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Socioeconomic status and health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The analysis focuses on the connection between socioeconomic status (SES) and five health outcomes in the 18- to 79-year-old population of Germany. It uses data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) which the Robert Koch Institute conducted in the period from 2008–2011 (n=8,152). Socioeconomic status is recorded via a multidimensional index which includes information on education attainment, occupational status and household income. The results show that...

Kroll, Lars Eric; Von Lippe, Elena; Mu?ters, Stephan; Stolzenberg, Heribert

2013-01-01

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Socioeconomic status and insomnia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation compared the likelihood of insomnia and insomnia-related health consequences among individuals of different socioeconomic status. A random-digit dialing procedure was used to recruit at least 50 men and 50 women in each age decade from 20 to 80+ years old. Participants completed 2 weeks of sleep diaries as well as questionnaires related to fatigue, sleepiness, and psychological distress. Socioeconomic status was measured by education status assessed at 3 different levels: individual, household, and community. Results indicated that individuals of lower individual and household education were significantly more likely to experience insomnia even after researchers accounted for ethnicity, gender, and age. Additionally, individuals with fewer years of education, particularly those who had dropped out of high school, experienced greater subjective impairment because of their insomnia. PMID:15709817

Gellis, Les A; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Scarinci, Isabel C; Durrence, H Heith; Taylor, Daniel J; Bush, Andrew J; Riedel, Brant W

2005-02-01

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Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Leukemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionConnection of socioeconomic status measures (such as income and education and parental addiction to childhood leukemia are likely to vary with place and time. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between socioeconomic status and childhood leukemia.Materials and Methodsa case- control study conducted on 86 case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia age 0-14 years in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd and matched on age and sex to 188 healthy controls. Data was collected by interview using a questionnaire.Data analyzed by chi-square test. Odds ratio (Ors and 95% confidence intervals were used to measure the risk of childhood A.L.L associated with parental smoking, alcohol drinking & addiction.ResultsThere was a significant difference in parental education level (P-value=0, P-value=0.001, income status (P-value =0.001, father's job (0.002 between two groups. The risk of childhood A.L.L was associated with paternal smoking (P-value =0.001, OR=2.6, CI 95%, 1.5-4.5, alcohol drinking (P-value=0.003, OR=3.33, CI 95%, 2.7-3.9, addiction (P-value =0, OR=42.7, CI95%, 5.56-328.34.ConclusionThe results suggest that socioeconomic factors and paternal smoking and alcohol drinking are related to risk of childhood leukemia. It should be considered for planning support.

Dehghani Kh

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Socioeconomic Status and Structural Brain Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made accessible new ways of disentangling the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that influence structural brain development. In recent years, research investigating associations between socioeconomic status (SES and brain development have found significant links between SES and changes in brain structure, especially in areas related to memory, executive control and emotion. This review focuses on studies examining links between structural brain development and SES disparities of the magnitude typically found in developing countries. We highlight how highly correlated measures of SES are differentially related to structural changes within the brain.

NatalieHBrito

2014-09-01

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Socioeconomic status and structural brain development  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made accessible new ways of disentangling the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that influence structural brain development. In recent years, research investigating associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain development have found significant links between SES and changes in brain structure, especially in areas related to memory, executive control, and emotion. This review focuses on studies examining links between structural brain development and SES disparities of the magnitude typically found in developing countries. We highlight how highly correlated measures of SES are differentially related to structural changes within the brain.

Brito, Natalie H.; Noble, Kimberly G.

2014-01-01

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EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES is a combined measure of an individual's or family’s economic and social position relative to others, based on income, education, and occupation. When analyzing a family’s SES, the mother's and father’s education and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, versus with an individual, when their own attributes are assessed (GOP,2008. The article is based on a study, which is an attempt to explore the various factors that have an impact on achievement, depending upon different socioeconomic status in the society and how does it effect the academic achievement of students. The study also examines the literature that reveals that the socioeconomic status of the parents can significantly contribute in the achievement of good grades at colleges. The paper illustrates the impact of income, occupation on educational attainment of students. The paper delineates the effect of many socioeconomic indicators on individual student achievement.

Dr.Saifullah Saifi

2011-04-01

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Socioeconomic Status, Family Processes, and Individual Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Research during the past decade shows that social class or socioeconomic status (SES) is related to satisfaction and stability in romantic unions, the quality of parent-child relationships, and a range of developmental outcomes for adults and children. This review focuses on evidence regarding potential mechanisms proposed to account for these…

Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine J.; Martin, Monica J.

2010-01-01

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Associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade Socioeconomic status and obesity  

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Full Text Available Os estudos nacionais indicam comportamento epidêmico da obesidade, e ênfase tem sido dada sobre os determinantes sociais do excesso de peso. O status socioeconômico tem sido avaliado por ocupação, educação e renda. Vários fatores relacionados à obesidade, como atividade física, consumo alimentar e hábitos familiares sofrem também influência do status socioeconômico. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre a associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade e também foram apresentados dados de uma pesquisa de base populacional sobre obesidade em mulheres do município do Rio de Janeiro. A ocorrência da obesidade entre os diferentes níveis de status socioeconômico é influenciada pelo sexo e idade, e são discutidos fatores ambientais que determinam a possibilidade de acesso aos alimentos saudáveis e a oportunidade de prática de atividade física. Por fim, é discutido como os hábitos familiares influenciam nas escolhas dos alimentos e como o status socioeconômico pode modificar esse efeito, bem como a disponibilidade de alimentos e o preço destes, levando a um maior consumo de alimentos de alta densidade energética, fator de risco dietético para obesidade.An epidemic of obesity has been revealed by Brazilian nationwide surveys, and emphasis is being given to socioeconomic status as one of the main determinants of weight gain. Other factors also associated to obesity are influenced by socioeconomic status, such as physical activity, food consumption, and family habits. Socioeconomic status has been evaluated based on occupation, education, and income. A review of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity has been conducted, and data from a population-based survey regarding obesity among women in the city of Rio de Janeiro were also included. The occurrence of obesity among different levels of socioeconomic status as influenced by sex and age, and environmental factors that determine the possibility of access to healthy foods and to opportunities of practicing physical activity are also discussed. Finally, we discussed how family habits influence the choices of food, and how socioeconomic status can modify this effect, along with availability of foods and their prices, leading to a greater consumption of foods with high density of energy, a dietary risk factor for obesity.

Ana CarolinaReiff e Vieira

2008-09-01

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Associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade / Socioeconomic status and obesity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os estudos nacionais indicam comportamento epidêmico da obesidade, e ênfase tem sido dada sobre os determinantes sociais do excesso de peso. O status socioeconômico tem sido avaliado por ocupação, educação e renda. Vários fatores relacionados à obesidade, como atividade física, consumo alimentar e h [...] ábitos familiares sofrem também influência do status socioeconômico. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre a associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade e também foram apresentados dados de uma pesquisa de base populacional sobre obesidade em mulheres do município do Rio de Janeiro. A ocorrência da obesidade entre os diferentes níveis de status socioeconômico é influenciada pelo sexo e idade, e são discutidos fatores ambientais que determinam a possibilidade de acesso aos alimentos saudáveis e a oportunidade de prática de atividade física. Por fim, é discutido como os hábitos familiares influenciam nas escolhas dos alimentos e como o status socioeconômico pode modificar esse efeito, bem como a disponibilidade de alimentos e o preço destes, levando a um maior consumo de alimentos de alta densidade energética, fator de risco dietético para obesidade. Abstract in english An epidemic of obesity has been revealed by Brazilian nationwide surveys, and emphasis is being given to socioeconomic status as one of the main determinants of weight gain. Other factors also associated to obesity are influenced by socioeconomic status, such as physical activity, food consumption, [...] and family habits. Socioeconomic status has been evaluated based on occupation, education, and income. A review of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity has been conducted, and data from a population-based survey regarding obesity among women in the city of Rio de Janeiro were also included. The occurrence of obesity among different levels of socioeconomic status as influenced by sex and age, and environmental factors that determine the possibility of access to healthy foods and to opportunities of practicing physical activity are also discussed. Finally, we discussed how family habits influence the choices of food, and how socioeconomic status can modify this effect, along with availability of foods and their prices, leading to a greater consumption of foods with high density of energy, a dietary risk factor for obesity.

Ana CarolinaReiff e, Vieira; Rosely, Sichieri.

2008-09-01

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Associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade / Socioeconomic status and obesity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os estudos nacionais indicam comportamento epidêmico da obesidade, e ênfase tem sido dada sobre os determinantes sociais do excesso de peso. O status socioeconômico tem sido avaliado por ocupação, educação e renda. Vários fatores relacionados à obesidade, como atividade física, consumo alimentar e h [...] ábitos familiares sofrem também influência do status socioeconômico. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre a associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade e também foram apresentados dados de uma pesquisa de base populacional sobre obesidade em mulheres do município do Rio de Janeiro. A ocorrência da obesidade entre os diferentes níveis de status socioeconômico é influenciada pelo sexo e idade, e são discutidos fatores ambientais que determinam a possibilidade de acesso aos alimentos saudáveis e a oportunidade de prática de atividade física. Por fim, é discutido como os hábitos familiares influenciam nas escolhas dos alimentos e como o status socioeconômico pode modificar esse efeito, bem como a disponibilidade de alimentos e o preço destes, levando a um maior consumo de alimentos de alta densidade energética, fator de risco dietético para obesidade. Abstract in english An epidemic of obesity has been revealed by Brazilian nationwide surveys, and emphasis is being given to socioeconomic status as one of the main determinants of weight gain. Other factors also associated to obesity are influenced by socioeconomic status, such as physical activity, food consumption, [...] and family habits. Socioeconomic status has been evaluated based on occupation, education, and income. A review of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity has been conducted, and data from a population-based survey regarding obesity among women in the city of Rio de Janeiro were also included. The occurrence of obesity among different levels of socioeconomic status as influenced by sex and age, and environmental factors that determine the possibility of access to healthy foods and to opportunities of practicing physical activity are also discussed. Finally, we discussed how family habits influence the choices of food, and how socioeconomic status can modify this effect, along with availability of foods and their prices, leading to a greater consumption of foods with high density of energy, a dietary risk factor for obesity.

Ana CarolinaReiff e, Vieira; Rosely, Sichieri.

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Socioeconomic status and health: The role of subjective social status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies have suggested that subjective social status (SSS) is an important predictor of health. This study examined the link between SSS and health in old age and investigated whether SSS mediated the associations between objective indicators of socioeconomic status and health. It used cross-sectional data from the second wave (2004-2005) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which were collected through personal interviews and nurse visits. The study population consisted of 3368 men a...

2008-01-01

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Prasad's socio-economic status classification- An update for 2014  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Almost all community- based studies focus on socio-economic stratification, which is the key parameter for proper understanding the affordability of the community of health services, amenities and their purchasing capacity. Prasad’s socioeconomic status scale measures socioeconomic status of both rural and urban community based on per capita monthly income of the family.

Shankar Reddy Dudala

2014-07-01

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EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Socioeconomic status (SES) is a combined measure of an individual's or family’s economic and social position relative to others, based on income, education, and occupation. When analyzing a family’s SES, the mother's and father’s education and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, versus with an individual, when their own attributes are assessed (GOP,2008). The article is based on a study, which is an attempt to explore the various factors that have an impact on achievem...

Dr. Saifullah Saifi; Tariq Mehmood

2011-01-01

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Socioeconomic Status and Coronary Heart Disease  

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Full Text Available Background: Iran has undergone a remarkable demographic transition over the last threedecades. Socioeconomic status (SES indicators including education, income, and occupationare associated with coronary heart disease (CHD risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Theaim of the present study was to describe demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, theirassociation to the diseases, and to explore the predictive risk of CHD in Tabriz, the fourthlargest city in Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to explore and analyze thecurrent SES status of CHD patients. The study was conducted in Tabriz and all patients(n=189 refereed to the Central Referral Hospital for cardiac patients (Shahid Madani Hospitalfrom 2009 to 2010 were considered. A researcher structured questionnaire with 15 questionswas used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the basic SES featuresof the CHD patients and data analysis was done using SPSS ver. 16.Results: Less educated participants were more susceptible to CHD. Regarding to occupationalstatus, housewives and retired men were in higher risk of CHD than the rest of the people.Studied patients also reported to be mostly from urban areas that were living in apartmentcomplexes.Conclusion: In line with some international research evidence the study results suggested thatpeople from lower/middle social classes were in greater CHD risk than higher social classes.This epidemic might be halted through the promotion of healthier lifestyles and the support ofenvironmental and policy changes.

Leila Abdollahi

2011-12-01

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Socioeconomic Status and Coronary Heart Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Iran has undergone a remarkable demographic transition over the last three decades. Socioeconomic status (SES) indicators including education, income, and occupation are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to describe demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, their association to the diseases, and to explore the predictive risk of CHD in Tabriz, the fourth largest city in Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to explore and analyze the current SES status of CHD patients. The study was conducted in Tabriz and all patients (n=189) refereed to the Central Referral Hospital for cardiac patients (Shahid Madani Hospi­tal) from 2009 to 2010 were considered. A researcher structured questionnaire with 15 ques­tions was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the basic SES fea­tures of the CHD patients and data analysis was done using SPSS ver. 16. Results: Less educated participants were more susceptible to CHD. Regarding to occupa­tional status, housewives and retired men were in higher risk of CHD than the rest of the peo­ple.  Studied patients also reported to be mostly from urban areas that were living in apart­ment complexes. Conclusion: In line with some international research evidence the study results suggested that people from lower/middle social classes were in greater CHD risk than higher social classes.  This epidemic might be halted through the promotion of healthier lifestyles and the support of environmental and policy changes. PMID:24688906

Janati, Ali; Matlabi, Hossein; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Gholizadeh, Masumeh; Abdollahi, Leila

2011-01-01

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Socioeconomic status and smoking: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smoking prevalence is higher among disadvantaged groups, and disadvantaged smokers may face higher exposure to tobacco's harms. Uptake may also be higher among those with low socioeconomic status (SES), and quit attempts are less likely to be successful. Studies have suggested that this may be the result of reduced social support for quitting, low motivation to quit, stronger addiction to tobacco, increased likelihood of not completing courses of pharmacotherapy or behavioral support sessions, psychological differences such as lack of self-efficacy, and tobacco industry marketing. Evidence of interventions that work among lower socioeconomic groups is sparse. Raising the price of tobacco products appears to be the tobacco control intervention with the most potential to reduce health inequalities from tobacco. Targeted cessation programs and mass media interventions can also contribute to reducing inequalities. To tackle the high prevalence of smoking among disadvantaged groups, a combination of tobacco control measures is required, and these should be delivered in conjunction with wider attempts to address inequalities in health. PMID:22092035

Hiscock, Rosemary; Bauld, Linda; Amos, Amanda; Fidler, Jennifer A; Munafò, Marcus

2012-02-01

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Socioeconomic Status and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

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Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES measured by educational and income levels has long been known to be associated with mortality from some diseases. Many studies from developed countries suggested that SES is associated with lung function and COPD exacerbation, prevalence and mortality. Socioeconomic disadvantage is an independent risk factor for COPD. The impact of low SES on respiratory disease in general has been attributed to poorer housing, more hazardous occupational exposure, poorer diet, a higher prevalence of smoking and respiratory infections in childhood. It was found that there was a significant negative correlation between lung function and SES. Childhood SES may influence pulmonary function in adulthood. Pulmonary functions decline earlier and faster for individual with lower childhood SES. It was reported that hospital admission rates for COPD in low SES group were higher than in the high SES group. There was not adequate data about relationship between SES and COPD in our country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 87-96

Zafer Kartaloglu

2013-02-01

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Danube - the Common Way between Great Socio-Economic Disparities  

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Full Text Available The paper deals with the idea that a common river-Danube- can cover a lot of disparities connected to socio-economic, cultural, historical and religious approaches. As a result, the analysis in the paper is focused on economic disparities in all Danube countries, even that they are members or not of the EU27. The analysis is based on the latest official statistical data and is followed by a forecast for 2013-2014 in order to observe if the disparities will decrease or not. The main conclusion of the paper is that Danube can be a way and an instrument to solve regional disparities. The same Danube River can support a better socio-economic integration of the Danube countries, as well.

Romeo Ionescu

2013-08-01

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Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure.

Boryczka, M.K.

1983-01-01

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Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure

 
 
 
 
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Microbial 'old friends', immunoregulation and socioeconomic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

The immune system evolved to require input from at least three sources that we collectively term the 'old friends': (i) the commensal microbiotas transmitted by mothers and other family members; (ii) organisms from the natural environment that modulate and diversify the commensal microbiotas; and (iii) the 'old' infections that could persist in small isolated hunter-gatherer groups as relatively harmless subclinical infections or carrier states. These categories of organism had to be tolerated and co-evolved roles in the development and regulation of the immune system. By contrast, the 'crowd infections' (such as childhood virus infections) evolved later, when urbanization led to large communities. They did not evolve immunoregulatory roles because they either killed the host or induced solid immunity, and could not persist in hunter-gatherer groups. Because the western lifestyle and medical practice deplete the 'old' infections (for example helminths), immunoregulatory disorders have increased, and the immune system has become more dependent upon microbiotas and the natural environment. However, urbanization maintains exposure to the crowd infections that lack immunoregulatory roles, while accelerating loss of exposure to the natural environment. This effect is most pronounced in individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) who lack rural second homes and rural holidays. Interestingly, large epidemiological studies indicate that the health benefits of living close to green spaces are most pronounced for individuals of low SES. Here we discuss the immunoregulatory role of the natural environment, and how this may interact with, and modulate, the proinflammatory effects of psychosocial stressors in low SES individuals. PMID:24401109

Rook, G A W; Raison, C L; Lowry, C A

2014-07-01

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The Measurement of Socio-Economic Status: A Technical Note.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the socioeconomic status (SES) concept was conducted to determine whether an already established index could be used in Toronto's Study of Achievement of children from kindergarten through the elementary grades. The examination of the SES concept and the results of analyses concerning the applicability of the Blishen Socio-Economic

Eason, Gary; Crawford, Patricia

23

Neural Correlates of Socioeconomic Status in the Developing Human Brain  

Science.gov (United States)

Socioeconomic disparities in childhood are associated with remarkable differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development during a time when dramatic changes are occurring in the brain. Yet, the neurobiological pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) shapes development remain poorly understood. Behavioral evidence suggests that…

Noble, Kimberly G.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Kan, Eric; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

2012-01-01

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Socioeconomic Status and Injury in a Cohort of Saskatchewan Farmers  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To estimate the strength of relationships between socioeconomic status and injury in a large Canadian farm population. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 4,769 people from 2,043 farms in Saskatchewan, Canada. Participants reported socioeconomic exposures in 2007 and were followed for the occurrence of injury through 2009…

Pickett, William; Day, Andrew G.; Hagel, Louise; Sun, Xiaoqun; Day, Lesley; Marlenga, Barbara; Brison, Robert J.; Pahwa, Punam; Crowe, Trever; Voaklander, Donald C.; Dosman, James

2011-01-01

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Molecular genetic contributions to socioeconomic status and intelligence  

Science.gov (United States)

Education, socioeconomic status, and intelligence are commonly used as predictors of health outcomes, social environment, and mortality. Education and socioeconomic status are typically viewed as environmental variables although both correlate with intelligence, which has a substantial genetic basis. Using data from 6815 unrelated subjects from the Generation Scotland study, we examined the genetic contributions to these variables and their genetic correlations. Subjects underwent genome-wide testing for common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). DNA-derived heritability estimates and genetic correlations were calculated using the ‘Genome-wide Complex Trait Analyses’ (GCTA) procedures. 21% of the variation in education, 18% of the variation in socioeconomic status, and 29% of the variation in general cognitive ability was explained by variation in common SNPs (SEs ~ 5%). The SNP-based genetic correlations of education and socioeconomic status with general intelligence were 0.95 (SE 0.13) and 0.26 (0.16), respectively. There are genetic contributions to intelligence and education with near-complete overlap between common additive SNP effects on these traits (genetic correlation ~ 1). Genetic influences on socioeconomic status are also associated with the genetic foundations of intelligence. The results are also compatible with substantial environmental contributions to socioeconomic status. PMID:24944428

Marioni, Riccardo E.; Davies, Gail; Hayward, Caroline; Liewald, Dave; Kerr, Shona M.; Campbell, Archie; Luciano, Michelle; Smith, Blair H.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hocking, Lynne J.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Wright, Alan F.; Porteous, David J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Deary, Ian J.

2014-01-01

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AGGRESSION AND ITS RELATION TO SEX, SELF CONCEPT AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most difficult and challenging area in the sphere of aggression among individuals is that of aggression among adolescents. The research was designed as an initial attempt to assess aggression of adolescent and its relation to sex, self concept and socioeconomic status. A sample of Adolescents ranged between 15-17 years was taken randomly from Jammu district of J&K state. . All subjects completed Aggression inventory. Socio economic scale was used to assess the socioeconomic status of the subjects. Self concept scale was used to assess the self concept of adolescents. Three way ANOVA was employed to assess the correlation between aggression, self concept and socioeconomic status. Results provide evidence that aggression has a positive correlation with Sex, self concept and socioeconomic status. Boys show high aggressive behavior in comparison to their female counter parts. Further findings indicate that low socioeconomic students are significantly more aggressive than high socioeconomic status adolescents. Finally results show that low self concept adolescents are highly aggressive in comparison to high self concept adolescents.

MOHAN GALGOTRA

2013-03-01

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SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND MICROSOCIAL STRUCTURE WITHIN FEMALE HANDBALL TEAM  

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Full Text Available In a sample of 18 players, members of the senior major league handball team, the correlation between the micro structure of handball in relation to their socioeconomic status, using the sociometric procedure, was analyzed. The research results lead to the acceptance of the hypothesis that the players of the same socioeconomic status, have better mutual emotional acceptance. The hypothesis of a better mutual functional accepting players of the same socioeconomic status, may be only partially accepted, in a field of the trend of cooperation in the game, but not in relation to the selection of players with the authority of leaders or handball knowledge. Hypothesis about the hierarchical microsocial structure of groups can be fully accepted. Players are in relation to sociometric status differentiated into four levels of hierarchy, while at the top of this hierarchy, team captain. Selection of team captain by players directed by a player (“leader”, according to the functional and emotional criteria.

Dodi Mihaljevi?

2011-12-01

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Socioeconomic Status and Other Characteristics in Childhood Leukemia  

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Full Text Available AbstractBackground Leukemia is the most prevalent childhood cancer, and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL constitutes 75% of all cases. Some epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and some childhood cancers. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess socioeconomical status in a case-control study.Materials and MethodsIn 2010, a case-control study was conducted on 100 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged 1 to14 years in Department of Pediatric Oncology of Dr.Sheikh Hospital in Mashhad – Iran and matched age and sex with 400 healthy controls. Data was collected by interview using a questionnaire. Ninety five percent confidence intervals were used to measure the relationship between childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and parental education, income status, father's job (Socioeconomic status, number of children, birth score and paternal smoking. ResultsThere was a significant difference in parental education level, income status, and number of children, birth score, father's job and paternal smoking between two groups. Regression analysis showed that the risk of childhood ALL associated with paternal smoking, and father's high risk job. Fifty percent cases and thirty five percent of control groups located in upper lower and lower middle class of socioeconomic status, respectively. There is a meaningful different between socioeconomic status in two groups. But the risk of childhood ALL did not associate with socioeconomic status.ConclusionThe results suggest that paternal smoking and father’s high risk job are related to risk of childhood leukemia. It should be considered for planning support.

Noori R MSc

2013-03-01

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TIME PERSPECTIVE AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS: A LINK TO SOCIOECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN HEALTH?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Time perspective is a measure of the degree to which one’s thinking is motivated by considerations of the future, present, or past. Time perspective has been proposed as a potential mediator of socioeconomic disparities in health because it has been associated with health behaviors and is presumed to vary with socioeconomic status. In this cross-sectional community-based survey of respondents recruited from hair salons and barber shops in a suburb of Washington DC, we examined the associati...

Ward, M. M.; Guthrie, Lori C.; Butler, Stephen C.

2009-01-01

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The Association between Socioeconomic Status and Obesity in Peruvian Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Historically in developing countries, the prevalence of obesity has been greater in more advantaged socioeconomic groups. However, in recent years the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has changed and varies depending on the country’s development stage. This study examines the relationship between SES and obesity using two indicators of SES: education or possession assets. Using the cross-sectional 2008 National Demographic and Family Health Survey of Peru (ENDES 20...

Poterico, J. A.; Stanojevic, S.; Ruiz, P.; Bernabe-ortiz, A.; Miranda, J. J.

2012-01-01

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Socioeconomic Status, a Forgotten Variable in Lateralization Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Socioeconomic status (SES), a variable combining income, education, and occupation, is correlated with a variety of social health outcomes including school dropout rates, early parenthood, delinquency, and mental illness. Several studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s largely failed to report a relationship between SES and hemispheric asymmetry…

Boles, David B.

2011-01-01

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Parenting, Race, and Socioeconomic Status: Links to School Readiness  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and school readiness, testing whether parenting (maternal sensitivity and negative behavior/intrusiveness) and financial stress mediated this association and if race moderated these paths. Participants included 164 mother-child dyads from African American and European American…

Dotterer, Aryn M.; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Pungello, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

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The Association of Autism Diagnosis with Socioeconomic Status  

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Background: In 2007 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported a higher prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in New Jersey, one of the wealthiest states in the United States, than in other surveillance regions. Objective: To examine the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with ASD prevalence. Methods: Information…

Thomas, Pauline; Zahorodny, Walter; Peng, Bo; Kim, Soyeon; Jani, Nisha; Halperin, William; Brimacombe, Michael

2012-01-01

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Measurement Invariance of Socioeconomic Status across Migrational Background  

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Socioeconomic status (SES) is often used as control variable when relations between academic outcomes and students' migrational background are investigated. When measuring SES, indicators used must have the same meaning across groups. This study aims to examine the measurement invariance of SES, using data from TIMSS, 2003. The study shows…

Hansson, Ase; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

2013-01-01

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Socioeconomic Status and Child Development: A Meta-Analysis  

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Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is widely accepted to have deleterious effects on the well-being and development of children and adolescents. However, rigorous meta-analytic methods have not been applied to determine the degree to which SES supports or limits children's and adolescents behavioural, cognitive and language development. While…

Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Duffett-Leger, Linda; Levac, Leah; Watson, Barry; Young-Morris, Catherine

2013-01-01

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The Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Adolescent Pregnancy.  

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Reports on a study to determine how socioeconomic status influences adolescent premarital pregnancy. Finds that African Americans' risk of pregnancy is heightened by both contraceptive behavior and exposure to sexual intercourse. Also finds that the mother's educational level is a powerful inhibitor of pregnancy for both African Americans and…

Hayward, Mark D.; And Others

1992-01-01

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Time perspective and socioeconomic status: a link to socioeconomic disparities in health?  

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Time perspective is a measure of the degree to which one's thinking is motivated by considerations of the future, present, or past. Time perspective has been proposed as a potential mediator of socioeconomic disparities in health because it has been associated with health behaviors and is presumed to vary with socioeconomic status. In this cross-sectional community-based survey of respondents recruited from hair salons and barber shops in a suburb of Washington DC, we examined the association between time perspective and both education level and occupation. We asked participants (N=525) to complete a questionnaire that included three subscales (future, present-fatalistic, and present-hedonistic) of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Participants with more formal education and those with professional occupations had higher scores on the future time perspective subscale, and lower scores on the present-fatalistic subscale, than participants with less formal education or a non-professional occupation. Present-fatalistic scores were also higher among participants whose parents had less formal education. Present-hedonistic scores were not associated with either education level or professional occupation. Time perspective scores were not independently associated with the likelihood of obesity, smoking, or exercise. In this community sample, future time perspective was associated with current socioeconomic status, and past-fatalistic time perspective was associated with both current and childhood socioeconomic status. PMID:19394738

Guthrie, Lori C; Butler, Stephen C; Ward, Michael M

2009-06-01

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Adolescent expectations of early death predict young adult socioeconomic status.  

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Among adolescents, expectations of early death have been linked to future risk behaviors. These expectations may also reduce personal investment in education and training, thereby lowering adult socioeconomic status attainment. The importance of socioeconomic status is highlighted by pervasive health inequities and dramatic differences in life expectancy among education and income groups. The objectives of this study were to investigate patterns of change in perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations; PSE), predictors of PSE, and associations between PSE and future socioeconomic status attainment. We utilized the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) initiated in 1994-1995 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II), 2001-2002 (Wave III) and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32). At Wave I, 14% reported ?50% chance of living to age 35 and older adolescents reported lower PSE than younger adolescents. At Wave III, PSE were similar across age. Changes in PSE from Wave I to III were moderate, with 89% of respondents reporting no change (56%), one level higher (22%) or one level lower (10%) in a 5-level PSE variable. Higher block group poverty rate, perceptions that the neighborhood is unsafe, and less time in the U.S. (among the foreign-born) were related to low PSE at Waves I and III. Low PSE at Waves I and III predicted lower education attainment and personal earnings at Wave IV in multinomial logistic regression models controlling for confounding factors such as previous family socioeconomic status, individual demographic characteristics, and depressive symptoms. Anticipation of an early death is prevalent among adolescents and predictive of lower future socioeconomic status. Low PSE reported early in life may be a marker for worse health trajectories. PMID:22405687

Nguyen, Quynh C; Hussey, Jon M; Halpern, Carolyn T; Villaveces, Andres; Marshall, Stephen W; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Poole, Charles

2012-05-01

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Socioeconomic status and patterns of care in lung cancer  

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This retrospective study aims to explore any associations between socioeconomic factors and lung cancer management and outcome in the Australian setting. The study population consisted of patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer in 1996 who were living in the Northern Sydney Area Health Service (NSAHS) or South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS). These two Area Health Services differ in socioeconomic profiles based on socioeconomic indexes for areas (SEIFA), median income, education level and unemployment rate. Data on patient demographics, tumour characteristics, management details, recurrence and survival were collected, and the patterns of care were analysed. Socioeconomic status indicators of the two Area Health Services were imputed from the Australian Bureau of Statistics data. There were 270 and 256 new cases of lung cancer identified in NSAHS and SWSAHS respectively. Patients in NSAHS were slightly older (median age 73 versus 68 years) and there was less male predominance. The stage distributions and performance status of the two cohorts were similar. There were no significant differences in the utilisation rates of different treatment modalities between the two areas: radiotherapy (54% in NSAHS and 55% in SWSAHS), chemotherapy (34% and 25%), surgery (26% and 21%) and no treatment (22% and 25%). The 5-year overall survival was slightly in favour of NSAHS (10.5% and 7.4%), but did not reach statistical significance. Despite differences in socioeconomicance. Despite differences in socioeconomic profiles between the two area health services, patients with lung cancer had similar patterns of care and survival

40

Cutting Class: Socioeconomic Status and Education. Culture and Education Series  

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In these vivid, thought-provoking essays, leading scholars draw from their own life experiences to explore the ways in which socio-economic class has shaped their lives and educational practices. Some experienced the sting of poverty as students, while others tell stories of a privileged upbringing and moments of epiphany when they recognized the…

Kincheloe, Joe L., Ed.; Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Socioeconomic status and weight control practices in British adults  

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STUDY OBJECTIVE—Attitudes and practices concerning weight control in British adults were examined to test the hypothesis that variation in concern about weight and deliberate weight control might partly explain the socioeconomic status (SES) gradient in obesity. Higher SES groups were hypothesised to show more weight concern and higher levels of dieting.?SETTING—Data were collected as part of the monthly Omnibus Survey of the Office of National Statistics in March 1999.?PARTICIPANTS?...

Wardle, J.; Griffith, J.

2001-01-01

42

Association between socioeconomic status and adiposity in urban Cameroon.  

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BACKGROUND: As the relation between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity may depend on the stage of development of a country, this relation is assessed in adults from urban Cameroon. METHODS: A sample comprising 1530 women and 1301 men aged 25 years and above, from 1897 households in the Biyem-Assi health area in the capital of Cameroon, Yaound?were interviewed about their household amenities, occupation, and education. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and subjects were...

Fezeu, Leopold; Minkoulou, Etienne; Balkau, Beverley; Kengne, Andre?-pascal; Awah, Paschal; Unwin, Nigel; Alberti, George; Mbanya, Jean-claude

2006-01-01

43

Socioeconomic status, pathogen burden and cardiovascular disease risk  

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Objective: Socioeconomic status ( SES) is inversely associated with coronary heart disease ( CHD) risk. Cumulative pathogen burden may also predict future CHD. The hypothesis was tested that lower SES is associated with a greater pathogen burden, and that pathogen burden accounts in part for SES differences in cardiovascular risk factors.Methods: This was a cross- sectional observational study involving the clinical examination of 451 men and women aged 51 - 72 without CHD, recruited from the...

Steptoe, A.; Shamaei-tousi, A.; Gylfe, A.; Henderson, B.; Bergstrom, S.; Marmot, M.

2007-01-01

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Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Emersion Adolescent Creativity  

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Full Text Available Prior research has attempted to investigate creativity as a behavior resulting from the interaction between the cognitive abilities, social environment and personal characteristics, but very little research has look at the role of environment characteristics on Emersion Adolescent Creativity. Hence, this article focuses on the effect of socioeconomic status on emerging adolescent creativity. In other words, family economic status, father’s education and mother’s education are the three dimensions of socioeconomic status. This exploratory correlational research study examines the relationship between family economic status, father’s education and mother’s education with adolescent creativity. The sampling method was employed to select the proportion of participants using stratified and multi-stage cluster random sampling. The population of the sample was 546 high school students in Education Region 4, Tehran. The participants, 249 males and 297 females, completed two questionnaires. The adolescents completed a Demographic Characteristics Questionnaire and Abedi Creativity Questionnaire, which were used as the measuring tools in this study. The results show a significant positive correlation between family economic status and creativity (p < .01, and between parent education and creativity (p < .01. Interestingly, the analyses revealed a strongly significant positive correlation between parent education and creativity (p < .01, although none was found between males and females on creativity. Conclusions were tempered by the limitations of small to moderate correlations and small effect sizes.

Zahra Parsasirat

2013-04-01

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Danube - the Common Way between Great Socio-Economic Disparities  

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The paper deals with the idea that a common river-Danube- can cover a lot of disparities connected to socio-economic, cultural, historical and religious approaches. As a result, the analysis in the paper is focused on economic disparities in all Danube countries, even that they are members or not of the EU27. The analysis is based on the latest official statistical data and is followed by a forecast for 2013-2014 in order to observe if the disparities will decrease or not. The main conclusion...

Romeo Ionescu

2013-01-01

46

Socioeconomic status and bullying: a meta-analysis.  

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We examined whether socioeconomic status (SES) could be used to identify which schools or children are at greatest risk of bullying, which can adversely affect children's health and life. We conducted a review of published literature on school bullying and SES. We identified 28 studies that reported an association between roles in school bullying (victim, bully, and bully-victim) and measures of SES. Random effects models showed SES was weakly related to bullying roles. Adjusting for publication bias, victims (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24, 1.58) and bully-victims (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.36, 1.74) were more likely to come from low socioeconomic households. Bullies (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97, 0.99) and victims (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.94, 0.97) were slightly less likely to come from high socioeconomic backgrounds. SES provides little guidance for targeted intervention, and all schools and children, not just those with more socioeconomic deprivation, should be targeted to reduce the adverse effects of bullying. PMID:24825231

Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

2014-06-01

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Asthma and child behavioral skills: does family socioeconomic status matter?  

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Asthma is associated with poorer behavioral and psychological outcomes in children, yet little is known about whether and how the social stratification process affects the impacts of asthma on children's outcomes. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study considered the role of socioeconomic status in shaping the developmental consequences of children's asthma. Results showed that asthma was negatively associated with attention and social competence and positively associated with externalizing problem behaviors for children with low-educated mothers and children who lived in poor households. However, the adverse consequences of asthma disappeared for children with high-educated mothers and children who did not experience poverty. Additionally, the socioeconomic disparities were not fully explained by healthcare resources, family process, and exposure to environment risks and the disparities were found for both mild and severe cases. These findings suggest that, to fully understand the developmental consequences of illness in children, it is important to place socioeconomic status at the center of investigation. PMID:24937327

Chen, Jen-Hao

2014-08-01

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The Effect of Socio-Economic Status on Authoritarianism  

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Full Text Available IntroductionScientific review of the authoritarian personality began in 1950 with the pioneering work of Adorno and his colleagues. Following their attempt, extensive studies were carried out in social psychology, political science, and sociology in this field. Despite the extensive amount of research on authoritarianism in Western societies, few have been conducted in developing countries. The dimensions of this phenomenon in Third World countries can be extensive. The importance of the study of Authoritarianism in Iranian society goes to the Constitutional Revolution (August 1906, when this issue has been in Iranian intellectual discourse. But since the origin of authoritarianism has always been searched in political elite, little attention has been paid to the roots of this phenomenon in the context of social and interpersonal interactions between individuals. Studies show that authoritarian attitudes have adverse social consequences for society in addition to their political consequences. Thus, the scientific study of this phenomenon and its social roots seems necessary. Authoritarian personality has European roots. These studies are influenced by Marx and Freud's theories from theoretical perspective and they are rooted in studies carried out on workers in France and Germany from empirical perspective (Roiser & Willing, 1995:77-97. A study conducted in the Institute of Social Research in Frankfurt in the late 1920s included a wide set of cultural, social and political attitudes among white collar and blue collar workers in Weimar Germany. These studies reported a minority who has authoritarian attitudes. In another study carried out by Horkheimer, Fromm and Marcuse in 1936, family roots of authoritarian personality were explored. Material and MethodsAccording to the theory proposed, in this study we intend to test the integrated model; in that based on Lipstadt's theory of authoritarianism in the lower class, we identify the mechanisms that in the socioeconomic class lead to authoritarian character. For this purpose, we move from three paths toward authoritarianism- in the first path which combines Lipstadt and Adorno's theory we expect that the class influences authoritarianism from parental authoritarian control. In the second path, we expect that the class influences authoritarianism from parental authoritarian and self-esteem control. This path combines Lipstadt, Adorno and Cohen's theory. In the third path, we expect that the class influences authoritarianism through feeling of anomie. This path combines Lipstadt, Merton, Ferum and Arendt's theory. The model is depicted in the following schema. Here, we examine each of the paths. Figure 1: Theoretical model of the study The population of this study was students of Shahid Chamran University. Based on Krejcie and Morgan table, a sample of 377 individuals is representative of a population of 20000 individuals. In this study, 420 were selected through systematic random sampling. In that the list of student names was taken from each faculty and then students' names were randomly selected and they were asked to refer to a class and complete the devised questionnaire. 13 incomplete questionnaires were excluded and 407 remained for final analysis. In our sample, 191 were males and 216 females. Respondents' age was 21.84 with a standard deviation of 2.34. Ethnic composition of the sample was as follows: 33 Turks, 51 Arabs, 84 Kord, 103 Lor and 136 were Fars. Authoritarianism Scale items were composed of 9 items derived from well-known scales measuring these variables. In this study, instead of using an objective socioeconomic base approach, the mental approach was applied. In this way, instead of assessing respondent's status based on achieved data with regard to their income and education and ranking them in three levels, the respondent self-assesses his economic status. To measure parental authoritarian control variable, we used 10 items which were derived from Daniel Shek's (2006 scale and have been used in various studies by different researchers

Arash Heydari

2013-01-01

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Socioeconomic status and health in the Japanese population.  

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There is growing interest in the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on health. Individual SES has been shown to be closely related to mortality, morbidity, health-related behavior and access to health care services in Western countries. Whether the same set of social determinants accounts for higher rates of mortality or morbidity in Japan is questionable, because over the past decade the magnitude of the social stratification within the society has increased due to economic and social circumstances. SES must be interpreted within the economic, social, demographic and cultural contexts of a specific country. In this report we discuss the impact of individuals' socioeconomic position on health in Japan with regard to educational attainment, occupational gradient/class, income level, and unemployment. This review is based mainly on papers indexed in Medline/PubMed between 1990 and 2007. We find that socioeconomic differences in mortality, morbidity and risk factors are not uniformly small in Japan. The majority of papers investigate the relationship between education, occupational class and health, but low income and unemployment are not examined sufficiently in Japan. The results also indicate that different socioeconomic contexts and inequality contribute to the mortality, morbidity, and biological and behavioral risk factors in Japan, although the pattern and direction of the relationships may not necessarily be the same in terms of size, pattern, distribution, magnitude and impact as in Western countries. In particular, the association between higher occupational status and lower mortality, as well as higher educational attainment and either mortality or morbidity, is not as strongly expressed among the Japanese. Japan is still one of the healthiest and most egalitarian nations in the world, and social inequalities within the population are less expressed. However, the magnitude of the social stratification has started to increase, and this is an alarming sign. PMID:19375838

Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Gaina, Alexandru; Nasermoaddeli, Ali

2009-06-01

50

Children's glycemic control: mother's knowledge and socioeconomic status.  

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The present study was designed to examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) of the mother's knowledge about different aspects of diabetes and the glycemic control of type 1 children with diabetes. Samples were taken from successive admissions to the outpatient diabetes clinics in Prince Sultan Medical Military City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well designed questionnaire covering different aspects including demographic data, educational background, and socioeconomic status of the care providers was used to collect information from mothers of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) children. The questionnaire was designed on the basis of the Michigan diabetes knowledge scale and also on the basis of food habits of Saudi Arabia and it was validated. The questionnaire was completed after interviewing the mothers during visits to the PSMMC hospital. Every mother was asked with those particular questions. Glycemic control was assessed by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). The socio-demographic data of mothers was recorded by self-report. It was found that, there was significant variation in the knowledge of diabetes among mothers with different ages (P 0.05). No significant results were observed between family income and diabetes knowledge (p>0.05).However, a positive relationship was observed with higher income and higher knowledge. There was a significant association between mothers knowledge of diabetes and HbA1C level (r = -0.1739, p.education and HbA1c level (r=-02538, peducation showing a better control of glycated haemoglobin levels. However, no significant association was found between monthly family income and HbA1C level. In conclusion, the current study illustrated that, mothers with more knowledge of diabetes and with better education were maintaining a better glycemic control of their children, irrespective of the socio-economic status. It was found that, to improve glycemic control and to decrease acute and chronic complications of diabetes in children, mother's knowledge and education is needed. PMID:24171891

Al-Odayani, Abdulrahman Nasser; Alsharqi, Omar Zayyan; Ahmad, Alaeddin Mohammad Khalaf; Khalaf Ahmad, Ala'eddin Mohammad; Al-Borie, Hussein Mohammad; Qattan, Ameerah M N

2013-11-01

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Health United States 1998 With Socioeconomic Status and Health Chartbook  

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_Health, United States, 1998_ is the 22nd report on health and disease in the nation submitted by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to the President and Congress. Compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), the report examines national trends in health and disease statistics. The Highlights section features the major findings while this year's Chartbook (each year focuses on a major health topic) examines the relationship between socioeconomic status and health. The results of this examination are discussed in the press release. Numerous detailed tables and figures are included.

Heck, K.; Lochner, K.; Makuc, D. M.; Pamuk, E.; Reuben, C.

1998-01-01

52

Socioeconomic Status and Women's Smoking Behavior: A Literature Review  

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Full Text Available Objectives: This paper presents a literature review that examines the relationship between socioeconomic statusand women’s smoking behavior in the United States.Methods: A literature search was conducted among national and international peer-reviewed literature in thefollowing databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Education Resource InformationCenter (ERIC, MEDLINE, and PsycARTICLES. A manual search was performed to obtain relevant articleswithin selected journals.Results: Of the 9 reviewed studies, 5 indicated that a low education level is a causal factor which has a significantrelationship with smoking behavior among women. 6 of the reviewed studies provided evidence that householdincome level plays an important role in women’s cigarette smoking. Finally, 2 of the reviewed studies indicatedthat women’s smoking behavior is influenced by their marital status.Conclusion: The findings from this literature review indicate that future smoking prevention efforts targetingwomen might benefit from incorporating education, household income, and marital situation intomulti-component programs that focus on the differences in socioeconomic status.

Yan Huang

2011-04-01

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Childhood leukaemia and socioeconomic status: What is the evidence?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this systematic review are to summarise the current literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of childhood leukaemia, to highlight methodological problems and formulate recommendations for future research. Starting from the systematic review of Poole et al. (Socioeconomic status and childhood leukaemia: a review. Int. J. Epidemiol. 2006;35(2):370-384.), an electronic literature search was performed covering August 2002-April 2008. It showed that (1) the results are heterogeneous, with no clear evidence to support a relation between SES and childhood leukaemia; (2) a number of factors, most importantly selection bias, might explain inconsistencies between studies; (3) there is some support for an association between SES at birth (rather than later in childhood) and childhood leukaemia and (4) if there are any associations, these are weak, limited to the most extreme SES groups (the 10-20% most or least deprived). This makes it unlikely that they would act as strong confounders in research addressing associations between other exposures and childhood leukaemia. Future research should minimise case and control selection bias, distinguish between different SES measures and leukaemia subtypes and consider timing of exposures and cancer outcomes. (authors)

54

Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran  

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Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on ...

Habibollah Esmaeeli; Rana Amiri; Ahmadshah Farhat; Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

2010-01-01

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Pathways between Socioeconomic Status and Modifiable Risk Factors Among African American Smokers  

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Although socioeconomic status is a major contributing factor to health disparities, the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status influences health remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an a priori conceptual model of the pathways between socioeconomic status and modifiable health risk factors in a sample of 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment. A latent variable modeling approach was utilized to characterize the interrelationships among soc...

Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-woerpel, Ludmila M.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Costello, Tracy J.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Wetter, David W.

2009-01-01

56

Influence of Therapist Gender and Client Gender, Socioeconomic Status and Alcoholic Status on Clinical Judgments.  

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Psychology graduate students (n=185) responded to case descriptions in which client gender, alcoholism, and socioeconomic status (SES) were manipulated. Found consistent, negative effect of client alcoholism on several prognostic variables, including decision to hospitalize; tendency for female clients to be thought to require more therapy…

Hardy, Dana M.; Johnson, Mark E.

1992-01-01

57

Socio-economic status of individuals attend a Sleep Laboratory  

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Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether is an association between socioeconomic status, occupation and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS. Material & Method: A study was conducted in sleep disorders laboratory in Athens. A sable of 366 subjects was screened for OSAHS and the presence was defined after polysomnographic by apnea- hypopnea index (AHI. A questionnaire has been used for demographics and social characteristics (i.e. marital status, income, education, occupation. Results: The study population consisted of 270 males and 96 women with mean age 57.2±12.3 years and mean BMI 36.6±7.7Kg/m². Of those, 335 subjects (91.5% were diagnosed as having OSAHS. The influence of age, body mass index (BMI and social characteristics was examined by multinomial logistic regression analysis. The following factors remained independent risk factors for the presence of OSAHS:1. Gender: males (OR= 8,73, 95% CI:2.98-25.60, p<0.001 compared to females.2. Obesity: BMI (OR=1.17, 95% CI: 1.08-1.27, p<0.001.3. Occupational status: Machine Operatives (OR=14.62, 95% CI: 1.49-143.41, p=0.021 and Elementary Occupations (OR=7.36, 95% CI: 1.96-27.63, p=0.003 compared to professional occupations.Conclusions: In this study factors associated with the presence of OSAHS include gender (men, obesity (BMI and occupation status.

Prapa P.M.

2010-10-01

58

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant status and related socioeconomic impacts  

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The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been ''authorized as a defense activity of the Department of Energy...for the express purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States...'' (PL 96-164). As reported in previous conferences, WIPP continues ahead of schedule and below budget with full facility construction well underway. To date, based on recent review, the socioeconomic impacts have been negligible and steps have been taken to ensure that they remain that way throughout operations

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS IN INTERCOLLEGIATE PARTICIPATION OF KABADDI AND FOOTBALL PLAYERS  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the socio-economic status between Kabaddi and Football Players participation in Intercollegiate Competition. The objective of the study was to find out whether there is any significant difference in the socio-economic status of Kabaddi and Football Players participation in Intercollegiate Competition For the purpose of this study 30 Kabaddi players and 30 Football players were selected as a sample who participated in Intercollegiate Competition of S.G.B .Amravati University, Amravati (M.S. Subjects was selected using Simple Random Sampling Method for this study. The research Scholar selected Socio-economic status Scale for Kabaddi and Football Players. Socio-economic status. Questionnaire developed by National Psychological Corporation, Agra made by Rajiv Lochan Bharadwaj (Socio-economic status Scale To assess the Socio-economic status measure and compare Kabaddi and Football Players who participated in Intercollegiate Competition and find out the status of Socio-economic of Kabaddi and Football players. From the statistical analysis it is quite clear that Kabaddi and Football players does not difference significantly with respect to their Social status but significantly with respect to their Economical status and Socio-economical status.

PUSHPALATA M. DESHMUKH

2013-02-01

60

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS IN INTERCOLLEGIATE PARTICIPATION OF KABADDI AND FOOTBALL PLAYERS  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the socio-economic status between Kabaddi and Football Players participation in Intercollegiate Competition. The objective of the study was to find out whether there is any significant difference in the socio-economic status of Kabaddi and Football Players participation in Intercollegiate Competition For the purpose of this study 30 Kabaddi players and 30 Football players were selected as a sample who participated in Intercollegiate Competition of S.G.B .Amravati University, Amravati (M.S. Subjects was selected using Simple Random Sampling Method for this study. The research Scholar selected Socio-economic status Scale for Kabaddi and Football Players. Socio-economic status. Questionnaire developed by National Psychological Corporation, Agra made by Rajiv Lochan Bharadwaj (Socio-economic status Scale To assess the Socio-economic status measure and compare Kabaddi and Football Players who participated in Intercollegiate Competition and find out the status of Socio-economic of Kabaddi and Football players. From the statistical analysis it is quite clear that Kabaddi and Football players does not difference significantly with respect to their Social status but significantly with respect to their Economical status and Socio-economical status.

KU. PUSHPALATA M. DESHMUKH

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Socioeconomic status and obesity in Abia State, South East Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye,1 Abali Chuku,2 Ikechi Gareth Okpechi,3 Ugochukwu Uchenna Onyeonoro,4 Okechukwu Ojoemelam Madukwe,5 Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka Okafor,6 Okechukwu Samuel Ogah5,71Division of Renal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 3Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, 5Ministry of Health, Nnamdi Azikiwe Secretariat, 6Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 7Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, NigeriaBackground and objectives: Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria.Material and method: This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity. Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance.Results: Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity in individuals with no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education was 6.3%, 14.9%, 10.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. Educational status was found to be significantly associated with obesity in women, but not in men, or in the combined group. However, level of income was observed to be significantly associated with obesity in men, women, and in the combined group.Conclusion: Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are important determinants of obesity in our study population, and therefore may be indirectly linked to the prevalence and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Nigeria.Keywords: obesity, body mass index, BMI, income, education, socioeconomic status, Naira (?

Chukwuonye II

2013-10-01

62

Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors Involved in Suicide  

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Full Text Available The high number of suicides drew attention to medical professionals. In Europe suicide is one of the leading cause of death caused by intentional and unintentional injuries. We tried to evaluate the suicide rates and methods of suicide during a 3 years period. There were collected all the date provided by the archives of forensic services of Brasov county between 2011 and 2013 regarding age, sex, marital status, occupation, socio-economic status, methods of suicide and alcohol consumption before suicide. The statistics included 545 subjects included in the study, 293 were male (53.8%, and 252 were female (46.2% who were admitted at the ER of Brasov County Emergency Hospital during study period. Of 545 patients with suicide attempt, 355 (65.15% survived and were referred to the Psychiatry and Neurology Hospital for psychiatric treatment and psychological counseling. The number of male who died after a suicide attempt was significantly higher than in female cases (134 vs.56, p<0.001. Previous suicide attempts, depression, alcohol abuse and unemployment are strong factors for fatal suicide. Poor economic status and life events may contribute to suicide attempt in those individuals.

Marius MOGA

2014-06-01

63

Relation between Socioeconomic Status of Parents and Health of Children  

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Full Text Available The wealth of country in terms of man power totally depends upon the children, the future citizen. Apart from this, children also determine the socio-cultural values of the future. Physical, mental and social well beings of the children are closely related to the socioeconomic well beings of the parents. To know the Relationship between socioeconomic status of parents and health of children of Government primary school of Bangalore, a one-time observational cross sectional study was conducted in the three primary schools of Kottigepalya. 456 children were included in the study. A complete physical examination of the children was done and deviations from normal were recorded. A large number, 319 (69.96%, school children were found to be sick, in which 39 (12.23% children were belonging to SES lower middle (III, 239 (74.92% were to SES upper lower (IV and 41 (12.85% children were to SES lower (V. This results show that the SES of parents is truly affects the health of children.

Mohd. Zulkifle

2012-11-01

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Vitamin A status of socio-economically backward children.  

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A comprehensive survey was carried out to asses the Vitamin A status of pre-school (0-6 yrs). and school age (6-12 yrs.) children of socio-economically backward families from slums of Bombay and its suburbs. The Vitamin A, protein, calories and iron from the rice and dal based diet was found to be below recommended dietary allowances (RDA). Among the 1956 children surveyed 20% of the children showed low (RBST) and conjuctival impression cytology (CIC) indicted the signs of mild conjuctival xerosis and of early epithelial changes which were correlated with serum vitamin A levels. Serum iron, PCV, Hb and RBC levels were below normal. The anthropometric measurements of these children were below 50th percentile of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) standards. Due to lack of proper nutrition, the overall growth of children is either retarded or not upto the standard levels as was noted in majority of the children. PMID:10829900

Aspatwar, A P; Bapat, M M

1995-01-01

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Genetic influence on family socioeconomic status and children's intelligence?  

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Environmental measures used widely in the behavioral sciences show nearly as much genetic influence as behavioral measures, a critical finding for interpreting associations between environmental factors and children's development. This research depends on the twin method that compares monozygotic and dizygotic twins, but key aspects of children's environment such as socioeconomic status (SES) cannot be investigated in twin studies because they are the same for children growing up together in a family. Here, using a new technique applied to DNA from 3000 unrelated children, we show significant genetic influence on family SES, and on its association with children's IQ at ages 7 and 12. In addition to demonstrating the ability to investigate genetic influence on between-family environmental measures, our results emphasize the need to consider genetics in research and policy on family SES and its association with children's IQ. PMID:24489417

Trzaskowski, Maciej; Harlaar, Nicole; Arden, Rosalind; Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; McMillan, Andrew; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

2014-01-01

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Geographical associations between radon and cancer: is domestic radon level a marker of socioeconomic status?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies showing a geographical association between radon and various cancers, particularly the leukaemias and lymphomas, appear to be confounded by the role of radon levels as a surrogate for socioeconomic status. Higher socioeconomic status (at least at the UK county level) is correlated with higher levels of domestic radon. Controlling for the relationship between socioeconomic status and radon removes the correlation between radon exposure and lymphoproliferative disease. Reported associations between radon and lymphoproliferative disease (and possibly other cancers) may be secondary to socioeconomic variables. (author)

67

ANXIETY IN ADOLESCENTS & SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF FAMILY  

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Full Text Available To study the role of Socio-Economic factors in increasing anxiety level of adolescents, a study was conducted among the adolescents of Nanded district With an Objective – “To study the Role of Socio-Economic Factors of Family in Arousing Anxiety of Adolescents.” Sample was selected by Stratified Random Sampling method among 265 girls and 262 boys from 16 to 18 years age group belonging to three income groups. Assessment of anxiety level in adolescents was carried out with the help I.P.A.T. Anxiety scale, by Samuel.E.Krug. For the convenience of adolescents Hindi version of this test was used revised by Dr.S.D.Kapoor. The obtained data was examined with the help of scoring key and was statistically co-related with socio-economic factors of adolescents. Results indicate that, 1Family income was significantly co-related with 5% level in boys with apprehension (0.249** and tension (0.256** and with 1% level with same norms i.e. apprehension (0511* and tension (0.521* in girls.2 Family income was also significantly co-related with low self control in boys (0274* and girls (0.277* with1% level.3 Specially in boys it was found that father's education was significantly co-related with apprehension (0.255* at 1% level.4 When anxiety norms of both girls and boys were studied through the test of variance i.e. one way ANOVA no significant difference was found. Scores for the norms like emotional instability, apprehension and tension were found with more percent in boys than girls. Whereas scores of indirect factors related to anxiety were found more in girls along with low self control and suspicion.

CHETANA V.DONGLIKAR

2013-02-01

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The Socio-Economic Status of Vocational Education and Training Students in Australia  

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This report examines the relationship between socio-economic status and participation in the vocational education and training (VET) sector. Research indicates that students from low socio-economic status areas are over-represented in the VET sector; it also shows that VET students from these areas complete qualifications at a better-than-average…

Foley, Paul

2007-01-01

69

Learning Motivation Mediates Gene-by-Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Mathematics Achievement in Early Childhood  

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There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

70

Heritability for Adolescent Antisocial Behavior Differs with Socioeconomic Status: Gene-Environment Interaction  

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Background: Socioeconomic status is often assumed to be of importance for the development of antisocial behavior, yet it explains only a fraction of the variance. One explanation for this paradox could be that socioeconomic status moderates the influence of genetic and environmental effects on antisocial behavior. Method: TCHAD is a Swedish…

Tuvblad, Catherine; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul

2006-01-01

71

Socioeconomic status in Brazilian psychological research: II. socioeconomic status and parenting knowledge Status socioeconômico na pesquisa psicológica brasileira: II. status socioeconômico e conhecimento parental  

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Full Text Available Although studies of parenting cognitions and practices across cultures have increased systematically in the last years, research specifically on parents' knowledge of childrearing and child development remains very little frequent in non-U.S. settings. In Brazil this issue is still underresearched. This study addressed two main questions: What do Brazilian mothers know about childrearing and child development? How does this knowledge vary with their socioeconomic status and education in particular? A Brazilian version of the Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (KIDI was administered to a sample of 64 primiparous mothers, and data about the family's socioeconomic status were collected. Relations of SES and some of its components to parents' knowledge about childrearing and child development were then analyzed. The mean total correct score obtained by the Brazilian mothers on the KIDI was lower than the mean score obtained by the American mothers. There were no differences between KIDI scores obtained by mothers of boys and mothers of girls. Mothers' education was the best predictor of the KIDI. This study gives support to the view that differences in parenting knowledge are ascribable primarily to variation in educational attainment, a principal indicator of SES, and has implications for the development of parental educational programs.Embora os estudos sobre cognições e práticas parentais em diferentes culturas venham aumentando sistematicamente nos últimos anos, pesquisas sobre o conhecimento do desenvolvimento infantil e práticas parentais raramente vêm sendo conduzidas fora dos Estados Unidos. No Brasil praticamente não há literatura nessa área. Este estudo buscou responder a duas perguntas básicas: O que as mães brasileiras sabem sobre desenvolvimento infantil e as práticas parentais? Como este conhecimento sobre o desenvolvimento infantil e práticas parentais varia com o status socioeconômico e, em particular, com a educação das mães? Estudos vêm ressaltando a relevância do status socioeconômico para a análise de vários processos e produtos psicológicos. Porém, a relevância do status socioeconômico para o entendimento da cognições e práticas parentais ainda está sendo discutida. Uma versão em português do Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (KIDI foi administrada em uma amostra de 64 mães primíparas, e dados sobre o status socioeconômico das família foram coletados. Foram analisadas as relações entre o status socioeconômico e alguns de seus componentes sobre o conhecimento do desenvolvimento infantil e de práticas parentais. Verificou-se que, em média, as mães brasileiras obtiveram um escore mais baixo no KIDI do que as mães norte-americanas. Não foram verificadas diferença entre mães de meninos e mães de meninas no KIDI. Todas as variáveis investigadas, exceto idade de mães e pais e status ocupacional das mães, mostraram correlação significativa com KIDI. A educação de mãe foi o melhor preditor dos escores no KIDI. Este estudo dá apoio à visão de que diferenças no conhecimento do desenvolvimento infantil e práticas parentais estão relacionadas principalmente ao nível educacional, um dos principais indicadores do status socioeconômico e têm implicações para o desenvolvimento de programas educacionais para os pais.

Rodolfo de Castro Ribas Jr

2003-12-01

72

Socioeconomic Status Accounts for Rapidly Increasing Geographic Variation in the Incidence of Poor Fetal Growth  

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Full Text Available Fetal growth is an important risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. In turn, socioeconomic status is a key predictor of fetal growth; however, other sociodemographic factors and environmental effects may also be important. This study modelled geographic variation in poor fetal growth after accounting for socioeconomic status, with a fixed effect for socioeconomic status and a combination of spatially-correlated and spatially-uncorrelated random effects. The dataset comprised 88,246 liveborn singletons, aggregated within suburbs in Perth, Western Australia. Low socioeconomic status was strongly associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth. An increase in geographic variation of poor fetal growth from 1999–2001 (interquartile odds ratio among suburbs = 1.20 to 2004–2006 (interquartile odds ratio = 1.40 indicated a widening risk disparity by socioeconomic status. Low levels of residual spatial patterns strengthen the case for targeting policies and practices in areas of low socioeconomic status for improved outcomes. This study indicates an alarming increase in geographic inequalities in poor fetal growth in Perth which warrants further research into the specific aspects of socioeconomic status that act as risk factors.

Stephen R. Zubrick

2013-06-01

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Socioeconomic status, race, and mortality: a prospective cohort study.  

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Objectives. We evaluated the independent and joint effects of race, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and neighborhood SES on mortality risk. Methods. We conducted a prospective analysis involving 52?965 non-Hispanic Black and 23?592 non-Hispanic White adults taking part in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine associations of race and SES with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results. In our cohort, wherein Blacks and Whites had similar individual SES, Blacks were less likely than Whites to die during the follow-up period (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.73, 0.84). Low household income was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality among both Blacks and Whites (HR?=?1.76; 95% CI?=?1.45, 2.12). Being in the lowest (vs highest) category with respect to both individual and neighborhood SES was associated with a nearly 3-fold increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR?=?2.76; 95% CI?=?1.99, 3.84). There was no significant mortality-related interaction between individual SES and neighborhood SES among either Blacks or Whites. Conclusions. SES is a strong predictor of premature mortality, and the independent associations of individual SES and neighborhood SES with mortality risk are similar for Blacks and Whites. PMID:25322291

Signorello, Lisa B; Cohen, Sarah S; Williams, David R; Munro, Heather M; Hargreaves, Margaret K; Blot, William J

2014-12-01

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Pediatric Pulmonologists' Perceptions of Family Socioeconomic Status in Asthma Care  

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Background: Physicians' assumptions about patients' socioeconomic status (SES) have been shown to influence clinical decision making in adult patients. The goal of this study is to assess the factors associated with pediatric pulmonologists' (PPs') subjective ratings of their patients' SES, and whether these factors differ by patient race/ethnicity. Methods: Parents of children with asthma (n=171) presenting for pulmonary care reported their SES using the MacArthur Subjective SES 10-rung ladder. The PPs (n=7) also estimated each family's SES. Two-level linear regression models with random intercepts (level 1: PP's SES ratings; level 2: PPs) were used to assess the predictors of PP-estimated family SES. The analyses were then stratified by race/ethnicity. Results: Parental educational, insurance type, age, and race/ethnic background were associated with PPs' SES ratings. Black/African American families were rated lower than white families, accounting for other demographic factors (b=?0.60, pasthma care may be a function of unconscious societal biases about race and class. Collecting subjective SES from families and PPs during the office visit could facilitate discussions about material and psychosocial needs and resources that influence treatment effectiveness.

Johnson, Sara B.; Gordon, Brian J.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Adler, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

75

The influence of socioeconomic status on children's brain structure.  

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Children's cognitive abilities and school achievements are deeply affected by parental socioeconomic status (SES). Numerous studies have reported lower cognitive performance in relation to unfavorable environments, but little is known about the effects of SES on the child's neural structures. Here, we systematically explore the association between SES and brain anatomy through MRI in a group of 23 healthy 10-year-old children with a wide range of parental SES. We confirm behaviorally that language is one of the cognitive domains most affected by SES. Furthermore, we observe widespread modifications in children's brain structure. A lower SES is associated with smaller volumes of gray matter in bilateral hippocampi, middle temporal gyri, left fusiform and right inferior occipito-temporal gyri, according to both volume- and surface-based morphometry. Moreover, we identify local gyrification effects in anterior frontal regions, supportive of a potential developmental lag in lower SES children. In contrast, we found no significant association between SES and white matter architecture. These findings point to the potential neural mediators of the link between unfavourable environmental conditions and cognitive skills. PMID:22880000

Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Altarelli, Irene; Monzalvo, Karla; Fluss, Joel; Dubois, Jessica; Billard, Catherine; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Ramus, Franck

2012-01-01

76

Socioeconomic status and prevalence of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy  

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Two hundred and thirty-six women with previous bad obstetric history (BOH), belonging to different socio-economic groups were investigated for the presence of Toxoplasma specific antibodies (IgG/IgM) using commercial diagnostic kits. The study showed a higher percentage of IgG seropositivity in women of low socioeconomic group (LSG) compared to those of high socioeconomic group (HSG). Specific IgM positivity indicative of possible acute infection, was higher in women of HSG, emphasizin...

Yasodhara P; Ramalakshmi B; Lakshmi V; Krishna T

2004-01-01

77

Immunization Status of School Children of Indore Hailing from Different Socioeconomic Status  

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Full Text Available Background: Although the immunization coverage has increased over the past few years, school age is still a neglected area and accounts for high number of unimmunized children in developing world including India. Objective: This study has been undertaken to determine the immunization status of school children in an urban locality of Indore, a district of central India; and to determine if parental socioeconomic status affect immunization coverage. Material and methods: The study was school based cross-sectional, conducted in 50 schools of Indore district selected by random sampling. Children were between the ages of 5-16 years. Information was collected from parents by providing pre-tested proforma to the students. Result: Only 54.3% of children included in the survey were fully immunized as UIP schedule, while the percentage of partially immunized and unimmunized children was 42.1 and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The percentage of vaccination was significantly proportionate to higher socioeconomic status (p –value <0.0001.

Madhuri inamdar, Saurabh Piparsania, Savita inamdar Kuldeep Singh

2011-01-01

78

Socioeconomic Status and Functional Brain Development--Associations in Early Infancy  

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Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject…

Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G.; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Kushnerenko, Elena

2013-01-01

79

Socioeconomic status, achieving occupational aspirations and sickness absence: A population based longitudinal study of Norwegian youths  

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Full Text Available  This paper examines whether the degree of convergence between occupational aspirations and actual occupational achievement can elucidate the relationship between socioeconomic status and sickness absence. The analyses draw on survey data from a longitudinal study following 1,552 respondents from adolescence through young adulthood linked to register data on sickness absence. Occupational aspirations in adolescence were contrasted with actual occupational achievement in young adulthood and used to predict sickness absence. In accordance with existing research, socioeconomic status significantly predicted sickness absence, even after controlling for several relevant variables. Including aspiration achievement in the analysis reduced the relationship between socioeconomic status and sickness absence, while aspiration achievement was significantly related to sickness absence. The findings indicate that aspiration achievement mediates the relationship between socioeconomic status and sickness absence

Tilmann von Soest

2011-03-01

80

Dimensions of socioeconomic status and clinical outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention  

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The association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high mortality from coronary heart disease is well-known. However, the role of SES in relation to the clinical outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention remains poorly understood.

Jakobsen, Lars; Niemann, Troels

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Is there evidence for dual causation between malaria and socioeconomic status? Findings from rural Tanzania.  

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Malaria's relationship with socioeconomic status at the macroeconomic level has been established. This is the first study to explore this relationship at the microeconomic (household) level and estimate the direction of association. Malaria prevalence was measured by parasitemia, and household socioeconomic status was measured using an asset based index. Results from an instrumental variable probit model suggest that socioeconomic status is negatively associated with malaria parasitemia. Other variables that are significantly associated with parasitemia include age of the individual, use of a mosquito net on the night before interview, the number of people living in the household, whether the household was residing at their farm home at the time of interview, household wall construction, and the region of residence. Matching estimators indicate that malaria parasitemia is associated with reduced household socioeconomic status. PMID:18165515

Somi, Masha F; Butler, James R G; Vahid, Farshid; Njau, Joseph; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim

2007-12-01

82

Personality, socio-economic status and inflammation: cross-sectional, population-based study.  

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Associations between socio-economic status (SES), personality and inflammation were examined to determine whether low SES subjects scoring high on neuroticism or hostility might suffer relatively higher levels of inflammation than affluent subjects.

2013-01-01

83

Socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity in an adult chinese population in Singapore  

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BACKGROUND: Studies from industrialized Western countries have reported an inverse association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity. In contrast, few studies from newly industrialized countries in Asia have examined this association. In this context, we examined the association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity by gender in Chinese adults in Singapore.METHODS: A population-based cross sectional study of 942 participants (57.3% women, 40-81 years) residing in t...

Sabanayagam, C.; Shankar, A.; Wong, T. Y.; Saw, S. M.; Foster, P. J.

2007-01-01

84

Relationship between ethnic backgrounds, family socioeconomic status, leisure participation, and psychological well-being.  

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Relations between ethnic backgrounds, family socioeconomic status, leisure participation, and psychological well-being were explored. Participants returned 827 valid pencil-and-paper surveys. An increase in student-athlete leisure participation was associated with better psychological well-being and sense of accomplishment. Compared with Aboriginal student-athletes, Han student-athletes had higher passive leisure participation; there was no correlation between their families' socioeconomic status and the student-athletes' leisure participation or psychological well-being. PMID:24611242

Hung, Hank; Lee, Chia Wen

2013-10-01

85

Association between socio-economic status and sexual behavior of adolescents  

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Introduction: Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of contextual factors as determinants of sexual behavior of adolescents. It has been found that lower socioeconomic status is associated with risky sexual behavior. Sexual behavior is individual but develops under strong influence of cultural and other influences. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of family’s socioeconomic status and risky sexual behavior of adolescents in Belgrade. Method. Self-...

Vukovi? Dejana S.; Bjegovi?-Mikanovi? Vesna M.

2007-01-01

86

Investigation of the Association between Socioeconomic Indicators and Dormitory Resident Students Nutrition Status in Shiraz University of Medical Science  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Since nutrition is one of the important factors influencing health and well-being of people and it is also highly critical for students health this study investigates the impacts of socioeconomic determinants on nutrition status of the student who reside in Shiraz University of medical science dormitories. Methods: In this cross- sectional study 405 students were selected through multistage sampling procedure and their nutrition status was investigated via a questionnaire. STATA statistical software (version 9.1 was used to analyze the data through one-way ANOVA. Results: There was a significant relationship between receiving Carbohydrate Protein B6 & B12 vitamins Phosphate (P

Fouroz Nader

2009-01-01

87

Cause-specific mortality and socioeconomic status in Chakaria, Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh has achieved remarkable gains in health indicators during the last four decades despite low levels of economic development. However, the persistence of inequities remains disturbing. This success was also accompanied by health and demographic transitions, which in turn brings new challenges for a nation that has yet to come to terms with pre-transition health challenges. It is therefore important to understand the causes of death and their relationship with socioeconomic status (SES. Objective: The paper aims to assess the causes of death by SES based on surveillance data from a rural area of Bangladesh, in order to understand the situation and inform policy makers and programme leaders. Design: We analysed population-based mortality data collected from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. The causes of death were determined by using a Bayesian-based programme for interpreting verbal autopsy findings (InterVA-4. The data included 1,391 deaths in 217,167 person-years of observation between 2010 and 2012. The wealth index constructed using household assets was used to assess the SES, and disease burdens were compared among the wealth quintiles. Results: Analysing cause of death (CoD revealed that non-communicable diseases (NCDs were the leading causes of deaths (37%, followed by communicable diseases (CDs (22%, perinatal and neonatal conditions (11%, and injury and accidents (6%; the cause of remaining 24% of deaths could not be determined. Age-specific mortality showed premature birth, respiratory infections, and drowning were the dominant causes of death for childhood mortality (0–14 years, which was inversely associated with SES (p<0.04. For adult and the elderly (15 years and older, NCDs were the leading cause of death (51%, followed by CDs (23%. For adult and the elderly, NCDs concentrated among the population from higher SES groups (p<0.005, and CDs among the lower SES groups (p<0.001. Conclusions: Epidemiologic transition is taking place with a shift from the dominance of CDs to NCDs. SES inequity in mortality still persists – the poor suffer from CDs in all age groups, whereas those better off suffer more from NCDs than CDs. Policy makers thus need to consider the social distribution of diseases before developing any public health action targeted towards reducing mortality and the extent of disease burden in an equitable manner.

Syed M. A. Hanifi

2014-10-01

88

Parent Practices in Facilitating Self-Determination Skills: The Influences of Culture, Socioeconomic Status, and Children's Special Education Status  

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This survey study investigated the influences of culture, socioeconomic status, and children's special education status on parents' engagement in fostering self-determination behaviors. Major findings included (a) children from Caucasian families were more involved in personal independence activities than Asian and African American children; (b)…

Zhang, Dalun

2005-01-01

89

Growth parameters and nutritional status in relation to socioeconomic status of macedonian adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Aim: To assess the anthropometric parameters of growth and nutritional status in relation to so-cioeconomic status (SES) of Macedonian adolescents. Methods: The study included 546 adolescents from urban regions of the Republic of Macedonia, aged 14 to 15 years. Participants were measured with standard equipment and measurement technique according to the International Biological Programme. The following anthropometric indices were calculated: height-for-age (BH), weight-for-age (BW) and BMI-for-age (kg/m2). For measuring family wealth, the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) has been used. Adolescents were grouped into three SES groups. Results: Age-specific differences were found for body height and weight in favour of 15-year-old males (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in height and weight among different SES groups. Female participants were more overweight in the high SES group (13.2%) and middle SES group (10.8%), compared to those in the low SES group (6.7%). According to the obtained results in females, the prevalence of obese and underweight females is higher in those with low SES. Conclusions: Male adolescents were found to be taller and heavier than female adolescents. Both male and female adolescents were taller and heavier in high SES group than those in other SES groups. There were no SES differences in prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among Macedonian school adolescents living in urban areas, except among females, those in the low SES group had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity than did those in the MSES and HSES groups. Key words: adolescent, nutritional anthropometry, obesity, socioeconomic status, Macedonia. PMID:24798605

Bojadzieva Stojanoska, B; Nakeva Janevska, N; Matveeva, N; Zafirova, B; Cadikovska, E

2014-01-01

90

Socioeconomic status and prevalence of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy  

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Full Text Available Two hundred and thirty-six women with previous bad obstetric history (BOH, belonging to different socio-economic groups were investigated for the presence of Toxoplasma specific antibodies (IgG/IgM using commercial diagnostic kits. The study showed a higher percentage of IgG seropositivity in women of low socioeconomic group (LSG compared to those of high socioeconomic group (HSG. Specific IgM positivity indicative of possible acute infection, was higher in women of HSG, emphasizing the need for educating pregnant mothers on preventive measures. However, there is a need to undertake in-depth studies to understand the significance of the presence of IgM in women with BOH.

Yasodhara P

2004-01-01

91

Socioeconomic Status and Children with Intellectual Disability in China  

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Background: Intellectual disability (ID) accounts for 70% of all disabilities among children in China's Second National Sampling Survey on Disability. Although studies have shown a relationship between social class and ID in children, none have investigated the association of socioeconomic variables in Chinese children with mild or severe ID.…

Zheng, X.; Chen, R.; Li, N.; Du, W.; Pei, L.; Zhang, J.; Ji, Y.; Song, X.; Tan, L.; Yang, R.

2012-01-01

92

The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Life Satisfaction  

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The stratification system in India has resulted in the socioeconomic inequality in society and defines women domestic workers as one of the lowest segments of society. This qualitative and quantitative study aims at describing the problems of female domestic workers, the relationship of their employers with them, and exploring the impact of…

Daraei, Mina; Mohajery, Artmiz

2013-01-01

93

Relationship between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome among Nigerian adults.  

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The study determined the diastolic and systolic pressure, anthropometric parameters, serological parameters comprising fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as well as the socio-economic status (SES) of inhabitants of Ilora with a view to providing information on impact of SES on metabolic syndrome (MetS). One hundred participants (54 males and 46 females) whose ages ranged from 30 and 70 years, participated in the study. Participants were recruited from the three wards of the town using multi-stage random sampling procedure. Subjects' weights, height, blood pressure, waist circumference (WC) were measured using standard instruments. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured using a glucometer on participants' blood samples taken after at least 8h of fasting. Serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were analyzed using enzyme colometric assay kits in the laboratory. SES of the participants was determined by using a questionnaire, which sought information on annual income, occupation and education. Participants who had MetS were determined using the new International Diabetes Foundation definition of MetS. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The mean scores for the males and females systolic blood pressure (SBP) were 123.20 ± 20.72 mmHg and 117.78 ± 14.64 mmHg, and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 78.63 ± 11.72 mmHg and 75.98 ± 13.06 mmHg, respectively. The mean of serological variables scores for the males and females, respectively, were FBG (4.95 ± 0.81 mmol/L and 4.84 ± 1.36 mmol/L), TG (1.28 ± 0.75 mmol/L and 1.35 ± 1.05 mmol/L), HDL-C (1.26 ± 0.21 mmol/L and 2.32 ± 7.34 mmol/L). The mean SES scores for the males and females were 14.35 ± 4.75 and 13.13 ± 4.66, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was 43.5% in females and 9.3% in males. Significant differences were found in SBP and FBG across the three SES groups (F=3.148 and 3.862, respectively, p<0.05). The high SES group was found to have significantly higher SBP and FBG than the low and middle SES groups. There were significant correlations between SES scores and SBP (r=0.255; p<0.05), FBG (r=0.270; p<0.01), and BMI (r=0.210; p<0.05). Also, significant relationships were found between weight and TG (r=0.282; p<0.05), waist circumference (WC) and FBG (r=0.264; p<0.05), and WC and TG (r=0.414; p<0.01). The study concluded that SES has significant relationship with metabolic syndrome components such as SBP and fasting blood glucose among adult population in Nigeria. PMID:23680248

Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Abiodun; Adegoke, Olajire O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Awotidebe, Taofeek O

2013-01-01

94

Socioeconomic-status and mental health in a personality disorder sample: the importance of neighborhood factors.  

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This cross-sectional study examined the associations between neighborhood-level socioeconomic-status (NSES), and psychosocial functioning and personality pathology among 335 adults drawn from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Participants belonged to four personality disorder (PD) diagnostic groups: Avoidant, Borderline, Schizotypal, and Obsessive Compulsive. Global functioning, social adjustment, and PD symptoms were assessed following a minimum two-year period of residential stability. Residence in higherrisk neighborhoods was associated with more PD symptoms and lower levels of functioning and social adjustment. These relationships were consistent after controlling for individual-level socioeconomic-status and ethnicity; however, the positive association between neighborhood-level socio-economic risk and PD symptoms was evident only at higher levels of individual-level socio-economic risk. Our findings identify NSES as a candidate for explaining some of the variability in symptoms and functioning among PD individuals. PMID:22984860

Walsh, Zach; Shea, M Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Stout, Robert L; Bender, Donna S; Skodol, Andrew E; Sanislow, Charles A; Morey, Lesley C; Gunderson, John G

2013-12-01

95

Diabetes prevalence and socioeconomic status: a population based study showing increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in deprived areas  

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OBJECTIVE—To establish the relation between socioeconomic status and the age-sex specific prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The hypothesis was that prevalence of type 2 diabetes would be inversely related to socioeconomic status but there would be no association with the prevalence of type 1 diabetes and socioeconomic status.?SETTING—Middlesbrough and East Cleveland, United Kingdom, district population 287 157.?PATIENTS—4313 persons with diabetes identified from...

Connolly, V.; Unwin, N.; Sherriff, P.; Bilous, R.; Kelly, W.

2000-01-01

96

Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review.  

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A landmark review of studies published prior to 1989 on socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity supported the view that obesity in the developing world would be essentially a disease of the socioeconomic elite. The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity. Although more studies are necessary to clarify the exact nature of this relationship, partic...

Monteiro, Carlos A.; Moura, Erly C.; Conde, Wolney L.; Popkin, Barry M.

2004-01-01

97

Socioeconomic Status and Subclinical Coronary Disease in the Whitehall II Epidemiological Study  

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Background: There are pronounced socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease, but the extent to which these primarily reflect gradients in underlying coronary artery disease severity or in the clinical manifestation of advanced disease is uncertain. We measured the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) as indexed by grade of employment and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort, and tested the contribution of lifestyle, biological and ...

Steptoe, A.; Hamer, M.; O Donnell, K.; Venuraju, S.; Marmot, M. G.; Lahiri, A.

2010-01-01

98

Socioeconomic status and impact of treatment on families of children with congenital heart disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

to losing jobs or business (46%), and selling their assets (11.3%). It also affected schooling and health of siblings (22.7% and 26.1% respectively). Conclusion: Majority of children with congenital heart disease belonged to middle and lower socioeconomic status in this study. Main definitive treatment was surgery. The cost of health care facilities posed a marked socioeconomic burden on those families. (author)

99

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Is Associated with Serum Carotenoid Concentrations in Older, Community-Dwelling Women12  

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A high dietary intake of fruit and vegetables has been shown to be protective for health. Neighborhood socioeconomic differences may influence the consumption of carotenoid-rich foods, as indicated by serum carotenoid concentrations. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and serum carotenoid concentrations in a population-based sample of community-dwelling women, aged 70–79 y, who participated in the Women’s Health and Aging ...

Nicklett, Emily J.; Szanton, Sarah; Sun, Kai; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fried, Linda P.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Semba, Richard D.

2011-01-01

100

Correction of Body-Mass Index Using Body-Shape Perception and Socioeconomic Status in Adolescent Self-Report Surveys  

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Objectives To propose a simple correction of body-mass index (BMI) based on self-reported weight and height (reported BMI) using gender, body shape perception and socioeconomic status in an adolescent population. Methods 341 boys and girls aged 17–18 years were randomly selected from a representative sample of 2165 French adolescents living in Paris surveyed in 2010. After an anonymous self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire asking for height, weight, body shape perception (feeling too thin, about the right weight or too fat) and socioeconomic status, subjects were measured and weighed. BMI categories were computed according to Cole’s cut-offs. Reported BMIs were corrected using linear regressions and ROC analyses and checked with cross-validation and multiple imputations to handle missing values. Agreement between actual and corrected BMI values was estimated with Kappa indexes and Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Results On average, BMIs were underreported, especially among girls. Kappa indexes between actual and reported BMI were low, especially for girls: 0.56 95%CI?=?[0.42–0.70] for boys and 0.45 95%CI?=?[0.30–0.60] for girls. The regression of reported BMI by gender and body shape perception gave the most balanced results for both genders: the Kappa and ICC obtained were 0.63 95%CI?=?[0.50–0.76] and 0.67, 95%CI?=?[0.58–0.74] for boys; 0.65 95%CI?=?[0.52–0.78] and 0.74, 95%CI?=?[0.66–0.81] for girls. The regression of reported BMI by gender and socioeconomic status led to similar corrections while the ROC analyses were inaccurate. Conclusions Using body shape perception, or socioeconomic status and gender is a promising way of correcting BMI in self-administered questionnaires, especially for girls. PMID:24844229

Legleye, Stephane; Beck, Francois; Spilka, Stanislas; Chau, Nearkasen

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situ [...] ation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch's approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.

Claudette D., Ncho; Susan C.D., Wright.

2013-01-01

102

Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situ [...] ation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch's approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.

Claudette D., Ncho; Susan C.D., Wright.

103

Socioeconomic status is a critical risk factor for human rabies post-exposure prophylaxis.  

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The socioeconomic status of the patients is the important factor for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, few investigations were designed to study the correlation between the socioeconomic status and PEP. This study set out to determine the importance of socioeconomic status for PEP. All of the 11,670 at-risk populations of rabies in the public health centre of San Sheng County in Chengdu from January 2002 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. We identified 11,350 patients on vaccination and 550 patients with rabies immunoglobulin. RIG was administered to 4.85% bite victims attending the rabies prevention clinics, while 61.36% had a category III exposure. The incidence of receiving RIG in the population of the high level of income (49.38%) was much higher than the groups of the medium level (8.08%) and the low level of income (1.46%) (P<0.05). The incidence of receiving RIG with above high school (23.08%) was much higher than the groups of the primary school (3.01%), the junior school (12.56%) and the illiteracy (2.08%) (P<0.05). In the logistic regression analysis by stepwise approach, the socioeconomic status was the most important factor for PEP (95% CI 1.20-2.04). Vaccination and immunoglobulin proved to be the most prominent two factors for PEP but whether receiving Vaccination and immunoglobulin treatment or not is determined by the socioeconomic status. So, the socioeconomic status was the most important factor for PEP. PMID:20723628

Fang, Li Xiao; Ping, Feng; Ping, Du Yuan; Hui, Bian Guo; Yan, Yu Xiao

2010-10-01

104

Peer-Mentoring of Students in Rural and Low-Socioeconomic Status Schools: Increasing Aspirations for Higher Education  

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Students from rural and low socioeconomic backgrounds do not pursue university education at the same rate as those from metropolitan areas or from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. This has been a long-standing issue for government. This study explores the aspirations and intentions for university education among low socioeconomic status (SES) and…

Curtis, David D.; Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, John; Lawson, Michael J.

2012-01-01

105

Socioeconomic status and fertility before, during, and after the demographic transition: An introduction  

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Full Text Available Background: Despite a long interest in the historical fertility transition, there is still a lack of knowledge about disaggregated patterns that could help us understand the mechanisms behind the transition. In previous research the widely held view is that there was a change in the association between social status and fertility in conjunction with the fertility transition, implying that fertility went from being positively connected to social status (higher status was connected with higher fertility to being negatively associated with fertility. Objective: The aim of this collection is to study socioeconomic patterns in the fertility transition in a variety of contexts using similar approaches and measures of socioeconomic status. Methods: All contributions use different kinds of micro-level socioeconomic and demographic data and statistical models in the analysis. Data either come from census-like records or population registers. Conclusions: There is no consistent evidence for the hypothesis that socioeconomic status was positively related to fertility before the demographic transition. While such a correlation was clearly present in some contexts it was clearly not in other contexts. There is more unanimous support for the idea that the upper-and middle classes acted as forerunners in the transition, while especially farmers were late to change their fertility behavior. It is also evident that both parity-specific stopping and prolonged birth intervals (spacing were important in the fertility transition.

Martin Dribe

2014-07-01

106

Quality of life in lung cancer patients: does socioeconomic status matter?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of a prospective study on quality of life in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients an investigation was carried out to examine whether there were differences among patients' quality of life scores and their socioeconomic status. Methods Quality of life was measured at two points in time (baseline and three months after initial treatment using three standard instruments; the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP, the European Organization for Research and Cancer Treatment Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 and its lung cancer supplement (QLQ-LC13. Socioeconomic status for each individual patient was derived using Carstairs and Morris Deprivation Category ranging from 1 (least deprived to 7 (most deprived on the basis of the postcode sector of their address. Results In all, 129 lung cancer patients entered into the study. Of these data for 82 patients were complete (at baseline and follow-up. 57% of patients were of lower socioeconomic status and they had more health problems, less functioning, and more symptoms as compared to affluent patients. Of these, physical mobility (P = 0.05, energy (P = 0.01, role functioning (P = 0.04, physical functioning (P = 0.03, and breathlessness (P = 0.02 were significant at baseline. However, at follow-up assessment there was no significant difference between patient groups nor did any consistent pattern emerge. Conclusion At baseline assessment patients of lower socioeconomic status showed lower health related quality of life. Since there was no clear trend at follow-up assessment this suggests that patients from different socioeconomic status responded to treatment similarly. In general, the findings suggest that quality of life is not only the outcome of the disease and its treatment, but is also highly dependent on each patients' socioeconomic characteristics.

Milroy Robert

2003-06-01

107

Is Discrimination an Equal Opportunity Risk? Racial Experiences, Socioeconomic Status, and Health Status among Black and White Adults  

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Using the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we explore the relationship between racial awareness, perceived discrimination, and self-rated health among black (n = 5,902) and white (n = 28,451) adults. We find that adjusting for group differences in racial awareness and discrimination, in addition to socioeconomic status, explains…

Bratter, Jenifer L.; Gorman, Bridget K.

2011-01-01

108

Global and National Socioeconomic Disparities in Obesity, Overweight, and Underweight Status  

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Objective. To examine the association between socioeconomic factors and weight status across 53 countries. Methods. Data are cross-sectional and from the long version of the World Health Survey (WHS). There were 172,625 WHS participants who provided self-reported height and weight measures and sociodemographic information. The International Classification of adult weight status was used to classify participants by body mass index (BMI): (1) underweight (<18.5), (2) normal weight (18.5–24.9)...

Spencer Moore; Hall, Justin N.; Sam Harper; Lynch, John W.

2010-01-01

109

The Gradient in Sub-Saharan Africa: Socioeconomic Status and HIV/AIDS  

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Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Burkina Faso (2003), Cameroon (2004), Ghana (2003), Kenya (2003), and Tanzania (2003), I investigate the cross-sectional relationship between HIV status and socioeconomic status. I find evidence of a robust positive education gradient in HIV infection, showing that, up to very high levels of education, better-educated respondents are more likely to be HIV-positive. Adults with six years of schooling are as much as three percentage p...

Fortson, Jane G.

2008-01-01

110

Reproductive behavior, ethnicity and socio-economic status a comparison of two Serbian Gypsy groups  

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Full Text Available Based on original fieldwork in Serbia, this paper elucidates and contrasts the reproductive behavior of typically poor Gypsies with a group of much wealthier Gypsies living in a Serbian village. This paper will test two hypotheses: 1 Gypsy reproductive behavior is a result of their ethnic traditional strategy, and/or 2 Gypsy reproduction is a result of low status and being poor. This paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic status, reproductive behavior and ethnicity.

?vorovi? Jelena

2004-01-01

111

School Attendance in Nigeria: Understanding the Impact and Intersection of Gender, Urban-Rural Residence, and Socioeconomic Status  

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This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of…

Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon

2010-01-01

112

Learning Motivation Mediates Gene-by-Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Mathematics Achievement in Early Childhood.  

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There is accumulating evidence that genetic influences on achievement are more pronounced among children living in higher socioeconomic status homes, and that these gene-by-environment interactions occur prior to children's entry into formal schooling. We hypothesized that one pathway through which socioeconomic status promotes genetic influences on early achievement is by facilitating the processes by which children select, evoke, and attend to learning experiences that are consistent with genetically influenced individual differences in their motivation to learn. We examined this hypothesis in a nationally representative sample of approximately 650 pairs of four-year old identical and fraternal twins who were administered a measure of math achievement, and rated by their parents on a broad set of items assessing learning motivation. Results indicated a genetic link between learning motivation and math achievement that varied positively with family socioeconomic status: Genetic differences in learning motivation contributed to math achievement more strongly in more advantaged homes. Once this effect of learning motivation was controlled for, gene-by-socioeconomic status interaction on math achievement was reduced from previously significant levels, to nonsignificant levels. PMID:22611326

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

2012-02-01

113

Race, Socio-Economic Status, and Perceived Similarity as Determinants of Judgements by Simulated Jurors  

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Simulated jurors judged a defendant on trial for armed robbery after reading trial transcripts and other background information in a two x two factorial design which varied the defendant's race and socioeconomic status (SES). Higher SES defendants were judged less guilty and assigned fewer years in prison. (Author)

Gleason, James M.; Harris, Victor A.

1975-01-01

114

The Relation of Birth Order and Socioeconomic Status to Children's Language Experience and Language Development.  

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Variation in mothers' child-directed speech and in their children's rates of language development are examined as a function of childbirth order and family socioeconomic status. Findings suggest that language experience plays a non-trivial role in language development, and that the nature of that role is different for different components of…

Hoff-Ginsburg, Erika

1998-01-01

115

Understanding and Meeting the Needs of Students from Low Socioeconomic Status Backgrounds  

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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight factors that facilitate or hinder the entry and academic achievement of students from low socioeconomic status into higher education, and facilitate understanding about how such students can be supported in their learning at university. Design/methodology/approach: The authors draw on the…

Ramburuth, Prem; Hartel, Charmine E. J.

2010-01-01

116

Student Performance and Family Socioeconomic Status: Results from a Survey of Compulsory Education in Western China  

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This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…

Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke

2008-01-01

117

A Theoretical Framework of the Relation between Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement of Students  

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A socio-psychological analytical framework will be adopted to illuminate the relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The framework puts the emphasis to incorporate micro familial factors into macro factor of the tracking system. Initially, children of the poor families always lack major prerequisite: diminution of cognitive…

Lam, Gigi

2014-01-01

118

Ethnic Variations of Pathways Linking Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Preacademic Skills in a Nationally Representative Sample  

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Research Findings: Grounded in the investment model and informed by the integrative theory of the study of minority children, this study used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set, a nationally representative sample of young children, to investigate whether the association between socioeconomic status (family income and…

Iruka, Iheoma U.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.

2014-01-01

119

Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender  

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This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…

Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

2010-01-01

120

The associations between socioeconomic status and obesity in Korean children from 1998 to 2009  

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Increasing interests have been shown in associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity in relation to health inequality. The research objectives were 1) to examine associations between SES and child obesity (including overweight) in Korea over 10 years and 2) to explore possible underlying mechanisms of relationships between SES and obesity. This study used the nationally representative data (KN...

So-Young Nam; Soo-Kyung Lee

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status  

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This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

2005-01-01

122

Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People  

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Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

2006-01-01

123

A Coordinated Approach to Raising the Socio-Economic Status of Latinos in California.  

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This report presents a collection of papers that focuses on a coordinated approach to raising the socioeconomic status of Hispanic Americans living in California. After presenting "The Need for a Coordinated Approach," the papers are: "Preschool Access" (Theresa Garcia, Sandra Gutierrez, and Giovanna Stark); "K-12 Performance" (Patricia de Cos,…

Lopez, Elias, Ed.; Puddefoot, Ginny, Ed.; Gandara, Patricia, Ed.

124

Fostering Engagement for Students from Low-Socioeconomic Status Backgrounds Using Project-Based Mathematics  

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In overcrowded urban high schools, students are dealing with many issues in and out of school. Issues at home paired with math curriculum that does not seem relevant to their lives, leads to a lack of engagement in the classroom. This research poses the question: How can project-based algebra engage low-socioeconomic status high school students?…

Heyl, Allison

2008-01-01

125

Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth  

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Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

2013-01-01

126

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

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This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

127

School Achievement of Children with Intellectual Disability: The Role of Socioeconomic Status, Placement, and Parents' Engagement  

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The objective of this study was to describe the selected conditions for school achievement of students with mild intellectual disabilities from Polish elementary schools. Participants were 605 students with mild disabilities from integrative, regular, and special schools, and their parents (N = 429). It was found that socioeconomic status (SES)…

Szumski, Grzegorz; Karwowski, Maciej

2012-01-01

128

Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Physical Fitness in Junior High School Students  

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Background: Research on physical fitness often regards socioeconomic status (SES) as a confounding factor. However, few studies investigate the impact of SES on fitness. This study investigated the impact of SES on physical fitness in both males and females, with an economic-based construct of SES. Methods: The sample consisted of 954 6th, 7th,…

Bohr, Adam D.; Brown, Dale D.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Smith, Peter J. K.; Bass, Ronald W.

2013-01-01

129

Exploring the Limitations of Measures of Students' Socioeconomic Status (SES)  

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This study uses a nationally representative student dataset to explore the limitations of commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES). Among the identified limitations are patterns of missing data that conflate the traditional conceptualization of SES with differences in family structure that have emerged in recent years and a lack of…

Dickinson, Emily R.; Adelson, Jill L.

2014-01-01

130

The Association Between Socioeconomic Status and Adult Mortality in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa  

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Full Text Available Objective: To examine the association between socio-economic status and adult mortality in a rural South African community.Methods: Longitudinal data of adults aged 15-64 yrs residing within the Demographic Surveillance Area [DSA] on 1st January 2001 and followed up for seven years, was used. Out of the total 33,677 adults who met the inclusion criteria, 4,058 died during the seven years follow up period. Mortality rates were computed using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates expressed per 1000 person-year of observation (PYO. Household wealth index was constructed by the use of PCA, while the association was assessed using Cox proportional Hazard model controlling for potential confounders such as age, sex and marital status.Results: The high group of the socioeconomic quintile had the highest mortality rate of 22.2 per 1000 PYO, 95% confidence interval (20.7-23.7. After adjusting for the potential confounders, the effect of socioeconomic status in the highest SES category was 0.10 times less likelihood of death compared to the lowest SES group (Hazard Ratio=0.90; p=0.042; 95% confidence interval [0.81-0.99].Conclusion: This study revealed that adult socioeconomic status is not significantly associated with adult mortality. Reducing the gap between the rich and the poor, though a worthwhile effort; might not be the most effective means of reducing adult mortality.

Christian Ashong Nikoi

2013-03-01

131

Associations between Children's Socioeconomic Status and Prefrontal Cortical Thickness  

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Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function performance and measures of prefrontal cortical function, but little is known about its anatomical correlates. Structural MRI and demographic data from a sample of 283 healthy children from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development were used to investigate the relationship…

Lawson, Gwendolyn M.; Duda, Jeffrey T.; Avants, Brian B.; Wu, Jue; Farah, Martha J.

2013-01-01

132

Relations of Gender and Socioeconomic Status to Physics through Metacognition and Self-Efficacy  

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The authors explored how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) predicted physics achievement as mediated by metacognition and physics self-efficacy. Data were collected from 338 high school students. The model designed for exploring how gender and SES-related differences in physics achievement were explained through metacognition and physics…

Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Pesman, Haki

2013-01-01

133

Intellectual Interest Mediates Gene x Socioeconomic Status Interaction on Adolescent Academic Achievement  

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Recent studies have demonstrated that genetic influences on cognitive ability and academic achievement are larger for children raised in higher socioeconomic status (SES) homes. However, little work has been done to document the psychosocial processes that underlie this Gene x Environment interaction. One process may involve the conversion of…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

134

Does Socioeconomic Status Matter? A Meta-Analysis on Parent Training Effectiveness for Disruptive Child Behavior  

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Disadvantaged family socioeconomic status (SES) is often assumed to diminish parent training program effectiveness. In examining effects of SES, influences of initial problem severity have been largely ignored. In the present meta-analysis, we examined (a) whether there is a differential influence of SES on parent training effectiveness at…

Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Matthys, Walter

2013-01-01

135

Linking Socioeconomic Status to Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors: A Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Analysis  

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…

Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien

2011-01-01

136

The Relative Importance of Race and Socioeconomic Status among Hispanic and White Students  

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Using a nationally representative sample from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, this research examines the longitudinal effects of race and socioeconomic status on 12th-grade educational achievement and achievement 2 years after high school. For 12th-grade outcomes, the authors found no statistical difference in scores between Hispanic…

Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio, Jr.

2007-01-01

137

Adults Engaged in Lifelong Learning in Taiwan: Analysis by Gender and Socioeconomic Status  

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This study examines the nature of adult engagement in lifelong learning in Taiwan. Previous studies have shown that gender and socioeconomic status (SES) are key variables related to equal access to education. Are these variables related to adults' engagement in lifelong learning in a specific country? This study analysed data from a survey of…

Chang, Dian-Fu; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Lin, Sung-Po

2012-01-01

138

The Impact of School Socioeconomic Status on Student-Generated Teacher Ratings  

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This paper uses ordinary least squares, logit and probit regressions, along with chi-square analysis applied to nationwide data from the New Zealand ratemyteacher website to establish if there is any correlation between student ratings of their teachers and the socioeconomic status of the school the students attend. The results show that students…

Agnew, Steve

2011-01-01

139

Role Models and the Psychological Characteristics That Buffer Low-Socioeconomic-Status Youth from Cardiovascular Risk  

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Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…

Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

2013-01-01

140

Socioeconomic Status and the Health of Youth: A Multilevel, Multidomain Approach to Conceptualizing Pathways  

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Previous research has clearly established associations between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor youth physical health outcomes. This article provides an overview of the main pathways through which low SES environments come to influence youth health. We focus on 2 prevalent chronic health problems in youth today, asthma and obesity. We…

Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Chen, Edith

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Impact of School Type on Parent Involvement and Academic Achievement of Kindergarten Students Controlling Socioeconomic Status.  

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Examines the impact of school type (public or private) on parent involvement and the academic achievement of kindergarten students. After controlling for student socioeconomic status, finds, for example, little or no difference in the academic achievement of kindergarteners in public and private schools or in the level of parent involvement.…

Park, Hae-Seong

2003-01-01

142

Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

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This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

2012-01-01

143

Family Socioeconomic Status, Parent Expectations, and a Child's Achievement  

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This study investigates how a family's socioeconomic status (SES) affects a child's educational achievement and differentiates the direct effects of SES on these experiences from the indirect ones as they are mediated by the school. This distinction is an important one as it is in the latter realm where social policy can have an impact.…

Stull, Judith C.

2013-01-01

144

Maternal Teaching Talk within Families of Mexican Descent: Influences of Task and Socioeconomic Status.  

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The interactions of 20 middle-class and 20 working-class Mexican American mothers and their 4-year-old children were observed during a school-type construction task (block building) and a home-type construction task (baking biscuits). Both task and socioeconomic status had significant effects on mothers' and children's conversations and behaviors.…

Eisenberg, Ann R.

2002-01-01

145

Collective Pedagogical Teacher Culture and Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status  

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Scholars have not adequately assessed how organizational cultures in schools differentially influence students' mathematics achievement by race and socioeconomic status (SES). We focus on what we term "collective pedagogical teacher culture", highlighting the role of professional communities and teacher collaboration in influencing mathematics…

Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Neena; Bottia, Martha Cecilia

2013-01-01

146

Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status  

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Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

Daniel Belstrøm

2014-04-01

147

You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood  

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The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

von Stumm, Sophie

2012-01-01

148

Socio-economic status of Dog owners in Nagpur city of Maharashtra  

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Full Text Available The survey was carried out to study socioeconomic status of 50 dog owners in Nagpur of Maharashtra.The result revealed the businessmen (38% are more interested in dog keeping followed by government servants (16% and student (12%. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 229-229

A.D. Sawaimul

2009-12-01

149

The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on High Stakes Testing Reexamined  

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High-stakes testing plays a critical role in education today in the United States. Every state uses a high-stakes test to comply with the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandate. While many believe high-stakes testing is an acceptable and accurate way to measure students' learning, one has to ask whether high stakes testing is an effective measurement…

Baker, Melissa; Johnston, Pattie

2010-01-01

150

Socioeconomic Status, Youth’s Eating Patterns and Meals Consumed away from Home  

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Full Text Available This study was design to determine whether there is a difference in the number of meals consumed away from home (restaurant or fast food between low socioeconomic status (SES and high SES adolescents. Additionally, this study sought to determine if the nutrients and food group chosen differs among children who consume meals away from home versus those who do not. Eighty four adolescences (51 boys and 33 girls ages 12-16 years and their parents from Shiraz, Iran completed the three 24 h diet recalls (one weekend and two week days. The demographics questionnaire was also completed from each participant. Data analyzed using SPSS and hypothesis tested using one way ANOVA. There was no significant difference in the number of meals consumed away from home in low SES adolescents compared to high SES (p = 0.464. However, those who consumed meals away from home reported a higher percentage of calories from fat (p = 0.007 and serving of fried vegetables (p = 0.010 compared to those who consumed no meals away from home. These findings suggest that intervention for adolescents eating patterns should provide information on choosing healthy meals away from home.

N. Hejazi

2009-01-01

151

Effects of Family Socioeconomic Status on Parents’ Views Concerning the Integration of Computers into Preschool Classrooms  

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Full Text Available Background: The rapid growth of ICT has led to an important increase in the use of computers in preschool age. However the benefits of this use are a debatable issue. Some focus on the positive effects of computers on learning and kids’ cognitive development while others believe that computers may negatively affect their social and motivational impact.Aim: The aim of this research was to study Greek parents’ views on preschools’ computer programs and how these views are influenced by the family’s socioeconomic level.Methodology: The survey involved 280 parents of children aged 3-5 years, of whom 140 were in the upper socioeconomic level and the other 140 in a lower one.Results: The upper socioeconomic level parents thought that the use of computers was appropriate for preschool children more than parents of lower socioeconomic status (P=0.01. and that its inclusion in the preschool center’s program would work in favor for children who have no computer at home (P=0.00. Parents with higher socioeconomic status felt more than the others that such a program can support the provision of knowledge (P=0.00, the development of mathematical (P=0.00 and linguistic skills (P=0.00 and entertain children (P=0.04. Furthermore, the upper socioeconomic level parents as opposed to the other group do not consider that the computer will remove preschool educator from their leading and teaching role (P=0.04 or reduce their communication with the preschoolers (P=0.00.Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that Greek parents, especially those of higher socioeconomic level, have a positive view on the integration of a computer program into the preschoolclassroom.

Triantafillia Natsiopoulou

2013-01-01

152

Parental Involvement at Home: Analyzing the Influence of Parents’ Socioeconomic Status  

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Full Text Available

The present study focuses on the relationship between parent’s socioeconomic status and parental involvement in their child’s education at home. Eighty Indian students who were studying in one the best performance-based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. It comprised 20 students from Year Two, 20 students from Year Three, 20 students from Year Four and 20 students from Year Five. Of these 80 students, 40 low-achieving students and 40 high-achieving students were identified based on the previous final year school examination results. A questionnaire was used to obtain quantitative data related to the parent’s socio-economic background and their ¬involvement strategies in their children’s education at home from the students’ parents. The findings of this study indicated that most parents, regardless of their socioeconomic background showed a high degree of involvement in most of the involvement strategies at home to ensure their child’s educational success. However, the parent’s education level, employment status, and income among the parents from the lower socioeconomic class affect their understanding and knowledge on the actual values that need to be placed on their child’s education. This causes their children to experience deprivation. As a result, the higher the parent’s socioeconomic status, the greater the parent’s involvement in their child’s education. As a result, the parents inculcate good skills, behaviour and values of education in their children which are extremely important for their academic success.

Keywords: Parental involvement; Socioeconomic; Education; National Type Tamil School

Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay

2012-02-01

153

Oral health and its association with nutritional status and socioeconomic condition in adolescents  

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Full Text Available Objective: To assess the oral health of adolescents and its association with nutritional status and socioeconomic condition. Methods: The population consisted of 313 adolescents, aged between 15 and 19 years. DMFT index was assessed using the form proposed by the World Health Organization for epidemiological surveys in oral health. For the diagnosis of nutritional status, body mass index was calculated, classified in accordance with the standard reference of the National Center for Health Statistics and the cut off points recommended by the World Health Organization. Socioeconomic data were obtained using the questionnaire of the Brazilian Association of Advertisers/Brazilian Association of Market Research Institutes. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results: Predominance of male adolescents (70.9% aged 15 years (31.3% was observed. The majority of the adolescents had DMFT higher than zero (81.2%, were eutrophic (88.5%, and were classified socioeconomically as Classes C and D (49.2% and 38.0%, respectively. There was a significant increase in DMFT index means with age (F = 44.65, p <0.001. Greater prevalences of DMFT higher than zero were found among males, among younger adolescents and among those of socioeconomic class C. There was no significant association between the classification of the DMFT and nutritional status. Conclusion: We point out the need for greater focus on preventive dentistry in the primary health care services, with commitment to collective health actions at the different levels of government.

Maria Goreti Aléssio Crispim

2010-04-01

154

Socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity independently predict health decline among older diabetics  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There are pervasive racial and socioeconomic differences in health status among older adults with type 2 diabetes. The extent to which racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities unfold to differential health outcomes has yet to be investigated among older adults with diabetes. This study examines whether or not race/ethnicity and SES are independent predictors of steeper rates of decline in self-rated health among older adults in the U.S. with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study population was a subset of diabetic adults aged 65 and older from the Health and Retirement Study. Respondents were followed up to 16 years. Multilevel cumulative logit regression models were used to examine the contributions of socioeconomic indicators, race/ethnicity, and covariates over time. Health decline was measured as a change in self-reported health status over the follow-up period. Results Relative to whites, blacks had a significantly lower cumulative odds of better health status over time (OR: 0.61, p Conclusions The author found that race/ethnicity and some socioeconomic indicators were independent predictors of health decline among older adults with diabetes.

Nicklett Emily J

2011-09-01

155

Over-indebtedness as a marker of socioeconomic status and its association with obesity: a cross-sectional study  

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Abstract Background The recent credit crunch will have implications for private households. Low socioeconomic status is associated to various diseases. While income, education and occupational status is frequently used in definitions of socioeconomic status, over-indebtedness of private households is usually not considered. Over-indebtedness is currently increasing in high-income countries. However, its association with health – particularly with obesity – remains unknown...

Münster Eva; Rüger Heiko; Ochsmann Elke; Letzel Stephan; Toschke André M

2009-01-01

156

Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors in Patients with Essential Hypertension  

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Full Text Available Systemic hypertension is a common disease in the population and is one of the most important risk factors whose prevalence reaches 28% in U.S.A, 44% in Europe, so that in 2025, it is estimated that hypertensive persons will reach 1.56 billion worldwide. In our country, the overall prevalence was 44.92%, mainly higher in males (50.17% than females (41.11%. We conducted an assessment of social and psychological factors in association with medical and biological routine quantification in a group of 80 hypertensives newly diagnosed, compared with a control group. Questionnaires were for studying the marital status, education level, quantifying the number of working hours per day, the level of physical training and professional socio-familial stress, smoking, alcohol consumption, after which patients were tested to assess the psychometric anxiety and depression using the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The results may support an increased risk of hypertension in individuals who are undergoing to social and family stress, working over 10 hours/day and who record mild or moderate levels of anxiety and depression at evaluation tests. These data support the implementation of complex programs to decrease the risk of hypertension by working professionals in the medical, social and psychological fields of expertise.

Corina DIMA-COZMA

2014-03-01

157

Is experimentally induced pain associated with socioeconomic status? Do poor people hurt more?  

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Background The association of pain and socioeconomic status is widely reported, yet much less clearly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of experimentally induced pain threshold and tolerance with socioeconomic status. Material/Methods The study sample consisted of 319 adult subjects from the population of the island of Vis, Croatia, which was previously shown to have a high level of social homogeneity. A manual dolorimeter was used to measure mechanical pressure pain threshold (least stimulus intensity) and pain tolerance (maximum tolerance stimulus intensity) on both hands. Pain tolerance interval was defined as the difference between pain tolerance and threshold. Years of schooling and material status were used as socioeconomic estimates. Results Both of the socioeconomic estimates were significantly correlated with pain threshold, tolerance, and tolerance interval (P<0.001). The mixed modeling analysis, controlled for the effects of age, gender, and 4 psychological variables, indicated that education was not a significant predictor in any of the 3 models. However, lower material status was significantly associated with lower pain tolerance (P=0.038) and narrower pain tolerance interval (P=0.032), but not with pain threshold (P=0.506). The overall percentages of explained variance were lower in the tolerance interval model (20.2%) than in pain tolerance (23.1%) and threshold (33.1%), suggesting the increasing share of other confounding variables in pain tolerance and even more so in tolerance interval model. Conclusions These results suggest a significant association between experimentally induced pain tolerance and tolerance interval with material status, suggesting that poor people indeed do hurt more. PMID:25029965

Miljkovic, Ana; Stipcic, Ana; Bras, Marijana; ?or?evic, Veljko; Brajkovic, Lovorka; Hayward, Caroline; Pavic, Arsen; Kolcic, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren

2014-01-01

158

Child-Directed Speech: Relation to Socioeconomic Status, Knowledge of Child Development and Child Vocabulary Skill  

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This study sought to determine why American parents from different socioeconomic backgrounds communicate in different ways with their children. Forty-seven parent-child dyads were videotaped engaging in naturalistic interactions in the home for ninety minutes at child age 2 ; 6. Transcripts of these interactions provided measures of child-directed…

Rowe, Meredith L.

2008-01-01

159

Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?  

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This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children. PMID:18086547

Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Roberts, Rebecca; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Salmon, Jo

2008-12-01

160

A STUDY ON RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACHIEVEMENT LEVELAND THEIR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF SECONDARY CHILDREN  

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Full Text Available Environment is a global concept today. Environmental Education is an approach to learning. Environmental Education means the educational process dealing with man's relationship of population, pollution resource, conservation, technology, energy, urban and rural planning to the total biosphere.A self-made questionnaire was made in order to find the relationship between the Environmental Education aptitude and socioeconomic status among class IX Children of rural, urban and semi urban. The question paper contents fifty (50 questions and it divided into two sector. In sector-I content (10 questions by which the socioeconomic status of the children can be known and Sector-II consists of four type questions by which Environmental Education aptitude can be understood.Socioeconomic status is evaluated from the response of sector-I questions by analyzing the educational status of the family, occupation of the parents & the monthly income of the family of a particular student or sample. After classifying the samples into 3 classes of status (upper, middle & lower according to their socioeconomic condition, the mean of the marks was computed. The mean score of every status group is then analyzed to know the relationship between Environmental Education achievement level and socioeconomic status. Although there are many factor are responsible for the academic achievements in Environmental Education. But from this observation it may conclude that there is a strong relationship between Environmental Education achievement and socio-economic status.

GOUTAM CHAKRABORTY

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

THE INFLUENCE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OF SOME ANTHROPOMETRIC, FUNCTIONAL, AND MOTOR INDICATORS ON YOUNG EXAMINEES  

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Full Text Available The research was carried out on 2,083 children from elementary schools in the municipality of Kisela Voda, Republic of Macedonia, their ages ranging from 6 to 10 years old.. The aim of this research is to verify the effects of the socioeconomic status on some anthropometric, functional and motor measurements. Two anthropometric measurements, two functional measurements (diastolic and systolic pressure, three measurements for determining body structure and six motor tests have been used to complete the research. The results have been processed with the appropriate multivariate and univariate statistical procedures. According to the results we can conclude that the socioeconomic status affects the body weight, height, percentage of adipose tissue and some tests that measure the fitness level in the body. These effects are more common within the female respondents

Seryozha Gontarev

2013-06-01

162

The Effects of Human Socioeconomic Status and Cultural Characteristics on Urban Patterns of Biodiversity  

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Full Text Available We present evidence that there can be substantial variation in species richness in residential areas differing in their socioeconomic and cultural characteristics. Many analyses of the impacts of urbanization on biodiversity rely on traditional “urban-to-rural” gradient measures, such as distance from urban center or population density, and thus can fail to account for the ways in which human socioeconomic and cultural characteristics are shaping the human–environment interaction and ecological outcomes. This influence of residential values and economic resources on biodiversity within the urban matrix has implications for human quality of life, for urban conservation strategies, and for urban planning.

Diane Hope

2005-06-01

163

Intergenerational health disparities: socioeconomic status, women's health conditions, and child behavior problems.  

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OBJECTIVE: Relatively little is known about the intergenerational mechanisms that lead to social disparities in child health. We examined whether the association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and child behavior problems is mediated by maternal health conditions and behavior. METHODS: Prospective cohort data (1979-1998) on 2,677 children and their mothers were obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. SES, the Child Behavior Problems Index (BPI), and maternal smoking, d...

Kahn, Robert S.; Wilson, Kathryn; Wise, Paul H.

2005-01-01

164

“A Study Of Socio-economic Status And Academic Achievement, kendriya Vidyalayas Of Dibrugarh District”  

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Educational achievement is only an aspect of development among many sides. Academic achievement may be influenced by various socio-economic factors like age, gender, family size, parent's education and occupation and also by economic status of the family. Without having opportunities it is not possible to achieve something in any sphere of life. The main objective of this study is to study the academic achievement of the students of Class X ,CBSE Examination, 2011-12 of the Kendriya Vidyalaya...

Haimya Gohain

2012-01-01

165

Socio-economic Status of Livestock farmers of Narasapura Village - A Benchmark Analysis  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted following exploratory research design to ascertain the profile characteristics of livestock farmers. Findings indicated that majority of the farmers had low to medium profile. Hence efforts should be undertaken by the Government, Veterinary Universities and other extension agencies in providing information on livestock farming practices so that they could bring about change in their living and improve the socio-economic status of livestock farmers. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 215-218

V. Chandrashekhar Murthy

2010-10-01

166

Socioeconomic status predicts hemispheric specialisation of the left inferior frontal gyrus in young children  

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Reading is a complex skill that is not mastered by all children. At the age of five, on the cusp of pre-reading development, many factors combine to influence a child’s future reading success, including neural and behavioural factors such as phonological awareness and the auditory processing of phonetic input, and environmental factors, such as socioeconomic status (SES). We investigated the interactions between these factors in five-year old children by administering a battery of standardi...

Raizada, Rajeev D. S.; Richards, Todd L.; Meltzoff, Andrew; Kuhl, Patricia K.

2008-01-01

167

Pathways linking socioeconomic status to obesity through depression and lifestyle factors among young US adults  

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Obesity and depression are two diseases of major public health importance. While both correlate with each other, potential pathways involving depression that would link socioeconomic status (SES) to lifestyle factors and obesity have not been systematically examined using nationally representative data. Using rich data on 2,217 US young adults aged 20–39 years from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) and multivariate linear and logistic regression models, we exami...

Beydoun, May A.; Wang, Youfa

2010-01-01

168

Obesity among school children in a province of southern Thailand and its association with socioeconomic status  

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The association of nutrition status of children aged 7–12 years (n=663) with socioeconomic factors in a province of southern Thailand in 1995 was investigated. Three type of schools were surveyed: a school with a higher educational standard (elite school) in the municipality of the province, a school with many children from low-income families (low-income school) in the same municipality, and five ordinary schools in rural areas of the province (district schools). The proportions of obese c...

Hirata, Mari; Kuropakornpong, Valaya; Funahara, Yoshinori; Kamae, Isao; Sato, Shigeaki

1998-01-01

169

Changes in the influence of socio-economic status on obesity among aging Canadian baby boomers.  

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A trend analysis was conducted on the influence of socio-economic (SES) status on obesity levels in Canadian baby boomers over time. Two, large scale national studies conducted 10 years apart were analyzed. Riley’s Social Change Model was used to frame how the influence of SES on obesity will converge over time due to social changes to food production and eating habits coupled with reliance on modern technology. Partial support was found for convergence of SES and obesity associations over ...

Cummings, Linda Martha Dawn

2009-01-01

170

Socioeconomic Status, Negative Affect, and Modifiable Cancer Risk Factors in African American Smokers  

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The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had a...

Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

2008-01-01

171

Running and jumping variables in RD designs: Evidence based on race, socioeconomic status, and birth weights  

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Throughout the years spanned by the US Vital Statistics Linked Birth and Infant Death Data (1983-2002), birth weights are measured most precisely for children of white and highly educated mothers. As a result, less healthy children, who are more likely to be of low socioeconomic status, are disproportionately represented at multiples of round numbers. This has crucial implications for any study using a regression discontinuity design in which birth weights are used as the running variable. Fo...

Barreca, Alan; Guldi, Melanie; Lindo, Jason M.; Waddell, Glen R.

2010-01-01

172

Development and Initial Testing of a New Socioeconomic Status Measure Based on Housing Data  

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Socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with many health outcomes. Commonly used datasets such as medical records often lack data on SES but do include address information. The authors sought to determine whether an SES measure derived from housing characteristics is associated with other SES measures and outcomes known to be associated with SES. The data come from a telephone survey of parents/guardians of children aged 1–17 years who resided in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and Jacks...

Juhn, Young J.; Beebe, Timothy J.; Finnie, Dawn M.; Sloan, Jeff; Wheeler, Philip H.; Yawn, Barbara; Williams, Arthur R.

2011-01-01

173

IQ Socioeconomic Status, and Early Death: The US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth  

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Objective: To assess whether the association between cognitive ability (IQ) and early mortality is mediated by socioeconomic status (SES) or whether the association between SES and mortality reflects a spurious association caused by IQ. Methods: The participants were from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n=11,321). IQ was assessed at age 16 to 23 years and the participants were followed up to 40 to 47 years of age. Results: Controlling for sex, birth year, race/ethnicity, baselin...

2009-01-01

174

Do general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status account for performance on the Children's Gambling Task?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies that use the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and its age-appropriate versions as indices of affective decision-making during childhood and adolescence have demonstrated significant individual differences in scores. Our study investigated the association between general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status (SES) and its effect on the development of affective decision-making in preschoolers by using a computerized version of the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). We administered the ...

Mata, Fernanda; Sallum, Isabela; Miranda, De?bora M.; Bechara, Antoine; Malloy-diniz, Leandro F.

2013-01-01

175

Socioeconomic Status and Health: What is the role of Reserve Capacity?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A robust, linear association between socioeconomic status (SES) and health has been identified across many populations and endpoints. This relationship is typically monotonic, so that each step down the SES hierarchy brings increased vulnerability to disease and premature mortality. Despite growing attention to health disparities, scientists and policy makers have made little progress toward confronting their causes and implementing effective solutions. Using the Reserve Capacity Model (Gallo...

Gallo, Linda C.; Los Monteros, Karla Espinosa; Shivpuri, Smriti

2009-01-01

176

Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis  

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Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scot...

Leyland Alastair H; Gray Linsay

2009-01-01

177

Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Melanoma, Ultraviolet Radiation, and Socioeconomic Status  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

2011-10-19

178

Personality, socio-economic status and inflammation: cross-sectional, population-based study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Associations between socio-economic status (SES), personality and inflammation were examined to determine whether low SES subjects scoring high on neuroticism or hostility might suffer relatively higher levels of inflammation than affluent subjects. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 666 subjects were recruited from areas of high (most deprived – “MD”) and low (least deprived – “LD”) deprivation. IL-6, ICAM-1, CRP and fibrinogen were measured a...

Millar, Keith; Lloyd, Suzanne M.; Mclean, Jennifer S.; Batty, David G.; Burns, Harry; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Deans, Kevin A.; Ford, Ian; Mcconnachie, Alex; Mcginty, Agnes; Mottus, Re?ne; Packard, Chris J.; Sattar, Naveed; Shields, Paul G.; Nathan, Yoga

2013-01-01

179

Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status in primary school children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and sass. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)

180

Association between socio-economic status and sexual behavior of adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of contextual factors as determinants of sexual behavior of adolescents. It has been found that lower socioeconomic status is associated with risky sexual behavior. Sexual behavior is individual but develops under strong influence of cultural and other influences. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of family’s socioeconomic status and risky sexual behavior of adolescents in Belgrade. Method. Self-administered questionnaire was used in secondary schools in Belgrade, and 1,782 adolescents attending first grade filled the questionnaire. For the analyses of predictors of risky sexual behavior, multiple logistic regression was used. Results. Parents’ occupations did not show significant association with any of analyzed behaviors. Adolescents who received weekly disposable money above average were 2.5 times more likely to ever have had sexual intercourse, and if sexually active were more likely to use contraception. Perceived family’s wealth was a significant predictor of ever having sex (OR=1.9; CI 1.2-2.8 and not using contraception (OR=4.3; CI 1.2-15.0. Conclusion. Socioeconomic status is associated with sexual behaviors of adolescents. Fifteen-year olds who perceive their families as wealthier are more likely to ever have had sex and not use any kind of contraception. Adolescents with higher weekly income are more likely to ever have had sex and use contraception than their counterpats with less weekly disposable money. .

Vukovi? Dejana S.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Socioeconomic status and hospitalization in the very old: a retrospective study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status could affect the demand for hospital care. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of age, socioeconomic status and comorbidity on acute hospital admissions among elderly. Methods We retrospectively examined the discharge abstracts data of acute care hospital admissions of residents in Rome aged 75 or more years in the period 1997–2000. We used the Hospital Information System of Rome, the Tax Register, and the Population Register of Rome for socio-economic data. The rate of hospitalization, modified Charlson's index of comorbidity, and level of income in the census tract of residence were obtained. Rate ratios and 95% confidence limits were computed to assess the relationship between income deciles and rate of hospitalization. Cross-tabulation was used to explore the distribution of the index of comorbidity by deciles of income. Analyses were repeated for patients grouped according to selected diseases. Results Age was associated with a marginal increase in the rate of hospitalization. However, the hospitalization rate was inversely related to income in both sexes. Higher income was associated with lower comorbidity. The same associations were observed in patients admitted with a principal diagnosis of chronic condition (diabetes mellitus, heart failure, chron obstructive pulmonary disease or stroke, but not hip fracture. Conclusion Lower social status and associated comorbidity, more than age per se, are associated with a higher rate of hospitalization in very old patients.

Belleudi Valeria

2007-08-01

182

Socioeconomic status and mortality after acute myocardial infarction: a study from Iran  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown an inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD. Little is known about this association in Iran. This study aimed to investigate whether mortality after myocardial infarction (MI varies by SES. Methods In a retrospective study, 1283 MI patients who hospitalized in Tehran Heart Center from March 2005 to March 2006 were followed up in March 2008. Demographic, clinical and SES data were collected from case records and by telephone interviews. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the predictive effect of socioeconomic factors on outcome. Results In all 664 patients were studied. Of these, 500 patients were alive and 164 were dead due to MI (64 died at hospital and 100 died at home. The results of regression analysis showed that in addition to treatment (OR = 9.52, 95%CI 4.84-18.7, having diabetes (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.12-2.81 or hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.14-2.90, socioeconomic variables including living area in square per person (lowest level vs. upper level OR = 4.92, 95% CI 2.11-11.4, unemployment (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 1.50-8.13 and education (OR for illiterate patients = 2.51, 95% CI 1.00-6.31 were the most significant contributing factors to increased mortality after MI. Conclusion Although the findings should be interpreted with caution, the study results indicated that socioeconomic variables were significant contributing factors to increased mortality after myocardial infarction. The underlying role of socioeconomic status on increased mortality after MI deserves further investigation.

Najafi Mahdi

2011-02-01

183

Impact of socioeconomic status on Brazilian elderly health Impacto do status socioeconômico na saúde de idosos brasileiros  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on elderly health. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean. The sample comprised 2,143 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 years and older living in the urban area of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Linear regression models estimated the effect of socioeconomic status indicators (years of schooling completed, occupation and purchasing power on each one of the following health indicators: depression, self-rated health, morbidity and memory capacity. A 5% significance level was set. RESULTS: There was a significant effect of years of education and purchasing power on self-rated health and memory capacity when controlled for the variables number of diseases during childhood, bed rest for at least a month due to health problems during childhood, self-rated health during childhood, living arrangements, sex, age, marital status, category of health insurance, intake of medicines. Only purchasing power had an effect on depression. Despite the bivariate association between socioeconomic status indicators and number of diseases (morbidity, this effect was no longer seen after including the controls in the model. CONCLUSIONS: The study results confirm the association between socioeconomic status indicators and health among Brazilian elderly, but only for some dimensions of socioeconomic status and certain health outcomes.OBJETIVO: Investigar o impacto do status socioeconômico na saúde de idosos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a base de dados transversal Inquérito sobre a Saúde, o Bem estar o Envelhecimento na América Latina e Caribe. Analisaram-se 2.143 idosos (60 anos ou mais residentes em domicílios, na área urbana de São Paulo, no ano de 2000. Modelos de regressões lineares estimaram o efeito dos indicadores de status socioeconômico (anos de estudo completos, ocupação e poder de compra nos indicadores de saúde: depressão, auto-avaliação da saúde, morbidade e capacidade de memória. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: Observou-se efeito significativo dos anos de estudo e do poder de compra na auto-avaliação da saúde e na capacidade da memória, quando controlado pelas variáveis: número de doenças antes dos 15 anos de idade, ter ficado na cama ao menos por um mês por problema de saúde antes dos 15 anos, auto-avaliação da saúde na infância, arranjos de vida, sexo, idade, estado civil, tipo de seguro de saúde, ingestão de remédios. Somente a capacidade de compra apresentou efeito na depressão. Apesar das análises bivariadas indicarem uma associação entre status socioeconômico e o número de doenças (morbidade, este efeito desapareceu quando os controles entraram no modelo. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam a associação entre indicadores socioeconômicos e a saúde dos idosos brasileiros, mas somente entre alguns indicadores e certos aspectos da saúde.

Marília Ramos

2007-08-01

184

Socio-Economic Status and Parental Savings for Higher Education among Malaysian Bumiputera Families  

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Full Text Available Socioeconomic status of a family is a benchmark for a student in Malaysia to get financial aid in education, on top of their academic performance. As the number of students obtaining good grades in their Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia examination increases, entry to public universities become more competitive and the chances to get a full education financing become smaller. Most students resort to loans provided by PTPTN as many still do not have any form of saving to finance their higher education. This study attempts to explore on parental saving for children’s higher education among Bumiputera across different socio-economic groups.  A survey was conducted in UiTM and six of its affiliated colleges, with the total respondents of 371. Questionnaires to parents were distributed through the students. The results of the study reveal that only 15% of the students sampled received a form of financial aid from the government. The findings also show high correlation between the socio-economic status of parents and the level of awareness towards saving for their children. The findings are hoped to create awareness in the society that saving incentives for higher education can be utilized by all low and middle-income families in all communities.

Nor Rashidah Zainal

2009-07-01

185

Inequalities in maternal care in Italy: the role of socioeconomic and migrant status  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Maternal care is affected by socioeconomic factors. This study analyses the effect of maternal education, employment and citizenship on some antenatal and postnatal care indicators in Italy. METHODS: Data are from two population-based follow-up surveys conducted to evaluate the quality [...] of maternal care in 25 Italian Local Health Units in 2008/9 and 2010/1 (6942 women). Logistic models were applied and interactions among independent variables were explored. RESULTS: Education and employment status affect antenatal and postnatal care indicators and migrant women are less likely to make use of health opportunities. Low education status exacerbates the initial social disadvantage of migrants. Migrant women are also more affected by socioeconomic pressure to restart working early, with negative impact on postnatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions focusing on women's empowerment may tackle inequalities in maternal care for those women, Italians or migrants, who have a worse initial maternal health literacy due to their lower socioeconomic conditions.

Laura, Lauria; Manila, Bonciani; Angela, Spinelli; Michele E., Grandolfo.

2013-06-01

186

Inequalities in maternal care in Italy: the role of socioeconomic and migrant status  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Maternal care is affected by socioeconomic factors. This study analyses the effect of maternal education, employment and citizenship on some antenatal and postnatal care indicators in Italy. METHODS: Data are from two population-based follow-up surveys conducted to evaluate the quality [...] of maternal care in 25 Italian Local Health Units in 2008/9 and 2010/1 (6942 women). Logistic models were applied and interactions among independent variables were explored. RESULTS: Education and employment status affect antenatal and postnatal care indicators and migrant women are less likely to make use of health opportunities. Low education status exacerbates the initial social disadvantage of migrants. Migrant women are also more affected by socioeconomic pressure to restart working early, with negative impact on postnatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions focusing on women's empowerment may tackle inequalities in maternal care for those women, Italians or migrants, who have a worse initial maternal health literacy due to their lower socioeconomic conditions.

Laura, Lauria; Manila, Bonciani; Angela, Spinelli; Michele E., Grandolfo.

187

The Relationship between Emotional Quotients, Socioeconomic Status and Performance in Reading Comprehension: A Case Study of Iranian High School Students  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional quotient (EQ and socioeconomic status and their effect on the performance of EFL learners in reading comprehension at high school. To this end, 80 homogenous EFL female students were selected from different high schools in Eghlid with the age range of 14-17. The participants were asked to complete Quick Placement Test, the "Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire", and the "Socioeconomic Questionnaire". Moreover, they answered the reading comprehension test. The Data analysis and statistical calculations revealed that there was a significant relationship between the students’ emotional intelligence, socioeconomic status and their reading ability.

Mohammad R. Talebinejad

2012-09-01

188

Household and community socioeconomic and environmental determinants of child nutritional status in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine the household and community level socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with child nutritional status in Cameroon, and changes in the effects of these factors during the 1990s economic crisis. We further consider age-specific effects of household economic status on child nutrition. Methods Child nutritional status was measured by weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores. Data were from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1991 and 1998. We used analysis of variance to assess the bivariate association between the explanatory factors and nutritional status. Multivariate, multilevel analyses were undertaken to estimate the net effects of both household and community factors. Results Average WAZ and HAZ declined respectively from -0.70 standard deviations (SD, i.e. 0.70 SD below the reference median, to -0.83 SD (p = 0.006 and from -1.03 SD to -1.14 SD (p = 0.026 between 1991 and 1998. These declines occurred mostly among boys, children over 12 months of age, and those of low socioeconomic status. Maternal education and maternal health seeking behavior were associated with better child nutrition. Household economic status had an overall positive effect that increased during the crisis, but it had little effect in children under 6 months of age. Improved household (water, sanitation and cooking fuel and community environment had positive effects. Children living in the driest regions of the country were consistently worst off, and those in the largest cities were best off. Conclusion Both household and community factors have significant impact on child health in Cameroon. Understanding these relationships can facilitate design of age- and community-specific intervention programs.

Pongou Roland

2006-04-01

189

Engaging women volunteers of high socioeconomic status in supporting socioeconomically disadvantaged tuberculosis patients in Chiang Rai, Thailand  

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Full Text Available Problem: The 2008 tuberculosis (TB surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736 defaulted from treatment. Context: TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. Action: We engaged Chiang Rai women’s organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic status to support poor TB patients financially and socially. A group of women formed a team to support these TB patients (n = 192 by raising and sustaining funds and providing home visits (n = 37. TB surveillance and patient-fund register data were used to evaluate TB treatment outcomes. Outcome: The success of TB treatment was significantly higher for patients receiving financial support (relative risk [RR]: 1.351; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.53; P < 0.000. Lower death rates in all groups were observed among patients receiving financial support. However, financial assistance alone did not improve treatment outcomes for migrant patients. Thirty-seven patients (25 Thai, eight hill tribe, four migrants who were visited by women volunteers at home achieved 95% TB treatment success. Discussion: It is possible to involve volunteers to support poor TB patients. Willingness to support TB patients was driven by presenting provincial TB epidemiology information, research data on the experience of poor patients and the inspiring experiences of other women volunteers. Future research should investigate the reasons for the high treatment success among patients who received home visits.

Pacharee Kantipong

2013-01-01

190

Osteoporosis medications used by older African-American women: effects of socioeconomic status and psychosocial factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of socioeconomic status, knowledge and Health Belief Model variables on ever use of hormone therapy and other osteoporosis medications among older African-American women. One-hundred and two African-American women, 60 years old or older, randomly selected from Registers of Voters and a list of participants in educational activities of a university hospital, were interviewed in their homes. Data collected concerned knowledge of osteoporosis, Health Belief Model variables, and cues to action such as history of hysterectomy, personal and family history of cancer, bone mineral density testing, and discussion with a physician about osteoporosis. Socioeconomic status indicators included years of education and household income. The average respondent age was 71.1 years; 47% were current or previous users (ever users) of hormone therapy, and 11% were ever users of other osteoporosis medications. Knowledge of osteoporosis, (odds ratio = 1.4), Hormone therapy benefits, (odds ratio = 1.63), a hysterectomy (odds ratio = 4.35), and a family history of cancer (odds ratio = 4.0) increased the odds of ever using hormone therapy. Perceptions of susceptibility (odds ratio = 3.5) and discussion with a physician about osteoporosis (odds ratio = 6.4) increased odds of ever using other osteoporosis medications. Socioeconomic status mediated the effects of knowledge of osteoporosis on ever using hormone therapy. Efforts to promote bone health to older African-American women should focus primary efforts to increasing perceptions of susceptibility to fracture and persuading physicians to initiate discussions about fracture prevention with African-American patients before a fracture occurs. PMID:15989210

Unson, Christine G; Fortinsky, Richard; Prestwood, Karen; Reisine, Susan

2005-08-01

191

Subclinical psychopathology and socio-economic status in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The most potent risk factor for affective disorders is a family history of affective disorder but the specific factors that are transmitted in families are unknown. It is possible to investigate the relation between risk factors and affective disorder by using a high-risk design e.g.: a study of the healthy relatives of patients with affective disorders. AIM: To compare psychopathology and socio-economic status between twins with a co-twin history of affective disorder and twins without. METHODS: In a cross-sectional high-risk case-control study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nation-wide registers. Participants were assessed using semi-structured psychiatric interviews and self-rating of psychopathology. RESULTS: High-Risk twins had a lower education level, a lower work position and tendency towards being more often unemployed and early retired than the Low-Risk twins. Furthermore, they presented higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and were more likely to experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Healthy twins with a high genetic liability to affective disorder seem to present lower socio-economic status, higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and more often experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis than twins with no familial history of affective disorder. It is not possible from the present cross-sectional data to determine the causality of these findings, thus genetic liability to affective disorder, socio-economic status and minor psychopathology seem to have a complex interrelation.

Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

2006-01-01

192

Parental Socioeconomic Status, Childhood Asthma and Medication Use - A Population-Based Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Little is known about how parental socioeconomic status affects offspring asthma risk in the general population, or its relation to healthcare and medication use among diagnosed children. Methods This register-based cohort study included 211,520 children born between April 2006 and December 2008 followed until December 2010. Asthma diagnoses were retrieved from the National Patient Register, and dispensed asthma medications from the Prescribed Drug Register. Parental socioeconomic status (income and education) were retrieved from Statistics Sweden. The associations between parental socioeconomic status and outcomes were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression. Results Compared to the highest parental income level, children exposed to all other levels had increased risk of asthma during their first year of life (e.g. hazard ratio, HR 1.19, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.09–1.31 for diagnosis and HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.08–1.26 for medications for the lowest quintile) and the risk was decreased after the first year, especially among children from the lowest parental income quintile (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77–0.92 for diagnosis, and HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74–0.86 for medications). Further, compared to children with college-educated parents, those whose parents had lower education had increased risk of childhood asthma regardless of age. Children with the lowest parental education had increased risk of an inpatient (HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.61–2.65) and outpatient (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18–1.47) asthma diagnosis. Among diagnosed children, those from families with lower education used fewer controller medications than those whose parents were college graduates. Conclusions Our findings indicate an age-varying association between parental income and childhood asthma and consistent inverse association regardless of age between parental education and asthma incidence, dispensed controller medications and inpatient care which should be further investigated and remedied. PMID:25188036

Gong, Tong; Lundholm, Cecilia; Rejno, Gustaf; Mood, Carina; Langstrom, Niklas; Almqvist, Catarina

2014-01-01

193

Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general practice. METHODS: We enrolled 184 general practices and 5260 hypertensive patients. The general practitioners reported information about BP and diagnosis of diabetes. Information about education, income, antihypertensive drug treatment and other co-morbidity was retrieved from relevant registers from Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP

Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M

2012-01-01

194

A Study on Socioeconomic Status and Obesity in a Group of Adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on obesity in a group of adolescents. METHODS: This study was performed Ankara with students of two schools with low SES (n:183) and high SES (n:187) according to data Prime Minister Republic of Turkey, Turkish Statistical Institute. The total of 370 adolescents, 11-13 years-old, joined to the study which was 186 boys and 184 girls. The anthropometric measurements and the prevalence of obesity were d...

Nurcan Yabanci; Isil Simsek

2011-01-01

195

Density and type of food retailers surrounding Canadian schools: variations across socioeconomic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lower socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods may have differential access to food retailers, potentially explaining the varying area-level obesity rates. The food retail environment around 188 schools across Canada was examined, including full-service restaurants, fast food restaurants, sub/sandwich retailers, donut/coffee shops, convenience stores, and grocery stores. School addresses were linked to census data to obtain area-level SES measures. Access to food retailers was generally not associated with the neighbourhood SES in the immediate proximity. Within the broader neighbourhood, lower SES neighbourhoods had access to fewer food retailers of all types. This effect was diminished after taking population density into account. PMID:19121973

Seliske, Laura M; Pickett, William; Boyce, William F; Janssen, Ian

2009-09-01

196

Does socioeconomic status affect mortality subsequent to hospital admission for community acquired pneumonia among older persons?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality for various health conditions. The purpose of this study was twofold: to examine the mortality experience of older persons admitted to hospital with community acquired pneumonia and to test the hypothesis of whether an association exists between socioeconomic status and mortality subsequent to hospital admission for community-acquired pneumonia. Methods A population based retrospective cohort study was conducted including all older persons patients admitted to Ontario hospitals with community acquired pneumonia between April 1995 and March 2001. The main outcome measures were 30 day and 1 year mortality subsequent to hospital admission for community-acquired pneumonia. Results Socioeconomic status for each patient was imputed from median neighbourhood income. Multivariate analyses were undertaken to adjust for age, sex, co-morbid illness, hospital and physician characteristics. The study sample consisted of 60,457 people. Increasing age, male gender and high co-morbidity increased the risk for mortality at 30 days and one year. Female gender and having a family physician as attending physician reduced mortality risk. The adjusted odds of death after 30-days for the quintiles compared to the lowest income quintile (quintile 1 were 1.02 (95% CI: 0.95–1.09 for quintile 2, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97–1.12 for quintile 3, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.94–1.08 for quintile 4 and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.96–1.12 for the highest income quintile (quintile 5. For 1 year mortality, compared to the lowest income quintile the adjusted odds ratios were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.96–1.06 for quintile 2, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.94–1.04 for quintile 3, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.93–1.05 for quintile 4 and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.97–1.10 for the highest income quintile. Conclusion Socioeconomic status is not associated with mortality in the older persons from community-acquired pneumonia in Ontario, Canada.

Moineddin Rahim

2005-04-01

197

Socioeconomic Status, Parental Investments, and the Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes of Low-Income Children from Immigrant and Native Households  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examines the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes and if these relations are mediated by the quality of children's home environment and moderated by family nativity status. Data come from 1459 low-income families (n=257 and 1202 immigrant and native families,…

Mistry, R.S.; Biesanz, J.C.; Chien, N.; Howes, C.; Benner, A.D.

2008-01-01

198

Preventive Care Use among the Belgian Elderly Population: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter?  

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Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (?65 years and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the independent effect of socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and SES on the four preventive services. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, region, survey year, living situation, risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and health status (self-assessed health and longstanding illness lower educated elderly were significantly less likely to report a blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement. For instance, elderly participants with no degree or only primary education were less likely to have had a cholesterol and blood sugar measurement compared with those with higher education. Pneumococcus vaccination was not related to educational level, but lower income groups were more likely to have had a pneumococcus immunization. Influenza vaccination was not significantly related to SES. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to promote cholesterol and blood sugar measurement for lower SE groups, and pneumococcus immunization for the entire elderly population. Influenza immunization seems to be equally spread among different SE groups.

Sarah Hoeck

2013-12-01

199

Resting frontal brain activity: linkages to maternal depression and socio-economic status among adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested the prediction that resting frontal brain asymmetry would be a marker of vulnerability for depression among adolescents. Baseline electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded from 12 to 14-year-old adolescents whose mothers had a history of depression (high risk group) and whose mothers were lifetime-free of axis I psychopathology (low risk group). High risk adolescents demonstrated the hypothesized pattern of relative left frontal hypo-activity on alpha-band measures. Such effects were specific to the mid-frontal region and generally consistent across reference montages. Socio-economic status (SES) also predicted alpha asymmetry. When the effects of SES and risk status were jointly assessed, SES contributed unique variance to the prediction of frontal brain asymmetry. The implications of the observed relations among maternal depression, SES, and frontal brain asymmetry are discussed. PMID:15130526

Tomarken, Andrew J; Dichter, Gabriel S; Garber, Judy; Simien, Christopher

2004-10-01

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Dynamics of people's socio-economic status in the face of schistosomiasis control interventions in Ukerewe district, Tanzania.  

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There is a paucity of research on micro-level assessment of the dynamics of socio-economic status following health interventions. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in low-income countries. Indeed, in such settings information about income is usually lacking and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 159 households in a village in north-western Tanzania before and 1 year after participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based on durable assets ownership (e.g. bicycle and radio) and household characteristics dealing with ownership of land and house construction features (e.g. type of walls and roof). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.761 to -0.448, and the mean from -0.204 (standard deviation (SD) 1.924) to 0.193 (SD 2.079) between pre- and post-intervention phases. The difference in socio-economic status of the people comparing the pre- and post-intervention phases was highly statistically significant (pmodel with a random effect on the households. We argue that significant changes in the socio-economic status observed in our study are attributable to the PHAST intervention, despite other sporadic interventions against schistosomiasis. PMID:23333229

Mwanga, Joseph R; Lwambo, Nicholas J S; Rumisha, Susan F; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

Exploring Links to Unorganized and Organized Physical Activity during Adolescence: The Role of Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Weight Status, and Enjoyment of Physical Education  

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There is limited research on participation context in studies of physical activity correlates during adolescence. Using an ecological approach, this study explored the association of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), weight status, and physical education enjoyment with participation in organized and unorganized physical activity contexts in a…

Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Ahmed, Rashid; Farnoush, Michelle

2010-01-01

202

Effects of infants’ birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status on birth weight  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the effects of infants’ birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES on birth weight. Methods. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants’ first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants’ birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. Results: First and fourth births had lower birth weights compared with second and third births in all maternal ages in controlling parity, birth weight increases with maternal age up to the early 24, and then tends to level off. Male gender, maternal age 20-24 years, second and third births had a significant positive effect on birth weight. Lower family economic status and higher educational attainment were significantly associated with lower birth weight. For women in the 15-19 and 40-44 years age groups, the second birth order was associated with the most undesirable effect on birth weight. Conclusion: Accessibility of health care services, parity, maternal age, and socioeconomic factors are strongly associated with infants’ birth weight. 

Seyed J. Gaemmaghami

2013-09-01

203

Socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water in Spain  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Disinfection by-products in drinking water are chemical contaminants that have been associated with cancer and other adverse effects. Exposure occurs from consumption of tap water, inhalation and dermal absorption. Methods We determined the relationship between socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in 1271 controls from a multicentric bladder cancer case-control study in Spain. Information on lifetime drinking water sources, swimming pool attendance, showering-bathing practices, and socioeconomic status (education, income was collected through personal interviews. Results The most highly educated subjects consumed less tap water (57% and more bottled water (33% than illiterate subjects (69% and 17% respectively, p-value = 0.003. These differences became wider in recent time periods. The time spent bathing or showering was positively correlated with attained educational level (p Conclusions The most highly educated subjects were less exposed to chlorination by-products through ingestion but more exposed through dermal contact and inhalation in pools and showers/baths. Health risk perceptions and economic capacity may affect patterns of water consumption that can result in differences in exposure to water contaminants.

Serra Consol

2011-03-01

204

Nutritional status, lifestyle, socioeconomic profile and food consumption of commercial workers  

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Full Text Available Objective: Characterize the nutritional status, lifestyle, socioeconomic profile and food consumption of commercial workers customers of a social restaurant in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 156 individuals, 71 (45.5% men and 85 (54.5% women, aged between 19 and 59 years. The variables analyzed were: weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, history of chronic diseases, alcoholism, smoking and physical activity, family income, education and food intake of a subsample. Theadequacy of consumption was assessed by observing the recommendations of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI and nutritional requirements of the Workers’ Food Program.Results: We observed high prevalence of overweight 49 (31.4% and obesity 18 (11.5%, high rate of physical inactivity 109 (69.9%. Alcohol is often consumed weekly by 27(17.4%. 111 (71.2% of individuals studied until high school; and 104 (66.7% belonged to socioeconomic class C. 136 (87,2% showed no personal history of chronic diseases, or practice of smoking. Dietary intake adequacy revealed adequacy for macronutrients, fiber, saturated fats and micronutrients, with excessive sodium intake. Conclusion: Nutritional status was characterized as high prevalence of overweight and obesity, associated with a high abdominal adiposity, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption and socioeconomicprofile predominantly C1 and C2. Although the present study shows an adequate intake of micronutrients and macronutrients, there are excessive caloric intake, based on profile of physical inactivity and overweight.

José Wesley dos Santos Alves

2012-06-01

205

The associations between socioeconomic status and obesity in Korean children from 1998 to 2009  

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Full Text Available Increasing interests have been shown in associations between socioeconomic status (SES and obesity in relation to health inequality. The research objectives were 1 to examine associations between SES and child obesity (including overweight in Korea over 10 years and 2 to explore possible underlying mechanisms of relationships between SES and obesity. This study used the nationally representative data (KNHA-NES from 1998, 2005, to 2009. Children (10-18 year-old were grouped by household income (low, middle-low, middle-high and high adjusted for the number of family members. Z-scores of height, weight, and BMI for each child were calculated from measured anthropometric data using the 2007 Korean national growth charts. No statistically significant associations were found, however, changes in association patterns were noted. The lower SES group showed shorter height as well as lighter weight among Korean children. More research should be conducted to understand the effects of socioeconomic status on child obesity.  

So-Young Nam

2013-11-01

206

Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.  

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This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 (p tortillas (corn bread rich in calcium) decreased BPb levels in the lower SES group, but the relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of milk products significantly (p < 0.05) reduced BPb levels in the higher SES group. In 112 women whose diets were deficient in calcium, taking calcium supplements lowered their blood lead levels about 7 micrograms/dl. A predictive model fitted to these data, using the strongest predictors plus gestational age, showed a difference of 14 micrograms/dl between the best and worst scenarios in women from public hospitals. Avoiding use of lead-glazed ceramics, consuming diets rich in calcium, and, if needed, taking calcium supplements, would be expected to result in substantial lowering of BPb, especially in pregnant women of low socioeconomic status. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8930548

Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

1996-01-01

207

The HUNT study: participation is associated with survival and depends on socioeconomic status, diseases and symptoms  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Population based studies are important for prevalence, incidence and association studies, but their external validity might be threatened by decreasing participation rates. The 50 807 participants in the third survey of the HUNT Study (HUNT3, 2006-08, represented 54% of the invited, necessitating a nonparticipation study. Methods Questionnaire data from HUNT3 were compared with data collected from several sources: a short questionnaire to nonparticipants, anonymous data on specific diagnoses and prescribed medication extracted from randomly selected general practices, registry data from Statistics Norway on socioeconomic factors and mortality, and from the Norwegian Prescription Database on drug consumption. Results Participation rates for HUNT3 depended on age, sex and type of symptoms and diseases, but only small changes were found in the overall prevalence estimates when including data from 6922 nonparticipants. Among nonparticipants, the prevalences of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders were higher both in nonparticipant data and data extracted from general practice, compared to that reported by participants, whilst the opposite pattern was found, at least among persons younger than 80 years, for urine incontinence, musculoskeletal pain and headache. Registry data showed that the nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status and a higher mortality than participants. Conclusion Nonparticipants had lower socioeconomic status, higher mortality and showed higher prevalences of several chronic diseases, whilst opposite patterns were found for common problems like musculoskeletal pain, urine incontinence and headache. The impact on associations should be analyzed for each diagnosis, and data making such analyses possible are provided in the present paper.

Langhammer Arnulf

2012-09-01

208

Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX - An unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome  

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One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX personsretired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated.

Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Juul, Svend

2013-01-01

209

Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.  

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One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668

Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

2013-06-01

210

Nature and nurture in the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status: evidence from Swedish children and their biological and rearing parents  

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This study uses an extraordinary Swedish data set to explore the sources of the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status. Merging data from administrative sources and censuses, we investigate the association between sons' and daughters' socioeconomic outcomes and those of their biological and rearing parents. Our analysis focuses on children raised in six different family circumstances: raised by both biological parents, raised by the biological mother without a stepfather, rais...

Bjo?rklund, Anders; Ja?ntti, Markus; Solon, Gary

2007-01-01

211

Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being  

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Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”) had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13–15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408

Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

2014-01-01

212

Relationship between socioeconomic status and HIV infection in a rural tertiary health center  

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Full Text Available Olarinde Jeffrey Ogunmola,1 Yusuf Olatunji Oladosu,2 Michael Adeyemi Olamoyegun31Cardiac Care Centre, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, 3Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Ladoke-Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaBackground: There is a scarcity of data in rural health centers in Nigeria regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and HIV infection. We investigated this relationship using indicators of SES.Methods: An analytical case-control study was conducted in the HIV clinic of a rural tertiary health center. Data collection included demographic variables, educational attainment, employment status, monthly income, marital status, and religion. HIV was diagnosed by conventional methods. Data were analyzed with the SPSS version 16 software.Results: A total of 115 (48.5% HIV-negative subjects with a mean age of 35.49±7.63 years (range: 15–54 years, and 122 (51.5% HIV-positive subjects with a mean age of 36.35±8.31 years (range: 15–53 years were involved in the study. Participants consisted of 47 (40.9% men and 68 (59.1% women who were HIV negative. Those who were HIV positive consisted of 35 (28.7% men and 87 (71.3% women. Attainment of secondary school levels of education, and all categories of monthly income showed statistically significant relationships with HIV infection (P=0.018 and P<0.05, respectively after analysis using a logistic regression model. Employment status did not show any significant relationship with HIV infection.Conclusion: Our findings suggested that some indicators of SES are differently related to HIV infection. Prevalent HIV infections are now concentrated among those with low incomes. Urgent measures to improve HIV prevention among low income earners are necessary. Further research in this area requires multiple measures in relation to partners’ SES (measured by education, employment, and income to further define this relationship.Keywords: socioeconomic status, HIV infections, income, employment status, education, Nigeria

Ogunmola OJ

2014-04-01

213

High Altitude Remains Associated with Elevated Suicide Rates after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status: A Study from South Korea  

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There have been several studies supporting a possible relationship between high suicide rate and high altitude. However socioeconomic status may confound this association because low socioeconomic status, which is known to be related to a high suicide rate, is also associated with living at high altitude. This study aims to explore whether the relationship between high altitude and high suicide rate remains after adjusting for socioeconomic status in South Korea. We collected demographic data of completed suicides, the mean altitude of the district where each suicide took place, and the mean income of each district. We analyzed the data using regression analysis before and after adjustment for mean income. We found that there is a positive correlation between altitude and suicide rate, even after adjustment for mean income. Thus, altitude appears to be an independent risk factor for suicide.

Kim, Jaelim; Choi, Nari; Lee, Yu-Jin; An, Hyonggin; Kim, Namkug; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung

2014-01-01

214

Access to health care in relation to socioeconomic status in the Amazonian area of Peru  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drugs in relation to household socioeconomic status for children in two small Amazonian urban communities of Peru; Yurimaguas, Department of Loreto and Moyobamba, Department of San Martin, Peru. Methods Cross-sectional study design included household interviews. Caregivers of 780 children aged 6–72 months in Yurimaguas and 793 children of the same age in Moyobamba were included in the study. Caregivers were interviewed on health care seeking strategies (public/private sectors; formal/informal providers, and medication for their children in relation to reported symptoms and socio-economic status. Self-reported symptoms were classified into illnesses based on the IMCI algorithm (Integrated Management of Childhood Ilness. Wealth was used as a proxy indicator for the economic status. Wealth values were generated by Principal Component Analysis using household assets and characteristics. Results Significantly more caregivers from the least poor stratum consulted health professionals for cough/cold (p Conclusion The poorest seek less care from health professionals for non-severe illnesses as well as for severe illnesses; and treatment with antibiotics is lacking for illnesses where it would be indicated. Caregivers frequently paid for health services as well as antibiotics, even though all children in the study qualified for free health care and medicines. The implementation of the Seguro Integral de Salud health insurance must be improved.

Strohmeyer Marianne

2009-04-01

215

Parenting of divorced mothers as a link between social status and boys' academic outcomes: unpacking the effects of socioeconomic status.  

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Socialization theories posit parenting practices as mechanisms linking socioeconomic status (SES) and children's academic outcomes. A mediational parenting model was tested examining separate effects of maternal education, occupation, and income for a sample of 238 divorced or recently separated mothers of 6- to 9-year-old sons. For the SEM path models, each indicator of SES was associated with better parenting, and parenting in turn had indirect effects on achievement through home skill-building activities and school behavior. The direct effect of maternal education on achievement was mediated by home skill-building activities, the direct effect of maternal occupation on achievement was not mediated, and income measures had no direct effects on achievement. These findings underscore the importance of unpacking the effects of SES and the relevance of effective parenting practices as a protective factor in the home and school environment for young boys' school success during postdivorce adjustment. PMID:10546342

DeGarmo, D S; Forgatch, M S; Martinez, C R

1999-01-01

216

Children’s Glycemic Control: Mother’s Knowledge and Socioeconomic Status  

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Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES of the mother’s knowledge about different aspects of diabetes and the glycemic control of type 1 children with diabetes. Samples were taken from successive admissions to the outpatient diabetes clinics in Prince Sultan Medical Military City (PSMMC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well designed questionnaire covering different aspects including demographic data, educational background, and socioeconomic status of the care providers was used to collect information from mothers of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM children. The questionnaire was designed on the basis of the Michigan diabetes knowledge scale and also on the basis of food habits of Saudi Arabia and it was validated. The questionnaire was completed after interviewing the mothers during visits to the PSMMC hospital. Every mother was asked with those particular questions. Glycemic control was assessed by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c. The socio-demographic data of mothers was recorded by self-report. It was found that, there was significant variation in the knowledge of diabetes among mothers with different ages (P 0.05. No significant results were observed between family income and diabetes knowledge (p>0.05.However, a positive relationship was observed with higher income and higher knowledge. There was a significant association between mothers knowledge of diabetes and HbA1C level (r = -0.1739, p<0.05 indicating that, higher knowledge ultimately leads to greater control of HbA1c level. A significant association was also observed between education and HbA1c level (r= -0.2538, p<0.05 with children of mothers with higher level of education showing a better control of glycated haemoglobin levels. However, no significant association was found between monthly family income and HbA1C level. In conclusion, the current study illustrated that, mothers with more knowledge of diabetes and with better education were maintaining a better glycemic control of their children, irrespective of the socio-economic status. It was found that, to improve glycemic control and to decrease acute and chronic complications of diabetes in children, mother’s knowledge and education is needed.

Abdulrahman Nasser Al-Odayani

2013-07-01

217

Socioeconomic Status and Obesity Relationship in Non-Menopause Women Aged 15-49 Years in Tehran, Iran  

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"nBackground: To investigate the association between socio-economic status and obesity in non-menopause women aged 15-49 years in Tehran, Iran."nMethods: This study was based on Iran National Health Survey conducted in 1999. Obesity is defined as a Body Mass In­dex over ?30. Constructed area (per-person), educational level and job are considered as factors indicating the socioeconomic status. The results have been adjusted for age and mental health using univariate an...

Mohammad, K.; Golestan, B.; Majdzadeh, R.; Chaman, R.; Nedjat, S.; Karimloo, M.

2009-01-01

218

Socioeconomic Status and Incidence of Traffic Accidents in Metropolitan Tehran: A Population-based Study  

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Background: Population-based estimates of traffic accidents (TAs) are not readily available for developing countries. This study examined the contribution of socioeconomic status (SES) to the risk of TA among Iranian adults. Methods: A total of 64,200people aged ?18years were identified from 2008 Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) survey. 22,128 households were interviewed to estimate the overall annual incidence, severity and socioeconomic determinants of TAs for males and females in Iranian capital over the preceding year. Wealth index and house value index were constructed for economic measurement. Weighted estimates were computed adjusting for complex survey design. Logistic regression models were used to examine individual and SES measures as potential determinants of TAs in adults. Results: The overall incidence of traffic accident was 17.3(95% CI 16.0, 18.7) per 1000 per year. TA rate in men and women was 22.6(95% CI 20.6, 24.8) and 11.8(95% CI 10.4, 13.2), respectively. The overall TA mortality rate was 26.6(95% CI 13.4, 39.8) per 100,000 person-years, which was almost three times higher in men than that for women (40.4 vs. 12.1 per 100,000person-years). Lower economic level was associated with increased incidence and mortality of TA. Association between SES and incidence, and severity and mortality of TA were identified. Conclusion: TAs occur more in lower socioeconomic layers of the society. This should be taken seriously into consideration by policy makers, so that preventive programs aimed at behavioral modifications in the society are promoted to decrease the health and economic burden imposed by TAs. PMID:22448311

Sehat, Mojtaba; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Malek-Afzali, Hossein

2012-01-01

219

Socioeconomic status, family background and other key factors influence the management of head lice in Norway.  

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How head lice infestations are managed by households is an important but generally neglected issue in head lice research. In the present study, we investigate actions taken against head lice by Norwegian households in association with socioeconomic status, family background, school-related variables and other key factors. Repeat questionnaires distributed to caretakers of the same elementary school children during a 2-year period enabled us to study both previous head lice management and any changes in this management through time. Households from 12 schools spanning the main socioeconomic variation found in Norway participated in the study. All students with active head lice infestation were treated in the four investigated periods. Most caretakers used a thorough head lice checking technique and informed others of own infestation. Checking frequency was low as most children were inspected less than monthly. The best determinant of increased checking frequency and thoroughness was personal experience with head lice. The increased awareness, however, seemed to be somewhat short-lived, as there was a decrease in checking frequency and thoroughness within 1 year after infestation. Personal experience with head lice also increased general knowledge related to the parasite. Parents born in developing countries checked their children for head lice more frequently, although less thoroughly, informed fewer contacts when infested, used pediculicides preventively more often and knew less about head lice than parents born in developed countries. Households with highly educated mothers had a lower checking frequency, but their knowledge and willingness to inform others was high. Single parents were more concerned about economic costs and kept children home from school longer while infested than other parents. As head lice management varied among socioeconomic groups and with parental background, differentiated advice should be considered in the control of head lice. The biannual focus on head lice during the 2 years of investigation increased checking thoroughness, while checking frequency remained unchanged. Based on the results, we suggest new head lice management guidelines for health authorities. PMID:24609236

Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Birkemoe, Tone

2014-05-01

220

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Depression, and Health Status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes Study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes, a trial of long-term weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes, were linked to neighborhood-level SES (% living below poverty from the 2000 US Census (tracts. Dependent variables included depression (Beck Inventory, and health status (Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36 scale. Multi-level regression models were used to account simultaneously for individual-level age, sex, race, education, personal yearly income and neighborhood-level SES. Results Overall, the % living in poverty in the participants' neighborhoods varied, mean = 11% (range 0-67%. Compared to their counterparts in the lowest tertile of neighborhood poverty (least poverty, those in the highest tertile (most poverty had significantly lower scores on the role-limitations(physical, role limitations(emotional, physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, and vitality sub-scales of the SF-36 scale. When evaluating SF-36 composite scores, those living in neighborhoods with more poverty had significantly lower scores on the physical health (?-coefficient [?] = -1.90 units, 95% CI: -3.40,-0.039, mental health (? = -2.92 units, -4.31,-1.53 and global health (? = -2.77 units, -4.21,-1.33 composite scores. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with poorer health status. Whether these associations might influence response to the Look AHEAD weight loss intervention requires further investigation.

Pi-Sunyer F Xavier

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
221

Periodontal Health Status of Different Socio-economic Groups in Out-Patient Department of TMDC & RC, Moradabad, India  

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Aims & Objective: To assess the oral health awareness and periodontal health status of different socio-economic groups in out-patient department of the Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre (TMDC&RC), Moradabad, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 416 subjects of 30-60 years age group with different socio-economic status classified according to modified Kuppuswamy scale (2012). Subjects were interviewed by the questionnaire and Community Periodontal Index was recorded. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test (SPSS version 17). Result: This study showed that the code 2 and code 3 is more in lower socio-economic status (p =0.115 and p=0.079 respectively). Significant association was seen in Code 0, code 1 & code 4 (p<0.01) which is indicative that upper class have more healthy periodontal status than lower. Conclusion: Significant association exists between oral health awareness and periodontal health with the socio-economic status of the individual.

Bhaskar, D.J.; Agali, Chandan; Punia, Himanshu; Gupta, Vipul; Batra, Manu; Singh, Vikas; Bumb, Swapnil S.

2014-01-01

222

Change in tobacco use over time in urban Indian youth: the moderating role of socioeconomic status.  

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This study investigates socioeconomic differences in patterns and trends of tobacco consumption over time among youth in India. Additionally, the distribution of tobacco use risk factors across social class was examined. The data were derived from a longitudinal study of adolescents, Project Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives. Students in eight private (high socioeconomic status [SES; n = 2,881) and eight government (lower SES; n = 5,476) schools in two large cities in India (Delhi and Chennai) were surveyed annually about their tobacco use and related psychosocial risk factors from 2004 to 2006. Results suggest the relationship between SES and tobacco use over time was not consistent. At baseline (in 2004), lower SES was associated with higher prevalence of tobacco use but the relation between SES and tobacco use reversed 2 years later (2006). These findings were mirrored in the distribution of related psychosocial risk factors by SES at baseline (in 2004), and thereafter in 2006. Implications for prevention scientists and future intervention programs are considered. PMID:23444321

Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa H; Erickson, Darin J; Perry, Cheryl L; Finnegan, Jonn R; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K Srinath

2014-04-01

223

Adult Food Intake Patterns Are Related to Adult and Childhood Socioeconomic Status  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. Dietary data were collected at follow-up using a 195-item FFQ. Food patterns were derived from principal component analysis. Two food patterns labeled "traditional-western food pattern" and "green food pattern" were identified. In men, adult SES was inversely associated with adherence to the traditional-western food pattern. High adherence to the green food pattern was positively related to high adult SES in both sexes. Among women, those with high SES in childhood had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low childhood SES, regardless of adult SES. Among men, those with high adult SES had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low adult SES, regardless of childhood SES. In conclusion, socioeconomic position is important for the development of adult food intake patterns. However, childhood SES seems more important for adult female food intake patterns, whereas adult SES seems more important for adult male food intake patterns.

Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per

2011-01-01

224

Association of Polymyalgia Rheumatica With Socioeconomic Status in Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is an inflammatory musculoskeletal condition predominantly diagnosed and managed in the community. Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to be associated with many inflammatory rheumatologic conditions, but has not been investigated in relation to PMR. This study aimed to investigate the association between PMR and SES at both the area and individual levels. Methods Patients ages >50 years registered with 8 general practices in North Staffordshire were sent a questionnaire requesting details of their general health, SES, and lifestyle. Individual SES was measured using occupation, educational level, and perceived adequacy of income. Area-level SES was measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation, derived from respondents' postcodes. Electronic primary care medical records were searched for Read code diagnoses of PMR 2 years before and after the survey. Results Of the 13,831 respondents, 141 had a recorded PMR diagnosis in their electronic medical records, a prevalence of 10 per 1,000 patients. No association between PMR and SES was seen at either the individual or area level. Conclusion No association was found between PMR and SES at either the area or individual level. Unlike several of the inflammatory arthritides that are more common in the more deprived areas, PMR shows no such association. In part this may be due to PMR affecting an older population. Although socioeconomic factors are important for clinicians and researchers to consider, in patients with PMR, further epidemiologic work is needed to fully characterize this disabling disorder. PMID:24403212

Hayward, Richard A; Rathod, Trishna; Muller, Sara; Hider, Samantha L; Roddy, Edward; Mallen, Christian D

2014-01-01

225

The combined impact of rural residence and socio-economic status on premature mortality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The health of rural and urban populations differs, with rural areas appearing healthier. However, it is unknown whether the benefit of living in rural areas is felt by individuals in all levels of deprivation, or whether some suffer a disadvantage of rural residence. For England and Wales 2001-2003 premature mortality rates were calculated, subdivided by individual deprivation and gender, for areas with differing rurality characteristics. Premature mortality data (age 50-retirement) and a measure of the individual's deprivation (National Statistics Socio-economic Classification 1-7) was obtained from death certificates. Overall premature mortality was examined as well as premature mortality subdivided by major cause. Male premature mortality rates (age 50-64) fell with increasing rurality for individuals in all socio-economic status classifications. The most deprived individuals benefitted most from residence in increasingly rural areas. Similar trends were observed when premature mortality was subdivided by the major causes of death. Female premature mortality rates (age 50-59) demonstrated similar trends but the differences between urban and rural areas were less marked. PMID:24071654

Jones, Natalia R; Lake, Iain R

2013-11-01

226

Cultural differences in perinatal experiences for women with low socioeconomic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, similarities and differences in perinatal experiences between women with low socioeconomic status (SES) by race, ethnicity, and nativity were explored. The objective was to better understand the sociocultural and environmental contexts ofperinatal experiences and potential implications for screening and assessment among women with low SES. A purposive stratified sample of 32 women who were likely to be screened for perinatal depression participated in four focus groups organized by African American, white, Hmong, or Latina race or ethnicity. A descriptive study design was used to collect and evaluate focus-group data using qualitative content analysis. Women understood their perinatal experiences through the stressors in their environment. The stressors of insufficient socioeconomic resources and interpersonal support were relatively consistent across the focus groups. However, women's understanding of these stressors and their meaning differed between groups. Racially and ethnically diverse women with low SES experienced a complex interaction of sociocultural and environmental factors in the perinatal period. The findings highlight the need for health and social work practitioners to conduct depression screenings in conjunction with a com- prehensive psychosocial assessment, informed by cultural competence. PMID:25369721

King, Patricia A Lee

2014-11-01

227

Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

Bastos João Luiz Dornelles

2005-01-01

228

Neighborhood socioeconomic status and BMI differences by immigrant and legal status: evidence from Utah.  

Science.gov (United States)

We build on recent work examining the BMI patterns of immigrants in the US by distinguishing between legal and undocumented immigrants. We find that undocumented women have relative odds of obesity that are about 10 percentage points higher than for legal immigrant women, and their relative odds of being overweight are about 40 percentage points higher. We also find that the odds of obesity and overweight status vary less across neighborhoods for undocumented women than for legal immigrant women. These patterns are not found among immigrant men: undocumented men have lower rates of obesity (by about 6 percentage points in terms of relative odds) and overweight (by about 12 percentage points) than do legal immigrant men, and there is little variation in the impact of neighborhood context across groups of men. We interpret these findings in terms of processes of acculturation among immigrant men and women. PMID:23623001

Wen, Ming; Maloney, Thomas N

2014-01-01

229

Education and Socioeconomic Status of Parents - Factors of Influence For Income Inequality  

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Full Text Available Analysis of income inequality is a general and constant concern of both the public and researchers and politicians. This subject, though, and has been widely debated, never becomes obsolete and does not lose its importance or valence mobilizing the more as he becomes more present with the onset of the recent economic crisis. This interest framework, on the one hand and the difficult context generated the economic crisis, on the other hand, bring forward decisions and policy choices implemented or required to restore economic balance and well-being of citizens. Causes (factors of influence of income inequality differ from country to country, there is dispute among economists on the preponderance of cases compared to the others. However in this paper I will analyze two of these factors: education and socioeconomic status of their parents.

Ionu? Constantin

2013-12-01

230

Assessing the Association between the Degree of Pain and Socioeconomic Status among Older Persons in Ghana  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The current study sought to examine the association between the degree of pain and socioeconomic status among older male and female Ghanaians. Method: Data were drawn from the 2007–08 World Health Organization Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE survey conducted in Ghana (Young adults=803, Adults=1689 and Older adults=2616. This includes bodily aches Ghanaians experienced in the last 30 days. Analyses of the association of pain with predisposing and enabling factors were carried out by means of ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results: In the age-adjusted model, pain was statistically significantly associated with the cohabitating group as its marginal effect suggests that respondents in that category were less likely to experience pain as related to the others in women. Conclusion: This study established that Ghanaian men go through more pain than their women counterparts. This article is premier to our knowledge to apply ordered logistic for the degree of pain.

Kwame Annin

2014-01-01

231

Role identification, community socio-economic status demands, and stress outcomes in police officers.  

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This study applied the 'job demands-resources' and 'conservation of resources' models to police work, with the specific aim to examine the possible interaction between objectively measured work demands (community socio-economic status (SES)) and personal resources (role identification) on stress-related outcomes. A total of 89 officers from 10 small, suburban police departments (five from high SES areas and five from low SES areas) completed surveys that focused on community SES demands and role identification as factors that potentially influence positive and negative psychological outcomes. Results indicated that community (SES) demands and role identification interacted to predict a variety of the outcomes. Role identification as a psychological resource served to reduce the effects of high community SES demands on emotional exhaustion. Implications of these results for future police research are discussed. PMID:19408135

Grawitch, Matthew J; Barber, Larissa K; Kruger, Mark H

2010-01-01

232

Measurement of socio-economic status in families of children with cancer in Guatemala.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prospects for survival of children in low and middle income countries are linked to their families socio-economic status (SES), of which income is only one component. Developing a comprehensive measure of SES is required. Informed by clinical experience, a 15-item instrument was designed in Guatemala to categorize SES by five levels in each item. Almost 75% of families attending the Unidad Nacional de Oncología Pediátrica were in the lowest three of six categories, providing a framework for stratified financial and nutritional support. The measure of SES offers an opportunity for examining associations with health outcomes throughout Latin America. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;61:2071-2073. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24753054

De Pernillo, M; Rivas, S; Fuentes, L; Antillon, F; Barr, R D

2014-11-01

233

Body shape in relation to socio-economic status in young adults from the basque Country.  

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Body shape has a great variability determined, partly, by energy intake and physical activity, as well as by gender and age. The aim of this research was to analyse the relation between socio-economic status (SES) and body shape estimated through the somatotype, in a sample of university students. The sample included 316 males and 635 females aged 18-33. Somatotype was estimated by the Heath-Carter anthropometric technique. The information included data of SES. A MANOVA test was used to test differences among groups. The mean somatotypes were 4.0-4.4-2.3 in males and 5.4 -3.4-2.2 in females. Sexual dimorphism for the whole somatotype was found (p mesomorphy. PMID:18217442

Muñoz-Cachón, María Jesús; Salces, Itziar; Arroyo, Marta; Ansotegui, Laura; Rocandio, Ana María; Rebato, Esther

2007-12-01

234

Obesity and socioeconomic status: a framework for examining relationships between physical and social variables.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatness and obesity are body characteristics which are both ascribed and achieved for adults. Socioeconomic status (SES) is the ranking of individuals within complex societies. In traditional societies a direct relationship between SES and fatness exists, while in modern societies there is an inverse association between SES and obesity for adult women but mixed patterns for other age/sex groups. A framework recognizing the difference between variables on the physical and social level of analysis needs to be used to examine the relationship between fatness (a physical variable) and SES (a social variable). Different mechanisms are involved in the causal pathways where SES influences obesity and obesity influences SES. SES influences obesity by education, income, and occupation causing variations in behaviors which change energy consumption, energy expenditure and metabolism. Obesity influences SES when the perception of obesity is interpreted through prejudiced beliefs, with subsequent stigmatization and discrimination limiting access to higher SES roles. PMID:1961104

Sobal, J

1991-09-01

235

Psychopathy and violent crime: a prospective study of the influence of socioeconomic status and ethnicity.  

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The relationship between psychopathy and violence is well-established. However, few studies have examined the extent to which this relationship is influenced by sociodemographic predictors of violent criminality. In this prospective study we examine the power of psychopathy to predict criminal violence across ethnicity and levels of socioeconomic status in 199 European American and African American U.S. county jail inmates. A Psychopathy x SES x Ethnicity interaction was identified such that among European Americans psychopathy predicted recidivism at lower levels of SES but was unrelated to recidivism at higher levels of SES. The predictive power of psychopathy was relatively stable across SES among African Americans. The implications of our results for psychopathy and violence prediction are discussed. PMID:17123157

Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S

2007-04-01

236

Mastery in middle adolescence: the contributions of socioeconomic status, maternal mastery and supportive-involved mothering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastery, or the feeling of power or control over one's life, is a vital yet understudied covariate of wellbeing in adolescence and adulthood. The goal of the current study was to explore the effects of demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES)), maternal mastery, and supportive-involved mothering on children's mastery at ages 16-17 years. 855 teens (47.6% female) and their mothers provided study data as part of the 1992 and 1998 waves of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (NLSY-79; 24.1% Hispanic, 36.6% Black). Hybrid path models indicated that only maternal parenting during middle childhood was linked directly to levels of children's mastery in middle adolescence; a small portion of the association between parenting and adolescent mastery was attributable to SES. The discussion centers on significance of these findings for future research and theory development. PMID:23605690

Moilanen, Kristin L; Shen, Yuh-Ling

2014-02-01

237

Phonological skills and vocabulary knowledge mediate socioeconomic status effects in predicting reading outcomes for Chinese children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and vocabulary abilities exerted equally strong and independent mediation of the SES effects on children's reading achievement by the end of 3rd grade for this Chinese sample. These findings not only replicate studies in alphabetic languages but, because of their longitudinal nature, also demonstrate the potential for interventions focused on improving children's early language skills, and at which ages these factors may have the greatest impact. PMID:22612434

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-04-01

238

The Assessment of Relations between Socioeconomic Status and Number of Complications among Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

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Full Text Available Background:The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Iranian aged 25-64 estimated to be about 7.7%.The aim of current study was the assessment of socioeconomic status of diabetic patients and their complications.Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted on type 2 diabetic patients with complications in four major teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS during July 2009 to March 2010. All patients (530 were interviewed through a questionnaire with 85% response rate (450 patients. Skilled nurses were assigned as responsible for data collection. Collected data analyzed by Exact Fisher and ?2 tests using SPSS version 11.5.Results: The majority of patients had experienced one or more complications. Findings revealed that 50%, 33.6% and 16.4% of the patients suffered from one, two, and three complications of type 2 diabetes, respectively. Patients with cardiovascular complications included 22.2%, with both cardiovascular and eye complications (12.7%, and with cardiovascular, eye and foot ulcer together 14% of the respondents. Frequency of complications demonstrated significant relation with sex,age,educational level,type of occupation, duration of diabetes (P<0.001 and social class (P=0.002.The majority of patients (54.2% belonged to low income group.Conclusion: It seems patients with low socioeconomic status face more challenges in their social environment together with less psychological support. Health care systems are responsible to empower them to control their illness and feel a better life to live.

B Mohebbi

2012-04-01

239

Postergación de la maternidad en Chile: Una realidad oculta Association between motherhood postponement and socioeconomic status  

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Full Text Available Background: Delayed motherhood is a common phenomenon in the developed world, where the age at frst delivery is around 30 years. In Chile the National Institute of Statistics established that this age has remained around 23 years for more than two decades. Motherhood postponement may be modulated by socioeconomic status. Aim: To determine whether the age at frst delivery is higher in a private clinic compared to a public hospital. Patients and Methods: Two cohorts of primiparous women delivering in 1998 and 2008 in the public hospital San Borja Arriarán (HSBA and a private setting Clínica Las Condes (CLC, were analyzed. Results: The age of all delivering women was significantly lower in HSBA than in CLC in both study periods (26.3 ± 0.8 and 25.7 ± 0.9 compared to 31.6 ± 0.1 and 32.7 ± 0.1 years, respectively. Likewise, the frequency of adolescent pregnancy was significantly higher in HSBA than CLC in both study periods (38.8 and 42.2% compared to 1.7 and 1.6% respectively. The age at frst delivery was significantly lower in both periods in HSBA (21.8 and 21.3 years compared to 28.6 and 30.6 years, respectively. Excluding primiparous women of less than 20 years, the difference in age was smaller, but remained still significant (24.6 and 24.2 versus 29.9 and 31.0 years, respectively. Conclusions: In Santiago, the postponement of motherhood is more marked among women of high socioeconomic status.

ARIEL FUENTES

2010-10-01

240

Impact of neighborhood social conditions and household socioeconomic status on behavioral problems among US children.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the impact of neighborhood social conditions and household socioeconomic status (SES) on the prevalence of parent-reported behavioral problems among US children aged 6-17 years. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health was used to develop a factor analytic index and a dichotomous measure of serious behavioral problems (SBP) in children. The outcome measures were derived from 11 items capturing parents' ratings of their children on a set of behaviors, e.g., arguing, bullying, and feelings of worthlessness, depression, and detachment. Dichotomous measures of perceived safety, presence of garbage/litter, poor/dilapidated housing, and vandalism were used to assess neighborhood social conditions. Household SES was measured using parental education and household poverty status. Logistic and least squares regression models were used to analyze neighborhood and household socioeconomic effects on the continuous and binary outcome measures after controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, including behavioral risk factors, family cohesion, social participation, and geographic mobility. Higher levels of behavioral problems were associated with socially disadvantaged neighborhoods and lower household SES. Adjusted logistic models showed that children in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods (those characterized by safety concerns, poor housing, garbage/litter in streets, and vandalism) had 1.9 times higher odds, children in poverty had 3.7 times higher odds, and children of parents with less than high school education had 1.9 times higher odds of SBP than their more advantaged counterparts. Improvements in neighborhood conditions and household SES may both help to reduce childhood behavioral problems. PMID:22481571

Singh, Gopal K; Ghandour, Reem M

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Area deprivation, individual socioeconomic status and low vision in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Poor vision is associated with lower socioeconomic status, but less is known about its relationship to area deprivation. Methods The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study Norfolk Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of 8563 participants with completed eye examinations. Logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA) was measured using standard protocols and low vision (LV) was defined as Snellen equivalent (VA) ?6/12 in the better eye. Uncorrected refractive error (URE) was defined as improvement of VA by 2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution lines with pinhole. The lowest 5% of index of multiple deprivation rank was used to define the most deprived areas. The index of multiple deprivation is a composite measure using routine data from seven domains of deprivation to identify the most disadvantaged areas in England. Logistic regression was used to examine univariable and multivariable associations with LV. Results Ninety-six participants with missing data were excluded, leaving 8467 for analysis (98.9%). The mean age of the study group was 68.7?years (SD=8.1, range=48–92), with 55.1% women. LV was present in 263 participants (3.1%, 95% CI 2.7 to 3.5%). LV was associated with deprivation after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and cataract surgery (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6, p=0.03), but this effect was mitigated by additionally adjusting for URE (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.4, p=0.09). Conclusions People with LV are more likely to live in the most deprived areas; this association was independent of socioeconomic status and partly mediated by URE. Targeting URE in deprived areas may reduce health inequalities associated with LV. PMID:24179053

Yip, Jennifer L Y; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David C; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, K T; Foster, Paul J

2014-01-01

242

Association between socioeconomic status and HIV-associated oral lesions in Rio de Janeiro from 1997 to 2004  

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Full Text Available The prevalence of HIV-related oral lesions may vary according to socioeconomic status and antiretroviral therapy, among other factors. This study's intent was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic indicators, CD4+ counts and HIV-related oral lesions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. A retrospective epidemiological analysis was performed of the medical records of HIV-positive patients that attended the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro between 1997 and 2004. Gender, age, mode of HIV transmission, level of education, monthly familial income, CD4+ counts and HIV-related oral lesions were assessed. For statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was used with a level of significance of 5%. 254 medical records were reviewed: 83 women and 171 men. Monthly familial income below 2 minimum wages was associated with a higher prevalence of pseudomembranous candidiasis (p = 0.024, while income above 10 minimum wages was associated with a higher prevalence of salivary gland disease (p = 0.021. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower CD4+ counts (p = 0.017. In this study, an association was noted between socioeconomic status, immune suppression and prevalence of oral lesions. However, further studies are warranted using other socioeconomic variables in order to better assess this relationship.

Cesar Werneck Noce

2009-06-01

243

Association between socioeconomic status and HIV-associated oral lesions in Rio de Janeiro from 1997 to 2004  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The prevalence of HIV-related oral lesions may vary according to socioeconomic status and antiretroviral therapy, among other factors. This study's intent was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic indicators, CD4+ counts and HIV-related oral lesions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Bra [...] zil. A retrospective epidemiological analysis was performed of the medical records of HIV-positive patients that attended the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro between 1997 and 2004. Gender, age, mode of HIV transmission, level of education, monthly familial income, CD4+ counts and HIV-related oral lesions were assessed. For statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was used with a level of significance of 5%. 254 medical records were reviewed: 83 women and 171 men. Monthly familial income below 2 minimum wages was associated with a higher prevalence of pseudomembranous candidiasis (p = 0.024), while income above 10 minimum wages was associated with a higher prevalence of salivary gland disease (p = 0.021). Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower CD4+ counts (p = 0.017). In this study, an association was noted between socioeconomic status, immune suppression and prevalence of oral lesions. However, further studies are warranted using other socioeconomic variables in order to better assess this relationship.

Cesar Werneck, Noce; Sonia Maria Soares, Ferreira; Arley, Silva Júnior; Eliane Pedra, Dias.

244

The Quadratic Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Learning Performance in China by Multilevel Analysis: Implications for Policies to Foster Education Equity  

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The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between family socioeconomic status and mathematics performance on the base of a multi-level analysis involving a large sample of Chinese primary school students. A weak relationship is found between socioeconomic status and performance in the Chinese context. The relationship does…

Zhao, Ningning; Valcke, Martin; Desoete, Annemie; Verhaeghe, JeanPierre

2012-01-01

245

Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

2007-01-01

246

Mexican American Mothers of Low and Middle Socioeconomic Status: Communication Behaviors and Interactive Strategies during Shared Book Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to describe and compare the communication behaviors and interactive reading strategies used by Mexican American mothers of low- and middle-socioeconomic status (SES) background during shared book reading. Method: Twenty Mexican American mother-child dyads from the Southwestern United States were observed…

Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Hines, Rachel; Montiel, Miguel

2009-01-01

247

Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

2013-01-01

248

Parental Socioeconomic Status and Risk of Offspring Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Swedish Population-Based Study  

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Objective: Epidemiological studies in the United States consistently find autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to be overrepresented in high socioeconomic status (SES) families. These findings starkly contrast with SES gradients of many health conditions, and may result from SES inequalities in access to services. We hypothesized that prenatal measures…

Rai, Dheeraj; Lewis, Glyn; Lundberg, Michael; Araya, Ricardo; Svensson, Anna; Dalman, Christina; Carpenter, Peter; Magnusson, Cecilia

2012-01-01

249

The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

Trani, Randy

2009-01-01

250

Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, Culture, and Immigration: Examining the Potential Mechanisms Underlying Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Organized Activity Participation  

Science.gov (United States)

The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms…

Simpkins, Sandra D.; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Price, Chara D.; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

251

Teachers' Perceptions of Reading Achievement for Kindergarten-3rd Grade Students of Low Socioeconomic Status  

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The three tiered reading model and the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) are two initiatives being used to identify struggling readers of low socioeconomic status. While there is abundant information with statistical reports from various researchers, there is little research available as to what educators implementing…

Curtis, Vicki L.

2012-01-01

252

The Influence of Family Socioeconomic Status on the Post-High School Outcomes of Youth with Disabilities  

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Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, this study considers (a) the extent to which the socioeconomic status (SES) of youth with disabilities predicted their likelihood of high school graduation, postsecondary education enrollment, and employment; (b) the extent to which other individual and family factors mediated the…

Wagner, Mary M.; Newman, Lynn A.; Javitz, Harold S.

2014-01-01

253

Parental Socioeconomic Status, Communication, and Children's Vocabulary Development: A Third-Generation Test of the Family Investment Model  

Science.gov (United States)

This third-generation, longitudinal study evaluated a family investment perspective on family socioeconomic status (SES), parental investments in children, and child development. The theoretical framework was tested for first-generation parents (G1), their children (G2), and the children of the second generation (G3). G1 SES was expected to…

Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Martin, Monica J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna; Conger, Rand

2013-01-01

254

Hispanic Immigrant Children's English Language Acquisition: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Early Care Arrangement  

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Research Findings: Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort, this study investigates whether socioeconomic status (SES) moderates the association between center-based early childhood education (ECE) and English proficiency at kindergarten entry for 1st- and 2nd-generation Hispanic…

Bumgarner, Erin; Lin, Meiko

2014-01-01

255

Childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood: mental health and socioeconomic status as explanatory factors and buffers  

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Full Text Available Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.

SusanM Arai

2011-01-01

256

Prevalence of COPD and its association with socioeconomic status in China: Findings from China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance 2007  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status is likely an independent risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, but little research has been done in China to study this association in a nationwide sample. Methods We used data from the 2007 China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance of 49,363 Chinese men and women aged 15-69 years to examine the association between the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnosed COPD and socioeconomic status defined by both educational level and annual household income. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was performed with adjustement for potential confounders. Results Both low educational attainment and low household income were independently associated with higher risk of physician-diagnosed COPD. Compared to subjects with high educational level, subjects with low educational level had a significantly increased risk of COPD (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.32-2.13, p for trend Conclusions Socioeconomic status is a risk factor for self-reported physician-diagnosed COPD independently of current or passive smoking. Prospective studies are needed in China to better understand the association between socioeconomic status and COPD.

Jiang Yong

2011-07-01

257

A Longitudinal Study of Family Socioeconomic Status (SES) Variables as Predictors of Socio-Emotional Resilience among Mentored Youth  

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In this study, we explored socioeconomic status (SES) and family structure as predictors of resiliencies among "at-risk" youth before and after participating in schools-based mentoring programs. Twenty-four youths (13 girls) aged 13-18 ("M" = 16.21, SD = 1.76) participated. Youths completed pre- and post-test…

Thompson, R. Bruce; Corsello, Maryann; McReynolds, Samuel; Conklin-Powers, Bernice

2013-01-01

258

Social Consciousness of Low-Income College Students in Taiwan: The Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Collegiate Involvement  

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This study examined the socioeconomic status (SES), collegiate involvement, and social consciousness of low-income college students (LICSs) and higher-income college students (HICSs) in Taiwan. The study analyzed 1,453 LICSs and 1,453 HICSs from 156 colleges in Taiwan. The results showed that the two student groups exhibited different SESs and…

Wu, Ching-Ling

2014-01-01

259

Before and after Third Grade: Longitudinal Evidence for the Shifting Role of Socioeconomic Status in Reading Growth  

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Using longitudinal data on a nationally representative U.S. cohort, this study investigated the relationship between socioeconomic status and students' reading growth between kindergarten and eighth grade. Piecewise latent growth modeling was used to describe nonlinear growth trajectories in reading during three developmental periods: kindergarten…

Kieffer, Michael J.

2012-01-01

260

Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status  

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This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…

Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

The Interaction Effect of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Greece  

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The aim of this study was to examine and describe the effect of gender and socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool-aged children's overall development. Two hundred fifty-five preschoolers (125 boys and 130 girls), with a mean age of 56 plus or minus 9 months, were randomly selected from day care centers and kindergartens of different areas of…

Giagazoglou, Paraskevi

2013-01-01

262

Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Feeding and Childhood Obesity among Mothers of Lower Socioeconomic Status  

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Objective: To examine beliefs about the role of parenting in feeding and childhood obesity among mothers of lower socioeconomic status. Methods: Individual semistructured, audiotaped interview with 91 mothers of preschool-aged children (49% of mothers obese, 21% of children obese) in the midwestern United States. Participant comments were…

Kalinowski, Alison; Krause, Kylene; Berdejo, Carla; Harrell, Kristina; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C.

2012-01-01

263

Effect Of Stress On The Academic Achievement Of Students In Relation To Socio-economic Status And Sex  

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Full Text Available Children feel stress long before they grow up. Many children have to cope with family conflict, divorce, constant changes in schools, neighbourhood and child care arrangements, peer pressure and sometimes even violence in their homes or communities. The impact of a stressor depends on the academic achievement of students. It is the stress which does not allow students to perform well in classroom situation, the study objectives The objectives tested in this part of the study are as under 1. To study the differences in scores of academic achievement between the students possessing different levels of stress belonging to different socio-economic status and sex. 2. To study the nature of interaction between stress and socio-economic status, stress and sex, and among stress, socioeconomic status and sex when academic achievement was taken as a dependent variable. The study reveals that students belonging to High Socio-economic Status are academically sound as compared to their counterparts while as when male and female students compared together they have an equal chance of being academically sound or poor. This reveals that when stress and sex, and SES and Sex taken jointing they do effect on dependent variable i.e. academic achievement.

Bharti Sharma

2013-09-01

264

The Importance of Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood for Adulthood Socioeconomic Status, Mental Health, and Problem Behavior  

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This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status

Feinstein, Leon; Bynner, John

2004-01-01

265

The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status at Age One, Opportunities to Learn and Achievement in Mathematics in Fourth Grade in Peru  

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Using Young Lives longitudinal data from Peru, this paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) measured at the age of one, opportunities to learn (OTL) and achievement in mathematics ten years later. Four variables of OTL were measured: hours of class per year, curriculum coverage, quality of teachers' feedback, and…

Cueto, Santiago; Guerrero, Gabriela; Leon, Juan; Zapata, Mayli; Freire, Silvana

2014-01-01

266

Socioeconomic Status and Health across the Life Course: A Test of the Social Causation and Health Selection Hypotheses  

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This research investigates the merits of the "social causation" and "health selection" explanations for associations between socioeconomic status and self-reported overall health, musculoskeletal health and depression. Using data that include information about individuals' SES and health from childhood through late adulthood, I employ structural…

Warren, John Robert

2009-01-01

267

Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender  

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This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

2011-03-01

268

Aircraft Carriers : China's way to Great Power Status?  

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There are many indications that China is actively researching the design of an aircraft carrier. It is unknown whether China will initiate the actual acquisition of a carrier, but the indications that are available of their research into aircraft carriers and carrier-capable aircraft, as well as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status as a great power in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy, with potentially far-reaching consequences for the countries of the region. The Chinese have bought several retired carriers, which they have studied in great detail. The largest is the Russian-built carrier Varyag of the Kuznetsov class, which today is anchored in the Chinese Naval Base at Dalian. If they decide to acquire a carrier, they can either buy one or build it themselves. The easiest way would be to buy a carrier, and if that is the chosen option, then Russia would be the most likely country to build it. Technologically, it will be a major challenge for them to build one themselves and it is likely that they would have to obtain the assistance of another country. But there are indications, that China may choose this more diffi cult path, since it has bought four Russian carrier landing systems. China is very secretive about this, but when all the information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for China to complete, especially if they develop the complex catapult with which to launch the fi ghter aircraft, not to mention the possible development of a nuclear power plant for the ship. The Russian press has indicated that China is negotiating to buy SU-33 fi ghters, which Russia uses on the Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an alternative China may chose to modify the domestically produced J-10 or J-11 multirole fi ghter. If China does decide to acquire carriers, it would be operationally logical to acquire a minimum of two to three carriers to ensure an adequate and continually available combat capability. A Chinese carrier group, with the associated protection and support vessels, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new carriers. All these carriers could potentially infl uence Chinese interests in the future, and this could be a

NØdskov, Kim; KværnØ, Ole

2008-01-01

269

Over-indebtedness as a marker of socioeconomic status and its association with obesity: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent credit crunch will have implications for private households. Low socioeconomic status is associated to various diseases. While income, education and occupational status is frequently used in definitions of socioeconomic status, over-indebtedness of private households is usually not considered. Over-indebtedness is currently increasing in high-income countries. However, its association with health – particularly with obesity – remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an association between over-indebtedness and overweight or obesity. Methods A cross-sectional study on over-indebtedness and health including 949 over-indebted subjects from 2006 and 2007 in Rhineland-Palatinate and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Germany and the telephonic health survey 2003 of the Robert Koch-Institute including 8318 subjects, who are representative for the German population, were analysed with adjusted logistic regression considering overweight (BMI ?25.0 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ?30 kg/m2 as response variable. Results After adjusting for socio-economic (age, sex, education, income and health factors (depression, smoking habits an independent effect of the over-indebt situation on the probability of overweight (aOR 1.97 95%-CI 1.65–2.35 and obesity (aOR 2.56 95%-CI 2.07–3.16 could be identified. Conclusion Over-indebtedness was associated with an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity that was not explained by traditional definitions of socioeconomic status. Over-indebtedness should be additionally considered when assessing health effects of socioeconomic status.

Münster Eva

2009-08-01

270

Excess direct medical costs of severe obesity by socioeconomic status in German adults  

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Objective: Excess direct medical costs of severe obesity are by far higher than of moderate obesity. At the same time, severely obese adults with low socioeconomic status (SES) may be expected to have higher excess costs than those with higher SES, e.g. due to more comorbidities. This study compares excess costs of severe obesity among German adults across different SES groups. Methods: In a subsample (N=947) of the KORA-Survey S4 1999/2001 (a cross-sectional health survey in the Augsburg region, Germany; age group: 25–74 years), visits to physicians, inpatient days in hospital, and received and purchased medication were assessed via computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) over half a year. Body mass index (BMI in kg/m²) was measured anthropometrically. SES was determined via reports of education, income, and occupational status from computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI) (used both as single indicators, and as indexed by the Helmert algorithm); due to small subsample sizes all were median-split. Data of respondents in normal weight (18.5 ? BMI < 25), preobese (25 ? BMI < 30), moderately (class 1:30 ? BMI < 35) and severely obese (classes 2–3: BMI ? 35) range were analysed by generalized linear models with mixed poisson-gamma (Tweedie) distributions. Physician visits and inpatient days were valuated as recommended by the Working Group Methods in Health Economic Evaluation (AG MEG), and drugs were valuated by actual costs. Sex, age, kind of sickness fund (statutory/private) and place of residence (urban/rural) were adjusted for, and comorbidities were considered by the Physical Functional Comorbidity Index (PFCI). Results: Excess costs of severe obesity were higher in respondents with high SES, regardless of the SES indicator used. For instance, annual excess costs were almost three times higher in those with an above-median SES-Index as compared with those with a median or lower SES-Index (plus € 2,966 vs. plus € 1,012; contrast significant at p<.001). Mediation of excess costs of severe obesity by physical comorbidities pertained to the low SES-Index and the low occupational status groups: differences in costs between severe obesity and normal weight were still positive, but statistically insignificant, in the lower status groups after adjusting for the PFCI, but still positive and significant given higher SES. For example, severe obesity’s excess costs were € 2,406 after PFCI-adjustment in the high SES-Index group (p<.001), but € 539 in the lower status group (p=.17). At the same time, physical comorbidities as defined by the PCFI increased with BMI and decreased with SES, however the factors BMI and SES did not significantly interact in this context. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to show in Germany that excess direct medical costs of severe obesity are not distributed equitably across different SES groups, do not reflect comorbidity status, and are significantly higher in those with high SES than in those with lower SES. Thus, allocation of health care resources spent on severely obese adults seems to be in need of readjustment towards an equitable utilization across all socioeconomic groups. PMID:20421952

von Lengerke, Thomas; John, Jurgen; Mielck, Andreas

2010-01-01

271

Excess direct medical costs of severe obesity by socioeconomic status in German adults  

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Full Text Available Objective: Excess direct medical costs of severe obesity are by far higher than of moderate obesity. At the same time, severely obese adults with low socioeconomic status (SES may be expected to have higher excess costs than those with higher SES, e.g. due to more comorbidities. This study compares excess costs of severe obesity among German adults across different SES groups. Methods: In a subsample (N=947 of the KORA-Survey S4 1999/2001 (a cross-sectional health survey in the Augsburg region, Germany; age group: 25–74 years, visits to physicians, inpatient days in hospital, and received and purchased medication were assessed via computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI over half a year. Body mass index (BMI in kg/m² was measured anthropometrically. SES was determined via reports of education, income, and occupational status from computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI (used both as single indicators, and as indexed by the Helmert algorithm; due to small subsample sizes all were median-split. Data of respondents in normal weight (18.5 ? BMI < 25, preobese (25 ? BMI < 30, moderately (class 1:30 ? BMI < 35 and severely obese (classes 2–3: BMI ? 35 range were analysed by generalized linear models with mixed poisson-gamma (Tweedie distributions. Physician visits and inpatient days were valuated as recommended by the Working Group Methods in Health Economic Evaluation (AG MEG, and drugs were valuated by actual costs. Sex, age, kind of sickness fund (statutory/private and place of residence (urban/rural were adjusted for, and comorbidities were considered by the Physical Functional Comorbidity Index (PFCI. Results: Excess costs of severe obesity were higher in respondents with high SES, regardless of the SES indicator used. For instance, annual excess costs were almost three times higher in those with an above-median SES-Index as compared with those with a median or lower SES-Index (plus € 2,966 vs. plus € 1,012; contrast significant at p<.001. Mediation of excess costs of severe obesity by physical comorbidities pertained to the low SES-Index and the low occupational status groups: differences in costs between severe obesity and normal weight were still positive, but statistically insignificant, in the lower status groups after adjusting for the PFCI, but still positive and significant given higher SES. For example, severe obesity’s excess costs were € 2,406 after PFCI-adjustment in the high SES-Index group (p<.001, but € 539 in the lower status group (p=.17. At the same time, physical comorbidities as defined by the PCFI increased with BMI and decreased with SES, however the factors BMI and SES did not significantly interact in this context. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to show in Germany that excess direct medical costs of severe obesity are not distributed equitably across different SES groups, do not reflect comorbidity status, and are significantly higher in those with high SES than in those with lower SES. Thus, allocation of health care resources spent on severely obese adults seems to be in need of readjustment towards an equitable utilization across all socioeconomic groups.

Thomas von Lengerke

2010-04-01

272

The association between socioeconomic status and exposure to mobile telecommunication networks in children and adolescents.  

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A potential association between socioeconomic status (SES) and self-reported use of mobile phones has been investigated in a few studies. If measured exposure to mobile phone networks differs by SES in children, it has not yet been studied. Interview data of 1,481 children and 1,505 adolescents on participants' mobile phone use, socio-demographic characteristics and potential confounders were taken from the German MobilEe-study. Sociodemographic data was used to stratify participants into three "status groups" (low, middle, high). Using a personal dosimeter, we obtained an exposure profile over 24 h for each of the participants. Exposure levels during waking hours were expressed as mean percentage of the reference level. Children with a low SES were more likely to own a mobile phone (OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-3.9) and also reported to use their mobile phone longer per day (OR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.1-5.4) than children with a high SES. For adolescents, self-reported duration of mobile phone use per day was also higher with a low SES (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.4-8.4) compared with a high SES. No association between SES and measured exposure to mobile telecommunication networks was seen for children or adolescents. Mobile phone use may differ between status groups with higher use among disadvantaged groups. However, this does not result in higher overall exposure to mobile telecommunication networks. Whether short duration of own mobile phone use or the small numbers of participants with a low SES are causal, have to be investigated in further studies. PMID:19598181

Thomas, Silke; Heinrich, Sabine; Kühnlein, Anja; Radon, Katja

2010-01-01

273

Socioeconomic status, education, and reproduction in modern women: an evolutionary perspective.  

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Although associations between status or resources and reproduction are positive in premodern societies and also in men in modern societies, in modern women the associations are typically negative. We investigated how the association between socioeconomic status and reproductive output varies with the source of status and resources, the woman's education, and her age at reproductive onset (proxied by age at marriage). By using a large sample of US women, we examined the association between a woman's reproductive output and her own and her husband's income and education. Education, income, and age at marriage are negatively associated with a woman's number of children and increase her chances of childlessness. Among the most highly educated two-thirds of the sample of women, husband's income predicts the number of children. The association between a woman's number of children and her husband's income turns from positive to negative when her education and age at marriage is low (even though her mean offspring number rises at the same time). The association between a woman's own income and her number of children is negative, regardless of education. Rather than maximizing the offspring number, these modern women seem to adjust investment in children based on their family size and resource availability. Striving for resources seems to be part of a modern female reproductive strategy--but, owing to costs of resource acquisition, especially higher education, it may lead to lower birthrates: a possible evolutionary explanation of the demographic transition, and a complement to the human capital theory of net reproductive output. PMID:20737603

Huber, Susanne; Bookstein, Fred L; Fieder, Martin

2010-01-01

274

Impact of socioeconomic status on the use of inhaled corticosteroids in young adult asthmatics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based longitudinal study was to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and anti-asthmatic treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) among young Danish adult asthmatics, and to investigate whether these associations were consistent over time. METHODS: We extracted data on prescription drug use, education, and income in 97 665 users of anti-asthmatic drugs, aged 18-44 years, identified in Statistics Denmark during 1997-2005. Individual information on education and income was used as measures of SES. Education was categorised into basic school/high school, vocational training, and higher education, and income was categorised into low, middle, and high income. Associations between ICS use and SES were estimated by logistic regression models. RESULTS: High levels of education and income were independently associated with ICS use, education demonstrating the strongest association. Using basic school/high school and low income as baselines, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ICS use for higher education were 1.46 (95% CI 1.40-1.51) and 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.14) for high income. Higher education was a nearly constant factor associated with ICS use throughout the observation period, but high income did not demonstrate any association before 2001 with increasing ORs observed each year hereafter. All associations became more pronounced when restricting to 35-44 year-olds. CONCLUSION: High levels of SES were positively associated with ICS use in young adult asthmatics. To encourage ICS use, special attention should be paid to asthmatics with low educational level and low income. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for this socioeconomic inequality.

Davidsen, Jesper RØmhild; SØndergaard, Jens

2011-01-01

275

Family socioeconomic status and the provision of motor affordances in the home  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) and stimulation provided in the home environment are influential factors in aspects of child well-being including motor development. Little is known regarding the influence of SES on specific aspects of the home environment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ava [...] ilability of affordances in the home to promote infant motor development and family SES. METHOD : The sample consisted of 300 families with infants aged 3 to 18 months. SES was assessed according to family socioeconomic class, income and parental level of education. To evaluate motor affordances found at home, the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS) was used. The AHEMD-IS was designed to assess dimensions of the home environment including Physical Space (outside and inside space), Daily Activities and Play Materials (fine-motor and gross-motor toys). RESULTS: SES indicators significantly influenced the availability of Physical Space and Play Materials. The Physical Space dimension was influenced by family economic class and income. The Play Materials dimension was influenced by all SES indicators. Daily Activities were not influenced by any of the SES indicators. Daily activities and play material were influenced by the infant's age. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that SES indicators are influential with regard to the provision of motor affordances in the home environment for infants. However, daily activities, which represent an aspect of the environment that is highly dependent on parental generation of situations that are conducive to motor skill development, are independent of family SES.

Teresa C. B., Freitas; Carl, Gabbard; Priscila, Caçola; Maria I. L., Montebelo; Denise C. C., Santos.

2013-08-01

276

Inequality, green spaces, and pregnant women: roles of ethnicity and individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence of the impact of green spaces on pregnancy outcomes is limited with no report on how this impact might vary by ethnicity. We investigated the association between residential surrounding greenness and proximity to green spaces and birth weight and explored the modification of this association by ethnicity and indicators of individual (maternal education) and neighbourhood (Index of Multiple Deprivation) socioeconomic status. Our study was based on 10,780 singleton live-births from the Born in Bradford cohort, UK (2007-2010). We defined residential surrounding greenness as average of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in buffers of 50 m, 100 m, 250 m, 500 m and 1000 m around each maternal home address. Residential proximity to green spaces was defined as living within 300 m of a green space with an area of ? 5000 m(2). We utilized mixed effects models to estimate adjusted change in birth weight associated with residential surrounding greenness as well as proximity to green spaces. We found a positive association between birth weight and residential surrounding greenness. Furthermore, we observed an interaction between ethnicity and residential surrounding greenness in that for White British participants there was a positive association between birth weight and residential surrounding greenness whereas for participants of Pakistani origin there was no such an association. For surrounding greenness in larger buffers (500 m and 1000 m) there were some indications of stronger associations for participants with lower education and those living in more deprived neighbourhoods which were not replicated for surrounding greenness in smaller buffer sizes (i.e. 50 m, 100 m, and 250 m). The findings for residential proximity to a green space were not conclusive. Our study showed that residential surrounding greenness is associated with better foetal growth and this association could vary between different ethnic and socioeconomic groups. PMID:24997306

Dadvand, Payam; Wright, John; Martinez, David; Basagaña, Xavier; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Cirach, Marta; Gidlow, Christopher J; de Hoogh, Kees; Gražulevi?ien?, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

2014-10-01

277

Sub-optimal birth weight in newborns of a high socioeconomic status population  

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Full Text Available Objective: To compare sub-optimal birth weight (2,500 to 2,999 g term newborns to appropriate for gestational age (birth weight ? 3,000 g term newborns, regarding maternal data and newborn morbidity and mortality. Methods: Single term newborns, appropriate for gestational age from a high socioeconomic population (n = 1,242 with birth weight ranging from 2,500 to 2,999 g (Group I were compared to 4,907 newborns with birth weight ? than 3,000 g (Group II. Maternal and newborn characteristics were compared between the groups. The Mann-Whitney test, ?2 test and multivariate analysis were used. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Rresults: The frequency of sub-optimal birth weight newborns in the population studied was 20.2%. There was a significant association between sub-optimal birth weight and maternal weight before pregnancy and body mass index, maternal weight gain, height, smoking habit and hypertension. Newborns’ 1-minute Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia and hospital stay were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05. A significant relationship could not be established with the 5-minute Apgar score and pulmonary hypertension in both groups. Neonatal mortality did not differ between the groups. Cconclusions: Socioeconomic status was not a risk factor for sub-optimal birth weight in the studied population. Genetic and environmental factors were associated to sub-optimal weight and neonatal diseases. According to these data, this group of newborns should receive special attention from the health team.

Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre

2008-09-01

278

Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.

Takano Takehito

2005-05-01

279

The Relationship between Injury and Socioeconomic Status in Reference to the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship between the total injury experience rate and socioeconomic status based on the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods By analyzing data from the fourth KNHANES conducted from 2007 to 2009, we estimated the injury experience rate according to socioeconomic status, including the occupational characteristics of 11,837 subjects. Setting the injury experience rate as a dependent variable and socioeconomic status as an independent variable, we performed logistic regression to calculate odds ratios reflecting the likelihood of injury according to socioeconomic status while controlling for relevant covariates. Results In 797 subjects who had injury experience over the past 1 year, 290 persons (36.4%) had a work-related injury. As their income, home value, and educational status increased, their injury experiences decreased. Among occupational groups, the craft, equipment, machine operating, and assembling workers showed the highest rate (10.6%) of injury experience, and the lowest rate (5.7%) was found in the unemployed group. After adjusting for the confounding variables, the experience of injury was significantly related to several socioeconomic factors: high income (OR?=?0.54; 95% CI: 0.34-0.86), high home value (OR?=?0.65; 95% CI: 0.43-0.96), low education status (OR?=?1.28; 95% CI: 1.07-1.52), and specific occupations such as craft, equipment, machine operating, and assembling work (OR?=?1.99; 95% CI: 1.60-2.47), skilled agriculture, forestry and fishery work (OR?=?1.43; 95% CI: 1.02-2.01), and simple labor (OR?=?1.38; 95% CI: 1.04-1.82). Conclusions The injury experience rate differed depending on the socioeconomic status. A negative correlation was found between the injury experience rate and income, low home value, and education level. Moreover, a higher rate of injury experience was found in occupation groups and physical worker groups in comparison to the unemployed group and white-collar worker groups. This study would be useful in selecting appropriate priorities for injury management in Korea. PMID:24472308

2014-01-01

280

A national cohort study of parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour-the mediating role of school performance  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A link between low parental socioeconomic status and mental health problems in offspring is well established in previous research. The mechanisms that explain this link are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether school performance was a mediating and/or moderating factor in the path between parental socioeconomic status and the risk of hospital admission for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Methods A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-1977 was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the end of their ninth and final year of compulsory school until 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and linear regression analyses were performed to test whether the association between parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour was mediated or moderated by school performance. Results The results of a series of multiple regression analyses, adjusted for demographic variables, revealed that school performance was as an important mediator in the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and risk of non-fatal suicidal behaviour, accounting for 60% of the variance. The hypothesized moderation of parental socioeconomic status-non-fatal suicidal behaviour relationship by school performance was not supported. Conclusions School performance is an important mediator through which parental socioeconomic status translates into a risk for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Prevention efforts aimed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among young people will need to consider socioeconomic inequalities in school performance.

Jablonska Beata

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Association of Food Insecurity and Household Socio-Economic Status with the Body Mass Index Among Urban Women in Dezful  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Food insecurity implies a limited ability to secure adequate and safe food or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways.The nutrition transition in Iran is taking place in the context of rapid demographic change and urbanization in spite of underweight, obesity and overweight increased, especially among women. It is usually expected that food-insecure people have an inadequate food intake, less body fat, and body weight. However, several studies in developed countries have shown a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among food-insecure household members, especially women. Under weight and overweight or obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in the developed countries and is assuming to become a serious health problem in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the association between food insecurity and socio-economic factors in households and body mass index among urban women in Dezful in 2008.Materials and Methods: A total of 400 household were randomly selected by two stage sampling from different areas in Dezful. Heights and weights of all women were measured based on standard protocols, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. BMI status was defined based on cut-off values recommended by NIH( under weight = BMI<18.5, normal weight 18.5< BMI< 25, overweight 25?BMI<30 and obesity BMI?30"nWomen provided detailed demographic and food insecurity information via a face- to- face interview. Information on food insecurity was collected using the instrument originally developed by USDA. All analysis was conducted using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The prevalence of household food insecurity was %37.6 and 42.8% of the women were overweight, and 12% obese, respectively. Results showed that, BMI was positively associated with food insecurity, womens age and family size and inversely associated with , race and economic status (p <0.05.Conclusion: It is evident that household food insecurity, overweight and obesity coexist in Dezful. Women age, family size, race and economic status were recognized as associated factors with food insecurity but other factors didnt show significant relationship. There is lack of published information regarding food insecurity and some factors affecting with body weight status; therefore, it is necessary to perform such studies in other regions too.

A R Dorosty

2010-09-01

282

HeliNet: project status and the way forward  

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The HeliNet project has been funded by the European Union for the period 2000-2002, and concerns the development of a network of stratospheric platforms for telecommunications, navigation and remote sensing. The first year of activity has lead to the definition of the long-tern system objectives, as well as preliminary specifications of the platform structure and payloads. In particular, in this paper we give an overview of the current status of the project. We address system integration issues, which involve interfacing the payloads and the aeronautical structure; moreover, we report current activities in a few major application domains, namely navigation and remote sensing.

Dovis, Fabio; Magli, Enrico; Mulassano, Paolo; Pallavicini, Marco B.

2001-12-01

283

A Study on Socioeconomic Status and Obesity in a Group of Adolescents  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of socioeconomic status (SES on obesity in a group of adolescents. METHODS: This study was performed Ankara with students of two schools with low SES (n:183 and high SES (n:187 according to data Prime Minister Republic of Turkey, Turkish Statistical Institute. The total of 370 adolescents, 11-13 years-old, joined to the study which was 186 boys and 184 girls. The anthropometric measurements and the prevalence of obesity were done on adolescents. Moreover, their nutritional statuses were assessed; daily energy and nutrient intakes were calculated. The data were evaluated as low and high SES. RESULTS: Weight, BMI, triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfold thickness, and percentage of fat mass were significantly higher in high SES than in low SES (p<0.05. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 5.5% and 2.2% for low SES; 10.7% and 6.4% for high SES, respectively. Overweight and obesity prevelance are higher in high SES than low SES (p<0.05. Daily energy intake, percentage of energy from proteins and fats and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages were higher in high SES than in low SES. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity in adolescents with high SES is more common due to high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet composition. To inform adolescents, regarding to their SES, about nutrition and physical activities would be preventive for obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 433-440

Nurcan Yabanci

2011-08-01

284

Personal, social and environmental correlates of healthy weight status amongst mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: findings from the READI study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.

Crawford David

2010-03-01

285

Late-stage diagnosis of breast cancer in women of lower socioeconomic status: public health implications.  

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To assess the success of breast cancer control activities in Connecticut, we examined data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, determining differences in breast cancer stage at time of diagnosis over time and in selected subgroups. From 1982 to 1985, the percentage of women with cancer confined to the breast increased from 54.0 percent to 61.3 percent. During 1984 and 1985, lower socioeconomic status (SES) women with breast cancer were less likely than higher SES women to be diagnosed with early-stage disease (56.9 percent vs 62.7 percent). SES was estimated by census tract of residence. In the same years, the overall incidence of breast cancer was greater in higher SES women. Projections based on these incidence data found that lower SES women, as compared to higher SES women, had a higher rate of expected breast cancer deaths (24.6 vs 19.7 per 100,000), and a greater percentage of those deaths considered preventable by early detection (22 percent vs 11 percent). The rate of preventable deaths in lower SES women was 2.5 times as great as that for higher SES women (5.3 vs 2.1 per 100,000). Tumor registries can serve as useful surveillance systems to aid cancer control programs. Breast cancer early-detection programs should give special attention to lower SES women. PMID:2817162

Farley, T A; Flannery, J T

1989-01-01

286

The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity.  

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Abstract This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30-40%) than the European (20-30%), south-east Asian, western Pacific, and African regions (10-20% in the latter three). A total of 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight or obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight in 2010. The global overweight and obesity prevalence has increased dramatically since 1990, for example in preschool-age children, from approximately 4% in 1990 to 7% in 2010. If this trend continues, the prevalence may reach 9% or 60 million people in 2020. The obesity-SES association varies by gender, age, and country. In general, SES groups with greater access to energy-dense diets (low-SES in industrialized countries and high-SES in developing countries) are at increased risk of being obese than their counterparts. PMID:22724639

Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

2012-06-01

287

Individual-level socioeconomic status is associated with worse asthma morbidity in patients with asthma  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status (SES has been linked to higher morbidity in patients with chronic diseases, but may be particularly relevant to asthma, as asthmatics of lower SES may have higher exposures to indoor (e.g., cockroaches, tobacco smoke and outdoor (e.g., urban pollution allergens, thus increasing risk for exacerbations. Methods This study assessed associations between adult SES (measured according to educational level and asthma morbidity, including asthma control; asthma-related emergency health service use; asthma self-efficacy, and asthma-related quality of life, in a Canadian cohort of 781 adult asthmatics. All patients underwent a sociodemographic and medical history interview and pulmonary function testing on the day of their asthma clinic visit, and completed a battery of questionnaires (Asthma Control Questionnaire, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, and Asthma Self-Efficacy Scale. General Linear Models assessed associations between SES and each morbidity measure. Results Lower SES was associated with worse asthma control (F = 11.63, p Conclusions Results suggest that lower SES (measured according to education level, is associated with several indices of worse asthma morbidity, particularly worse asthma control, in adult asthmatics independent of disease severity. Results are consistent with previous studies linking lower SES to worse asthma in children, and add asthma to the list of chronic diseases affected by individual-level SES.

Bouchard Anne

2009-12-01

288

Neighborhood socioeconomic status, race, and mortality in young adult dialysis patients.  

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Young blacks receiving dialysis have an increased risk of death compared with whites in the United States. Factors influencing this disparity among the young adult dialysis population have not been well explored. Our study examined the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and racial differences in mortality in United States young adults receiving dialysis. We merged US Renal Data System patient-level data from 11,027 black and white patients ages 18-30 years old initiating dialysis between 2006 and 2009 with US Census data to obtain neighborhood poverty information for each patient. We defined low SES neighborhoods as those neighborhoods in US Census zip codes with ?20% of residents living below the federal poverty level and quantified race differences in mortality risk by level of neighborhood SES. Among patients residing in low SES neighborhoods, blacks had greater mortality than whites after adjusting for baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, rurality, and access to care factors. This difference in mortality between blacks and whites was significantly attenuated in higher SES neighborhoods. In the United States, survival between young adult blacks and whites receiving dialysis differs by neighborhood SES. Additional studies are needed to identify modifiable factors contributing to the greater mortality among young adult black dialysis patients residing in low SES neighborhoods. PMID:24925723

Johns, Tanya S; Estrella, Michelle M; Crews, Deidra C; Appel, Lawrence J; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Ephraim, Patti L; Cook, Courtney; Boulware, L Ebony

2014-11-01

289

The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.  

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The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development. PMID:15083654

DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

2004-02-01

290

Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.

Maple-Brown Louise

2011-02-01

291

Variation in the relationship between BMI and survival by socioeconomic status in Great Britain.  

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We investigate the relationship between obesity and survival, and the extent to which this relationship varies by socioeconomic status (SES). The underlying model is based on the "Pathways to health" framework in which SES affects health by modifying the relationship between lifestyles and health. We use data from the British Health and Lifestyle Survey (1984-1985) and the longitudinal follow-up in June 2009, and run parametric Gompertz survival models to investigate the association between obesity and survival, also accounting for interactions between obesity and both age and SES. Generally we find that obesity is negatively associated with survival, and that SES is positively associated with survival, in both men and women. The interactions between obesity and SES predict survival among women but not among men. Obesity compared with normal weight is associated with a reduction in survival of 3.3, 3.2 and 2.8 years in men aged 40, 50 and 60 years, respectively. Corresponding numbers among women in the lowest SES group are 13.1, 9.7 and 6.1 years, respectively; in the highest SES group they are 6.2, 3.1 and 0.1 years, respectively, a difference of approximately 6 years between the highest and lowest SES groups. PMID:23809617

Kinge, Jonas Minet; Morris, Stephen

2014-01-01

292

Neural Correlates of Aggression among Individuals from Low and High Socioeconomic Status: An ERP Study  

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Full Text Available Event-related brain potentials were recorded to investigate electrophysiological correlates of aggression in high and low socioeconomic status (SES participants who responded to violent and nonviolent images by using a choice reaction time paradigm. ERP data showed that violent images elicited a smaller N2 deflection than did nonviolent images in both high and low SES groups, but there was no difference in N2 amplitudes to aggressive and non-aggressive information as a function of SES. Notably, the latency of N2 in the low SES group was longer than that of the high SES group, suggesting slowness by the low SES group in deploying control responses. In addition, the low SES group exhibited significantly smaller P3 amplitudes to violent images, suggesting a reduction in brain activity known to reflect activation of the aversive motivational system, and this findings link this brain activity to aggressive behavior. As a whole the present findings show that participants low in SES seem to display similar psychophysiological responses to individuals high in aggression.

Yizhu Wang

2012-11-01

293

Caste, socio-economic status and fertility -- a study of proximate determinants of fertility in village Riwasa.  

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The intermediary variables of ritual stratification, i.e., caste, and secular stratification, i.e., socioeconomic status, were examined to explain fertility in a survey of 140 fertile women in Riwasa village, Bhiwani District, Haryana state, India, in 1981. The subjects interviewed were equally divided among 17 castes on the basis of untouchability. The intermediary variables evaluated were caste-consciousness, modernization, conformity to family ethical codes and husband-wife communication. The fertility indices were live births, living children, expected additional births and ideal family size. Results were expressed in percentages. Results of the survey confirmed previous findings that fertility was inversely related to caste and socioeconomic status. These associations were explained here, however, by the behavior of the intermediary variables. Fertility was inversely related to level of modernization and to husband-wife communication. Although caste-consciousness and conformity to family ethical codes were directly related to fertility, even among the higher castes. There were no differences in this study population between high and middle socioeconomic class, probably because the high socioeconomic group in this village resembled middle class in typical urban settings. PMID:12281355

Arora, G

1985-10-01

294

Intervenção psicomotora em crianças de nível socioeconômico baixo Psychomotor intervention on children of low socioeconomic status  

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Full Text Available Visou-se identificar o perfil psicomotor de crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico e verificar o efeito nelas de um programa de intervenção psicomotora. Participaram do estudo seis crianças do sexo masculino, na faixa de 10 a 12 anos (11,5±0,92. Os participantes foram avaliados utilizando-se uma bateria psicomotora que avalia sete fatores psicomotores: tonicidade, equilibração, lateralização, noção do corpo, estruturação espaço-temporal, praxia global e fina; de acordo com o desempenho da criança, os fatores são pontuados de 1 a 4; o escore 1 refere-se ao perfil apráxico, 2 ao dispráxico, 3 ao eupráxico e 4 ao hiperpráxico. Com base nas dificuldades detectadas foi elaborado um programa de intervenção psicomotora, aplicado durante três meses, em 16 sessões de uma hora de duração, duas vezes por semana. Ao término da intervenção os participantes foram reavaliados. Pela avaliação inicial, o perfil dos participantes foi predominantemente eupráxico nos fatores equilibração, lateralização, noção do corpo, praxia global e praxia fina; nos fatores tonicidade e estruturação espaço-temporal o perfil foi predominantemente dispráxico. Após o programa de intervenção houve aumento estatisticamente significativo (pThis study aimed at outlining the psychomotor profile of socioeconomically disadvantaged children and at verifying the effect on them of an assessment-based psychomotor training program. Participants were six 10-to-12 year-old children (mean age 11.5±0.92, who were evaluated before and after the program by means of a psychomotor battery which assesses seven categories: tonus, equilibrium, lateralisation, body perception, time-space orientation, gross and fine praxis; scores range from 1 to 4, determining the following profiles: 1, apraxic; 2, dyspraxic; 3, eupraxic; 4, hyperpraxic. By drawing on children's difficulties, a psychomotor playing program was applied during 3 months, in 16 one-hour sessions, twice a week. The initial evaluation showed participants profile to be predominantly eupraxic in equilibrium, lateralisation, body perception, gross and fine praxis; profile was mostly dyspraxic as to tonus and time-space orientation. After the program, scores significantly improved in tonus, equilibration, time-space orientation, gross, and fine praxis (p<0.05, thus suggesting that the program applied was able to benefit psychomotor performance of low socioeconomic status children.

Ana Carolina de Campos

2008-01-01

295

Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status  

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Event-related potentials (ERPs) and other electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES) children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort) emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc.) and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc.) may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in tw...

D Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Oberlander, Tim F.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Hertzman, Clyde; Maggi, Stefania

2012-01-01

296

Effect of Community Affluence on the Association Between Individual Socioeconomic Status and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, Colorado, 2007–2008  

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We assessed the hypothesis that community affluence modifies the association between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and 6 cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors: diabetes, hypertension, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and poor nutrition. We stratified data from the Colorado Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2007 and 2008 by individual SES and 3 categories of community affluence (median household income of county). People who had a low SES seemed to benefit from r...

Abeyta, Ian Matthew; Tuitt, Nicole R.; Byers, Tim E.; Sauaia, Angela

2012-01-01

297

Obesity, race/ethnicity and the multiple dimensions of socioeconomic status during the transition to adulthood: A factor analysis approach  

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Racial/ethnic disparities in obesity widen dramatically during young adulthood in the US. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity can provide insight on these disparities. However, the delay and complexity of the transition to adulthood creates challenges for defining SES using traditional, single indicators, such as income or years of education. Our objective was to define a multidimensional measure of young adult SES using ex...

Scharoun-lee, Melissa; Adair, Linda S.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Gordon-larsen, Penny

2009-01-01

298

Association of Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Environmental Factors with Risk of Overweight Among Adolescents in California, 2003  

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IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the Californ...

2008-01-01

299

Effect of patient socioeconomic status on access to early-phase cancer trials. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Science.gov (United States)

Ensuring diversity in Phase I trials may inform the design of later phase trials. Socioeconomic status may predict outcomes independent of ethnicity and was the focus of this study in England. Both SES and older age predicted lower referral rates for trials. This may be because more-deprived patients are less suitable for a trial as a result of comorbidities and, therefore, clinicians do not refer them.

300

The impact of socio-economic status on health related quality of life for children and adolescents with heart disease  

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Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to influence children’s health-related quality of life. Many SES indicators assess distinct dimensions of a family’s position rather than measuring the same underlying construct. Many researchers, however, see SES indicators as interchangeable. The primary aim of this study was to determine which measure of SES had the strongest impact on health-related quality of life. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the Pediatric Cardiac Quality o...

Cassedy, Amy; Drotar, Dennis; Ittenbach, Richard; Hottinger, Shawna; Wray, Jo; Wernovsky, Gil; Newburger, Jane W.; Mahony, Lynn; Mussatto, Kathleen; Cohen, Mitchell I.; Marino, Bradley S.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Oral Heath Conditions and Oral Hygiene Habits of Pregnant Women of Low Socio-Economic Status in Aracaju-SE  

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Objective: Mothers exert an important role in the stablishment of the dental care habits of their children and they are the major source from which infants acquire cariogenic microorganisms. Thus, the aim of this research was to assess the oral health conditions and oral hygiene habits of pregnant women of low socioeconomic status in the city of Aracaju-SE. Method: One hundred and seventy pregnant women were randomly selected to be interviewed in accordance with a structured questionnaire abo...

Ramos, Thaysa Monteiro; Almeida Ju?nior, Antonio Alves; Ramos, Thayanne Monteiro; Novais, So?nia Maria Alves; Grinfeld, Sara; Fortes, Ta?nia Maria Vieira; Pereira, Maria Auxiliadora Silva

2006-01-01

302

Socio-economic status of horse owners vis-a-vis horse feeding and management in Rajasthan  

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Aim: To study the socio-economic status, horse feeding and management adopted by horse owners of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: Primary data was collected through specially structured proforma by personal interview method from the horse owners of Hanumangarh (50), Churu (42), Jhunjhunu (30) and Jalore (40) districts of Rajasthan, India. Results: The district (Churu and Jhunjhunu) is mostly rain fed, Hanumangarh is canal-irrigated whereas Jalore is tube well irrigated. Majority of responden...

Bala, P. A.; Dedar, R. K.; Legha, R. A.; Yash Pal

2013-01-01

303

Present status and future direction of 'Data-Free-Way'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distributed database system, which is the data system for the design or selection of advanced nuclear materials, has been built under the cooperation of National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). The system is named 'Data-Free-Way'. The necessity of the data system are discussed and the outline of the pilot system including input data are shown. And the method of sharing data and examples of the easily accessible search of materials properties are described. Furthermore, the analysis results of analysis of tensile properties in type 316 stainless steels collected for this project are described as an example of the future trial of attractive/sophisticated utilization. (author)

304

Condições socioeconômicas em saúde: discussão de dois paradigmas Socioeconomic status and health: a discussion of two paradigms  

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Full Text Available Condição socioeconômica e seu impacto em saúde são objeto de grande interesse para pesquisadores e gestores de saúde. O artigo discute dois paradigmas de aferição da condição socioeconômica e revisa estudos epidemiológicos em que eles foram aplicados. Um dos paradigmas é referenciado por medidas de prestígio e diferenciação positiva entre os estratos sociais, como classificações baseadas em capital social e no acesso a bens e serviços. O outro é referenciado por classificações envolvendo privação material e diferenciação negativa entre os estratos sociais, e envolve a proposta de reposição aos segmentos populacionais mais afetados pela privação pelo Estado. A reflexão sobre opções metodológicas para se aferir condição socioeconômica em estudos epidemiológicos pode contribuir para a promoção de saúde e justiça social.Socioeconomic status and its impact on health are in the mainstream of public health thinking. This text discusses two paradigms utilized in assessing socioeconomic status in epidemiologic studies. One paradigm refers to prestige-based measurements and positive differentiation among social strata. This paradigm is characterized by classifications assessing social capital and the access to goods and services. The other paradigm refers to the classification of social deprivation and negative differentiation among social strata. The proposal of State-funded reposition to the mostly deprived social strata is acknowledged as characteristic of this paradigm. The contrast between these paradigms, and their potential interaction and debate are discussed. Fostering reflection on methodological strategies to assess socioeconomic status in epidemiologic studies can contribute to the promotion of health and social justice.

José Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes

2008-06-01

305

Maternal Socioeconomic Status and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of 33 Studies  

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Background We conducted this meta-analysis to address the open question of a possible association between maternal socioeconomic status and congenital heart defects (CHDs). Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from their inception to January 1, 2014 for case-control and cohort studies that assessed the association between maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were polled according to random-effect or fixed-effect models. Results From 3343 references, a total of 31 case-control studies and 2 cohort studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis, including more than 50,000 cases. We observed that maternal educational attainment, family income and maternal occupation were negatively associated with an 11% (pooled RR?=?1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21), 5% (pooled RR?=?1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09) and 51% (pooled RR?=?1.51, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.24) increased risk of CHDs, respectively. In a subgroup analysis by geographic region, the results were inconsistent for the European region (RR?=?1.29, 95% CI: 0.99–1.69) and USA/Canada region (RR?=?1.06, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.16) in maternal educational attainment. Conclusion In summary, this meta-analysis suggests that a lower degree of maternal socioeconomic status is modestly associated with an increased risk of CHDs. However, further investigations are needed to confirm the association. PMID:25347676

Yang, Lei; Da, Min; Fan, Changfeng; Wang, Song; Mo, Xuming

2014-01-01

306

Associations between Poor Sleep Quality and Psychosocial Stress with Obesity in Reproductive-Age Women of Lower Socioeconomic Status  

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Background Prior studies have not examined the role of psychosocial stress in the relationship between poor sleep quality and obesity among women of lower socioeconomic status. We tested the following hypotheses in a sample of reproductive-age women of lower socioeconomic status: 1) poor sleep quality is related to increased risk of obesity, and 2) psychosocial stress confounds this association between poor sleep quality and obesity. Methods A total of 927 women age 16 – 40 years attending public health clinics in Southeastern Texas provided information on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sociodemographic and health characteristics, including the Perceived Stress Scale. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured in clinic. A series of models examined the associations between sleep disturbance, perceived stress, and weight outcomes, accounting for potential confounding factors. Results Nearly 30% of women were overweight, while 35% were obese. Half of women had a waist circumference > 35 inches. Most women had poor sleep quality and high levels of stress. Sleep quality and perceived stress were not related to body mass index category or waist circumference in models that adjusted for age and race/ethnicity. Adjusting for potential confounding factors did not alter results. Perceived stress did not modify the association between sleep quality and weight outcomes. Conclusions Poor sleep quality and psychosocial stress were not related to weight in reproductive-aged women of lower socioeconomic status. However, poor sleep quality, high stress, overweight, and obesity were common in this group. PMID:23932141

Berenson, Abbey B.

2013-01-01

307

Survival from childhood cancer in Yorkshire, U.K.: effect of ethnicity and socio-economic status.  

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The effect of ethnicity and socio-economic status on the survival of a population-based cohort of 1979 children diagnosed with cancer between 1974 and 1995 was investigated. Ethnicity was assigned by computer algorithms and visual inspection as south Asian (or not) for each child, based on their full name. Socio-economic status was measured using the Carstairs index, based on census areas of case residence at diagnosis. 15 children (0.8%) were lost to follow-up. Log-rank tests showed survival from all cancers did not differ between south Asians and other children and no increased risk was observed for south Asians in any diagnostic category, although numbers were small. Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with significant trends of poorer survival from all cancers, leukaemias and brain tumours. Risk of death was typically higher for children from the most deprived areas although differences were not statistically significant after accounting for other factors including ethnicity. Taking all children with malignant disease together, neither ethnicity nor socio-economic status appear to influence survival after taking other factors into consideration. PMID:10673997

McKinney, P A; Feltbower, R G; Parslow, R C; Lewis, I J; Picton, S; Kinsey, S E; Bailey, C C

1999-12-01

308

Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States  

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Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients) in body mass index (BMI) and HPA were estimated by couples' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses' BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI???30, overweight: 30?>?BMI???25) was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women's husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women's husbands (OR?=?0.69 (95% CI?=?0.53–0.89)). Men's unemployment status was associated with wives' greater odds of obesity (OR?=?1.31 (95% CI?=?1.01–1.71)). HPA was associated with men's employment status and income level, but not with women's. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Youfa

2014-01-01

309

Family Structure, Socioeconomic Status, and Access to Health Care for Children  

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Objective To test the hypothesis that among children of lower socioeconomic status (SES), children of single mothers would have relatively worse access to care than children in two-parent families, but there would be no access difference by family structure among children in higher SES families. Data Sources The National Health Interview Surveys of 1993–95, including 63,054 children. Study Design Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the child's family structure (single-mother or two-parent family) and three measures of health care access and utilization: having no physician visits in the past year, having no usual source of health care, and having unmet health care needs. To examine how these relationships varied at different levels of SES, the models were stratified on maternal education level as the SES variable. The stratified models adjusted for maternal employment, child's health status, race and ethnicity, and child's age. Models were fit to examine the additional effects of health insurance coverage on the relationships between family structure, access to care, and SES. Principal Findings Children of single mothers, compared with children living with two parents, were as likely to have had no physician visit in the past year; were slightly more likely to have no usual source of health care; and were more likely to have an unmet health care need. These relationships differed by mother's education. As expected, children of single mothers had similar access to care as children in two-parent families at high levels of maternal education, for the access measures of no physician visits in the past year and no usual source of care. However, at low levels of maternal education, children of single mothers appeared to have better access to care than children in two-parent families. Once health insurance was added to adjusted models, there was no significant socioeconomic variation in the relationships between family structure and physician visits or usual source of care, and there were no significant disparities by family structure at the highest levels of maternal education. There were no family structure differences in unmet needs at low maternal education, whereas children of single mothers had more unmet needs at high levels of maternal education, even after adjustment for insurance coverage. Conclusions At high levels of maternal education, family structure did not influence physician visits or having a usual source of care, as expected. However, at low levels of maternal education, single mothers appeared to be better at accessing care for their children. Health insurance coverage explained some of the access differences by family structure. Medicaid is important for children of single mothers, but children in two-parent families whose mothers are less educated do not always have access to that resource. Public health insurance coverage is critical to ensure adequate health care access and utilization among children of less educated mothers, regardless of family structure.

Heck, Katherine E; Parker, Jennifer D

2002-01-01

310

Differences in prevalence of tobacco use among Indian urban youth: the role of socioeconomic status.  

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This study examined whether the distribution of tobacco use and related psychosocial risk factors among youth in urban India vary by socioeconomic status (SES). Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of students enrolled in the 6th and 8th grades in 32 schools in Delhi and Chennai (N = 11,642). The survey was conducted in 2004, before the implementation of a program designed to prevent and reduce tobacco use (MYTRI). Mixed-effect regression models were used (a) to determine the prevalence of tobacco use among private (higher SES) and government (lower SES) school students, (b) to investigate whether certain psychosocial factors were associated with increased tobacco use, and (c) to determine how these factors varied by school type. Ever-use of multiple forms of tobacco (e.g., gutkha, bidis, and cigarettes) was more prevalent among government school students than private school students. After adjusting for city, gender, grade, and age, we found the prevalence rate for ever-use of any tobacco product to be 18.9% for government school students, compared with 12.2% for private school students (padvertising was also a strong correlate of current tobacco use for government school students but not private school students. In two large cities of India, students attending government schools are using many forms of tobacco at higher rates than private school students. The psychosocial risk profile of government school students suggests they are more vulnerable to initiation and use and to outside influences that encourage use. PMID:18188751

Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa H; Perry, Cheryl L; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K Srinath

2008-01-01

311

Distance to hospital and socioeconomic status influence secondary health care use  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate how distance to hospital and socioeconomic status (SES) influence the use of secondary health care (SHC) when taking comorbidity into account. Design and setting. A register-based study in Östergötland County. Subjects. The adult population of Östergötland County. Main outcome measures. Odds of SHC use in the population and rates of SHC use by patients were studied after taking into account comorbidity level assigned using the Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) Case-Mix System. The baseline for analysis of SES was individuals with the lowest education level (level 1) and the lowest income (1st quartile). Results. The study showed both positive and negative association between SES and use of SHC. The risk of incurring SHC costs was 12% higher for individuals with education level 1. Individuals with income in the 2nd quartile had a 4% higher risk of incurring SHC costs but a 17% lower risk of emergency department visits. Individuals with income in the 4th quartilehad 9% lower risk of hospitalization. The risk of using SHC services for the population was not associated with distance to hospital. Patients living over 40 km from hospital and patients with higher SES had lower use of SHC services. Conclusions. It was found that distance to hospital and SES influence SHC use after adjusting for comorbidity level, age, and gender. These results suggest that GPs and health care managers should pay a higher degree of attention to this when planning primary care services in order to minimize the potentially redundant use of SHC.

Halling, Anders

2013-01-01

312

Prepregnancy body mass index, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity and breastfeeding practices  

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Objective While socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity are known predictors of breastfeeding practices, the added disparity caused by the rising rates of obesity among women of childbearing age remains untested. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in breastfeeding initiation and duration among black, white and Hispanic women of low and middle SES within the context of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). Methods Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort were analyzed. Adjusted logistic regression models were built to examine differences in breastfeeding initiation and duration for the three racial/ethnic groups of low and middle SES. Results Normal BMI Hispanic women of low SES demonstrated higher rates of breastfeeding initiation (74 %) compared to other groups. Overweight/obese black women of low SES had lower rates of breastfeeding initiation. Overweight/ obese Hispanic women of middle SES were significantly less likely to continue breastfeeding up to 4 months (OR: 0.65, 95 % CI: 0.41, 0.98) compared to their white counterparts. Among women who initiated breastfeeding, overweight/ obese white women of low SES had the highest rate of stopping within two months of giving birth (66.7 %). Conclusions Examination of SES and racial/ethnic differences within the context of prepregnancy weight revealed specific groups with low rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration. Interventions tailored for these at-risk groups are needed to increase the overall proportion of mothers and infants who benefit from the positive health outcomes associated with breastfeeding. PMID:22044008

Kitsantas, Panagiota; Gaffney, Kathleen F.; Kornides, Melanie L.

2014-01-01

313

Letter knowledge in parent-child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status  

Science.gov (United States)

When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent–child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516

Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

2014-01-01

314

Do agreements between adolescent and parent reports on family socioeconomic status vary with household financial stress?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies compared the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parents' reports on family socioeconomic status (SES. However, none of these studies analyzed whether the degree of concordance varies by different levels of household financial stress. This research examines whether the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parent reports for the three traditional SES measures (parental education, parental occupation and household income varied with parent-reported household financial stress and relative standard of living. Methods 2,593 adolescents with a mean age of 13 years, and one of their corresponding parents from the Taiwan Longitudinal Youth Project conducted in 2000 were analyzed. Consistency of adolescents' and parents' reports on parental educational attainment, parental occupation and household income were examined by parent-reported household financial stress and relative standard of living. Results Parent-reported SES variables are closely associated with family financial stress. For all levels of household financial stress, the degree of concordance between adolescent's and parent's reports are highest for parental education (? ranging from 0.87 to 0.71 followed by parental occupation (? ranging from 0.50 to 0.34 and household income (? ranging from 0.43 to 0.31. Concordance for father's education and parental occupation decreases with higher parent-reported financial stress. This phenomenon was less significant for parent-reported relative standard of living. Conclusions Though the agreement between adolescents' and parents' reports on the three SES measures is generally judged to be good in most cases, using adolescents reports for family SES may still be biased if analysis is not stratified by family financial stress.

Chou Yiing-Jenq

2011-04-01

315

Measuring socioeconomic status in multicountry studies: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study  

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Background There is no standardized approach to comparing socioeconomic status (SES) across multiple sites in epidemiological studies. This is particularly problematic when cross-country comparisons are of interest. We sought to develop a simple measure of SES that would perform well across diverse, resource-limited settings. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 800 children aged 24 to 60 months across eight resource-limited settings. Parents were asked to respond to a household SES questionnaire, and the height of each child was measured. A statistical analysis was done in two phases. First, the best approach for selecting and weighting household assets as a proxy for wealth was identified. We compared four approaches to measuring wealth: maternal education, principal components analysis, Multidimensional Poverty Index, and a novel variable selection approach based on the use of random forests. Second, the selected wealth measure was combined with other relevant variables to form a more complete measure of household SES. We used child height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) as the outcome of interest. Results Mean age of study children was 41 months, 52% were boys, and 42% were stunted. Using cross-validation, we found that random forests yielded the lowest prediction error when selecting assets as a measure of household wealth. The final SES index included access to improved water and sanitation, eight selected assets, maternal education, and household income (the WAMI index). A 25% difference in the WAMI index was positively associated with a difference of 0.38 standard deviations in HAZ (95% CI 0.22 to 0.55). Conclusions Statistical learning methods such as random forests provide an alternative to principal components analysis in the development of SES scores. Results from this multicountry study demonstrate the validity of a simplified SES index. With further validation, this simplified index may provide a standard approach for SES adjustment across resource-limited settings. PMID:24656134

2014-01-01

316

Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations: Differences between Families Differing in Socio-Economic Status  

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Full Text Available When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009 that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provides preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child’s name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms, but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams. Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child’s name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children’s early literacy skills and school readiness.

SarahRobins

2014-06-01

317

Is socioeconomic status of the rearing environment causally related to obesity in the offspring?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We attempt to elucidate whether there might be a causal connection between the socioeconomic status (SES) of the rearing environment and obesity in the offspring using data from two large-scale adoption studies: (1) The Copenhagen Adoption Study of Obesity (CASO), and (2) The Survey of Holt Adoptees and Their Families (HOLT). In CASO, the SES of both biological and adoptive parents was known, but all children were adopted. In HOLT, only the SES of the rearing parents was known, but the children could be either biological or adopted. After controlling for relevant covariates (e.g., adoptee age at measurement, adoptee age at transfer, adoptee sex) the raw (unstandardized) regression coefficients for adoptive and biological paternal SES on adoptee body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) in CASO were -.22 and -.23, respectively, both statistically significant (p¿=¿0.01). Controlling for parental BMI (both adoptive and biological) reduced the coefficient for biological paternal SES by 44% (p¿=¿.034) and the coefficient foradoptive paternal SES by 1%. For HOLT, the regression coefficients for rearing parent SES were -.42 and -.25 for biological and adoptive children, respectively. Controlling for the average BMI of the rearing father and mother (i.e., mid-parental BMI) reduced the SES coefficient by 47% in their biological offspring (p=.0001), and by 12% in their adoptive offspring (p¿=¿.09). Thus, despite the differing structures of the two adoption studies, both suggest that shared genetic diathesis and direct environmental transmission contribute about equally to the association between rearing SES and offspring BMI.

Fontaine, Kevin R; Robertson, Henry T

2011-01-01

318

Country-Specific Dietary Patterns and Associations with Socioeconomic Status in European Children : The IDEFICS Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background/objectives:Children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. We described country-specific dietary patterns among children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS study and assessed the association of dietary patterns with an additive SES indicator.Subjects/Methods:Children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Principal component analysis was applied to identify dietary country-specific patterns. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess their association with SES. Results:Two to four dietary patterns were identified in the participating regions. The existence of a 'processed' pattern was found in the eight regions. Also, a 'healthy' pattern was identified in seven of the eight regions. In addition, region-specific patterns were identified, reflecting the existing gastronomic and cultural differences in Europe. The 'processed' pattern was significantly inversely associated with theSES additive indicator in all countries except Sweden, whereas the 'healthy' pattern was positively associated with SES in the Belgian, Estonian, German and Hungarian regions, but was not significant in the Italian, Spanish and Swedish regions.Conclusions:A 'processed' pattern and a 'healthy' pattern were found in most of the participating countries in the IDEFICS study, with comparable food item profiles. The results showed a strong inverse association of SES with the 'processed' pattern, suggesting that children of parents with lower SES may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. Therefore, special focus should be given to parents and their children from lower SES levels when developing healthy eating promotion strategies

Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin

2014-01-01

319

Letter knowledge in parent-child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent-child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent-child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent-child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516

Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

2014-01-01

320

Class in the Classroom: The Relationship between School Resources and Math Performance among Low Socioeconomic Status Students in 19 Rich Countries  

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This paper investigates achievement gaps between low and high socioeconomic students in 19 high-income countries. On average, math scores of students with indicators of high socioeconomic status (SES) are over one standard deviation above those with low SES indicators. The paper estimates the extent to which these achievement gaps can be…

Baird, Katherine

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Nutritional status of urban schoolchildren of high and low socioeconomic status in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala Estado nutricional de escolares urbanos de niveles socioeconómicos alto y bajo en Quetzaltenango, Guatemala  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing in children in many developing countries, increasing chronic disease risk. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight, and obesity in schoolchildren 8 to 10 years old who were of high or low socioeconomic status (SES) in Quetzaltenango, which is the second largest city in Guatemala METHODS: Between April and June 2005 we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 583 children in private and publi...

Groeneveld, Iris F.; Solomons, Noel W.; Doak, Colleen M.

2007-01-01

322

Socioeconomic status and hospital utilization among younger adult pneumonia admissions at a Canadian hospital  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the general association between socioeconomic status (SES and hospitalization has been well established, few studies have considered the relationship between SES and hospital length of stay (LOS, and/or hospital re-admission. The primary objective of this study therefore, was to examine the relationship of SES to LOS and early re-admission among adult patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia in a setting with universal health insurance. Methods Four hundred and thirty-four (434 individuals were included in this retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis of adult patients less than 65 years old admitted to a large teaching hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia. Hospital chart review data were linked to population-based health plan administrative data. Chart review was used to gather data on demographics, illness severity, co-morbidity, functional status and other measures of case mix. Two different types of administrative data were used to determine hospital LOS and the occurrence of all-cause re-admission to any hospital within 30 days of discharge. SES was measured by individual-level financial hardship (receipt of income assistance or provincial disability pension and neighbourhood-level income quintiles. Results Those with individual-level financial hardship had an estimated 15% (95% CI -0.4%, +32%, p = 0.057 longer adjusted LOS and greater risk of early re-admission (adjusted OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.38, 5.09. Neighbourhood-level income quintiles, showed no association with LOS or early re-admission. Conclusion Among hospitalized pneumonia patients less than 65 years, financial hardship derived from individual-level data, was associated with an over two-fold greater risk of early re-admission and a marginally significant longer hospital LOS. However, the same association was not apparent when an ecological measure of SES derived from neighbourhood income quintiles was examined. The ecological SES variable, while useful in many circumstances, may lack the sensitivity to detect the full range of SES effects in clinical studies.

Fitzgerald J Mark

2006-11-01

323

Health-related quality of life and socioeconomic status: inequalities among adults with a chronic disease  

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Background A number of studies have shown an association between health-related quality of life (HRQL) and socioeconomic status (SES). Indicators of SES usually serve as potential confounders; associations between SES and HRQL are rarely discussed in their own right. Also, few studies assess the association between HRQL and SES among those with a chronic disease. The study focuses on the question of whether people with the same state of health judge their HRQL differently according to their SES, and whether a bias could be introduced by ignoring these differences. Methods The analyses were based on a representative sample of the adult population in Germany (n?=?11,177). HRQL was assessed by the EQ-5D-3 L, i.e. the five domains (e.g. ‘moderate or severe problems’ concerning mobility) and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). SES was primarily assessed by educational level; age, sex and family status were included as potential confounders. Six chronic diseases were selected, each having a prevalence of at least 1% (e.g. diabetes mellitus). Multivariate analyses were conducted by logistic and linear regression. Results Among adults with a chronic disease, most ‘moderate or severe problems’ are reported more often in the low (compared with the high) educational group. The same social differences are seen for VAS values, also in subgroups characterized by ‘moderate or severe problems’. Gender-specific analyses show that for women the associations with VAS values can just be seen in the total sample. For men, however, they are also present in subgroups defined by ‘moderate or severe problems’ or by the presence of a chronic disease; some of these differences exceed 10 points on the VAS scale. Conclusions Low SES groups seem to be faced with a double burden: first, increased levels of health impairments and, second, lower levels of valuated HRQL once health is impaired. These associations should be analysed and discussed in their own right, based on interdisciplinary co-operation. Social epidemiologists could include measures of HRQL in their studies more often, for example, and health economists could consider assessing whether recommendations based on HRQL scales might include a social bias. PMID:24761773

2014-01-01

324

Socio-economic status, racial composition and the affordability of fresh fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods of a large rural region in Texas. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Dunn RA, Sharkey JR, Lotade-Manje J, Bouhlal Y, Nayga RM Jr. Socio-economic status, racial composition and the affordability of fresh fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods of a large rural region in Texas.

325

Duração do sono em adolescentes de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos Sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a duração de sono na adolescência em diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODO: Foram investigados 863 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em duas escolas de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas por meio de questionários para identificação de informações sobre os hábitos de sono e nível socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: A duração média de sono nos dias da semana foi de 8,83(1,87 horas e a prevalência de adolescentes com duração de sono de oito ou menos horas diárias foi de 39,0% nos dias com aula. Adolescentes da classe baixa apresentaram menor duração do sono (p = 0,043. Na análise ajustada, a idade, o nível socioeconômico e o hábito de tirar a sesta foram os principais fatores associados a poucas horas de sono. Os participantes de 18 a 19 anos apresentaram maior prevalência de poucas horas de sono em comparação aos de 10 a 11 anos (PR = 4,78; CI95%: 1,98-11,53, assim como os adolescentes da classe alta em comparação com a classe baixa (PR = 1,48; CI95%: 1,20-1,83. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram associações entre o nível socioeconômico e os hábitos de sono de adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status. METHOD: We investigated 863 adolescents from 10 to 19 years in two schools in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Sleep habits data and socioeconomic status were obtained by questionnaires. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration on days of the week was 8.83(1.87 hours and the prevalence of adolescents with eight or fewer hours/day was 39.0% on school days (p = 0.043. On adjusted analysis, age, socioeconomic status and taking a nap habit were the main factors associated with few hours of sleep. Older students (aged 18 to 19 years showed higher prevalence of few hours of sleep when compared to younger students (10 to 11 years (RP = 4.78; IC95%: 1.98-11.53, as well as for upper class adolescents when compared to those with lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Results showed the association between socioeconomic status and adolescents' sleep/wake habits.

Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite Bernardo

2009-01-01

326

Duração do sono em adolescentes de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos / Sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a duração de sono na adolescência em diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODO: Foram investigados 863 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em duas escolas de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas por meio de questionários para identificação de informações sobre os hábitos [...] de sono e nível socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: A duração média de sono nos dias da semana foi de 8,83(1,87) horas e a prevalência de adolescentes com duração de sono de oito ou menos horas diárias foi de 39,0% nos dias com aula. Adolescentes da classe baixa apresentaram menor duração do sono (p = 0,043). Na análise ajustada, a idade, o nível socioeconômico e o hábito de tirar a sesta foram os principais fatores associados a poucas horas de sono. Os participantes de 18 a 19 anos apresentaram maior prevalência de poucas horas de sono em comparação aos de 10 a 11 anos (PR = 4,78; CI95%: 1,98-11,53), assim como os adolescentes da classe alta em comparação com a classe baixa (PR = 1,48; CI95%: 1,20-1,83). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram associações entre o nível socioeconômico e os hábitos de sono de adolescentes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status. METHOD: We investigated 863 adolescents from 10 to 19 years in two schools in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Sleep habits data and socioeconomic status were obtained by questionnaires. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration [...] on days of the week was 8.83(1.87) hours and the prevalence of adolescents with eight or fewer hours/day was 39.0% on school days (p = 0.043). On adjusted analysis, age, socioeconomic status and taking a nap habit were the main factors associated with few hours of sleep. Older students (aged 18 to 19 years) showed higher prevalence of few hours of sleep when compared to younger students (10 to 11 years) (RP = 4.78; IC95%: 1.98-11.53), as well as for upper class adolescents when compared to those with lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Results showed the association between socioeconomic status and adolescents' sleep/wake habits.

Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite, Bernardo; Érico Felden, Pereira; Fernando Mazzilli, Louzada; Vânia, D' Almeida.

327

Association of socioeconomic status with overall overweight and central obesity in men and women: the French Nutrition and Health Survey 2006  

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Abstract Background Identification of subpopulations at high risk of overweight and obesity is crucial for prevention and management of obesity in different socioeconomic status (SES) categories. The objective of the study was to describe disparities in the prevalence of overweight and obesity across socioeconomic status (SES) groups in 18–74 year-old French adults. Methods Analyses were based on a multistage stratified random sample of non-institutionalized a...

Hercberg Serge; Deschamps Valerie; Szego Emmanuelle; Roudier Candice; Salanave Benoit; Oleko Amivi; Malon Aurelie; Vernay Michel; Castetbon Katia

2009-01-01

328

The effect of race on the incidence of low birth weight: persistence of effect after controlling for socioeconomic, educational, marital, and risk status.  

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The purpose of this study was to determine whether the elevated risk for low birth weight (LBW) infants among black mothers would persist when biologic, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors (as measured by socioeconomic status, level of education, and marital status) were controlled. It was found that the odds ratios for the risk of LBW for blacks/whites persisted above 1.5, regardless of what subgroups were used and what factors were controlled. The black/white odds ratios were, however, le...

Miller, H. C.; Jekel, J. F.

1987-01-01

329

Health problems account for a small part of the association between socioeconomic status and disability pension award. Results from the Hordaland Health Study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status is a known risk factor for disability pension, and is also associated with health problems. To what degree health problems can explain the increased risk of disability pension award associated with low socioeconomic status is not known. Methods Information on 15,067 participants in the Hordaland Health Study was linked to a comprehensive national registry on disability pension awards. Level of education was used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the association between socioeconomic status and rates of disability pension award, before and after adjusting for a wide range of somatic and mental health factors. The proportion of the difference in disability pension between socioeconomic groups explained by health was then calculated. Results Unadjusted odds ratios for disability pension was 4.60 (95% CI: 3.34-6.33 for the group with elementary school only (9 years of education and 2.03 (95% CI 1.49-2.77 for the group with high school (12 years of education when compared to the group with higher education (more than 12 years. When adjusting for somatic and mental health, odds ratios were reduced to 3.87 (2.73-5.47 and 1.81 (1.31-2.52. This corresponds to health explaining only a marginal proportion of the increased level of disability pension in the groups with lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion There is a socioeconomic gradient in disability pension similar to the well known socioeconomic gradient in health. However, health accounts for little of the socioeconomic gradient in disability pension. Future studies of socioeconomic gradients in disability pension should focus on explanatory factors beyond health.

Reichborn-Kjennerud Ted

2011-01-01

330

Exploring the joint effect of atmospheric pollution and socioeconomic status on selected health outcomes: an overview of the PAISARC project  

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Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes—asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction—at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics—INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000 2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project.

Bard, D.; Laurent, O.; Filleul, L.; Havard, S.; Deguen, S.; Segala, C.; Pedrono, G.; Rivière, E.; Schillinger, C.; Rouïl, L.; Arveiler, D.; Eilstein, D.

2007-10-01

331

Exploring the joint effect of atmospheric pollution and socioeconomic status on selected health outcomes: an overview of the PAISARC project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes-asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction-at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics-INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000-2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project

332

Exploring the joint effect of atmospheric pollution and socioeconomic status on selected health outcomes: an overview of the PAISARC project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes-asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction-at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics-INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000-2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project.

Bard, D [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Laurent, O [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Filleul, L [CIRE Aquitaine, Bordeaux (France); Havard, S [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Deguen, S [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Segala, C [Sepia-Sante, Melrand (France); Pedrono, G [Sepia-Sante, Melrand (France); Riviere, E [ASPA, Schiltigheim (France); Schillinger, C [ASPA, Schiltigheim (France); Rouil, L [INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Arveiler, D [Registre des Cardiopathies Ischemiques du Bas-Rhin, Laboratoire d' epidemiologie et de sante publique-EA 1801, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Eilstein, D [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint Maurice (France)

2007-10-15

333

Socioeconomic status as determinant of risk factors for overweight in adolescents Status socioeconômico como determinante de fatores de risco associados com o sobrepeso em adolescentes  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze risk factors for overweight among adolescents grouped in three different socioeconomic levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1779 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years, grouped according to socioeconomic status (low, middle, and high. Parents reported their own anthropometric data and the adolescents had their anthropometric data taken by trained researchers, and completed three questionnaires. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 16.7%, 23.8%, and 26.3% in low, middle and high socioeconomic status, respectively (P= 0.001. In all socioeconomic status, parent's overweight was associated with adolescent overweight (all POBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores de risco para o sobrepeso entre adolescentes agrupados em três níveis econômicos diferentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que incluiu 1779 adolescentes com idade de 11-17 anos, agrupados de acordo com a condição econômica (baixo, médio e alto. Os pais reportaram seus próprios dados antropométricos e os adolescentes tiveram seus dados antropométricos aferidos por avaliadores treinados, e também responderam a três questionários. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 16.7%, 23.8% e 26.3% nas classes econonômicas baixa, média e alta, respectivamente (P=0.001. Em todas as condições econômicas, o sobrepeso dos pais foi associado com o sobrepeso dos filhos (P<0.05. Os estudantes de classes econômicas média e alta (RP=2.00 de escolas privadas foram associados com o sobrepeso, e estudantes de baixo nível sócio-econômico com comportamento sedentário (RP = 2,25 e alta ingestão de frituras (PR = 2.35. CONCLUSÃO: Em cada nível socioeconômico o sobrepeso é associado com diferentes fatores de risco de diferente formas, exceto para pais com sobrepeso.

Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

2011-10-01

334

Ways of perfection of socio-economic bases of development of physical culture and sport in Republic Lebanon.  

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Full Text Available Consisting of economy of physical culture and sport is certain of Republic Lebanon. Opinions of the Lebanese specialists are presented on questions of perfection of socio-economic bases of development of physical culture and sport. The necessity of decision of complex of tasks of socio-economic character is grounded for a country taking into account experience of foreign countries. It is offered to develop and realize a target comprehensive programme under the title « Lebanon - sports country ».

Michuda Y.P.

2010-08-01

335

The Differences in Senior Turkish Pre-service Elementary Science Teachers’ Conceptions of Learning Science with respect to Gender and Socio-Economic Status  

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Full Text Available This study explored the differences in the senior Turkish preservice elementary science teachers’ conceptions of learning science by gender and socio-economic status (SES. The Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS questionnaire was adapted into Turkish and administered to 379 preservice elementary science teachers from seven universities in different regions of Turkey. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was performed to explore the differences. According to results, males and females differed on their mean scores on ‘memorizing’ and ‘testing’ dimensions of COLS questionnaire. While males had higher scores on ‘memorizing’ and ‘testing’ dimensions of COLS questionnaire than females, males and females had similar scores on ‘calculate and practice’, ‘increase of knowledge’ , ‘applying’ , and ‘understanding and seeing in a new way’ dimensions of COLS questionnaire. Mean scores on dimensions of COLS questionnaire were not significantly different with respect to SES. In addition, the results pointed out that there was no significant interaction between gender and SES.

Serkan Kapucu

2014-04-01

336

Socio-economic status and oral health-related behaviours in Korean adolescents.  

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The principle objective of this study was to assess the association between socio-economic status (SES) and oral health-related behaviours in Korean adolescents aged 13-18, using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). The secondary objective was to assess the influences of other factors (pocket money, school type, family structure and psychological factors) on this association. Cross-sectional data were from the national 2007 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Oral health-related behaviours included health-enhancing behaviours (frequency of toothbrushing and dental visits) and health-compromising behaviours (smoking and frequency of intake of soft drinks and confections). Logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. To assess the influence of other factors, additional models adjusting for sex, school grade and each of the other factors were compared to the initial model, which adjusted for sex and school grade only. We found that family affluence had a linear association with health-enhancing behaviours and a roughly U-shaped association with health-compromising behaviours. After adjusting for a number of variables, the linear association with health-enhancing behaviours persisted. The U-shaped association with health-compromising behaviours remained but was partly attenuated and flattened. In addition, we found a marked influence of school type and family structure and pocket money on the association between FAS and oral health-compromising behaviours. The findings indicate that the health-enhancing behaviours of adolescents were strongly associated with family affluence, but the health-compromising behaviours were more strongly linked to factors other than family affluence. However, it is difficult to determine which factors contribute most in relation to family affluence because of other confounding factors, such as the education system, peer group, youth culture, part-time work and advertising. Therefore, further studies are needed to assess factors that interact with family SES to better understand the association between the SES and the oral health-compromising behaviours of adolescents. PMID:20359807

Jung, Se-Hwan; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Ryu, Jae-In; Watt, Richard G

2010-06-01

337

Contemporary female smokers in the us are younger and of lower socioeconomic status  

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Full Text Available Smoking is the most common cause of prema-ture cardiovascular disease in women, but con-temporary data is lacking. We sought to inves-tigate the differences between female smokers and nonsmokers in the US. Methods: Using a registry of almost 19,000 women who attended free public heart screenings sponsored by Sis-ter to Sister between 2008 and 2009 in 17 large US cities, we compared the means for lipid val-ues, cardiometabolic measures, and differences in sociodemographic information between smok-ers and nonsmokers. Secondary outcomes were age and race-adjusted odds for obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, a non-HDL > 160 mg/dl, and a serum glucose ? 126 mg/dl between smoking and nonsmoking women. Results: The final sample included 18,892 women (49.8 ± 14.3 years, 37% black, and 32% white, 14% Hispanic, with 1,216 (6.4% current smokers. Smokers were younger than non-smokers (45.6 ± 13.0 vs 50.1 ± 14.4 years, p < 0.001, with lower HDL levels (55.5 ± 17.4 vs 58.6 ± 17.4, p < 0.001, and higher triglycerides (148.8 ± 103.7 vs 145.5 ± 93, p = 0.4082. There were no significant differences in LDL between smokers versus nonsmokers. There were more black and white women in the smoking group. Smoking women were more likely to meet criteria for the metabolic syndrome (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.00 - 1.49 and have a non-HDL > 160 mg/dl (OR 1.19; 1.01 - 1.39. Insurance and income data showed a sig-nificant inverse relationship between smoking prevalence and increasing household income. Conclusions: In this richly diverse sample of women, female smokers were younger and of lower socioeconomic status than nonsmokers with significant differences in cardiometabolic risk factors.

Jennifer L. Jarvie

2011-06-01

338

Mammographic density and markers of socioeconomic status: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES is known to be positively associated with breast cancer risk but its relationship with mammographic density, a marker of susceptibility to breast cancer, is unclear. This study aims to investigate whether mammographic density varies by SES and to identify the underlying anthropometric, lifestyle and reproductive factors leading to such variation. Methods In a cross-sectional study of mammographic density in 487 pre-menopausal women, SES was assessed from questionnaire data using highest achieved level of formal education, quintiles of Census-derived Townsend scores and urban/rural classification of place of residence. Mammographic density was measured on digitised films using a computer-assisted method. Linear regression models were fitted to assess the association between SES variables and mammographic density, adjusting for correlated variables. Results In unadjusted models, percent density was positively associated with SES, with an absolute difference in percent density of 6.3% (95% CI 1.6%, 10.5% between highest and lowest educational categories, and of 6.6% (95% CI -0.7%, 12.9% between highest and lowest Townsend quintiles. These associations were mainly driven by strong negative associations between these SES variables and lucent area and were attenuated upon adjustment for body mass index (BMI. There was little evidence that reproductive factors explained this association. SES was not associated with the amount of dense tissue in the breast before or after BMI adjustment. The effect of education on percent density persisted after adjustment for Townsend score. Mammographic measures did not vary according to urban/rural place of residence. Conclusions The observed SES gradients in percent density paralleled known SES gradients in breast cancer risk. Although consistent with the hypothesis that percent density may be a mediator of the SES differentials in breast cancer risk, the SES gradients in percent density were mainly driven by the negative association between SES and BMI. Nevertheless, as density affects the sensitivity of screen-film mammography, the higher percent density found among high SES women would imply that these women have a higher risk of developing cancer but a lower likelihood of having it detected earlier.

Moss Sue M

2010-02-01

339

A multilevel non-hierarchical study of birth weight and socioeconomic status  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the socioeconomic status (SES of the community of residence has a substantial association with infant birth weight. We used multilevel models to examine associations of birth weight with family- and community-level SES in the Cape Cod Family Health Study. Data were collected retrospectively on births to women between 1969 and 1983 living on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The sample included siblings born in different residences with differing community-level SES. Methods We used cross-classified models to account for multiple levels of correlation in a non-hierarchical data structure. We accounted for clustering at family- and community-levels. Models included extensive individual- and family-level covariates. SES variables of interest were maternal education; paternal occupation; percent adults living in poverty; percent adults with a four year college degree; community mean family income; and percent adult unemployment. Results Residual correlation was detected at the family- but not the community-level. Substantial effects sizes were observed for family-level SES while smaller magnitudes were observed for community-level SES. Overall, higher SES corresponded to increased birth weight though neither family- nor community-level variables had significant associations with the outcome. In a model applied to a reduced sample that included a single child per family, enforcing a hierarchical data structure, paternal occupation was found to have a significant association with birth weight (p = 0.033. Larger effect sizes for community SES appeared in models applied to the full sample that contained limited covariates, such as those typically found on birth certificates. Conclusions Cross-classified models allowed us to include more than one child per family even when families moved between births. There was evidence of mild associations between family SES and birth weight. Stronger associations between paternal occupation and birth weight were observed in models applied to reduced samples with hierarchical data structures, illustrating consequences of excluding observations from the cross-classified analysis. Models with limited covariates showed associations of birth weight with community SES. In models adjusting for a complete set of individual- and family-level covariates, community SES was not as important.

Aschengrau Ann

2010-07-01

340

Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6?years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

Jansen Pauline W

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Nutritional status, socio-economic and hygienic condition of school aged children of a village of Pune District, Maharashtra  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The field of anthropometry encompasses a variety of human body measurements, such as weight, height and size; including skin fold thickness, circumference, lengths, and breadths. Anthropometry is a key component of nutritional status assessment in children and adults. Anthropometric data for children reflect general health status, dietary adequacy and growth and development over time. The main objective of the study was to diagnose and analyze the magnitude and causes of nutritional and health problems of the village. Method: Anthropometric reference data of 100 children between 7-14 years of age from a small village situated 30 km from Pune. Using this data BMI i.e. Body Mass Index was calculated which helps in determining whether an individual is overweight or underweight. Result: The overall study helped us to find out the socioeconomic condition, hygienic condition as well as nutritional status of children. All the anthropometric measurements of the girls and boys in 7-14 years age group was found to be significantly normal. Conclusion: The hygienic condition of the village was good enough and in turn BMI data shows that the socioeconomic condition of the village was also good.

Puranik SS

2014-07-01

342

Dental health of 13-14-year-old Jordanian school children and its relationship with socio-economic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between oral hygiene, dental caries experience, periodontal condition and socio-economic status was assessed in 1375 13-14-year-old school children in Irbid Governate, north Jordan. They were divided into four groups according to their family income: 'very poor', 'poor', 'moderate' and 'rich'. Their oral hygiene, dental caries experience and peridontal status were assessed using the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), the decayed, missing and filled teeth or surfaces (DMFT/S) system and the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), respectively. The mean PI was 1.82 but there was a trend to decrease gradually from the 'very poor' to the 'rich' group There were no significant differences in caries experience between the four groups. The CPITN showed that the 'very poor' group had a slightly lower mean number of healthy mouth sextants than the other groups, but slightly higher scores for bleeding, calculus and pocketing. The results reveal that socioeconomic status, as assessed by family income, seems to have little relationship to dental caries experience or periodontal disease in 13-14-year-old school children, in north Jordan. PMID:9115975

Taani, D S

1996-09-01

343

Prevalence of chronic headache with and without medication overuse: Associations with socioeconomic position and physical and mental health status.  

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Near-daily intake of acute symptomatic medication for frequent headache increases the risk for medication-overuse headache (MOH). Chronic headache (CH) and MOH prevalences are inversely related to socioeconomic position (SEP). It is not known how SEP influences the health status of people with these headaches. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of CH in Denmark; possible associations between CH and education, work status, and income; and the health status of people with CH across socioeconomic strata. A total of 129,150 individuals aged ?16years were invited to the 2010 Danish National Health Survey. Data on SEP indicators and purchases of prescription drugs in 2009 were retrieved from national registers. Respondents with headache ?15days per month over 3months were classified as having CH. Those with concurrent over-the-counter analgesic intake of ?15days per month or prescription medication overuse (?20 or ?30 defined daily doses per month depending on the drug or drugs) were classified as having MOH. Associations between headache and SEP were analyzed by logistic regression, and associations between headache and health status scores, by linear regression. Physical and mental health composite scores (SF-12) were summarized per headache group, stratified by SEP, and compared to the sample mean. Analyses were adjusted for stratified sampling and nonresponse. The response rate was 53.1%. CH prevalence was 3.3% with 53.0% of cases having concurrent medication overuse (MOH prevalence 1.8%). CH was more prevalent among those individuals with low SEP. Health status scores were significantly lower among persons with CH in all SEP categories. The burden of CH can be reduced by preventing and treating MOH. PMID:25020001

Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

2014-10-01

344

Prevalence of chronic headache with and without medication overuse : Associations with socioeconomic position and physical and mental health status  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Near-daily intake of acute symptomatic medication for frequent headache increases the risk for medication-overuse headache (MOH). Chronic headache (CH) and MOH prevalences are inversely related to socioeconomic position (SEP). It is not known how SEP influences the health status of people with these headaches. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of CH in Denmark; possible associations between CH and education, work status, and income; and the health status of people with CH across socioeconomic strata. A total of 129,150 individuals aged ?16years were invited to the 2010 Danish National Health Survey. Data on SEP indicators and purchases of prescription drugs in 2009 were retrieved from national registers. Respondents with headache ?15days per month over 3months were classified as having CH. Those with concurrent over-the-counter analgesic intake of ?15days per month or prescription medication overuse (?20 or ?30 defined daily doses per month depending on the drug or drugs) were classified as having MOH. Associations between headache and SEP were analyzed by logistic regression, and associations between headache and health status scores, by linear regression. Physical and mental health composite scores (SF-12) were summarized per headache group, stratified by SEP, and compared to the sample mean. Analyses were adjusted for stratified sampling and nonresponse. The response rate was 53.1%. CH prevalence was 3.3% with 53.0% of cases having concurrent medication overuse (MOH prevalence 1.8%). CH was more prevalent among those individuals with low SEP. Health status scores were significantly lower among persons with CH in all SEP categories. The burden of CH can be reduced by preventing and treating MOH.

Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte

2014-01-01

345

Peer Pressure and Socioeconomic Status as Predictors of Student’s Attitude to Examination Malpractice in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Examination malpractice has remained a serious challenge to public examinations. The paperexamined the influence of peer pressure and socioeconomic status and student’s attitudetoward examination malpractice. A survey design was employed using a sample size of 1000Junior Secondary two students. Questionnaire was used to elicit the right responses on peerpressure and students attitude toward examination malpractice. Simple regression statisticswas also used to establish the influence of peer pressure on students’ attitude towardsexamination malpractice. The result showed that peer pressure significantly predicts students’attitude to examination malpractice. The paper suggested some measures counsellors can useto reduce influence of peer pressure on students’ attitude toward examination malpractice.  

Grace Nwamaka Okorodudu

2013-01-01

346

Effect of Community Affluence on the Association Between Individual Socioeconomic Status and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, Colorado, 2007-2008  

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We assessed the hypothesis that community affluence modifies the association between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and 6 cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors: diabetes, hypertension, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and poor nutrition. We stratified data from the Colorado Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2007 and 2008 by individual SES and 3 categories of community affluence (median household income of county). People who had a low SES seemed to benefit from residing in high-affluence communities. Living in high-affluence communities may mitigate the effect of poverty on CVD risk factors; our findings support the value of interventions that address social determinants of health. PMID:22721500

Abeyta, Ian Matthew; Tuitt, Nicole R.; Byers, Tim E.

2012-01-01

347

Systolic Blood Pressure, Socioeconomic Status, and Biobehavioral Risk Factors in a Nationally Representative U.S Young Adult Sample  

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In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a US longitudinal study of over 15,000 young adults, we examined the extent to which socioeconomic status is linked to systolic blood pressure, and whether biobehavioral risk factors mediate the association. Over 62% of the participants had systolic blood pressure >120 mmHg and 12% with systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg. Over 66% were classified as at least overweight (Body Mass Index>25 kg/m2), with over 36% meeting criteria for at lea...

Brummett, Beverly H.; Babyak, Michael A.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Elder, Glen H.; Williams, Redford B.

2011-01-01

348

A national study of socioeconomic status and tuberculosis rates by country of birth, United States, 1996–2005  

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Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries has historically been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES). In the past quarter century, TB in the United States has changed from primarily a disease of native-born to primarily a disease of foreign-born persons, who accounted for more than 60% of newly-diagnosed TB cases in 2010. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of SES with rates of TB in U.S.-born and foreign-born perso...

2012-01-01

349

Hypertension and determinants of blood pressure with special reference to socioeconomic status in a rural south Indian community.  

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OBJECTIVES--The objective of the study was to establish the prevalence of hypertension and to assess determinants of blood pressure with special reference to socioeconomic status in a rural south Indian community. DESIGN--This was a door to door, cross sectional survey. SETTING--A rural south Indian community, KV Kuppam panchayat, North Arcot District, Tamil Nadu. SUBJECTS--The area has a total population of 3500 people. Those aged over 20 years who were available at the time of measurement w...

Gilberts, E. C.; Arnold, M. J.; Grobbee, D. E.

1994-01-01

350

Influence of socioeconomic status on community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in elderly patients requiring hospitalization: a multicenter observational study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The associations between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in adults have been studied although studies did not always document a relationship. The aim of this multicenter observational study was to determine the association between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in the elderly, in the context of a public health system providing universal free care to the whole population. Methods A total of 651 patients aged ?65 years hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia through the emergency departments of five Spanish public hospitals were recruited and followed up between May 2005 and January 2007. The primary outcomes studied were: length of stay, intensive care unit admission, overall mortality and readmission. Socioeconomic status was measured using both individual and community data: occupation [categorized in six social groups (I, II, III, IVa, IVb and V], educational level (? primary level or ? secondary level and disposable family income of the municipality or district of residence [>12,500 € (high municipality family income and ?12,500 € (low municipality family income]. The six social groups were further categorized as upper/middle social class (groups I-IVb and lower class (group V. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. OR and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. All statistical tests were two tailed and statistical significance was established as p Results 17.7% of patients lived in a municipality or district with a high municipality family income and 63.6% were upper/middle social class (I-IVb. Only 15.7% of patients had a secondary education. The adjusted analysis showed no association between pneumonia outcomes and social class, educational level or municipality family income. However, length of stay increased significantly in patients in whom the factors, living alone and being a smoker or ex-smoker coincided (p Conclusions We measured socioeconomic status using both individual and community data and found no association between social class, educational level or municipality family income and the variables of pneumonia outcomes. The lack of differences between social classes supports the provision of universal, equitable health care by the public health system.

Carratalà Jordi

2010-07-01

351

Socioeconomic status, body mass index and prevalence of underweight and overweight among Polish girls aged 7-18: a longitudinal study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper was to establish whether the influence of socioeconomic factors on BMI and the prevalence of underweight and overweight changes with age. The data were obtained from 1008 schoolgirls aged 16-18 years for whom earlier data on weight and height were available. Their height and body mass were measured and their BMIs calculated. Height and weight in early life were assessed by medical records review. The girls were measured by trained school nurses at 7, 9, 14 years of age. Socioeconomic differences in BMI were found to increase with age. Parents' higher education and urban environment were associated with smaller BMI gain between the ages of 7 and 18 years. Among subjects whose mother and/or father had higher education the prevalence of underweight increased with age, and in other groups it remained at a similar level. In the younger age categories (7- and 9-year-olds) underweight was less frequent in subjects from towns than those from rural areas, while in the older categories (14, 16-18 years of age) the opposite tendency was found. As subjects grew up, there was a decline in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in all groups. Parental education and place of residence seem to influence weight status in a different way in childhood than during adolescence. PMID:23768733

Wronka, Iwona

2014-07-01

352

The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children  

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The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

2004-01-01

353

Socioeconomic Status and the Risk of Suspected Autism Spectrum Disorders among 18-Month-Old Toddlers in Japan: A Population-Based Study  

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The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and the suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status of 18-month-old toddlers was investigated using a population-based sample in Japan, which has a universal healthcare system and a mandatory health checkup system for toddlers. Questionnaires including SES measurements and modified…

Fujiwara, Takeo

2014-01-01

354

Blinded to Science: Gender Differences in the Effects of Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status on Academic and Science Attitudes among Sixth Graders  

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Little research has examined whether the effects of race or socioeconomic status (SES) on educational attitudes differ by gender, limiting knowledge of unique vulnerabilities occurring at the intersection of multiple social statuses. Using data from 182 sixth-graders, interactions between gender, race/ethnicity, and SES in predicting educational…

Perry, Brea L.; Link, Tanja; Boelter, Christina; Leukefeld, Carl

2012-01-01

355

The influence of antismoking television advertisements on cessation by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and mental health status.  

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Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N?=?53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor mental health. PMID:25033449

Nonnemaker, James M; Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C

2014-01-01

356

The Influence of Antismoking Television Advertisements on Cessation by Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Mental Health Status  

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Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N?=?53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State’s antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor mental health. PMID:25033449

Nonnemaker, James M.; Allen, Jane A.; Davis, Kevin C.; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C.; Farrelly, Matthew C.

2014-01-01

357

Weak and strong novice readers of English as a foreign language: effects of first language and socioeconomic status.  

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This study examined individual differences among beginning readers of English as a foreign language (EFL). The study concentrated on the effects of underlying first language (L1) knowledge as well as EFL letter and vocabulary knowledge. Phonological and morphological awareness, spelling, vocabulary knowledge, and word reading in Hebrew L1, in addition to knowledge of EFL letters and EFL vocabulary, were measured. The study also investigated the effect of socioeconomic background (SES) on beginning EFL readers. Participants included 145 fourth graders from three schools representing two socioeconomic backgrounds in the north of Israel. The results indicate that knowledge of English letters played a more prominent role than knowledge of Hebrew L1 components in differentiating between strong and weak EFL readers. The Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis was supported by L1 phonological awareness, word reading, and vocabulary knowledge appearing as part of discriminating functions. The presence of English vocabulary knowledge as part of the discriminant functions provides support for English word reading being more than just a decoding task for EFL beginner readers. Socioeconomic status differentiated the groups for EFL word recognition but not for EFL reading comprehension. PMID:17849212

Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Shimron, Joseph; Sparks, Richard L

2006-06-01

358

Change in Tobacco Use Over Time in Urban Indian Youth: The Moderating Role of Socioeconomic Status  

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This study investigates socioeconomic differences in patterns and trends of tobacco consumption over time among youth in India. Additionally, the distribution of tobacco use risk factors across social class was examined. The data were derived from a longitudinal study of adolescents, Project Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives.…

Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa H.; Erickson, Darin J.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Finnegan, Jonn R., Jr.; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath

2014-01-01

359

KUPPUSWAMY’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS SCALE – A REVISION OF ECONOMIC PARAMETER FOR 2012  

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All community based studies focus on socio-economic stratification as this is the key to understanding affordability of health services, amenities and purchasability. When it is taken as a summation of education, occupation and income it reflects the value system expected for that level of education and occupation. Income is parallel to standard of living.

Ravi Kumar, Dr B. P.; Dr.Shankar Reddy Dudala; Rao, Dr A. R.

2013-01-01

360

KUPPUSWAMY’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS SCALE – A REVISION OF ECONOMIC PARAMETER FOR 2012  

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Full Text Available All community based studies focus on socio-economic stratification as this is the key to understanding affordability of health services, amenities and purchasability. When it is taken as a summation of education, occupation and income it reflects the value system expected for that level of education and occupation. Income is parallel to standard of living.

Dr.B.P.Ravi Kumar

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

Very low, low and heavy weight births in Hong Kong SAR: how important is socioeconomic and migrant status?  

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Identification of modifiable factors and mediators linked to low and heavy birth weight is crucial in reducing infant mortality and health care expenditure. The present paper explores the associations of socio-demographic factors and immigrant status of parents with adverse pregnancy outcomes in Hong Kong. The analysis compares very low birth weight (VLBW: father, low occupational class, public housing and single motherhood are strongly related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Regarding immigrant status, women born in South and South-East Asia exhibit consistently higher odds of a compromised outcome. Women born in Hong Kong have significantly higher chances of LBW births while Mainland Chinese and parents from developed countries face higher odds of HBW births. The study identifies high-risk groups such as teenage, older and single mothers, South-East Asians and couples of low socioeconomic profile. Implementation of policies supporting these groups would be beneficial. PMID:23790003

Verropoulou, Georgia; Basten, Stuart

2014-05-01

362

Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days), medium (4-14 days) and long (>14 days) spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations) and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal"). Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds ratios (OR)) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2) and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16) times for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, respectively, while the similar changes varied from 0.79 to 2.8 for the other absence outcomes. General health explained some of the social gradient. Work factors and personal factors did not. Conclusions The social gradient in sickness absence was different for absences of different duration and patterns. It was strongest for absences of medium length and "abnormal" absence. The social gradient was not explained by other factors.

Kristensen, Trine RØnde; Jensen, Signe Marie

2010-01-01

363

Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%. Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days, medium (4-14 days and long (>14 days spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal". Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters. Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR or odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2 and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16 times for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, respectively, while the similar changes varied from 0.79 to 2.8 for the other absence outcomes. General health explained some of the social gradient. Work factors and personal factors did not. Conclusions The social gradient in sickness absence was different for absences of different duration and patterns. It was strongest for absences of medium length and "abnormal" absence. The social gradient was not explained by other factors.

Mikkelsen Sigurd

2010-10-01

364

Will seasonal and climatic conditions influence living habits and socio-economic activities in such a way that nuclear accident are affected  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses to which extent climatic and seasonal effects can influence living habits and socio-economic activities in such a way that consequences of a nuclear accident might be affected. A number of examples from Sweden are given, related to dwellings (building standards and location), diet, seasonal effects in agriculture and tourism. The reindeer are discussed separately. Although climate and season do change man's habits in a way relevant to accident consequences, the conclusion of this paper is that in most cases this mechanism is severely mixed with other, sometimes more important ones

365

Socioeconomic status, birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy and adiposity in early adult life: an analysis using structural equation modeling.  

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We describe here an example of structural equation modeling in epidemiology. The association between birth weight and adiposity in early adult life, adjusted for the number of cigarettes smoked during pregnancy and socioeconomic status at birth, was evaluated. Data involving 2,063 adults from the 1978/1979 Ribeirão Preto cohort study were used. Adiposity was measured by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds (STSS). Models were submitted to maximum likelihood estimation, separately for men and women. Birth weight had a small and significant effect on adiposity in men (standardized coefficient, SC = 0.08) and women (SC = 0.09). Smoking during pregnancy did not influence adiposity in men (SC = 0.004), but its effect was marginally significant in women (SC = 0.07; P = 0.056). Socioeconomic status at birth had a small and positive effect on adiposity in men (SC = 0.08) and a moderate and negative effect in women (SC = -0.16). In this young adult population, BMI, WC and STSS used alone or in combination were valid estimators of body adiposity. PMID:20209206

Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antonio

2010-01-01

366

Socioeconomic Status and Obesity Relationship in Non-Menopause Women Aged 15-49 Years in Tehran, Iran  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: To investigate the association between socio-economic status and obesity in non-menopause women aged 15-49 years in Tehran, Iran."nMethods: This study was based on Iran National Health Survey conducted in 1999. Obesity is defined as a Body Mass In­dex over ?30. Constructed area (per-person, educational level and job are considered as factors indicating the socioeconomic status. The results have been adjusted for age and mental health using univariate and multiple logistic regression.  "nResults: A total number of 2859 non-menopause women aged 15-49 yr from urban areas of Tehran have been studied. The preva­lence of obesity and overweight were 16.4% and 28.4% respectively. Women aged 30-49 yr had greater risk of obesity (ad­justed OR=2.53, 95%CI: 1.99-3.20. Comparing with students, homemakers and employees were at higher risk of obe­sity (adjusted OR= 4.33, 95%CI: 2.47-7.76, adjusted OR= 2.82, 95%CI: 1.41-5.63 respectively. Those with >= 12 yr of educa­tion had lower risk of obesity compared to illiterate women (adjusted OR=.57, 95%CI: 0.38-0.86."nConclusion: The role of social factors is dominant over economic factor on obesity. This fact should be considered as one of the most important research priorities in future researches.

K Mohammad

2009-09-01

367

THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OFWOMEN WORKERS IN ONION MARKET: A CASE STUDY OF LASALGAON , TAL- NIPHAD (NASHIK  

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Full Text Available Lasalgaon is the largest onion market in Indian and perhaps in the entire continent. Lasalgaon town is located in the Nashik district of Maharashtra. In this paper, emphasis is given on the socio-economic status of the women workers who are engaged in the "Cleaning and Sorting" work of onion in the Lasalgaon market. After purchase of onion from the farmers the onion are cleaned and sorted in to various sizes like small, medium and large according to demand from various states of India and foreign countries. This cleaning and sorting of onion is done by women workers. The woman is born sincere and serious about the work and hence processing of onion is got done by woman instead of man. These women workers come to Lasalgaon market from nearby villages, with very poor family background. A study is made about their family background, saving habits education, transportation facilities etc. so as to find out their socio-economic status.

N.A. DAYAMA

2013-02-01

368

HIV and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status, Popayan-Colombia (2008-2009  

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Full Text Available Objective: to determine HIV presence and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status in the city of PopayanColombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study; between 2008 and 2009, 363 participants of Popayan signed informed consent and received pre and post HIV test counseling. Socio-demographic characteristics and history of STDs, risk behaviors and previous HIV testing were assessed. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multivariate logistic regression were calculated Results: Mean age 33,5±10,2; 66%women.Frequency of HIV-positive patients was 3.86% (95% CI: 1.87-5.85, greater in men (7.38%; p=0,013. Greater frequency of HIV-positive patients was observed in people age 29-37, those without a stable partner, and those with history of risky alcohol consumption (more than five drinks in 2 hours . Conclusions: HIV-positive patients frequency in this population was greater than national estimate for general population, aged 15-49 in Colombia, with even greater frequency in men. This study suggests that characteristics associated with low socioeconomic status, in economically active population, without a stable partner and with risky alcohol use, can potentially increase risk of HIV infection

Mueses, Hector Fabio

2013-03-01

369

Oral Heath Conditions and Oral Hygiene Habits of Pregnant Women of Low Socio-Economic Status in Aracaju-SE  

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Full Text Available Objective: Mothers exert an important role in the stablishment of the dental care habits of their children and they are the major source from which infants acquire cariogenic microorganisms. Thus, the aim of this research was to assess the oral health conditions and oral hygiene habits of pregnant women of low socioeconomic status in the city of Aracaju-SE. Method: One hundred and seventy pregnant women were randomly selected to be interviewed in accordance with a structured questionnaire about oral health, dental hygiene and socio-economic status. The oral conditions were evaluated by the DMFT, IHO-S e SI index. Results: In regard to oral hygiene habits, 58% of the interviewed women brushed their teeth three times a day. The majority (98% made use of toothpaste but only 33% made use of the dental floss. The mean DMTF was 10.43 and the mean value of the IHO-S was 1.93. Nevertheless, the prevalence of the gingival bleeding was low (10.1%. Conclusion: The pregnant women presented poor oral health conditions and undesirable oral hygiene habits justifying the necessity of a primary dental health preventive approach with targeted measures directed at the pregnant women.

Thaysa Monteiro RAMOS

2006-09-01

370

Does IQ Vary Systematically with All Measures of Socioeconomic Status in a Cohort of Middle-Aged, and Older, Men?  

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Full Text Available Differences in IQ have been offered as an explanation for socioeconomic gradients in morbidity and mortality. Previous research has largely relied on linking education and conscription testing data with later life health. As this early life testing was used to determine a person’s academic path it is difficult to disentangle the effects of IQ from education. This study used IQ and socioeconomic status (SES data collected concurrently in mid-life from men who did not experience IQ-test-driven career path direction in early life. If IQ is associated with SES generally then multiple domains of IQ it will be associated with all components of SES. In a subsample of men aged 35 - 80 (n = 287 from the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study, we evaluated relationships between each of four domains of cognitive ability (IQ domains: fluid (Gf; crystallised (Gc; visual/spatial (Gv and processing speed (Gs. SES was measured as standardized education, income, occupational prestige and deprivation score. Age-adjusted linear regression was used to test each SES-z-score individually against each IQ domain. Then all four SES measures were included in a single model for each IQ domain. This study found that a panel of standard IQ tests were positively associated with attained education but not with income or area-level deprivation score. Two IQ abilities, Gf and Gc, were also associated with occupational prestige score. These associations suggest that lesser levels of health associated with lower socioeconomic status is not accounted for by a lesser innate ability and that intervention may be possible.

Shona J. Kelly

2012-11-01

371

Long-term effects of adolescent smoking on depression and socioeconomic status in adulthood in an urban African American cohort.  

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Despite known adverse causal effects of cigarette smoking on mental health, findings for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later depression and socioeconomic status remain inconclusive. Previous studies have had shorter follow-up periods and did not have a representative portion of the African American population. Using an analytical method that matches adolescent smokers with nonsmokers on childhood and background variables, this study aims to provide evidence on the effects of adolescent regular smoking on adult depression and socioeconomic status. Our longitudinal study is from the Woodlawn Study that followed 1,242 African Americans in Chicago from 1966-1967 (at age 6-7) through 2002-2003 (at age 42-43). We used a propensity score matching method to find a regular and a non-regular adolescent smoking group with similar childhood socioeconomic and family background and first grade academic and behavioral performance. We compared the matched samples to assess the longitudinal effects of adolescent smoking on adult outcomes. Comparing the matched 199 adolescent regular smokers and 199 non-regular smokers, we found statistical support for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later educational attainment (OR, 2.13; 95 % CI, 1.34, 3.39) and long-term unemployment (OR, 1.74; 95 % CI, 1.11, 2.75), but did not find support for the effects on adulthood major depressive disorders. With a community population of urban African Americans followed for 40 years, our study contributes to the understanding of the relationships between adolescent smoking and later educational attainment and employment. PMID:24379173

Strong, Carol; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

2014-06-01

372

Socioeconomic status and the prevalence of fever in children under age five: evidence from four sub-Saharan African countries  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of fevers remains enormous in sub-Saharan Africa. While several efforts at reducing the burden of fevers have been made at the macro level, the relationship between socioeconomic status and fever prevalence has been inconclusive at the household and individual levels. The purpose of this study was to examine how individual and household socioeconomic status influences the prevalence of fever among children under age five in four sub-Saharan African countries. Methods The study used data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS from Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Sierra Leone with a total of 38,990 children below age five. A multi-level random effects logistic model was fitted to examine the socioeconomic factors that influence the prevalence of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Data from the four countries were also combined to estimate this relationship, after country-specific analysis. Results The results show that children from wealthier households reported lower prevalence of fever in Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya. Result from the combined dataset shows that children from wealthier households were less likely to report fever. In general, vaccination against fever-related diseases and the use of improved toilet facility reduces fever prevalence. The use of bed nets by children and mothers did not show consistent relationship across the countries. Conclusion Poverty does not only influence prevalence of fever at the macro level as shown in other studies but also the individual and household levels. Policies directed towards preventing childhood fevers should take a close account of issues of poverty alleviation. There is also the need to ensure that prevention and treatment mechanisms directed towards fever related diseases (such as malaria, pneumonia, measles, diarrhoea, polio, tuberculosis etc. are accessible and effectively used.

Novignon Jacob

2012-07-01

373

Dental caries-related quality of life and socioeconomic status of preschool children, Bauru, SP  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AIM: To evaluate oral health-related quality of life of preschool children of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, and associate it with socioeconomic profile of households. METHODS: The sample consisted of 229 preschool children between 3 and 5 years and the dmft (decayed, missing due to caries, fill [...] ed teeth) index was adopted for assessment children's dental caries in accordance with the standards recommended by the World Health Organization. Questionnaires were used for evaluation oral health-related quality of life (Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale) and socioeconomic profile of parents or guardians of the preschool children. Statistical analysis was performed descriptively by relative and absolute frequencies and by Spearman's correlation and Kruskal-Wallis test (p

Angela, Xavier; Fábio Silva de, Carvalho; Roosevelt da Silva, Bastos; Magali de Lourdes, Caldana; José Roberto de Magalhães, Bastos.

374

The relationship between low birth weight and socioeconomic status in Ireland.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is now fairly substantial evidence of a socioeconomic gradient in low birth weight for developed countries. The standard summary statistic for this gradient is the concentration index. Using data from the recently published Growing Up in Ireland survey, this paper calculates this index for low birth weight arising from preterm and intrauterine growth retardation. It also carries out a decomposition of this index for the different sources of low birth weight and finds that income inequality appears to be less important for the case of preterm births, while father's education and local environmental conditions appear to be more relevant for intrauterine growth retardation. The application of the standard Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition also indicates that the socioeconomic gradient for low birth weight appears to arise owing to different characteristics between rich and poor, and not because the impact of any given characteristic on low birth weight differs between rich and poor. PMID:23631865

Madden, David

2014-03-01

375

Dietary Intakes by Different Markers of Socioeconomic Status: A Cross-Sectional Study  

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Full Text Available Previous studies show that diet quality varies by socioeconomic gradient. We compared the influence of individual- and area-level socioeconomic characteristics on food choice behavior and dietary nutrient intakes in a cross-sectional survey. Daily nutrient intakes were calculated from a food frequency questionnaire. Participants comprised 4007 people (1915 men, 2092 women aged 35 to 74 years. Socioeconomic measures included the area-based deprivation NZDep2001, gross household income, education level and the occupation-based New Zealand Socioeconomic Index (NZSEI96. Results: Nutrients expressed as their percentage contribution to total energy intakes and adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity, showed that intakes of cholesterol were higher in the lower income groups, and fibre, alcohol and calcium were lower compared to the highest income group. Similarly adjusted nutrients expressed as their contribution to total energy intakes showed lower alcohol intakes in the lower NZDep2001 classes compared to the highest NZDep2001 class. Lower fruit, cheese, wine, and spirit servings were found in both the lower income and NZDep2001 groups. Lower vegetables, milk and cereal servings were found in the lowest income group compared with the highest. Higher chicken, eggs and bread servings were found in the lowest NZDep2001 group compared to the highest NZDep2001 group. Few statistically significant associations were observed with the NZSEI96 or education. Conclusion: Income was more strongly associated with nutrient intakes and NZDep2001 with food group selections. Lower fruit, cheese, wine and spirit servings in the lower SES strata showed independent associations with income and NZDep2001. However, NZDep2001 and income appear to be measuring different elements of dietary intakes and food group servings, with income being associated with lower vegetable, milk and cereal servings, and increased dietary cholesterol and lower fibre, and calcium intakes and NZDep2001 with increased chicken, eggs and bread servings. More in depth, research into area-level determinants of diet is warranted.

Patricia A. Metcalf

2014-05-01

376

Energy expenditure and socioeconomic status in Guatemala as measured by the doubly labelled water method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy expenditure of lower (group 1) and upper socioeconomic group females (group 2) from a marginal community in Guatemala City was determined by using the doubly labelled water method. Energy expenditure values were 1925 +/- 66 (mean, SEM) kcal/d (group 1) and 2253 +/- 145 kcal/d group 2 (p less than 0.03). About half of this difference can be attributed to size

377

Socio-economic status is inversely related to bed net use in Gabon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with 397 mothers or guardians of young children. Respondents were grouped according to their socio-economic situation, using scores. The condition of the bed nets was evaluated during a home visit. Results Socio-economic factors of wellbeing were negatively associated with bed net use, such as living in a stone house (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.48, running water in the house (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.92, shower/flush toilet in the house (OR 0.39/0.34, 95% CI 0.21–0.75/0.16–0.73, ownership of a freezer (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.67. In contrast, similar factors were positively associated with a good maintenance condition of the bed nets: higher monthly income (OR 5.64, 95% CI 2.41–13.19 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.19 – 5.45. Conclusion Among the poorest families in Lambaréné the coverage with untreated nets (UTNs is the highest, but the condition of these UTNs is the worst. To achieve a broad implementation of ITNs in Lambaréné, there is an urgent need for educational programmes as well as need-tailored marketing strategies for ITNs.

Borchert Lea B

2008-04-01

378

Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country's socio-economic status  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with v [...] arious socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI), the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP) among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.

Gyan P., Sharma; Karen J., Esler; James N., Blignaut.

2010-04-01

379

Socioeconomic position and health status of people who live near busy roads: the Rome Longitudinal Study (RoLS  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjects living close to high traffic roads (HTR are more likely to suffer from air-pollution related morbidity and mortality. The issue has large public health consequences but few studies have described the main socio-demographic characteristics of people exposed to traffic. Objectives To characterise a large cohort of residents in Rome according to different measures of traffic exposure, socioeconomic position (SEP, and baseline health status. Methods Residents of Rome in October 2001 were selected. Individual and area-based SEP indices were available. GIS was used to obtain traffic indicators at residential addresses: distance from HTR (> = 10,000 vehicles/day, length of HTR, average daily traffic count, and traffic density within 150 meters of home. Hospitalisations in the 5-year period before enrolment were used to characterise health status. Logistic and linear regression analyses estimated the association between traffic exposure and socio-demographic characteristics. Results We selected 1,898,898 subjects with complete SEP information and GIS traffic indicators. A total of 320,913 individuals (17% lived within 50 meters of an HTR, and 14% lived between 50 and 100 meters. These proportions were higher among 75+ year-old subjects. Overall, all traffic indicators were directly associated with SEP, with people living in high or medium SEP areas or with a university degree more likely to be exposed to traffic than people living in low SEP areas or with a low level of education. However, an effect modification by area of residence within the city was seen and the association between traffic and SEP was reversed in the city centre. Conclusions A large section of the population is exposed to traffic in Rome. Elderly people and those living in areas of high and medium SEP tend to be more exposed. These findings are related to the historical stratification of the population within the city according to age and socioeconomic status.

Perucci Carlo A

2010-07-01

380

Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, individual wealth status and patterns of delivery care utilization in Nigeria: a multilevel discrete choice analysis  

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Full Text Available Olatunde Aremu1,2, Stephen Lawoko1, Koustuv Dalal1,31Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Linköping University, SwedenBackground: High maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in most part of the developing world, including Nigeria. Understanding the utilization pattern of maternal healthcare services has been accepted as an important factor for reducing maternal deaths. This study investigates the effect of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic position on the utilization of different forms of place of delivery among women of reproductive age in Nigeria.Methods: A population-based multilevel discrete choice analysis was performed using the most recent population-based 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years. The analysis was restricted to 15,162 ever-married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja.Results: The choice of place to deliver varies across the socioeconomic strata. The results of the multilevel discrete choice models indicate that with every other factor controlled for, the household wealth status, women's occupation, women's and partner's high level of education attainment, and possession of health insurance were associated with use of private and government health facilities for child birth relative to home delivery. The results also show that higher birth order and young maternal age were associated with use of home delivery. Living in a highly socioeconomic disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with home birth compared with the patronage of government health facilities. More specifically, the result revealed that choice of facility-based delivery is clustered around the neighborhoods.Conclusion: Home delivery, which cuts across all socioeconomic strata, is a common practice among women in Nigeria. Initiatives that would encourage the appropriate use of healthcare facilities at little or no cost to the most disadvantaged should be accorded the utmost priority.Keywords: delivery care, maternal health services utilization, multilevel discrete choice, Nigeria, socioeconomic disadvantaged, neigborhood, health policy

Aremu O

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam  

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Full Text Available Introduction: HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. Results: There was little urban–rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087, and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (p<0.05. For individuals, higher education was significantly associated with lower stigma (HIV and drug related reported by both PWID and community members. Part-time employed PWID reported more experiences and perceptions of drug-related stigma, while conversely unemployed community members reported enacting lower drug-related stigma. Multi-level analysis revealed that the relationship between education inequality and HIV-related stigma is superseded by the effect of individual-level education. Conclusions: The results of the study confirm that socioeconomic factors at both the individual level and community level affect different types of stigma in different ways. Attention should be paid to these differences when planning structural or educational interventions to reduce stigma, and additional research should investigate the mechanisms with which SES and inequality affect social relationships and, in turn, stigma.

Travis Lim

2013-11-01

382

Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam  

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Introduction HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. Methods A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. Results There was little urban–rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087), and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (pPWID and community members. Part-time employed PWID reported more experiences and perceptions of drug-related stigma, while conversely unemployed community members reported enacting lower drug-related stigma. Multi-level analysis revealed that the relationship between education inequality and HIV-related stigma is superseded by the effect of individual-level education. Conclusions The results of the study confirm that socioeconomic factors at both the individual level and community level affect different types of stigma in different ways. Attention should be paid to these differences when planning structural or educational interventions to reduce stigma, and additional research should investigate the mechanisms with which SES and inequality affect social relationships and, in turn, stigma. PMID:24242257

Lim, Travis; Zelaya, Carla; Latkin, Carl; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Go, Vivian

2013-01-01

383

Licit prescription drug use in a Swedish population according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjusting for level of multi-morbidity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is a great variability in licit prescription drug use in the population and among patients. Factors other than purely medical ones have proven to be of importance for the prescribing of licit drugs. For example, individuals with a high age, female gender and low socioeconomic status are more likely to use licit prescription drugs. However, these results have not been adjusted for multi-morbidity level. In this study we investigate the odds of using licit prescription drugs among individuals in the population and the rate of licit prescription drug use among patients depending on gender, age and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multi-morbidity level.

Halling, Anders

2012-01-01

384

Council tax valuation band predicts breast feeding and socio-economic status in the ALSPAC study population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economic status but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band – a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a breast-feeding (b personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. Methods Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. Results Study sample: 1360 women divided across the CTVBs – at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude – that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. Conclusion CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion.

Herrick David

2006-01-01

385

Overweight and Obesity Epidemic in Developing Countries: A Problem with Diet, Physical Activity, or Socioeconomic Status?  

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Obesity is a significant public health concern affecting more than half a billion people worldwide. Obesity rise is not only limited to developed countries, but to developing nations as well. This paper aims to compare the mean body mass index trends in the World Health Organisation- (WHO-) categorised regions since 1980 to 2008 and secondly to