents, without limits of publication dates, in E [...] nglish, Spanish, Portuguese, or French, with the following keywords: "body image perception", "socioeconomic status", and "adolescents". DATA SYNTHESIS: The influence of the socioeconomic context upon body image perceptions and satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body is a relevant subject in understanding adolescent's health. This study identified that relationships between body image and socioeconomic levels are complex and the results of published studies are not conclusive. The main findings are: North-American lower class youths present greater chances for obesity, but this is not true in Brazil; girls and boys have different behaviors concerning body image perceptions, despite ethnicity or socioeconomic status; Caucasian girls show more dissatisfaction with their body images and greater search for diets than African American girls, who seem to suffer less influence of the current beauty patterns; youth of lower socioeconomic status presents a tendency to desire larger bodies. CONCLUSIONS: Considering foreign samples, there was a tendency for greater levels of dissatisfaction with the body among adolescents of higher socioeconomic classes. In Brazilian samples, studies about this subject are scarce and further research is needed, especially because Brazilian population is experiencing economical and nutritional modifications.

  15. Percepção da imagem corporal e nível socioeconômico em adolescentes: revisão sistemática Adolescent body image perceptions and socioeconomic status: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Felden Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir as relações entre percepção da imagem corporal e fatores socioeconômicos como renda, grau de escolaridade e etnia em adolescentes. FONTES DE DADOS: Artigos selecionados nas bases PubMed e SciELO, sem limite de data de publicação, com amostras de adolescentes, nos idiomas inglês, espanhol, português ou francês, utilizando os descritores: "percepção da imagem corporal", "nível socioeconômico" e "adolescentes". SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A influência do contexto socioeconômico na percepção da imagem corporal e satisfação/insatisfação com o corpo é tema relevante no entendimento da saúde dos adolescentes. Identificou-se que as relações entre imagem corporal e nível socioeconômico são complexas e os resultados dos estudos publicados não são conclusivos. As principais tendências observadas foram: jovens norte-americanos de classe baixa apresentaram maior chance de serem obesos ao contrário dos brasileiros; moças e rapazes apresentaram comportamentos diferenciados na percepção da imagem corporal, independentemente da etnia e do nível socioeconômico; moças brancas apresentaram maior insatisfação com a imagem corporal e maior busca por dietas do que moças negras, as quais parecem sofrer menos influência dos padrões de beleza em voga; jovens de menor nível socioeconômico apresentaram uma tendência a desejarem corpos maiores. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando-se amostras estrangeiras, houve uma tendência de maiores índices de insatisfação com o corpo em adolescentes de classe socioeconômica mais privilegiada. Em amostras brasileiras, análises sobre o assunto são escassas e pesquisas são necessárias, especialmente pelo fato de a população estar passando por modificações tanto econômicas como nutricionais.OBJECTIVE: To discuss the relationships between body image perceptions and socioeconomic factors such as income, level of education, and ethnicity among adolescents. DATA SOURCE: Articles were selected from PubMed and SciELO databases, involving adolescents, without limits of publication dates, in English, Spanish, Portuguese, or French, with the following keywords: "body image perception", "socioeconomic status", and "adolescents". DATA SYNTHESIS: The influence of the socioeconomic context upon body image perceptions and satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body is a relevant subject in understanding adolescent's health. This study identified that relationships between body image and socioeconomic levels are complex and the results of published studies are not conclusive. The main findings are: North-American lower class youths present greater chances for obesity, but this is not true in Brazil; girls and boys have different behaviors concerning body image perceptions, despite ethnicity or socioeconomic status; Caucasian girls show more dissatisfaction with their body images and greater search for diets than African American girls, who seem to suffer less influence of the current beauty patterns; youth of lower socioeconomic status presents a tendency to desire larger bodies. CONCLUSIONS: Considering foreign samples, there was a tendency for greater levels of dissatisfaction with the body among adolescents of higher socioeconomic classes. In Brazilian samples, studies about this subject are scarce and further research is needed, especially because Brazilian population is experiencing economical and nutritional modifications.

  16. School Neighbourhood Socio-Economic Status and Teachers' Work Commitment in Finland: Longitudinal Survey with Register Linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnansaari-Rajalin, Terhi; Kivimäki, Mika; Ervasti, Jenni; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which school neighbourhood affects teachers' work commitment is poorly known. In the current study, we investigated whether school neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics predicted teachers' organizational and professional commitment. Primary school teachers (n?=?1042) responded to surveys in 2000-2001 (baseline) and…

  17. Socioeconomic status and self-reported asthma in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

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    Cunningham Joan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence.

  18. MADUREZ PARA LA LECTOESCRITURA EN NIÑOS/AS DE INSTITUCIONES CON DIFERENTES ESTRATOS SOCIOECONÓMICOS - LITERACY MATURITY IN CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUSES

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    PRISCILA SIERRA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of initial schooling in the later reading and writing learning development, in this descriptive research, it is identified the maturity level of children literacy who attend the grade transition in three educational institutions in different socio-economic statuses of Barranquilla. The evaluation was conducted to 62 children (the entire population of the study. This was based, in one hand, on the maturity model in the application of ABC Filho L. Test, which assesses the maturity by means of 8 subtests that reference the necessary components for the acquisition of reading and writing. On the other hand, and from a constructivist perspective, it was appreciated the approach and recognition that children show while they face literacy through the application of a technique called “Hypothesis Testing” based on Teberosky and Ferreiro’s theoretical assumptions. The results indicate that half of the study population is at a medium level of literacy maturity and, between the third and fourth level of alphabetic writing system acquisition. In these results, children of institutions of middle and high socio-economic status predominated (45%.

  19. Antiretroviral therapy adherence in a sample of men with low socioeconomic status: The role of task-specific treatment self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Eric; Fominaya, Adam W

    2015-12-01

    Disparities continue to persist in HIV care and treatment outcomes among racial/ethnic minorities, men who have sex with men (MSM), and individuals with low socioeconomic status. Much research has identified treatment self-efficacy as a key factor in antiretroviral therapy adherence and subsequent treatment outcomes. Few studies, however, have elaborated on these links and their potential in reducing HIV treatment disparities by examining the role of task-specific types of treatment self-efficacy. In this study, we examined the effect of four types of task-specific treatment self-efficacy on antiretroviral adherence among patients in a predominantly racial/ethnic minority sample of HIV-seropositive MSM with low socioeconomic status. We grouped participants by duration of treatment to determine whether certain types of self-efficacy were more salient based on treatment experience. We found that participants with optimal adherence tended to have higher levels of task-specific self-efficacy related to medication management and mood management than participants with suboptimal adherence. After a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, only task-specific self-efficacy for medication management showed significant effects on adherence. Findings suggest that using focused, task-specific measures of treatment self-efficacy could strengthen our ability to aid patients at risk for adherence difficulties and tailor interventions to more effectively meet their needs. PMID:25439192

  20. The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Self-Rated Health: Study of 29 Countries Using European Social Surveys (2002–2008

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    Carlos Garcia-Alonso

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that the association between socio-economic status (SES and self-rated health (SRH varies in different countries, however there are not many country-comparisons that examine this relationship over time. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of three SES measures on SRH in 29 countries according to findings in European Social Surveys (2002–2008, in order to study how socio-economic inequalities can vary our subjective state of health. In line with previous studies, income inequalities seem to be greater not only in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian countries, but especially in Eastern European countries. The impact of education is greater in Southern countries, and this effect is similar in Eastern and Scandinavian countries, although occupational status does not produce significant differences in southern countries. This study shows the general relevance of socio-educational factors on SRH. Individual economic conditions are obviously a basic factor contributing to a good state of health, but education could be even more relevant to preserve it. In this sense, policies should not only aim at reducing income inequalities, but should also further the education of people who are in risk of social exclusion.

  1. Desordem coordenativa desenvolvimental: uma análise do estado nutricional e nível socioeconómico / Developmental coordination disorder: an analysis of nutritional status and socioeconomic level

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane Aparecida Pereira dos, Santos; Andressa Ribeiro, Contreira; Nayara Malheiros, Caruzzo; Patricia Carolina Borsato, Passos; José Luiz Lopes, Vieira.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o estado nutricional e o nível socioecónomico de escolares com provável desordem coordenativa desenvolvimental (DCD), risco de DCD e desenvolvimento típico (DT). Participaram 581 crianças com idades entre 7 e 10 anos de escolas públicas de um município do noroest [...] e do Paraná. Para avaliação do desempenho motor utilizou-se a Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC); medidas antropométricas de peso e altura para avaliar o estado nutricional e o Questionário ABEP para a classificação socioeconómica. Para análise dos dados utilizou-se o teste Kolmogorov-Smirnov, teste Qui-quadrado e estatística descritiva, adotando p Abstract in english The aims of study was to analyze the nutritional status and socioeconomic level from students with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD), Risk of DCD and Typical Developmental (TD). Participated 581 children from 7 to 10 years old from public schools to the city in the northwest of Para [...] ná. To assess the motor performance were used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC); anthropometrics measures of weight and height to analyze the nutritional status and the ABEP Questionnaire to assess the socioeconomic level. To statistical analyses were used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Chi-Square test and descriptive statistical (p

  2. Prevalence and Predictors of Neoadjuvant Therapy for Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the National Cancer Database: Importance of Socioeconomic Status and Treating Institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The optimal locoregional therapy for stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial, with definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery (NT-S) serving as competing strategies. In this study, we used the National Cancer Database to determine the prevalence and predictors of NT in a large, modern cohort of patients. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage IIIA NSCLC treated with CRT or NT-S between 2003 and 2010 at programs accredited by the Commission on Cancer were included. Predictors were categorized as clinical, time/geographic, socioeconomic, and institutional. In accord with the National Cancer Database, institutions were classified as academic/research program and as comprehensive and noncomprehensive community cancer centers. Logistic regression and random effects multilevel logistic regression were performed for univariable and multivariable analyses, respectively. Results: The cohort consisted of 18,581 patients, 3,087 (16.6%) of whom underwent NT-S (10.6% induction CRT, 6% induction chemotherapy). The prevalence of NT-S was constant over time, but there were significant relative 31% and 30% decreases in pneumonectomy and right-sided pneumonectomy, respectively, over time (P trend <.02). In addition to younger age, lower T stage, and favorable comorbidity score, indicators of higher socioeconomic status were strong independent predictors of NT-S, including white race, higher income, and private/managed insurance. The type of institution (academic/research program vs comprehensive or noncomprehensive community cancer centers, odds ratio 1.54 and 2.08, respectively) strongly predicted NT-S, but treatment volume did not. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery was an uncommon treatment approach in Commission on Cancer programs, and the prevalence of postinduction pneumonectomy decreased over time. Higher socioeconomic status and treatment at academic institutions were significant predictors of NT-S. Further research should be performed to enable a better understanding of these disparities

  3. Parental socioeconomic status and prognosis in individuals with ultra-high risk for psychosis: A 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Ji Won; Choi, Soo-Hee; Yun, Je-Yeon; Chon, Myong-Wuk; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2015-10-01

    A possible relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the development of mental illness has been continuously suggested. Still, less clear is whether the SES has a direct effect on the development of schizophrenia. In this longitudinal study, we test the hypothesis that parental SES is associated with the prognosis of individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. One hundred and sixteen individuals who were determined as UHR using a Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) were classified into three groups based on the parental SES levels assessed by the Hollingshead-Redlich scale. There were no differences in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) at baseline. However, at the 1-year follow-up, the higher versus lower SES group showed significant differences in clinical measures including SAPS, SANS, PANSS positive and negative scales as well as BPRS scores. Most of these clinical differences were attenuated by the second year of follow-up with no sign of an increased rate of conversion to psychosis derived from a socioeconomically disadvantaged status. However, SAPS and PANSS positive scale still revealed sub-threshold positive symptoms within the low SES group at the 2-year follow-up. Moreover, especially for the subjects who continued the follow-ups for 1year and/or 2years, the changes of clinical symptoms between the baseline and follow-ups showed that there were significant symptom changes in higher and middle SES groups within the 1-year period already, but the lower SES group showed significant recovery at the second year. Our findings suggest that low parental SES can be detrimental to the prognosis phase of individuals at UHR. Limited supportive socioeconomic resources may slow the rate of symptom recovery in UHR subjects. PMID:26213342

  4. Niveles de actividad física de la población colombiana: desigualdades por sexo y condición socioeconómica / Physical activity levels among Colombian adults: Inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia, González; Óscar, Lozano; Andrea, Ramírez.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las desigualdades en los niveles de actividad física son evidentes a nivel mundial. En Colombia, uno de los países más desiguales de Latinoamérica, la información es limitada; por tal razón, es imperativo conocer las disparidades en actividad física en el país para orientar el diseño d [...] e programas y políticas públicas encaminadas a promoverla. Objetivos. Estimar las prevalencias del cumplimiento de recomendaciones sobre actividad física y sus factores asociados, identificar desigualdades por sexo y condición socioeconómica en el cumplimiento de estas recomendaciones en el año 2010 y evaluar la tendencia de las prevalencias de actividad física en un período de cinco años. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un análisis secundario de la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional, 2005-2010. La muestra total incluyó 27.243 adultos. Los niveles de actividad física se midieron con el cuestionario internacional de actividad física. La condición socioeconómica se midió por el nivel del Sisbén. Resultados. La prevalencia del cumplimiento de las recomendaciones de actividad física en todos los dominios fue menor entre las mujeres. Los adultos de menor nivel socioeconómico tuvieron la menor prevalencia en "tiempo libre" y la mayor en "uso de la bicicleta como medio de transporte". Los factores asociados con el cumplimiento de las recomendaciones difirieron según el sexo y el dominio de actividad física. Las variables individuales y del hogar explicaron 13,6 % de las desigualdades por sexo y 23,2 % de las desigualdades por nivel socioeconómico. En un período de cinco años la prevalencia de "actividad física en el tiempo libre" disminuyó y aumentó en "caminar como medio de transporte". Conclusiones. Son preocupantes las bajas prevalencias de cumplimiento de las recomendaciones sobre actividad física en el tiempo libre en las mujeres y las personas de menor nivel socioeconómico. En futuras intervenciones para incrementar los niveles de actividad física deberán considerarse las desigualdades por sexo y condición socioeconómica, así como sus factores asociados. Abstract in english Introduction: Worldwide studies show inequalities in physical activity levels related to socio-demographic characteristics. In Colombia, among the countries in Latin America with the highest inequality, the evidence related to inequalities in physical activity is limited. It is imperative to identif [...] y disparities in physical activity in the country, to guide the design of public policies aimed at promoting physical activity. Objectives: 1) To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of meeting physical activity recommendations; 2) to assess inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status in meeting physical activity recommendations, and 3) to assess the trends in physical activity prevalence within a five-year period. Materials and methods: A secondary analysis of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey was conducted. The sample included 27,243 adults. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure leisure time and transport domains. Socioeconomic status was measured by the Sisben level. Results: Compared to men, women were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations in all domains. Compared to adults from high socioeconomic-status households, low socioeconomic-status adults had a lower prevalence of meeting physical activity recommendations during leisure time and the highest prevalence of using a bicycle for transport. The factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations differed by gender and physical activity domain. Household and individual variables explained 13.6% of the inequalities observed by gender, and 23.2% of the inequalities by socioeconomic status. In a five-year period, the prevalence of physical activity in leisure time decreased, while the physical activity of walking for transport increased and biking for transport did not change. Conclusions: Future interventions to increase physical activit

  5. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity Prevalence in South Africa: A Decomposition Analysis

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    Olufunke Alaba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1 construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2 estimate concentration indices (CI to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3 perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa.

  6. Nutritional status of urban schoolchildren of high and low socioeconomic status in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala Estado nutricional de escolares urbanos de niveles socioeconómicos alto y bajo en Quetzaltenango, Guatemala

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    Iris F. Groeneveld

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing in children in many developing countries, increasing chronic disease risk. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren 8 to 10 years old who were of high or low socioeconomic status (SES in Quetzaltenango, which is the second largest city in Guatemala METHODS: Between April and June 2005 we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 583 children in private and public elementary schools, in which we measured height and weight. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 2000 height-for-age z-scores, weight-for-age z-scores, and body mass index-for-age centiles were used to define stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity. RESULTS: Mean height, weight, and body mass index were significantly higher in the 327 children of high SES than in the 256 children of low SES, across sexes and age groups. The prevalence of stunting was significantly higher in low-SES children than in high-SES ones (27.0% vs. 7.3%, P OBJETIVO: En muchos países en desarrollo se elevan las prevalencias de sobrepeso y de obesidad en niños, con el incremento del riesgo de enfermedades crónicas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las prevalencias de retraso en el crecimiento, peso bajo, sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de 8 a 10 años de edad de niveles socioeconómicos (NSE alto o bajo en Quetzaltenango, la segunda mayor ciudad de Guatemala. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal entre abril y junio de 2005 en el que se midió el peso y la talla de 583 niños de escuelas primarias privadas y públicas. Para evaluar el retraso en el crecimiento, el peso bajo, el sobrepeso y la obesidad se utilizaron como referencias las puntuaciones z de la talla para la edad y del peso para la edad y los centiles de los índices de masa corporal para la edad, propuestos por los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de las Enfermedades (CDC de los Estados Unidos de América en 2000. RESULTADOS: La talla, el peso y el índice de masa corporal medios fueron significativamente mayores en los 327 niños de NSE alto que en los 256 niños de NSE bajo en todos los grupos de edad y sexo. La prevalencia de retraso en el crecimiento fue significativamente mayor en los niños con NSE bajo que en los de NSE alto (27,0% frente a 7,3%; P < 0,01, al igual que la prevalencia de peso bajo (14,1% frente a 4,6%, P < 0,01. En contraste, la prevalencia de sobrepeso fue mayor en los niños con NSE alto que en los de NSE bajo (17,7% frente a 10,5%, P < 0,01, al igual que la prevalencia de obesidad (14,4% frente a 2,3%, P < 0,01. Las prevalencias de retraso en el crecimiento en los niños de NSE bajo y de sobrepeso y obesidad en los de NSE alto fueron mucho mayores que las referencias establecidas por los CDC en el año 2000. CONCLUSIONES: Se encontraron elevadas prevalencias de retraso en el crecimiento y de peso corporal excesivo en esta población urbana de Guatemala, con notables contrastes entre las clases sociales. La obesidad en los niños de familias con ingresos elevados indica que la ciudad está experimentando la transición nutricional, con las implicaciones que con lleva para los riesgos de enfermedades crónicas en el futuro. Se requieren intervenciones nutricionales y de salud para reducir esos riesgos.

  7. Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Self-Rated Health in a Transitional Middle-Income Setting: Evidence From Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew James; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian C.

    2010-01-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) correlates strongly with mortality. In developed countries, women generally report worse SRH than males. Few studies have reported on SRH in developing countries. The authors report on SRH in Thailand, a middle-income developing country. The data were derived from a large nationwide cohort of 87 134 adult Open University students (54% female, median age 29 years). The authors included questions on socioeconomic and demographic factors that could influence SRH. The...

  8. Emergence of a Gene-by-Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Infant Mental Ability from 10 Months to 2 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Fask, David

    2010-01-01

    Recent behavioral genetic research has found evidence for a gene-by-environment interaction on cognitive ability: Individual differences in cognitive ability among children raised in socioeconomically advantaged homes are primarily due to genes, whereas environmental factors are more influential for children from disadvantaged homes. We investigated the developmental origins of this interaction in a sample of 750 pairs of twins measured at 10 months and 2 years of age on the Bayley Short Form...

  9. The influence of socioeconomic status on women's preferences for modern contraceptive providers in Nigeria: a multilevel choice modeling

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    Aremu O

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Olatunde Aremu School of Health, Sport, and Bioscience, Health Studies Field, University of East London, London, United Kingdom Background: Contraceptives are one of the most cost effective public health interventions. An understanding of the factors influencing users' preferences for contraceptives sources, in addition to their preferred methods of contraception, is an important factor in increasing contraceptive uptake. This study investigates the effect of women’s contextual and individual socioeconomic positions on their preference for contraceptive sources among current users in Nigeria. Methods: A multilevel modeling analysis was conducted using the most recent 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years old. The analysis included 1,834 ever married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation, including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. Three outcome variables, private, public, and informal provisions of contraceptive sources, were considered in the modeling. Results: There was variability in women's preferences for providers across communities. The result shows that change in variance accounted for about 31% and 19% in the odds of women's preferences for both private and public providers across communities. Younger age and being from the richest households are strongly associated with preference for both private and public providers. Living in rural areas and economically deprived neighborhoods were the community level determinants of women's preferences. Conclusion: This study documents the independent association of contextual socioeconomic characteristics and individual level socioeconomic factors with women's preferences for contraceptive commodity providers in Nigeria. Initiatives that seek to improve modern contraceptive uptake should jointly consider users’ preferences for sources of these commodities in addition to their preference for contraceptive type.Keywords: abortion, contraceptive, multilevel choice, Nigeria, preference, socioeconomic disadvantaged

  10. Associations of Organic Produce Consumption with Socioeconomic Status and the Local Food Environment: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    OpenAIRE

    Curl, Cynthia L.; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Joel D.; Moore, Kari; NETTLETON, JENNIFER A.; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics, such as healthy food availability, have been associated with consumption of healthy food. Little is known about the influence of the local food environment on other dietary choices, such as the decision to consume organic food. We analyzed the associations between organic produce consumption and demographic, socioeconomic and neighborhood characteristics in 4,064 participants aged 53–94 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using log-binomial regression mo...

  11. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD; Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN; Mohammad Siahpush, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regre...

  12. Standards of living and health status: the socioeconomic determinants of life expectancy gain in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    KEITA, Moussa

    2013-01-01

    Using a panel dataset on 45 sub-Saharan Africa countries (SSA), this study analyzes empirically the socioeconomic determinants of life expectancy gain (considered as an indicator of global health improvement at country level). In order to treat heterogeneity and endogeneity concerns, we use multiple estimation methods including pooling, fixed-effect, long difference and system GMM. Our analyses show that income is critical for health enhancement. Particularly, we find that GDP per capita is s...

  13. Neonatal research in India: current status, challenges, and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shuchita; Chaurasia, Suman; Sankar, M Jeeva; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K; Agarwal, Ramesh

    2014-11-01

    The present article systematically reviews the current status of neonatal research in India by examining the research articles published by Indian authors in the last 10 years. It also enlists the major challenges and proposes a few potential solutions to improve the status of neonatal research in the country. The systematic review of 574 eligible articles indicates that majority of the studies were observational in nature, facility-based, and primarily investigator-driven with no external funding, had small sample size, and were published in journals with low impact factor. Only a few select government and non-government academic institutions contributed to most studies. The major challenges include shortage of faculty, no provision for dedicated research time, inadequate knowledge/skills in research methods, lack of funding opportunities, limited access to literature, non-existence of research administrative cell, inappropriately low perks to research staff, and poor support for data management and statistical analysis. The recently revised guidelines on clinical trials involving drugs have further increased the researcher's dilemma. The potential solutions are to increase the faculty strength in medical colleges, allow dedicated research time to them, appoint dedicated research cadre with emoluments at par with clinical faculty, initiate formal training in research methods, create nationwide free portal for access to literature, facilitate development of good protocols through technical guidance at all stages, make the process of funding quick and transparent, and to promote collaborative trans-disciplinary research. Experts from different domains should come together and formulate evidence based research priorities. Regulatory mechanisms should be kept proportionate to plausible risks of research, and detailed ethical guidelines for research in children should be formulated. And last but not least, harnessing postgraduate thesis potential to answer simple and relevant clinical questions in a methodologically rigorous way is the need of the hour. PMID:25223863

  14. Influence of socioeconomic and demographic status on spirometry testing in patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease : a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Mette M; SØndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status is known to influence the prevalence, severity and mortality of obstructive lung diseases, but it is uncertain whether it affects the use of diagnostic spirometry in patients initiating treatment for these conditions. The objective of this paper was to examine a possible association between education, income, labour market affiliation, cohabitation status and having spirometry performed when initiating medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study. Danish national registers were linked, retrieving data on prescriptions, spirometry testing, socioeconomic and demographic variables in all first time users of medication targeting obstructive lung disease in 2008. RESULTS: A total of 37,734 persons were included and approximately half of the cohort had spirometry performed. Among medication users under 65 years of age, being unemployed was significantly associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed, the strongest association was seen in men (OR = 0.82, CI = 0.73-0.91). Medium income was associated with increased odds of having spirometry performed in men (OR = 1.18, CI = 1.06-1.30) and high educational level (>12 years) was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed in women (OR = 0.86, CI = 0.78-0.94). Cohabitation status was not associated with having spirometry performed. Among medication users over 65 years of age, living alone was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed among men (OR = 0.78, CI = 0.69-0.88). CONCLUSION: Social inequity in spirometry testing among patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease was confirmed in this study. Increased focus on spirometry testing among elderly men living alone, among the unemployed and among women with higher education is required when initiating medication.

  15. Association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age group and gender with prevalence of waterborne diseases in rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention of waterborne illness is of great concern all over the world. Waterborne diseases represent significant burden of diseases in the globe. Nearly 4% of diseases are attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene, and approximately 2.2 million people die every year due to diarrheal diseases worldwide. This study was carried out to find association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age groups and gender with prevalence of water borne diseases in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A research questionnaire was designed with questions related to demographic data, drinking water data and prevalence of water borne disease. The research questionnaire was interviewed to different respondents above 18 years of age randomly selected from different settings of Rawalpindi and Islamabad belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Data was analysed by employing cross tabulation and chi-square test with help of statistical software. The more frequent age group (47%) was 30 to 45 years. Proportion of diarrhea in females and males of middle age group were calculated as 36.11 % and 11.11 %, respectively. The second more frequent reported disease was jaundice with 15.9% of the target population being males and 16.7% females. Diarrhea was observed to be the major waterborne disease constituting 41 % of the population with poor hygiene practices. The hygienic practices were significantly associated with waterborne diseases (P = <0.001). Waterborne diseases were also, associated with financial status (P=0.02) and literacy rate (p=0.03). The current study concludes that improvement in the hygienic conditions and hygienic practices will playa pivotal role to prevent faeco-oral infections and reduce the waterborne disease burden. In targeted areas due to poor economic conditions, the population failed to achieve better hygienic practices and therefore there is a need to strengthen water filtration system and awareness of hygienic routine practices in these areas. (author)

  16. The mediating effect of social relationships on the association between socioeconomic status and subjective health – results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonneilich Nico

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of population health. Explanatory approaches on how SES determines health have so far included numerous factors, amongst them psychosocial factors such as social relationships. However, it is unclear whether social relationships can help explain socioeconomic differences in general subjective health. Do different aspects of social relationships contribute differently to the explanation? Based on a cohort study of middle and older aged residents (45 to 75 years from the Ruhr Area in Germany our study tries to clarify the matter. Methods For the analyses data from the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study is used. As indicators of SES education, equivalent household income and occupational status were employed. Social relations were assessed by including structural as well as functional aspects. Structural aspects were estimated by the Social Integration Index (SII and functional aspects were measured by availability of emotional and instrumental support. Data on general subjective health status was available for both baseline examination (2000–2003 and a 5-year follow-up (2006–2008. The sample consists of 4,146 men and women. Four logistic regression models were calculated: in the first model we controlled for age and subjective health at baseline, while in models 2 and 3, either functional or structural aspects of social relationships were introduced separately. Model 4 then included all variables. As former studies indicated different health effects of SES and social relations in men and women, analyses were conducted with the overall sample as well as for each gender alone. Results Prospective associations of SES and subjective health were reduced after introducing social relationships into the regression models. Percentage reductions between 2% and 30% were observed in the overall sample when all aspects of social relations were included. The percentage reductions were strongest in the lowest SES group. Gender specific analyses revealed mediating effects of social relationships in women and men. The magnitude of mediating effects varied depending on the indicators of SES and social relations. Conclusions Social relationships substantially contribute to the explanation of SES differences in subjective health. Interventions for improving social relations which especially focus on socially deprived groups are likely to help reducing socioeconomic disparities in health.

  17. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under-privileged section of the society. PMID:26094178

  18. Nutritional status, socio-economic and hygienic condition of school aged children of a village of Pune District, Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Puranik SS

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The field of anthropometry encompasses a variety of human body measurements, such as weight, height and size; including skin fold thickness, circumference, lengths, and breadths. Anthropometry is a key component of nutritional status assessment in children and adults. Anthropometric data for children reflect general health status, dietary adequacy and growth and development over time. The main objective of the study was to diagnose and analyze the magnitude and causes of nutriti...

  19. Nutritional quality of breakfast and physical activity independently predict the literacy and numeracy scores of children after adjusting for socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A; Mugridge, Anna C

    2012-12-01

    Health-related behaviors [physical activity (PA), nutritional quality of breakfast and sleep]; personal variables (self-esteem, attitudes to PA and gender) and socioeconomic status (SES) (school SES and parental education), were examined in relation to literacy and numeracy scores of 824 grade 3-7 children. Participants completed a questionnaire, and their national literacy and numeracy test scores were retrieved. Mothers (N = 755) completed a telephone interview. Students of highest school SES, maternal education, nutritional quality of breakfast, more sedentary time and female gender had higher literacy scores. SES, maternal education, male gender and total minutes of daily PA were predictors of numeracy with an interaction between greater total PA in boys and greater numeracy. Even though the socioeconomic factors that have predicted children's academic achievement for many decades are still clearly set in place, there are also other modifiable health influences that affect literacy and numeracy and are independent of SES. The current findings provide evidence for health educators and school administrators who may garner support for both breakfast programs and daily school PA for the dual purposes of health promotion as well as for the improvement of literacy and numeracy in settings in which social class may be acting against the educational interests of disadvantaged children. PMID:22798563

  20. Publication title: Paid work between age 60 and 70 years in Europe: a matter of socio-economic status? Publication type: Journal Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Komp

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, older persons’ workforce participation has increased and, after years of studying early retirement, the focus has gradually shifted to workforce participation between age 60 and 70 years. Those are the years directly below and above the mandatory retirement age in most of the European countries. We investigate the influence of socio-economic status (SES on older persons’ workforce participation. Moreover, we study whether the importance of private pensions in a country modifies the effect of SES. Survey data from eleven European countries are analysed in multilevel analyses. Results show that paid work in old age is the domain of persons with high SES. Moreover, a high share of private pensions in a country diminishes the influence of occupational prestige on men’s workforce participation. This suggests that older persons with low SES deserve particular attention in labour market reforms. Additionally, it suggests that pension reforms be monitored concerning their effects on social inequalities.

  1. Causes of Low Agricultural Output and Impact on Socio-economic Status of Farmers: A Case Study of Rural Potohar in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesa Masood

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture being the key sector for economy of Pakistan occupies central place. Since its inception, this sector is subsistent and facing many risks and vulnerability. Over the time due to technological gap in developing countries, they failed to develop rapid expansion and productivity in this sector. The present study is a qualitative analysis conducted to explore the causes of low productivity in agriculture sector, and finding its impacts on the socioeconomic status of farmer. The study conducted a questionnaire survey for the rural farmers residing in Potohar region. A sample of 100 respondents has been chosen, and analysis is carried out by using SPSS software. The study concluded that the higher growth rate for the agriculture sector is very important for a fast overall improvement of the economy, macroeconomic constancy, employment generation, and decrease in rural poverty.

  2. Low socio-economic status and familial occurrence of goitre are associated with a high prevalence of goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of goitre is dependent on genetic and environmental factors, but the associations with socio-economic and life-style factors have only been examined briefly. A cohort of 4649 participants from the general population was examined with questionnaires, thyroid ultrasonography, clinical examination and blood tests. Data were analysed in linear models and logistic regression analysis. Thyroid volume and serum thyroglobulin were closely associated with educational level with higher values in the group with the lowest levels of education (p < 0.001). The same pattern applied to thyroid multinodularity at ultrasonography (p = 0.002) and palpable goitre (p = 0.01). Physical activity in leisure time was negatively associated with thyroid enlargement (p = 0.02) and serum thyroglobulin (p < 0.001). These associations diminished markedly if adjustment was made for smoking habits, alcohol consumption and iodine intake. Familial occurrence of goitre was associated with goitre prevalence (Odds Ratio 2.5, 95% CI: 1.6-3.9), but did not confound the socio-economic associations. In conclusion, social imbalances in the occurrence of goitre were identified. These imbalances could in part be explained by differences in smoking habits and iodine intake

  3. Brechas en cobertura efectiva por nivel socioeconómico y condición de pobreza / Gaps in effective coverage by socioeconomic status and poverty condition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Pablo, Gutiérrez.

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar en el contexto de la ampliación en la protección en salud en México las brechas por nivel socioeconómico y condición de pobreza en la cobertura efectiva de intervenciones preventivas en México. Material y métodos. Datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2012 y 2006, uti [...] lizando indicadores de cobertura efectiva previamente propuestos, con una estratificación por quintil socioeconómico (SE) y por condición de pobreza multidimensional. Resultados. Para las intervenciones relacionadas con la vacunación, se identifica lo que se ha llamado equidad inmunológica. Para otros indicadores de servicios preventivos se observa una menor probabilidad de cobertura efectiva en el quintil de menor nivel SE y entre los pobres multidimensionales. Analizando las diferencias entre 2006 y 2012, no hay evidencia de que haya mejorado esta brecha. Conclusión. Aunque la protección en salud en México se ha incrementado de forma importante y ha reducido las brechas socioeconómicas, éstas siguen manifestándose en las coberturas efectivas de las intervenciones preventivas. Abstract in english Objective. To analyze, in the context of increased health protection in Mexico, the gaps by socioeconomic status and poverty condition on effective coverage of selected preventive interventions. Materials and methods. Data from the National Health & Nutrition Survey 2012 and 2006, using previously d [...] efined indicators of effective coverage and stratifying them by socioeconomic (SE) status and multidimensional poverty condition. Results. For vaccination interventions, immunological equity has been maintained in Mexico. For indicators related to preventive interventions provided at the clinical setting, effective coverage is lower among those in the lowest SE quintile and among people living in multidimensional poverty. Comparing 2006 and 2012, there is no evidence on gap reduction. Conclusion. While health protection has significantly increased in Mexico, thus reducing SE gaps, those gaps are still important in magnitude for effective coverage of preventive interventions.

  4. Obesidade e sobrepeso em adolescentes: relação com atividade física, aptidão física, maturação biológica e "status" socioeconômico / Obesity and overweight in adolescents: relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, biological maturity and socioeconomic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia, Figueiredo; Daniel, Santos; Michele, Souza; André, Seabra; José, Maia.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relaciona atividade física (AF), aptidão física (AptF), maturação biológica e "status" socioe-conômico (ESE) com as prevalências de risco ponderal de adolescentes. Foi desenvolvido no Concelho de Santo Tirso, região norte de Portugal e amostrou 961 alunos (463 meninos e 498 meninas) com [...] idades variando entre os 11 e os 18 anos. O índice de massa corporal foi utilizado para estabelecer o "status" ponderal com base nos pontos de corte propostos por COLE et al. A AF foi avaliada através do questionário de Baecke e a AptF com quatro testes da bateria Fitnessgram. O ESE foi estimado a partir do acesso aos escalões atribuídos pela Ação Social Escolar e a maturação biológica a partir do "offset" maturacional. A análise estatística foi efetuada nos "softwares" Pepi versão 4.0 e SPSS 18.0. O nível de significância foi mantido em 5%. Seis por cento dos alunos eram obesos e 19,5% tinham sobrepeso; meninos e meninas têm prevalências semelhantes de sobrepeso e obesidade. Os níveis médios de AF foram baixos a moderados independentemente do sexo ou "status" ponderal. Os meninos eram mais ativos que as meninas (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to relate physical activity, physical fitness, maturation and socioeconomic status with the prevalence of ponderal risk in adolescents. This was a transversal study made in the Council of Santo Tirso in the north of Portugal. The sample consisted of 961students (463 boys an [...] d 498 girls), aged 11 to 18. Body mass index was used to establish ponderal status based on the cut points from COLE et al. Physical activity was evaluated by Baecke's questionnaire and physical fitness with four tests from Fitnessgram battery. Socioeconomic status was ranked according to the grades assigned by state school subsidies, while biological maturation estimation was based on maturational offset. Software programs Pepi version 4.0 and SPSS 18.0 were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was kept in 5%. Six percent of the target students were obese and 19.5% had overweight. The prevalences of overweight and obesity were similar between genders. The medium levels of physical activity were low or moderate, independent of gender or ponderal status. Boys were more active than girls (p

  5. Jordan's First Research Reactor Project: Driving Forces, Present Status and the Way Ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xoubi, Ned, E-mail: Ned@Xoubi.co [Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC), P.O.Box 70, Shafa Badran, 11934 Amman (Jordan)

    2011-07-01

    In a gigantic step towards establishing Jordan's nuclear power program, Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) is building the first nuclear research and test reactor in the Kingdom. The new reactor will serve as the focal point for Jordan Center for Nuclear Research (JCNR), a comprehensive state of the art nuclear center not only for Jordan but for the whole region, the center will include in addition to the reactor a radioisotopes production plant, a nuclear fuel fabrication plant, a cold neutron source (CNS), a radioactive waste treatment facility, and education and training center. The JRTR reactor is the only research reactor new build worldwide in 2010, it is a 5 MW light water open pool multipurpose reactor, The reactor core is composed of 18 fuel assemblies, MTR plate type, with 19.75% enriched uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) in an aluminum matrix. It is reflected on all sides by beryllium and graphite blocks. Reactor power is upgradable to 10 MW with a maximum thermal flux of 1.45x10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The reactor reactivity is controlled by four Hafnium Control Absorber Rods (CAR). Jordan Center for Nuclear Research is located in Ramtha city, it is owned by Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC), and is contracted to Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Daewoo E and C. The JCNR project is a 56 months EPC fixed price contract for the design engineering, construction, and commissioning the JCNR reactor, and other nuclear facilities. The project presents many challenges for both the owner and the contractor, being the first nuclear reactor for Jordan, and the first nuclear export for Korea. The driving forces, present status and the way ahead will be presented in this paper. (author)

  6. Status of potato husbandry and farmer's socio-economic profile in moisture and heat prone karnataka, india

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan district of Karnataka (India) plays an important role of providing processing grade potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) during September to December months when there is real dearth of such potatoes in the country. However, shallow soils, low soil carbon, inadequate irrigation water (126% cropping intensity in study area) and heat stress have been bothering farmers of this area for a long time. In addition, severe late blight infestations during recent years have played havoc for Potato farmers, dragging average potato productivity in the area to sub seven tonne/ hectare levels. Current study was carried out to analyse socio-economics of potato farmers in Hassan district of Karnataka so that policy makers and development agencies take right decisions towards upliftment of potato farmers of this area. District wise annual compound growth rates (ACGRs) of potato area, production and productivity were estimated for the period during 1999-00 to 2009-10. During this period, potato area in Hassan district expanded at 11.5% ACGR, the corresponding production and productivity figures decelerated by 2 and 12%, respectively. The study of various socio-economic factors revealed that the sampled households were deprived of even the basic household necessities such as food security (33% total and 65% landless labourer respondents), personal water connection (72% respondents) and toilets (68% respondents). Potato contract farming arrangements between potato farmers and the leading contractor, PepsiCo India were also studied. This article recommends enhanced emphasis of Indian government on irrigation development under various rural development schemes and consolidation of land holdings in order to facilitate farm mechanization and improved agricultural profitability. (author)

  7. Asociación de hábitos alimentarios y estado nutricional con el nivel socioeconómico en adultos mayores que asisten a un Programa Municipal / Association of dietary habits and nutritional status with socioeconomic status of older adults attending a Municipal Program

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fiorella, Sánchez-Ruiz; Flor, De la Cruz-Mendoza; María, Cereceda-Bujaico; Sissy, Espinoza-Bernardo.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La población de adultos mayores se viene incrementando en el país y su problemática es compleja. Es un grupo de riesgo, con problemas de salud y nutrición causados por una serie de factores, entre ellos los socioeconómicos. Objetivos: Determinar la asociación de los hábitos alimentario [...] s y estado nutricional con el nivel socioeconómico (NSE) de los adultos mayores que asisten a un Programa Municipal. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Lugar: Programa Municipal del Adulto Mayor en cuatro distritos de Lima Metropolitana. Participantes: Personas mayores de 60 años de ambos sexos. Intervenciones: Se determinó el peso y la talla (por altura de rodilla) a 115 personas mayores de 60 años que asistían constantemente al Programa Municipal. Se les aplicó una encuesta sobre hábitos alimentarios y otra para establecer el nivel socioeconómico, ambas previamente validadas. Principales medidas de resultados: Estado nutricional según índice de masa corporal, hábitos alimentarios adecuados según recomendaciones y nivel socioeconómico según categorías de la Escala de Graffar. Resultados: Se encontró una prevalencia de sobrepeso (42,6%) y obesidad (19,1%). Más de 60% presentó hábitos alimentarios inadecuados respecto al consumo de carnes (65,2%), lácteos (78,3%), menestras (87,8%), frutas y verduras (64,3%). Los adultos mayores se ubicaron principalmente en el NSE medio bajo (37%) y en el NSE medio medio (33%). El estado nutricional no tuvo una asociación estadísticamente significativa con el NSE (p=0,629), mientras que para los hábitos alimentarios, se observó asociación con el NSE respecto al consumo de carnes (p=0,003), cereales y tubérculos (p=0,038) y de frutas y verduras (p=0,001). Conclusiones: En nuestros sujetos de estudio se evidenció asociación entre los hábitos alimentarios con el NSE, pero no así para con el estado nutricional. Abstract in english Background: The population of older adults has been increasing in the country. Addressing their problems is complex. They are considered a risk group, with health and nutrition problems related to socioeconomic and other factors. Objectives: To determine the association of dietary habits and nutriti [...] onal status with socioeconomic status (SES) in older adults attending a Municipal Program. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional association study. Setting: Municipal Program for Older Adults of 4 districts in Metropolitan Lima, Peru. Participants: Adults of both sexes 60 years or over. Interventions: Weight and height were determined, and previously validated surveys on dietary habits and socioeconomic status were applied to 115 subjects who constantly attended a Municipal Program. Main outcome measures: Nutritional status according to body mass index, adequacy of eating habits according to recommendations, and socioeconomic status by Graffar's scale. Results: Overweight and obesity prevalence were respectively 42.6% and 19.1%. Over 60% had inadequate dietary habits regarding meat (65.2%), dairy (78.3%), beans (87.8%), fruits and vegetables (64.3%). Older adults were located mainly on the medium-low SES (37%) and medium-medium SES (33%). Nutritional status was not significantly associated with SES (p = 0.629). Dietary habits were significantly associated (P

  8. Obesidade e sobrepeso em adolescentes: relação com atividade física, aptidão física, maturação biológica e "status" socioeconômico Obesity and overweight in adolescents: relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, biological maturity and socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Figueiredo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relaciona atividade física (AF, aptidão física (AptF, maturação biológica e "status" socioe-conômico (ESE com as prevalências de risco ponderal de adolescentes. Foi desenvolvido no Concelho de Santo Tirso, região norte de Portugal e amostrou 961 alunos (463 meninos e 498 meninas com idades variando entre os 11 e os 18 anos. O índice de massa corporal foi utilizado para estabelecer o "status" ponderal com base nos pontos de corte propostos por COLE et al. A AF foi avaliada através do questionário de Baecke e a AptF com quatro testes da bateria Fitnessgram. O ESE foi estimado a partir do acesso aos escalões atribuídos pela Ação Social Escolar e a maturação biológica a partir do "offset" maturacional. A análise estatística foi efetuada nos "softwares" Pepi versão 4.0 e SPSS 18.0. O nível de significância foi mantido em 5%. Seis por cento dos alunos eram obesos e 19,5% tinham sobrepeso; meninos e meninas têm prevalências semelhantes de sobrepeso e obesidade. Os níveis médios de AF foram baixos a moderados independentemente do sexo ou "status" ponderal. Os meninos eram mais ativos que as meninas (p The aim of this study was to relate physical activity, physical fitness, maturation and socioeconomic status with the prevalence of ponderal risk in adolescents. This was a transversal study made in the Council of Santo Tirso in the north of Portugal. The sample consisted of 961students (463 boys and 498 girls, aged 11 to 18. Body mass index was used to establish ponderal status based on the cut points from COLE et al. Physical activity was evaluated by Baecke's questionnaire and physical fitness with four tests from Fitnessgram battery. Socioeconomic status was ranked according to the grades assigned by state school subsidies, while biological maturation estimation was based on maturational offset. Software programs Pepi version 4.0 and SPSS 18.0 were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was kept in 5%. Six percent of the target students were obese and 19.5% had overweight. The prevalences of overweight and obesity were similar between genders. The medium levels of physical activity were low or moderate, independent of gender or ponderal status. Boys were more active than girls (p < 0.001 but no significant differences were found between the students with obesity and overweight and normoponderal ones. On what concerns physical fitness, a high percentage of students (above 50% were considered inapt and failed the tests. Students suffering from overweight and obesity were clearly more inapt. Students with more advanced maturational offset as well as the youngest ones were more likely to present overweight and obesity but no meaningful relationship was found between socioeconomic position and ponderal status. We concluded that young students from S. Tirso had high prevalences of obesity and overweight, were relatively inactive and largely physically unfit.

  9. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Hsin-Jen Chen; Yinghui Liu; Youfa Wang

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-...

  10. Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (supplements above the upper level had significantly higher RBCF and plasma folate concentrations. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and B6 deficiency was very low. A quarter of the women had suboptimal folate status in the first trimester of pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies. PMID:25386981

  11. HIV Testing and Counselling in Colombia: Local Experience on Two Different Recruitment Strategies to Better Reach Low Socioeconomic Status Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Quintero, Jaime; Mueses-Marin, Hector Fabio; Montaño-Agudelo, David; Pinzón-Fernández, María Virginia; Tello-Bolívar, Inés Constanza; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz Eugenia; Martinez-Cajas, Jorge Luis

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS) has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1) and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2). Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% and 93.7%, return rate for comprehensive care = 83.3% and 92.8%, and ART initiation rate = 20% and 76.9%. Although more people were reached with BAFI-1, the community-led BAFI-2 was more effective at reaching individuals with a higher prevalence of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection. PMID:24592330

  12. Association between socioeconomic status and overweight and obesity among Inuit adults: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Zienczuk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the socio-economic correlates of overweight and obesity among Inuit undergoing rapid cultural changes. Study design. A cross-sectional health survey of 2,592 Inuit adults from 36 communities in the Canadian Arctic. Methods. Main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, respectively and as characteristics were similar, groups were combined into an at-risk BMI category (BMI>25 kg/m2. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between various sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity with overweight and obesity. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28 and 36%, respectively, with a total prevalence of overweight and obesity of 64%. In analyses of sociodemographic variables adjusted for age, gender and region, higher education, any employment, personal income, and private housing were all significantly positively correlated with an at-risk BMI (p?0.001. Smoking, Inuit language as primary language spoken at home, and walking were inversely associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusions. The current findings highlight the social disparities in overweight and obesity prevalence in an ethnically distinct population undergoing rapid cultural changes.

  13. Cancer illustrations and warning labels on cigarette packs: perceptions of teenagers from high socioeconomic status in Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsen, Noor Fatima; Iqbal, Humaira

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is linked with adverse health outcomes and multi-organ diseases with six million deaths every year. The smoking population includes both genders and the habit is seen in minors as well. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Lahore among teenagers belonging to high socioeconomic class. A sample of 191 students was recruited by convenience sampling. The teenagers were questioned on their perceptions relating to prohibition labels, factors that led them to smoke, and ideas to make health warnings more effective. Overall, 66(34.55%) teenagers were smokers, and of them, 50(75.75%) were boys and 16(24.24%) were girls. Besides, 25(37.9%) smokers were of the view that smoking is a bad habit; 40(60.6%) said prohibition labels would not change the mindset of the smoker; 35(53%)believed that a smoker is completely uninfluenced by prohibition labels. Results suggest that the warning labels on cigarette packs should be made more comprehensible and alarming for smokers. PMID:26060175

  14. The Complex Interaction between Home Environment, Socioeconomic Status, Maternal IQ and Early Child Neurocognitive Development: A Multivariate Analysis of Data Collected in a Newborn Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfani, Luca; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Mariuz, Marika; Tognin, Veronica; Bin, Maura; Ferluga, Valentina; Knowles, Alessandra; Montico, Marcella; Barbone, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Background The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES), home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months. Methods The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ) were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership. The study outcome was child neurodevelopment evaluated at 18 months, with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (BSID III). Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between the three exposures, and the scaled scores of the three main scales of BSID III (cognitive, language and motor scale), with adjustment for a wide range of potential explanatory variables. Results Data from 502 mother-child pairs were analyzed. Mediation analysis showed a relationship between SES and maternal IQ, with a complete mediation effect of home environment in affecting cognitive and language domains. A direct significant effect of maternal IQ on the BSID III motor development scale and the mediation effect of home environment were found. Conclusions Our results show that home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development. PMID:25996934

  15. Cross-sectional analysis of association between socioeconomic status and utilization of primary total hip joint replacements 2006–7: Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry

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    Brennan Sharon L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The utilization of total hip replacement (THR surgery is rapidly increasing, however few data examine whether these procedures are associated with socioeconomic status (SES within Australia. This study examined primary THR across SES for both genders for the Barwon Statistical Division (BSD of Victoria, Australia. Methods Using the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry data for 2006–7, primary THR with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA among residents of the BSD was ascertained. The Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage was used to measure SES; determined by matching residential addresses with Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. The data were categorised into quintiles; quintile 1 indicating the most disadvantaged. Age- and sex-specific rates of primary THR per 1,000 person years were reported for 10-year age bands using the total population at risk. Results Females accounted for 46.9% of the 642 primary THR performed during 2006–7. THR utilization per 1,000 person years was 1.9 for males and 1.5 for females. The highest utilization of primary THR was observed in those aged 70–79?years (males 6.1, and females 5.4 per 1,000 person years. Overall, the U-shaped pattern of THR across SES gave the appearance of bimodality for both males and females, whereby rates were greater for both the most disadvantaged and least disadvantaged groups. Conclusions Further work on a larger scale is required to determine whether relationships between SES and THR utilization for the diagnosis of OA is attributable to lifestyle factors related to SES, or alternatively reflects geographic and health system biases. Identifying contributing factors associated with SES may enhance resource planning and enable more effective and focussed preventive strategies for hip OA.

  16. Urban women's socioeconomic status, health service needs and utilization in the four weeks after postpartum hospital discharge: findings of a Canadian cross-sectional survey

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    Ciliska Donna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postpartum women who experience socioeconomic disadvantage are at higher risk for poor health outcomes than more advantaged postpartum women, and may benefit from access to community based postpartum health services. This study examined socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED postpartum women's health, and health service needs and utilization patterns in the first four weeks post hospital discharge, and compared them to more socioeconomically advantaged (SEA postpartum women's health, health service needs and utilization patterns. Methods Data collected as part of a large Ontario cross-sectional mother-infant survey were analyzed. Women (N = 1000 who had uncomplicated vaginal births of single 'at-term' infants at four hospitals in two large southern Ontario, Canada cities were stratified into SED and SEA groups based on income, social support and a universally administered hospital postpartum risk screen. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire before hospital discharge and a telephone interview four weeks after discharge. Main outcome measures were self-reported health status, symptoms of postpartum depression, postpartum service needs and health service use. Results When compared to the SEA women, the SED women were more likely to be discharged from hospital within the first 24 hours after giving birth [OR 1.49, 95% CI (1.01–2.18], less likely to report very good or excellent health [OR 0.48, 95% CI (0.35–0.67], and had higher rates of symptoms of postpartum depression [OR 2.7, 95% CI(1.64–4.4]. No differences were found between groups in relation to self reported need for and ability to access services for physical and mental health needs, or in use of physicians, walk-in clinics and emergency departments. The SED group were more likely to accept public health nurse home visits [OR 2.24, 95% CI(1.47–3.40]. Conclusion Although SED women experienced poorer mental and overall health they reported similar health service needs and utilization patterns to more SEA women. The results can assist policy makers, health service planners and providers to develop and implement necessary and accessible services. Further research is needed to evaluate SED postpartum women's health service needs and barriers to service use.

  17. Using Spatial Analysis to Predict Health Care Use at the Local Level: A Case Study of Type 2 Diabetes Medication Use and Its Association with Demographic Change and Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Aletta; Janssen, Fanny; De Bakker, Marinus; Bos, Jens; Lub, René; Van Wissen, Leo J. G.; Hak, Eelko

    2013-01-01

    Local health status and health care use may be negatively influenced by low local socio-economic profile, population decline and population ageing. To support the need for targeted local health care, we explored spatial patterns of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug use at local level and determined its association with local demographic, socio-economic and access to care variables. We assessed spatial variability in these associations. We estimated the five-year prevalence of T2DM drug use...

  18. Childhood socioeconomic status modifies the association between intellectual abilities at age 20 and mortality in later life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räikkönen, K; Henriksson, M; Forsén, T; Heinonen, K; Pesonen, A K; Leskinen, J T; Laaksonen, I; Paile-Hyvärinen, M; Osmond, C; Barker, D J P; Eriksson, J G

    2009-01-01

    Background People who score poorly in intellectual ability tests have shorter life expectancy. A study was undertaken to determine whether this association is different in people from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods The mortality of 2786 men born in Helsinki, Finland during 1934–1944 who, as military conscripts, underwent a standardised intellectual ability test comprising verbal, visuospatial and arithmetic reasoning subtests was studied. Mortality data came from the Finnish Death Register. Results Comparing men in the lowest and highest test score quartiles, HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.9 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) for verbal reasoning, 2.2 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.0) for visuospatial reasoning and 1.9 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) for arithmetic reasoning, corresponding to 2.6, 3.4 and 2.6 excess years of life lost, respectively. Associations were similar for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality. Intellectual ability scores were stronger predictors in men who grew up in middle-class families. Compared with middle-class men in the highest quartile of the visuospatial reasoning score, middle-class men in the lowest quartile lost 6.5?years of life while men from families of manual workers in the highest quartile lost 2.8?years and men in the lowest quartile lost 5.6?years. Conclusions High intellectual ability in men aged 20 protects them from mortality in later life. This effect is stronger in men who grew up in middle-class families than in those who grew up in manual worker families. This finding suggests that early life conditions that are unfavourable to the development of cognitive abilities negate the life expectancy benefits of being born into a more affluent family. PMID:19822561

  19. Analysis of medical expenditure and socio-economic status in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China: a retrospective study

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    Le Qihua

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little has been known regarding the relationship between ocular chemical injury and victims’ medical expenditure, income loss and socio-economic status changes. So we conduct this retrospective cross-sectional study in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China. Methods Fifty-six patients were enrolled and required to complete a self-report questionnaire consisting of the following contents: entire expenditure on medical treatment; the victims’ personal and household per capita income, and income loss caused by the injury; and the changes of socioeconomic status as well. Results The median expense of medical treatment was CNY 40,000 (approximately US$5,900. The medical expenditure rose significantly with increased injury severity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased frequency of surgery. More than half victims (51.8?%, 29/56 paid all or the majority of medical expense by themselves. The expense of only 5 victims was mainly paid by medical insurance, accounting for less than ten percent (8.9?%, 5/56. The victims’ personal and household per capita income both decreased significantly after the injury, with the median reduction being CNY 24,000 and CNY 7,800 (approximately US$3600 and US$1200 per year respectively. The reduction amplitude of personal and household per capita income rose with increased injury severity and prolonged time of care required. The injury caused emotional depression or anxiety in 76.8?% (43/56 victims, and the relationship with their relatives got worse in 51.9?% (29/56 patients. Moreover, only 21.4?% (12/56 patients felt that the whole society gave them care and concern after the injury, whereas 46.4?% (26/56 and 28.6?% (16/56 felt indifference or discrimination from society as a whole (X2?=?16.916, P?=?0.028. Conclusions The medical expense was a huge economic burden to most victims of ocular chemical burns, and personal and household per capita income of the victims decreased significantly after injury, both of which had a close relationship with the injury severity. Formal legislation was urgently needed to compel the employer to purchase injury or medical insurance and provide more compulsory protection to the population working in high risk occupations. In addition, psychological counseling and instruction shouldn’t be neglected in the aid and treatment of victims.

  20. Socioeconomic status and misperception of body mass index among Mexican adults / Nivel socioeconómico y percepción del índice de masa corporal en adultos en México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Arantxa Colchero; Yanink, Caro-Vega; Martha, Kaufer-Horwitz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la asociación entre la percepción del índice de masa corporal (IMC) y las variables socioeconómicas en adultos de México. Material y métodos. Se estudiaron 32052 adultos que participaron en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006. Se estimó la percepción incorrecta del IMC c [...] lasificando la percepción del entrevistado sobre su peso en categorías de IMC y comparándola con la que le correspondía de acuerdo con la medición real de su peso y estatura. El nivel socioeconómico se evaluó mediante los activos en los hogares. Se estimaron modelos de regresión logística y multinomial por género y categoría de IMC. Resultados. Las mujeres y hombres adultos subestiman su categoría de IMC. La probabilidad de tener una percepción correcta es menor que la probabilidad de obtener un resultado correcto sólo por azar. Los individuos con mayor nivel de escolaridad y socioeconómico tienen mayor probabilidad de percibir correctamente su IMC, particularmente en personas con sobrepeso. Conclusiones. Dado que una correcta percepción del peso se ha asociado con mayor búsqueda de su control y que nuestros resultados muestran que la población estudiada subestima su IMC, las intervenciones que provean información sobre definiciones y consecuencias del sobrepeso y la obesidad y que promuevan el monitoreo del peso corporal pueden ser benéficas. Abstract in english Objective. To estimate the association between perceived body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic variables in adults in Mexico. Materials and methods. We studied 32052 adults from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006. We estimated BMI misperception by comparing the respondent's w [...] eight perception (as categories of BMI) with the corresponding category according to measured weight and height. Misperception was defined as respondent's perception of a BMI category different from their actual category. Socioeconomic status was assessed using household assets. Logistic and multinomial regression models by gender and BMI category were estimated. Results. Adult women and men highly underestimate their BMI category. We found that the probability of a correct classification was lower than the probability of getting a correct result by chance alone. Better educated and more affluent individuals are more likely to have a correct perception of their weight status, particularly among overweight adults. Conclusions. Given that a correct perception of weight has been associated with an increased search of weight control and that our results show that the studied population underestimated their BMI, interventions providing definitions and consequences of overweight and obesity and encouraging the population to monitor their weight could be beneficial.