Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES is a combined measure of an individual's or family’s economic and social position relative to others, based on income, education, and occupation. When analyzing a family’s SES, the mother's and father’s education and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, versus with an individual, when their own attributes are assessed (GOP,2008. The article is based on a study, which is an attempt to explore the various factors that have an impact on achievement, depending upon different socioeconomic status in the society and how does it effect the academic achievement of students. The study also examines the literature that reveals that the socioeconomic status of the parents can significantly contribute in the achievement of good grades at colleges. The paper illustrates the impact of income, occupation on educational attainment of students. The paper delineates the effect of many socioeconomic indicators on individual student achievement.
STUDY OBJECTIVE--Indicators of socioeconomic status are associated with age. This study aimed to analyse the influence of the age distribution on the ranking of small areas by socioeconomic status and on the association between their socioeconomic status and standardised mortality. DESIGN--The ranking of small areas by socioeconomic status indicators (educational level, income, and unemployment) was compared with crude values and after correction for their age structure. The age and gender st...
Reijneveld, S. A.; Gunning-schepers, L. J.
Full Text Available Os estudos nacionais indicam comportamento epidêmico da obesidade, e ênfase tem sido dada sobre os determinantes sociais do excesso de peso. O status socioeconômico tem sido avaliado por ocupação, educação e renda. Vários fatores relacionados à obesidade, como atividade física, consumo alimentar e hábitos familiares sofrem também influência do status socioeconômico. Realizou-se revisão da literatura sobre a associação do status socioeconômico com obesidade e também foram apresentados dados de uma pesquisa de base populacional sobre obesidade em mulheres do município do Rio de Janeiro. A ocorrência da obesidade entre os diferentes níveis de status socioeconômico é influenciada pelo sexo e idade, e são discutidos fatores ambientais que determinam a possibilidade de acesso aos alimentos saudáveis e a oportunidade de prática de atividade física. Por fim, é discutido como os hábitos familiares influenciam nas escolhas dos alimentos e como o status socioeconômico pode modificar esse efeito, bem como a disponibilidade de alimentos e o preço destes, levando a um maior consumo de alimentos de alta densidade energética, fator de risco dietético para obesidade.An epidemic of obesity has been revealed by Brazilian nationwide surveys, and emphasis is being given to socioeconomic status as one of the main determinants of weight gain. Other factors also associated to obesity are influenced by socioeconomic status, such as physical activity, food consumption, and family habits. Socioeconomic status has been evaluated based on occupation, education, and income. A review of the literature on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity has been conducted, and data from a population-based survey regarding obesity among women in the city of Rio de Janeiro were also included. The occurrence of obesity among different levels of socioeconomic status as influenced by sex and age, and environmental factors that determine the possibility of access to healthy foods and to opportunities of practicing physical activity are also discussed. Finally, we discussed how family habits influence the choices of food, and how socioeconomic status can modify this effect, along with availability of foods and their prices, leading to a greater consumption of foods with high density of energy, a dietary risk factor for obesity.
Ana CarolinaReiff e Vieira
Almost all community- based studies focus on socio-economic stratification, which is the key parameter for proper understanding the affordability of the community of health services, amenities and their purchasing capacity. Prasad’s socioeconomic status scale measures socioeconomic status of both rural and urban community based on per capita monthly income of the family.
Shankar Reddy Dudala; Ashok Kumar Reddy, K.; Ravi Prabhu, G.
Studies have suggested that subjective social status (SSS) is an important predictor of health. This study examined the link between SSS and health in old age and investigated whether SSS mediated the associations between objective indicators of socioeconomic status and health. It used cross-sectional data from the second wave (2004-2005) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which were collected through personal interviews and nurse visits. The study population consisted of 3368 men a...
Demakakos, P.; Nazroo, J.; Breeze, E.; Marmot, M.
In a sample of 18 players, members of the senior major league handball team, the correlation between the micro structure of handball in relation to their socioeconomic status, using the sociometric procedure, was analyzed. The research results lead to the acceptance of the hypothesis that the players of the same socioeconomic status, have better mutual emotional acceptance. The hypothesis of a better mutual functional accepting players of the same socioeconomic status, may be only partially ...
Dodi Mihaljevi?; Joško Sindik
Full Text Available Background: Iran has undergone a remarkable demographic transition over the last threedecades. Socioeconomic status (SES indicators including education, income, and occupationare associated with coronary heart disease (CHD risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Theaim of the present study was to describe demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, theirassociation to the diseases, and to explore the predictive risk of CHD in Tabriz, the fourthlargest city in Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to explore and analyze thecurrent SES status of CHD patients. The study was conducted in Tabriz and all patients(n=189 refereed to the Central Referral Hospital for cardiac patients (Shahid Madani Hospitalfrom 2009 to 2010 were considered. A researcher structured questionnaire with 15 questionswas used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the basic SES featuresof the CHD patients and data analysis was done using SPSS ver. 16.Results: Less educated participants were more susceptible to CHD. Regarding to occupationalstatus, housewives and retired men were in higher risk of CHD than the rest of the people.Studied patients also reported to be mostly from urban areas that were living in apartmentcomplexes.Conclusion: In line with some international research evidence the study results suggested thatpeople from lower/middle social classes were in greater CHD risk than higher social classes.This epidemic might be halted through the promotion of healthier lifestyles and the support ofenvironmental and policy changes.
Smoking prevalence is higher among disadvantaged groups, and disadvantaged smokers may face higher exposure to tobacco's harms. Uptake may also be higher among those with low socioeconomic status (SES), and quit attempts are less likely to be successful. Studies have suggested that this may be the result of reduced social support for quitting, low motivation to quit, stronger addiction to tobacco, increased likelihood of not completing courses of pharmacotherapy or behavioral support sessions, psychological differences such as lack of self-efficacy, and tobacco industry marketing. Evidence of interventions that work among lower socioeconomic groups is sparse. Raising the price of tobacco products appears to be the tobacco control intervention with the most potential to reduce health inequalities from tobacco. Targeted cessation programs and mass media interventions can also contribute to reducing inequalities. To tackle the high prevalence of smoking among disadvantaged groups, a combination of tobacco control measures is required, and these should be delivered in conjunction with wider attempts to address inequalities in health. PMID:22092035
Hiscock, Rosemary; Bauld, Linda; Amos, Amanda; Fidler, Jennifer A; Munafò, Marcus
Purpose: To estimate the strength of relationships between socioeconomic status and injury in a large Canadian farm population. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 4,769 people from 2,043 farms in Saskatchewan, Canada. Participants reported socioeconomic exposures in 2007 and were followed for the occurrence of injury through 2009…
Pickett, William; Day, Andrew G.; Hagel, Louise; Sun, Xiaoqun; Day, Lesley; Marlenga, Barbara; Brison, Robert J.; Pahwa, Punam; Crowe, Trever; Voaklander, Donald C.; Dosman, James
Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure
The immune system evolved to require input from at least three sources that we collectively term the 'old friends': (i) the commensal microbiotas transmitted by mothers and other family members; (ii) organisms from the natural environment that modulate and diversify the commensal microbiotas; and (iii) the 'old' infections that could persist in small isolated hunter-gatherer groups as relatively harmless subclinical infections or carrier states. These categories of organism had to be tolerated and co-evolved roles in the development and regulation of the immune system. By contrast, the 'crowd infections' (such as childhood virus infections) evolved later, when urbanization led to large communities. They did not evolve immunoregulatory roles because they either killed the host or induced solid immunity, and could not persist in hunter-gatherer groups. Because the western lifestyle and medical practice deplete the 'old' infections (for example helminths), immunoregulatory disorders have increased, and the immune system has become more dependent upon microbiotas and the natural environment. However, urbanization maintains exposure to the crowd infections that lack immunoregulatory roles, while accelerating loss of exposure to the natural environment. This effect is most pronounced in individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) who lack rural second homes and rural holidays. Interestingly, large epidemiological studies indicate that the health benefits of living close to green spaces are most pronounced for individuals of low SES. Here we discuss the immunoregulatory role of the natural environment, and how this may interact with, and modulate, the proinflammatory effects of psychosocial stressors in low SES individuals. PMID:24401109
Rook, G A W; Raison, C L; Lowry, C A
Time perspective is a measure of the degree to which one’s thinking is motivated by considerations of the future, present, or past. Time perspective has been proposed as a potential mediator of socioeconomic disparities in health because it has been associated with health behaviors and is presumed to vary with socioeconomic status. In this cross-sectional community-based survey of respondents recruited from hair salons and barber shops in a suburb of Washington DC, we examined the associati...
Ward, M. M.; Guthrie, Lori C.; Butler, Stephen C.
Full Text Available In a sample of 18 players, members of the senior major league handball team, the correlation between the micro structure of handball in relation to their socioeconomic status, using the sociometric procedure, was analyzed. The research results lead to the acceptance of the hypothesis that the players of the same socioeconomic status, have better mutual emotional acceptance. The hypothesis of a better mutual functional accepting players of the same socioeconomic status, may be only partially accepted, in a field of the trend of cooperation in the game, but not in relation to the selection of players with the authority of leaders or handball knowledge. Hypothesis about the hierarchical microsocial structure of groups can be fully accepted. Players are in relation to sociometric status differentiated into four levels of hierarchy, while at the top of this hierarchy, team captain. Selection of team captain by players directed by a player (“leader”, according to the functional and emotional criteria.
The population of this study was students of Shahid Chamran University. Based on Krejcie and Morgan table, a sample of 377 individuals is representative of a population of 20000 individuals. In this study, 420 were selected through systematic random sampling. In that the list of student names was taken from each faculty and then students' names were randomly selected and they were asked to refer to a class and complete the devised questionnaire. 13 incomplete questionnaires were excluded and 407 remained for final analysis. In our sample, 191 were males and 216 females. Respondents' age was 21.84 with a standard deviation of 2.34. Ethnic composition of the sample was as follows: 33 Turks, 51 Arabs, 84 Kord, 103 Lor and 136 were Fars. Authoritarianism Scale items were composed of 9 items derived from well-known scales measuring these variables. In this study, instead of using an objective socioeconomic base approach, the mental approach was applied. In this way, instead of assessing respondent's status based on achieved data with regard to their income and education and ranking them in three levels, the respondent self-assesses his economic status. To measure parental authoritarian control variable, we used 10 items which were derived from Daniel Shek's (2006 scale and have been used in various studies by different researchers and have a high ability to measure thi
Nasrollah Pour Afkari
The association between socioeconomic status and colon cancer was investigated in a prospective cohort study that started in 1986 in The Netherlands among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on socioeconomic status, alcohol consumption and other dietary and non-dietary covariates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. For data analysis a case-cohort approach was used, in which the person-years at risk were estimated using a randomly selected subcoh...
Loon, A. J.; Den Brandt, P. A.; Golbohm, R. A.
In a study of 195 high school students, differences by gender and socioeconomic status (SES) were found in their gaming habits and game literacy practices. Low-SES students generally preferred console video games, particularly those in the sports genre. They expressed frustration with the controls involved in long-form computer games such as those…
Testing the hypothesis that socioeconomic status (SES) is related to altruistic behavior, 466 respondents derived from 4,799 households in rural Western Colorado (Woodland Park, Gunnison City, and Durango) were contacted to determine the degree of voluntary basement sharing that might be expected in the event of a nuclear crisis. Respondents were…
Christiansen, John R.; Blake, Reed H.
This retrospective study aims to explore any associations between socioeconomic factors and lung cancer management and outcome in the Australian setting. The study population consisted of patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer in 1996 who were living in the Northern Sydney Area Health Service (NSAHS) or South Western Sydney Area Health Service (SWSAHS). These two Area Health Services differ in socioeconomic profiles based on socioeconomic indexes for areas (SEIFA), median income, education level and unemployment rate. Data on patient demographics, tumour characteristics, management details, recurrence and survival were collected, and the patterns of care were analysed. Socioeconomic status indicators of the two Area Health Services were imputed from the Australian Bureau of Statistics data. There were 270 and 256 new cases of lung cancer identified in NSAHS and SWSAHS respectively. Patients in NSAHS were slightly older (median age 73 versus 68 years) and there was less male predominance. The stage distributions and performance status of the two cohorts were similar. There were no significant differences in the utilisation rates of different treatment modalities between the two areas: radiotherapy (54% in NSAHS and 55% in SWSAHS), chemotherapy (34% and 25%), surgery (26% and 21%) and no treatment (22% and 25%). The 5-year overall survival was slightly in favour of NSAHS (10.5% and 7.4%), but did not reach statistical significance. Despite differences in socioeconomicance. Despite differences in socioeconomic profiles between the two area health services, patients with lung cancer had similar patterns of care and survival
The purpose of the present study is to compare the sociometric status of low socioeconomic status elementary school students with and without special needs and investigate the effects of different variables (gender, age, physical appearance, social skills, behavior problems, and academic competence) on students' sociometric status. Elementary…
Baydik, Berrin; Bakkaloglu, Hatice
Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil. Methods We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n = 768, 35–60 years old). Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain. They were the...
Ab, Pereira Carlos; Chalot Suellen D; Sauer Juliana F; Capela Cristina E; Cavalcante Alane B; Assumpção Ana; Marques Amélia P
This study examined the effects of education, income, and wealth on medical care expenditures in two Medicare managed care plans. The study also sought to elucidate the pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects expenditures, including preferences for health and medical care and ability to navigate the managed care system. We found that education, income, and wealth all affected medical care expenditures, although the effects of these variables differed across expenditure ca...
Kapur, Kanika; Escarce, Jose? J.; Rogowski, Jeannette; Freedman, Vicki A.; Wickstrom, Steven L.; Adams, John L.
Full Text Available Prior research has attempted to investigate creativity as a behavior resulting from the interaction between the cognitive abilities, social environment and personal characteristics, but very little research has look at the role of environment characteristics on Emersion Adolescent Creativity. Hence, this article focuses on the effect of socioeconomic status on emerging adolescent creativity. In other words, family economic status, father’s education and mother’s education are the three dimensions of socioeconomic status. This exploratory correlational research study examines the relationship between family economic status, father’s education and mother’s education with adolescent creativity. The sampling method was employed to select the proportion of participants using stratified and multi-stage cluster random sampling. The population of the sample was 546 high school students in Education Region 4, Tehran. The participants, 249 males and 297 females, completed two questionnaires. The adolescents completed a Demographic Characteristics Questionnaire and Abedi Creativity Questionnaire, which were used as the measuring tools in this study. The results show a significant positive correlation between family economic status and creativity (p < .01, and between parent education and creativity (p < .01. Interestingly, the analyses revealed a strongly significant positive correlation between parent education and creativity (p < .01, although none was found between males and females on creativity. Conclusions were tempered by the limitations of small to moderate correlations and small effect sizes.
Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES, feeling of anomie, and law-breaking behavior or illegality. A sample of 480 students has been randomly selected from Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in Iran. The results revealed that SES had significant negative correlation with anomie and non-significant correlation with illegality. Anomie had positive correlation with illegal behavior and the fetishism of money dimension had the greatest effect on illegality. The result is discussed with regard to the socio-cultural sphere of Iran as well as with regard to the previous anomie theories including Merton, and Messner and Rosenfeld theories.
Fetal growth is an important risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. In turn, socioeconomic status is a key predictor of fetal growth; however, other sociodemographic factors and environmental effects may also be important. This study modelled geographic variation in poor fetal growth after accounting for socioeconomic status, with a fixed effect for socioeconomic status and a combination of spatially-correlated and spatially-uncorrelated random effects. The dataset comprised 88,246 l...
Zubrick, Stephen R.; Peter Jacoby; Ball, Stephen J.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil. Methods We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n = 768, 35–60 years old. Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain. They were then invited to be clinically assessed (304 accepted. Pain was estimated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, as well as screening for tender points using dolorimetry. Statistical analyses included Bayesian Statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis Anova test (significance level = 5%. Results From the phone-interview screening, we divided participants (n = 768 in three groups: No Pain (NP (n = 185; Regional Pain (RP (n = 388 and Widespread Pain (WP (n = 106. Among those participating in the clinical assessments, (304 subjects, the prevalence of fibromyalgia was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [2.6%; 6.3%]. Symptoms of pain (VAS and FIQ, feeling well, job ability, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness, anxiety and depression were statically different among the groups. In multivariate analyses we found that individuals with FM and WP had significantly higher impairment than those with RP and NP. FM and WP were similarly disabling. Similarly, RP was no significantly different than NP. Conclusion Fibromyalgia is prevalent in the low socioeconomic status population assisted by the public primary health care system. Prevalence was similar to other studies (4.4% in a more diverse socioeconomic population. Individuals with FM and WP have significant impact in their well being.
Pereira Carlos AB
Full Text Available Objectives: This paper presents a literature review that examines the relationship between socioeconomic statusand women’s smoking behavior in the United States.Methods: A literature search was conducted among national and international peer-reviewed literature in thefollowing databases: Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Education Resource InformationCenter (ERIC, MEDLINE, and PsycARTICLES. A manual search was performed to obtain relevant articleswithin selected journals.Results: Of the 9 reviewed studies, 5 indicated that a low education level is a causal factor which has a significantrelationship with smoking behavior among women. 6 of the reviewed studies provided evidence that householdincome level plays an important role in women’s cigarette smoking. Finally, 2 of the reviewed studies indicatedthat women’s smoking behavior is influenced by their marital status.Conclusion: The findings from this literature review indicate that future smoking prevention efforts targetingwomen might benefit from incorporating education, household income, and marital situation intomulti-component programs that focus on the differences in socioeconomic status.
The objectives of this systematic review are to summarise the current literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of childhood leukaemia, to highlight methodological problems and formulate recommendations for future research. Starting from the systematic review of Poole et al. (Socioeconomic status and childhood leukaemia: a review. Int. J. Epidemiol. 2006;35(2):370-384.), an electronic literature search was performed covering August 2002-April 2008. It showed that (1) the results are heterogeneous, with no clear evidence to support a relation between SES and childhood leukaemia; (2) a number of factors, most importantly selection bias, might explain inconsistencies between studies; (3) there is some support for an association between SES at birth (rather than later in childhood) and childhood leukaemia and (4) if there are any associations, these are weak, limited to the most extreme SES groups (the 10-20% most or least deprived). This makes it unlikely that they would act as strong confounders in research addressing associations between other exposures and childhood leukaemia. Future research should minimise case and control selection bias, distinguish between different SES measures and leukaemia subtypes and consider timing of exposures and cancer outcomes. (authors)
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been ''authorized as a defense activity of the Department of Energy...for the express purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States...'' (PL 96-164). As reported in previous conferences, WIPP continues ahead of schedule and below budget with full facility construction well underway. To date, based on recent review, the socioeconomic impacts have been negligible and steps have been taken to ensure that they remain that way throughout operations
Environmental measures used widely in the behavioral sciences show nearly as much genetic influence as behavioral measures, a critical finding for interpreting associations between environmental factors and children's development. This research depends on the twin method that compares monozygotic and dizygotic twins, but key aspects of children's environment such as socioeconomic status (SES) cannot be investigated in twin studies because they are the same for children growing up together in a family. Here, using a new technique applied to DNA from 3000 unrelated children, we show significant genetic influence on family SES, and on its association with children's IQ at ages 7 and 12. In addition to demonstrating the ability to investigate genetic influence on between-family environmental measures, our results emphasize the need to consider genetics in research and policy on family SES and its association with children's IQ. PMID:24489417
Trzaskowski, Maciej; Harlaar, Nicole; Arden, Rosalind; Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; McMillan, Andrew; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert
This study examined the effects of education, income, and wealth on medical care expenditures in two Medicare managed care plans. The study also sought to elucidate the pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) affects expenditures, including preferences for health and medical care and ability to navigate the managed care system. We found that education, income, and wealth all affected medical care expenditures, although the effects of these variables differed across expenditure categories. Moreover, the effects of these SES variables were much smaller than the effects found in earlier studies of fee-for-service Medicare. The pathway variables also were associated with expenditures. Accounting for the pathways through which SES affects expenditures narrowed the effect of SES on expenditures; however, the change in the estimates was very small. PMID:17242536
Kapur, Kanika; Rogowski, Jeannette A; Freedman, Vicki A; Wickstrom, Steven L; Adams, John L; Escarce, Jos Eacute J
Socio-economic status of plain and hill area differ to a large degree from each other. Such type of study is very much common for both the areas. Rishop village of Darjeeling is very much interesting from social as well as economic point of view. On one hand tourism is a part of their economic life, on the other hand they are exceptional in West Bengal in terms of language, religion, way of life style etc. All these are due to the especial category of physical, and atmospheric set up
ARIJIT GHOSH; PRIYABRATA MONDAL
Full Text Available Socio-economic status of plain and hill area differ to a large degree from each other. Such type of study is very much common for both the areas. Rishop village of Darjeeling is very much interesting from social as well as economic point of view. On one hand tourism is a part of their economic life, on the other hand they are exceptional in West Bengal in terms of language, religion, way of life style etc. All these are due to the especial category of physical, and atmospheric set up
Epidemiological data have shown that socioeconomic status affects nutritional knowledge and dietary quality(1). Irish national food surveys have also suggested that socioeconomic differences in food group, nutrient intakes, dietary attitudes and health behaviours exist (2,3). It is known that pregnancy can enhance a women’s nutritional awareness (4). The aim of the present study was to assess whether nutritional knowledge in pregnant women in Ireland is affected by socioeconomic status. One...
Lane, Michelle; Barrett, Ellen M.; O Higgins, Amy C.; Mullaney, Laura E.; Turner, Michael J.; Mccartney, Daniel M.
Examined the effects of socioeconomic status on the occupational aspirations of 198 high school seniors in Nigeria. Results showed students with a higher socioeconomic status had a higher occupational aspiration level. Students with low SES aspired to medium-level occupations, suggesting that career guidance could help underpriveleged students.…
Idowu, Adeyemi I.; Dere, Abimbade O.
Full Text Available To study the role of Socio-Economic factors in increasing anxiety level of adolescents, a study was conducted among the adolescents of Nanded district With an Objective – “To study the Role of Socio-Economic Factors of Family in Arousing Anxiety of Adolescents.” Sample was selected by Stratified Random Sampling method among 265 girls and 262 boys from 16 to 18 years age group belonging to three income groups. Assessment of anxiety level in adolescents was carried out with the help I.P.A.T. Anxiety scale, by Samuel.E.Krug. For the convenience of adolescents Hindi version of this test was used revised by Dr.S.D.Kapoor. The obtained data was examined with the help of scoring key and was statistically co-related with socio-economic factors of adolescents. Results indicate that, 1Family income was significantly co-related with 5% level in boys with apprehension (0.249** and tension (0.256** and with 1% level with same norms i.e. apprehension (0511* and tension (0.521* in girls.2 Family income was also significantly co-related with low self control in boys (0274* and girls (0.277* with1% level.3 Specially in boys it was found that father's education was significantly co-related with apprehension (0.255* at 1% level.4 When anxiety norms of both girls and boys were studied through the test of variance i.e. one way ANOVA no significant difference was found. Scores for the norms like emotional instability, apprehension and tension were found with more percent in boys than girls. Whereas scores of indirect factors related to anxiety were found more in girls along with low self control and suspicion.
Socioeconomic status in Brazilian psychological research: II. socioeconomic status and parenting knowledge / Status socioeconômico na pesquisa psicológica brasileira: II. status socioeconômico e conhecimento parental
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Embora os estudos sobre cognições e práticas parentais em diferentes culturas venham aumentando sistematicamente nos últimos anos, pesquisas sobre o conhecimento do desenvolvimento infantil e práticas parentais raramente vêm sendo conduzidas fora dos Estados Unidos. No Brasil praticamente não há lit [...] eratura nessa área. Este estudo buscou responder a duas perguntas básicas: O que as mães brasileiras sabem sobre desenvolvimento infantil e as práticas parentais? Como este conhecimento sobre o desenvolvimento infantil e práticas parentais varia com o status socioeconômico e, em particular, com a educação das mães? Estudos vêm ressaltando a relevância do status socioeconômico para a análise de vários processos e produtos psicológicos. Porém, a relevância do status socioeconômico para o entendimento da cognições e práticas parentais ainda está sendo discutida. Uma versão em português do Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (KIDI ) foi administrada em uma amostra de 64 mães primíparas, e dados sobre o status socioeconômico das família foram coletados. Foram analisadas as relações entre o status socioeconômico e alguns de seus componentes sobre o conhecimento do desenvolvimento infantil e de práticas parentais. Verificou-se que, em média, as mães brasileiras obtiveram um escore mais baixo no KIDI do que as mães norte-americanas. Não foram verificadas diferença entre mães de meninos e mães de meninas no KIDI. Todas as variáveis investigadas, exceto idade de mães e pais e status ocupacional das mães, mostraram correlação significativa com KIDI. A educação de mãe foi o melhor preditor dos escores no KIDI. Este estudo dá apoio à visão de que diferenças no conhecimento do desenvolvimento infantil e práticas parentais estão relacionadas principalmente ao nível educacional, um dos principais indicadores do status socioeconômico e têm implicações para o desenvolvimento de programas educacionais para os pais. Abstract in english Although studies of parenting cognitions and practices across cultures have increased systematically in the last years, research specifically on parents' knowledge of childrearing and child development remains very little frequent in non-U.S. settings. In Brazil this issue is still underresearched. [...] This study addressed two main questions: What do Brazilian mothers know about childrearing and child development? How does this knowledge vary with their socioeconomic status and education in particular? A Brazilian version of the Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (KIDI) was administered to a sample of 64 primiparous mothers, and data about the family's socioeconomic status were collected. Relations of SES and some of its components to parents' knowledge about childrearing and child development were then analyzed. The mean total correct score obtained by the Brazilian mothers on the KIDI was lower than the mean score obtained by the American mothers. There were no differences between KIDI scores obtained by mothers of boys and mothers of girls. Mothers' education was the best predictor of the KIDI. This study gives support to the view that differences in parenting knowledge are ascribable primarily to variation in educational attainment, a principal indicator of SES, and has implications for the development of parental educational programs.
Rodolfo de Castro, Ribas Jr; Maria Lucia Seidl de, Moura; Marc H., Bornstein.
Socioeconomic status in Brazilian psychological research: II. socioeconomic status and parenting knowledge Status socioeconômico na pesquisa psicológica brasileira: II. status socioeconômico e conhecimento parental
Full Text Available Although studies of parenting cognitions and practices across cultures have increased systematically in the last years, research specifically on parents' knowledge of childrearing and child development remains very little frequent in non-U.S. settings. In Brazil this issue is still underresearched. This study addressed two main questions: What do Brazilian mothers know about childrearing and child development? How does this knowledge vary with their socioeconomic status and education in particular? A Brazilian version of the Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (KIDI was administered to a sample of 64 primiparous mothers, and data about the family's socioeconomic status were collected. Relations of SES and some of its components to parents' knowledge about childrearing and child development were then analyzed. The mean total correct score obtained by the Brazilian mothers on the KIDI was lower than the mean score obtained by the American mothers. There were no differences between KIDI scores obtained by mothers of boys and mothers of girls. Mothers' education was the best predictor of the KIDI. This study gives support to the view that differences in parenting knowledge are ascribable primarily to variation in educational attainment, a principal indicator of SES, and has implications for the development of parental educational programs.Embora os estudos sobre cognições e práticas parentais em diferentes culturas venham aumentando sistematicamente nos últimos anos, pesquisas sobre o conhecimento do desenvolvimento infantil e práticas parentais raramente vêm sendo conduzidas fora dos Estados Unidos. No Brasil praticamente não há literatura nessa área. Este estudo buscou responder a duas perguntas básicas: O que as mães brasileiras sabem sobre desenvolvimento infantil e as práticas parentais? Como este conhecimento sobre o desenvolvimento infantil e práticas parentais varia com o status socioeconômico e, em particular, com a educação das mães? Estudos vêm ressaltando a relevância do status socioeconômico para a análise de vários processos e produtos psicológicos. Porém, a relevância do status socioeconômico para o entendimento da cognições e práticas parentais ainda está sendo discutida. Uma versão em português do Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (KIDI foi administrada em uma amostra de 64 mães primíparas, e dados sobre o status socioeconômico das família foram coletados. Foram analisadas as relações entre o status socioeconômico e alguns de seus componentes sobre o conhecimento do desenvolvimento infantil e de práticas parentais. Verificou-se que, em média, as mães brasileiras obtiveram um escore mais baixo no KIDI do que as mães norte-americanas. Não foram verificadas diferença entre mães de meninos e mães de meninas no KIDI. Todas as variáveis investigadas, exceto idade de mães e pais e status ocupacional das mães, mostraram correlação significativa com KIDI. A educação de mãe foi o melhor preditor dos escores no KIDI. Este estudo dá apoio à visão de que diferenças no conhecimento do desenvolvimento infantil e práticas parentais estão relacionadas principalmente ao nível educacional, um dos principais indicadores do status socioeconômico e têm implicações para o desenvolvimento de programas educacionais para os pais.
Rodolfo de Castro Ribas Jr
Full Text Available Fetal growth is an important risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. In turn, socioeconomic status is a key predictor of fetal growth; however, other sociodemographic factors and environmental effects may also be important. This study modelled geographic variation in poor fetal growth after accounting for socioeconomic status, with a fixed effect for socioeconomic status and a combination of spatially-correlated and spatially-uncorrelated random effects. The dataset comprised 88,246 liveborn singletons, aggregated within suburbs in Perth, Western Australia. Low socioeconomic status was strongly associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth. An increase in geographic variation of poor fetal growth from 1999–2001 (interquartile odds ratio among suburbs = 1.20 to 2004–2006 (interquartile odds ratio = 1.40 indicated a widening risk disparity by socioeconomic status. Low levels of residual spatial patterns strengthen the case for targeting policies and practices in areas of low socioeconomic status for improved outcomes. This study indicates an alarming increase in geographic inequalities in poor fetal growth in Perth which warrants further research into the specific aspects of socioeconomic status that act as risk factors.
Stephen R. Zubrick
Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject…
Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G.; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Kushnerenko, Elena
Objectives: To predict the relative risk and time trend in hospitalisation due to coxarthrosis (CA) among groups of different socioeconomic status and occupations in order to test existing aetiological hypotheses.
Tuchsen, F.; Hannerz, H.; Jensen, M.; Krause, N.
Background: Physicians' assumptions about patients' socioeconomic status (SES) have been shown to influence clinical decision making in adult patients. The goal of this study is to assess the factors associated with pediatric pulmonologists' (PPs') subjective ratings of their patients' SES, and whether these factors differ by patient race/ethnicity. Methods: Parents of children with asthma (n=171) presenting for pulmonary care reported their SES using the MacArthur Subjective SES 10-rung ladder. The PPs (n=7) also estimated each family's SES. Two-level linear regression models with random intercepts (level 1: PP's SES ratings; level 2: PPs) were used to assess the predictors of PP-estimated family SES. The analyses were then stratified by race/ethnicity. Results: Parental educational, insurance type, age, and race/ethnic background were associated with PPs' SES ratings. Black/African American families were rated lower than white families, accounting for other demographic factors (b=?0.60, p<0.01), but families of other races/ethnicities were not (b=?0.10, p=0.29). Even when comparing families with the same level of parental education, black/African American families, but not families of other backgrounds, were judged to have lower SES than white families (from 0.77 rungs lower among parents with some college, to 1.2 rungs lower among parents with high school or less; both p<0.05). Conclusions: Racial differences in PPs' ability to estimate families' subjective SES in asthma care may be a function of unconscious societal biases about race and class. Collecting subjective SES from families and PPs during the office visit could facilitate discussions about material and psychosocial needs and resources that influence treatment effectiveness. PMID:25276485
Johnson, Sara B.; Gordon, Brian J.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Adler, Nancy E.
Objective: To investigate the extent to which shared genetic factors can explain the clustering of depression among individuals with lower socioeconomic status, and to examine if neuroticism or intelligence are involved in these pathways. Methods: In total 2,383 participants (1,028 men and 1,355 women) of the Erasmus Rucphen Family Study were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADSD). Socioeconomic status ...
Lo?pez Leo?n, S.; Choy, W. C.; Aulchenko, Y. S.; Claes, S.; Oostra, B. A.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Duijn, C. M.; Janssens, A. C. J. W.
Background: Considerable evidence suggests that communication inequality is one potential mechanism linking social determinants, particularly socioeconomic status, and health inequalities. This study aimed to examine how dimensions of health communication outcomes (health information seeking, self-efficacy, exposure, and trust) are patterned by socioeconomic status in Japan. Methods: Data of a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 2,455 people aged 15–75 years in Japan were us...
Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Nishiuchi, Hiromu; Hayashi, Hanae; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
Both genetic and socio-demographic factors influence the risk for behavioral problems in the developmental age. Genetic studies indicate that shared genetic factors partially contribute to behavioral and learning problems, in particular reading disabilities (RD). For the first time, we explore the conjoint role of DCDC2 gene, an identified RD candidate gene, and socioeconomic status (SES) upon behavioral phenotypes in a general population of Italian children. Two of the most replicated DCDC2 markers [i.e., regulatory element associated with dyslexia 1 (READ1), rs793862] were genotyped in 631 children (boys = 314; girls = 317) aged 11-14 years belonging to a community-based sample. Main and interactive effects were tested by MANOVA for each combination of DCDC2 genotypes and socioeconomic status upon emotional and behavioral phenotypes, assessed by Child Behavior Check-List/6-18. The two-way MANOVA (Bonferroni corrected p value = 0.01) revealed a trend toward significance of READ1(4) effect (F = 2.39; p = 0.016), a significant main effect of SES (F = 3.01; p = 0.003) and interactive effect of READ1(4) × SES (F = 2.65; p = 0.007) upon behavioral measures, showing higher attention problems scores among subjects 'READ1(4+) and low SES' compared to all other groups (p values range 0.00003-0.0004). ANOVAs stratified by gender confirmed main and interactive effects among girls, but not boys. Among children exposed to low socioeconomic level, READ1 genetic variant targets the worst outcome in children's attention. PMID:25012462
Riva, Valentina; Marino, Cecilia; Giorda, Roberto; Molteni, Massimo; Nobile, Maria
To study the role of Socio-Economic factors in increasing anxiety level of adolescents, a study was conducted among the adolescents of Nanded district With an Objective – “To study the Role of Socio-Economic Factors of Family in Arousing Anxiety of Adolescents.” Sample was selected by Stratified Random Sampling method among 265 girls and 262 boys from 16 to 18 years age group belonging to three income groups. Assessment of anxiety level in adolescents was carried out with the h...
Donglikar, Chetana V.
An extensive literature documents the existence of pervasive and persistent child health, development, and health care disparities by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). Disparities experienced during childhood can result in a wide variety of health and health care outcomes, including adult morbidity and mortality, indicating that it is crucial to examine the influence of disparities across the life course. Studies often collect data on the race, ethnicity, and SES of research participants to be used as covariates or explanatory factors. In the past, these variables have often been assumed to exert their effects through individual or genetically determined biologic mechanisms. However, it is now widely accepted that these variables have important social dimensions that influence health. SES, a multidimensional construct, interacts with and confounds analyses of race and ethnicity. Because SES, race, and ethnicity are often difficult to measure accurately, leading to the potential for misattribution of causality, thoughtful consideration should be given to appropriate measurement, analysis, and interpretation of such factors. Scientists who study child and adolescent health and development should understand the multiple measures used to assess race, ethnicity, and SES, including their validity and shortcomings and potential confounding of race and ethnicity with SES. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that research on eliminating health and health care disparities related to race, ethnicity, and SES be a priority. Data on race, ethnicity, and SES should be collected in research on child health to improve their definitions and increase understanding of how these factors and their complex interrelationships affect child health. Furthermore, the AAP believes that researchers should consider both biological and social mechanisms of action of race, ethnicity, and SES as they relate to the aims and hypothesis of the specific area of investigation. It is important to measure these variables, but it is not sufficient to use these variables alone as explanatory for differences in disease, morbidity, and outcomes without attention to the social and biologic influences they have on health throughout the life course. The AAP recommends more research, both in the United States and internationally, on measures of race, ethnicity, and SES and how these complex constructs affect health care and health outcomes throughout the life course. PMID:25548336
Cheng, Tina L; Goodman, Elizabeth
The stratification system in India has resulted in the socioeconomic inequality in society and defines women domestic workers as one of the lowest segments of society. This qualitative and quantitative study aims at describing the problems of female domestic workers, the relationship of their employers with them, and exploring the impact of…
Daraei, Mina; Mohajery, Artmiz
Background: There are pronounced socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease, but the extent to which these primarily reflect gradients in underlying coronary artery disease severity or in the clinical manifestation of advanced disease is uncertain. We measured the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) as indexed by grade of employment and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort, and tested the contribution of lifestyle, biological and ...
Steptoe, A.; Hamer, M.; O Donnell, K.; Venuraju, S.; Marmot, M. G.; Lahiri, A.
A high dietary intake of fruit and vegetables has been shown to be protective for health. Neighborhood socioeconomic differences may influence the consumption of carotenoid-rich foods, as indicated by serum carotenoid concentrations. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and serum carotenoid concentrations in a population-based sample of community-dwelling women, aged 70–79 y, who participated in the Women’s Health and Aging ...
Nicklett, Emily J.; Szanton, Sarah; Sun, Kai; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fried, Linda P.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Semba, Richard D.
Child health is fundamental to well-being and achievement throughout the life course. Prior research has demonstrated strong associations between familial socioeconomic resources and children’s health outcomes, with especially poor health outcomes among disadvantaged youth who experience a concentration of risks, yet little is known about the influence of maternal health as a dimension of risk for children. This research used nationally representative U.S. data from the National Health Inte...
Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Landale, Nancy S.
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to explore the relationships between five socioeconomic variables and three main cardiovascular diseases (ischaemic heart disease, hypertensive disease, and cerebrovascular disease) in Hong Kong. DESIGN--This cross sectional study used data from the 1986 by-census and registered death data for 1985 to 1987 in Hong Kong. For each of 24 districts, the correlation coefficients between log standardised mortality ratios for the three cardiovascular diseases and the per...
Wong, S. L.; Donnan, S. P.
Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates ofmorbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Dueto the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health ina low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gainan understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due totheir socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory usingpurposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realisedas 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in SoshanguveExtension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using opencoding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and geneticconstitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and workingconditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of peopleliving in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approachfrom registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned andimplemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in thecommunity without evidence based on a family perspective.
Claudette D. Ncho
Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semistructured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.
Claudette D. Ncho
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situ [...] ation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch's approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.
Claudette D., Ncho; Susan C.D., Wright.
In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students’ socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students’ learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students’ achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University’s educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University. PMID:23951219
Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio
Full Text Available Background: Stage is one of the most important prognostic factors for the cancer diagnosis, including the breast cancer. Studies have found that the rate of breast cancer late-stage diagnosis, among the women with lower socioeconomic status, is more than the others. The aim of this study was investigation the relationship between family levels of socioeconomic status and stage at diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive study has conducted on 526 patients who have suffered from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti university of Medical science, from March 2008 till December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family status of socioeconomic status, have filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS 19. Results: The results have indicated that the mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41. There was a significant relationship between stage at diagnosis of breast cancer and family levels of socioeconomic status at the time of diagnosis (p=0.024. Also, the relationship between stage at diagnosis and living place (in or out of Tehran was significant (p=0.044. In the Multiple logistic regressions, these associations were significant. There wasn’t any significant relationship between stage of diagnosis of breast cancer and age, marital status and family history. Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study, deep paying attention to the family socioeconomic status as an important variable in stage at diagnosis of breast cancer, among Iranian women, was too important, and then providing the prevention plans related to this topic has seemed necessary.
Full Text Available Background: Despite a long interest in the historical fertility transition, there is still a lack of knowledge about disaggregated patterns that could help us understand the mechanisms behind the transition. In previous research the widely held view is that there was a change in the association between social status and fertility in conjunction with the fertility transition, implying that fertility went from being positively connected to social status (higher status was connected with higher fertility to being negatively associated with fertility. Objective: The aim of this collection is to study socioeconomic patterns in the fertility transition in a variety of contexts using similar approaches and measures of socioeconomic status. Methods: All contributions use different kinds of micro-level socioeconomic and demographic data and statistical models in the analysis. Data either come from census-like records or population registers. Conclusions: There is no consistent evidence for the hypothesis that socioeconomic status was positively related to fertility before the demographic transition. While such a correlation was clearly present in some contexts it was clearly not in other contexts. There is more unanimous support for the idea that the upper-and middle classes acted as forerunners in the transition, while especially farmers were late to change their fertility behavior. It is also evident that both parity-specific stopping and prolonged birth intervals (spacing were important in the fertility transition.
Health disparities by socioeconomic status (SES) exist for many outcomes, including patients' subjective health status after myocardial infarction (MI). The Reserve Capacity Model (RCM), a theoretical means to understand such disparities, was tested to examine the possible mediating effects of cognitive-emotional factors on the association between SES and health status. Data from 2,348 post-MI patients in PREMIER were used. Indicators of SES were collected during hospitalization via personal interviews, while participants completed measures of stress and reserves at 1 month, depressive symptoms at 6 months, and health status at 1 year through telephone interviews. Structural equation model results provide partial support for the RCM, as cognitive-emotional factors partially mediated the association between SES and mental health status. For physical health status, results supported direct rather than indirect effects of SES. Findings suggest psychosocial interventions with patients of low SES will have their greatest effects on appraisals of psychological health status. PMID:25022863
Bennett, Kymberley K; Buchanan, Donna M; Jones, Philip G; Spertus, John A
Rationale: The burden of asthma is highest among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations; however, its impact is differentially distributed among racial and ethnic groups. Objectives: To assess the collective effect of maternal educational attainment, annual household income, and insurance type on childhood asthma among minority, urban youth. Methods: We included Mexican American (n = 485), other Latino (n = 217), and African American (n = 1,141) children (aged 8–21 yr) with and without asthma from the San Francisco Bay Area. An index was derived from maternal educational attainment, annual household income, and insurance type to assess the collective effect of socioeconomic status on predicting asthma. Logistic regression stratified by racial and ethnic group was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further examined whether acculturation explained the socioeconomic-asthma association in our Latino population. Measurements and Main Results: In the adjusted analyses, African American children had 23% greater odds of asthma with each decrease in the socioeconomic index (aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09–1.38). Conversely, Mexican American children have 17% reduced odds of asthma with each decrease in the socioeconomic index (aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72–0.96) and this relationship was not fully explained by acculturation. This association was not observed in the other Latino group. Conclusions: Socioeconomic status plays an important role in predicting asthma, but has different effects depending on race and ethnicity. Further steps are necessary to better understand the risk factors through which socioeconomic status could operate in these populations to prevent asthma. PMID:24050698
Oh, Sam S.; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Martin, Melissa; Roth, Lindsey A.; Galanter, Joshua; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Eng, Celeste; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A.; Avila, Pedro C.; Farber, Harold J.; Serebrisky, Denise; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Williams, L. Keoki; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Thyne, Shannon; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Burchard, Esteban G.
Full Text Available Based on original fieldwork in Serbia, this paper elucidates and contrasts the reproductive behavior of typically poor Gypsies with a group of much wealthier Gypsies living in a Serbian village. This paper will test two hypotheses: 1 Gypsy reproductive behavior is a result of their ethnic traditional strategy, and/or 2 Gypsy reproduction is a result of low status and being poor. This paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic status, reproductive behavior and ethnicity.
To examine the impact of individual and community socioeconomic status (SES) measures on mental health outcomes in individuals with arthritis, participants with self-reported arthritis completed a telephone survey assessing health status, health attitudes and beliefs, and sociodemographic variables. Regression analyses adjusting for race, gender, BMI, comorbidities, and age were performed to determine the impact of individual and community level SES on mental health outcomes (i.e., Medical Ou...
Mingo, Chivon A.; Martin, Kathryn R.; Jack Shreffler; Britta Schoster; Callahan, Leigh F.
Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Burkina Faso (2003), Cameroon (2004), Ghana (2003), Kenya (2003), and Tanzania (2003), I investigate the cross-sectional relationship between HIV status and socioeconomic status. I find evidence of a robust positive education gradient in HIV infection, showing that, up to very high levels of education, better-educated respondents are more likely to be HIV-positive. Adults with six years of schooling are as much as three percentage p...
Fortson, Jane G.
Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (?65 years) and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES). Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine t...
Sarah Hoeck; Johan Van der Heyden; Joanna Geerts; Guido Van Hal
Objective: To assess the socioeconomic status, treatment being offered and the impact of congenital heart disease treatment on families. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital / Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from first March to 31 August 2010. Methodology: All patients undergoing a cardiac surgical or angiographic intervention were enrolled. Socioeconomic status was assessed by Kuppuswamy socioeconomic status scale with income group modification. The impact was measured by the source of financing, effect on family financing source and schooling and health of siblings. Results: Of 211 patients undergoing treatment in the study period, surgery was the definitive treatment in 164 (77.7%) and angiographic intervention in 47 (22.3%) patients. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The mean age of the patient was 39.1 +- 3.2 months (range 01 day to 15 years). Majority of families belonged to middle (66.4%, n=140) and lower (27%, n=57) socioeconomic class. The mean cost of medicines and disposable was PKR 78378.2 +- 8845.9 (US$ 933.1 +- 105.3) in open heart surgery, PKR 12581 +- 7010.8 (US$ 149.8 +- 83.5) in closed heart surgery and PKR 69091 + 60906 in angiographic interventions. In 63.1% patients, families contributed towards these costs either completely (12.3%) or partly (50.8%) with significant contribution from the hospital. Adverse effect on families ranged from leave without pay to losing jobs or business (46%), and sellto losing jobs or business (46%), and selling their assets (11.3%). It also affected schooling and health of siblings (22.7% and 26.1% respectively). Conclusion: Majority of children with congenital heart disease belonged to middle and lower socioeconomic status in this study. Main definitive treatment was surgery. The cost of health care facilities posed a marked socioeconomic burden on those families. (author)
Background The notion that chronic stress contributes to health inequalities by socio-economic status (SES) through physiological wear and tear has received widespread attention. This article reviews the literature testing associations between SES and cortisol, an important biomarker of stress, as well as the summary index of allostatic load (AL).
Dowd, Jennifer B.; Simanek, Amanda M.; Aiello, Allison E.
The objective of this study was to describe the selected conditions for school achievement of students with mild intellectual disabilities from Polish elementary schools. Participants were 605 students with mild disabilities from integrative, regular, and special schools, and their parents (N = 429). It was found that socioeconomic status (SES)…
Szumski, Grzegorz; Karwowski, Maciej
The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory…
Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlégan, Annette
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. RESULTS: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the mostpredominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [G-3] brachy) were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01). Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.
BelstrØm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle
This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
The authors explored how gender and socioeconomic status (SES) predicted physics achievement as mediated by metacognition and physics self-efficacy. Data were collected from 338 high school students. The model designed for exploring how gender and SES-related differences in physics achievement were explained through metacognition and physics…
Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Pesman, Haki
Previous research has clearly established associations between low socioeconomic status (SES) and poor youth physical health outcomes. This article provides an overview of the main pathways through which low SES environments come to influence youth health. We focus on 2 prevalent chronic health problems in youth today, asthma and obesity. We…
Schreier, Hannah M. C.; Chen, Edith
Research Findings: Grounded in the investment model and informed by the integrative theory of the study of minority children, this study used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set, a nationally representative sample of young children, to investigate whether the association between socioeconomic status (family income and…
Iruka, Iheoma U.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.
Full Text Available The survey was carried out to study socioeconomic status of 50 dog owners in Nagpur of Maharashtra.The result revealed the businessmen (38% are more interested in dog keeping followed by government servants (16% and student (12%. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 229-229
This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…
Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc
Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function performance and measures of prefrontal cortical function, but little is known about its anatomical correlates. Structural MRI and demographic data from a sample of 283 healthy children from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development were used to investigate the relationship…
Lawson, Gwendolyn M.; Duda, Jeffrey T.; Avants, Brian B.; Wu, Jue; Farah, Martha J.
Critics of educational admissions tests assert that tests measure nothing more than socioeconomic status (SES) and that their apparent validity in predicting academic performance is an artifact of SES. The authors examined multiple large data sets containing data on admissions and related tests, SES, and grades showing that (a) SES is related to…
Sackett, Paul R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Arneson, Justin J.; Cooper, Sara R.; Waters, Shonna D.
The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…
Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren
This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…
Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke
This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…
Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.
The economic status of 130 educable mentally retarded (EMR) graduates of a special school district was investigated. Of the variables (age, sex, race, IQ, and vocational training), age was the only variable found to be related to wage, i.e., the older the individual, the higher the wage. (Author)
Crain, Emma Jo
Full Text Available Background: The rapid growth of ICT has led to an important increase in the use of computers in preschool age. However the benefits of this use are a debatable issue. Some focus on the positive effects of computers on learning and kids’ cognitive development while others believe that computers may negatively affect their social and motivational impact.Aim: The aim of this research was to study Greek parents’ views on preschools’ computer programs and how these views are influenced by the family’s socioeconomic level.Methodology: The survey involved 280 parents of children aged 3-5 years, of whom 140 were in the upper socioeconomic level and the other 140 in a lower one.Results: The upper socioeconomic level parents thought that the use of computers was appropriate for preschool children more than parents of lower socioeconomic status (P=0.01. and that its inclusion in the preschool center’s program would work in favor for children who have no computer at home (P=0.00. Parents with higher socioeconomic status felt more than the others that such a program can support the provision of knowledge (P=0.00, the development of mathematical (P=0.00 and linguistic skills (P=0.00 and entertain children (P=0.04. Furthermore, the upper socioeconomic level parents as opposed to the other group do not consider that the computer will remove preschool educator from their leading and teaching role (P=0.04 or reduce their communication with the preschoolers (P=0.00.Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that Greek parents, especially those of higher socioeconomic level, have a positive view on the integration of a computer program into the preschoolclassroom.
Epidemiological research suggests that different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) such as income and education may have independent and/or interactive effects on health outcomes. In this study, we examined both simple and more complex associations (i.e., interactions) between different indicators of SES and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) during daily life. Our sample consisted of 94 married couples who completed a one-day ABP protocol. Both income and education were independently related to systolic blood pressure and only income was significantly related to diastolic blood pressure. There were also statistical interactions such that individuals with high levels of both income and education evidenced the lowest ABP. Gender moderated these findings. Three-way interactions revealed that, in general, women appear to benefit from either indicator of SES, whereas men appear to benefit more from income. The findings are consistent with epidemiological research and suggest one important physiological mechanism by which income and education may have independent and interactive effects on health. PMID:23645146
Cundiff, Jenny M; Uchino, Bert N; Smith, Timothy W; Birmingham, Wendy
This paper examines the socio-economic status of women in rural poultry production in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. This is based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between women’s participation and their socio-economic status such as age, marital status, level of education and occupation. The study was conducted in selected villages in Kwara State. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) women involved in rural poultry production were interviewed using ra...
Ogunlade, I.; Adebayo, S. A.
The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had a...
Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.
OBJECTIVES: This article reviews the evidence on the adverse health consequences of low socioeconomic status, homelessness, and incarceration among drug users. OBSERVATIONS: Social and economic factors shape risk behavior and the health of drug users. They affect health indirectly by shaping individual drug-use behavior; they affect health directly by affecting the availability of resources, access to social welfare systems, marginalization, and compliance with medication. Minority groups exp...
Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David
OBJECTIVE: Relatively little is known about the intergenerational mechanisms that lead to social disparities in child health. We examined whether the association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and child behavior problems is mediated by maternal health conditions and behavior. METHODS: Prospective cohort data (1979-1998) on 2,677 children and their mothers were obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. SES, the Child Behavior Problems Index (BPI), and maternal smoking, d...
Kahn, Robert S.; Wilson, Kathryn; Wise, Paul H.
Birth weight is an important aspect of public health which has been linked to increased risk of infant death, increased cost of care, and a range of later life outcomes. Using data from a new Irish cohort study, I document the relationship between birth weight and socioeconomic status. A strong association with maternal education does not appear to be due to the timing of birth or complications during pregnancy, even controlling for a wide range of background characteristics. However, results...
Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES). Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional stud...
Maple-Brown Louise; Cunningham Joan; Hodge Allison; Dunbar Terry; Dea Kerin, O.
Perceptions of current family functioning in relation to current household income level, educational status, social-class at birth and social mobility over the lifecourse were investigated in a group of 483 individuals at age 50. Subjective report of family functioning was assessed using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD) with socio-economic information obtained from a self-report Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire. Results indicated significant relationships between household income...
Tiffin, P. A.; Pearce, M. S.; Kaplan, C.; Fundudis, T.; Parker, L.
Using information from research on the neuroplasticity of selective attention and on the central role of successful parenting in child development, we developed and rigorously assessed a family-based training program designed to improve brain systems for selective attention in preschool children. One hundred forty-one lower socioeconomic status preschoolers enrolled in a Head Start program were randomly assigned to the training program, Head Start alone, or an active control group. Electrophy...
Neville, Helen J.; Stevens, Courtney; Pakulak, Eric; Bell, Theodore A.; Fanning, Jessica; Klein, Scott; Isbell, Elif
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means of a self administered questionnaire. SETTING: Population originating from 204 municipalities in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 58,279 men aged 55-69 years. After 4.3 years of follow up, 162 i...
Loon, A. J.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Den Brandt, P. A.
Studies that use the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and its age-appropriate versions as indices of affective decision-making during childhood and adolescence have demonstrated significant individual differences in scores. Our study investigated the association between general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status (SES) and its effect on the development of affective decision-making in preschoolers by using a computerized version of the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). We administered the ...
Mata, Fernanda; Sallum, Isabela; Miranda, De?bora M.; Bechara, Antoine; Malloy-diniz, Leandro F.
Studies that use the Iowa Gambling Task and its age-appropriate versions as indices of affective decision-making during childhood and adolescence have demonstrated significant individual differences in scores. Our study investigates the association between general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status and its effect on the development of affective decision-making in preschoolers by using a computerised version of the Children’s Gambling Task (CGT). We administered the CGT and th...
FernandaMata; DeboraMarquesMiranda; AntoineBechara
A trend analysis was conducted on the influence of socio-economic (SES) status on obesity levels in Canadian baby boomers over time. Two, large scale national studies conducted 10 years apart were analyzed. Riley’s Social Change Model was used to frame how the influence of SES on obesity will converge over time due to social changes to food production and eating habits coupled with reliance on modern technology. Partial support was found for convergence of SES and obesity associations over ...
Cummings, Linda Martha Dawn
Throughout the years spanned by the US Vital Statistics Linked Birth and Infant Death Data (1983-2002), birth weights are measured most precisely for children of white and highly educated mothers. As a result, less healthy children, who are more likely to be of low socioeconomic status, are disproportionately represented at multiples of round numbers. This has crucial implications for any study using a regression discontinuity design in which birth weights are used as the running variable. Fo...
Barreca, Alan; Guldi, Melanie; Lindo, Jason M.; Waddell, Glen R.
Abstract Aim Aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of demographic factors (DGF) and socio-economic status (SES) on survival after pancreatic cancer resection in a German setting. Methods Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified from our pancreatic resection database (1989-2008). DGF, SES, survival and tumor-related information were obtained from hospital records, a registry office questionnaire, and t...
Kuhn, Y.; Koscielny, A.; Glowka, T.; Hirner, A.; Kalff, J. C.; Standop, J.
Abstract Background As longevity increases, cases of myocardial infarction (MI) are likely to be more. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major global health problem reaching epidemic proportions in the Indian subcontinent, also among low socio-economic status (SES) and thin individuals. Objectives The present study was undertaken to elicit risk factors for MI among low SES Southern Indians and to find out its association with body mass index (BMI). Materi...
Meenakshisundaram Ramachandran; Agarwal Dipti; Rajendiran Chinnaswamy; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian Ponniah
Socioeconomic status (SES) constitutes a central analysis category of epidemiological research and health reporting. As part of the German Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Study 1984–1991, a multi-dimensional aggregated index was developed for the purpose of measuring SES. This index continues to be used in numerous studies to this day. For the purpose of health monitoring at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the index was fundamentally revised following critical assessment. This article de...
Lampert, Thomas; Kroll, Lars Eric; Mu?ters, Stephan; Stolzenberg, Heribert
Abstract Background Disinfection by-products in drinking water are chemical contaminants that have been associated with cancer and other adverse effects. Exposure occurs from consumption of tap water, inhalation and dermal absorption. Methods We determined the relationship between socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in 1271 controls from a multicentric bladder cancer case-control study in Spain. Information on lifetime drinking water so...
Serra Consol; Garcia-Closas Reina; Tardon Adonina; Villanueva Cristina M; Cantor Kenneth P; Castaño-Vinyals Gemma; Carrato Alfredo; Malats Núria; Rothman Nathaniel; Silverman Debra; Kogevinas Manolis
Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and sass. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)
Urban migrants in Papua New Guinea have undergone a nutritional transition. The present study investigated associations of socioeconomic status with dietary and physical activity patterns among migrant Bougainvilleans from Nassioi territory in the capital city of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. All adults Naasioi migrants residing in Port Moresby were identified (N = 185) and 70 were included. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity, and dietary patterns were assessed by per-week consumption frequency of food items. Principal component analysis was applied to produce a composite score for socioeconomic status. Least square regression analysis indicated that socioeconomic status was positively correlated with consumption of a traditional diet (p = .03) and negatively with walking-related physical activity (p = .02), but it was not correlated with MET-minutes of moderate/vigorous activity. Different patterns of nutritional transition occur among migrants in urban Papua New Guinea, depending on socioeconomic status. PMID:25105859
Vengiau, Gwendalyn; Umezaki, Masahiro; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Siba, Peter; Watanabe, Chiho
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine how measures of imagery, creativity, and socioeconomic status relate to performance in a stock-market trading game. The 368 participants were students enrolled in an administration studies curriculum. A multiple regression analysis showed imaging scores to be a predictor of stock-trading performance as were creativity and socioeconomic status to a lesser extent. High imagers and high scorers on creativity and socioeconomic status made several times more profit with their portfolios. Results are discussed in terms of imagery having multiple repercussions on learning, e.g., memory and problem-solving. It is concluded that scores on imagery, creativity, and socioeconomic status, being weakly correlated, are interdependent and likely associated with personality traits shaped within a stimulating home or social environment. PMID:11508012
Roberts, D S; MacDonald, B E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown an inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD. Little is known about this association in Iran. This study aimed to investigate whether mortality after myocardial infarction (MI varies by SES. Methods In a retrospective study, 1283 MI patients who hospitalized in Tehran Heart Center from March 2005 to March 2006 were followed up in March 2008. Demographic, clinical and SES data were collected from case records and by telephone interviews. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the predictive effect of socioeconomic factors on outcome. Results In all 664 patients were studied. Of these, 500 patients were alive and 164 were dead due to MI (64 died at hospital and 100 died at home. The results of regression analysis showed that in addition to treatment (OR = 9.52, 95%CI 4.84-18.7, having diabetes (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.12-2.81 or hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.14-2.90, socioeconomic variables including living area in square per person (lowest level vs. upper level OR = 4.92, 95% CI 2.11-11.4, unemployment (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 1.50-8.13 and education (OR for illiterate patients = 2.51, 95% CI 1.00-6.31 were the most significant contributing factors to increased mortality after MI. Conclusion Although the findings should be interpreted with caution, the study results indicated that socioeconomic variables were significant contributing factors to increased mortality after myocardial infarction. The underlying role of socioeconomic status on increased mortality after MI deserves further investigation.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on elderly health. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean. The sample comprised 2,143 non-institutionalized elderly aged 60 years and older living in the urban area of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Linear regression models estimated the effect of socioeconomic status indicators (years of schooling completed, occupation and purchasing power on each one of the following health indicators: depression, self-rated health, morbidity and memory capacity. A 5% significance level was set. RESULTS: There was a significant effect of years of education and purchasing power on self-rated health and memory capacity when controlled for the variables number of diseases during childhood, bed rest for at least a month due to health problems during childhood, self-rated health during childhood, living arrangements, sex, age, marital status, category of health insurance, intake of medicines. Only purchasing power had an effect on depression. Despite the bivariate association between socioeconomic status indicators and number of diseases (morbidity, this effect was no longer seen after including the controls in the model. CONCLUSIONS: The study results confirm the association between socioeconomic status indicators and health among Brazilian elderly, but only for some dimensions of socioeconomic status and certain health outcomes.OBJETIVO: Investigar o impacto do status socioeconômico na saúde de idosos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a base de dados transversal Inquérito sobre a Saúde, o Bem estar o Envelhecimento na América Latina e Caribe. Analisaram-se 2.143 idosos (60 anos ou mais residentes em domicílios, na área urbana de São Paulo, no ano de 2000. Modelos de regressões lineares estimaram o efeito dos indicadores de status socioeconômico (anos de estudo completos, ocupação e poder de compra nos indicadores de saúde: depressão, auto-avaliação da saúde, morbidade e capacidade de memória. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: Observou-se efeito significativo dos anos de estudo e do poder de compra na auto-avaliação da saúde e na capacidade da memória, quando controlado pelas variáveis: número de doenças antes dos 15 anos de idade, ter ficado na cama ao menos por um mês por problema de saúde antes dos 15 anos, auto-avaliação da saúde na infância, arranjos de vida, sexo, idade, estado civil, tipo de seguro de saúde, ingestão de remédios. Somente a capacidade de compra apresentou efeito na depressão. Apesar das análises bivariadas indicarem uma associação entre status socioeconômico e o número de doenças (morbidade, este efeito desapareceu quando os controles entraram no modelo. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam a associação entre indicadores socioeconômicos e a saúde dos idosos brasileiros, mas somente entre alguns indicadores e certos aspectos da saúde.
Full Text Available Over last few decades, there have been rapid growths in the number of women employee in India and majority of them being engaged in informal sector of the economy where jobs are often low paid and repetitive. An attempt has been made in this study to trace out the socio-economic status of maid-servant as well as the manner in which they lives in the informal sector in Purulia Municipal area of the same district of West Bengal. The study has been carried out through personal interview and observation. Results indicate that most of the maid-servants (78% are satisfied in their profession and most of the respondents (82.35% do not engaged with other work except maid-servant for earning. However, economic compulsion is the main hardship for taking the job as maid-servants. The general educational status of the maid-servants is not satisfactory and wages of the maid-servants are very low. The maid-servants are subject to variety of exploitations starting from low wages to maltreatment and sexual harassment by the employer. In view of this exploitation it is necessary to improve their socio-economic status and working conditions.
SHYAMAL KUMAR BISWAS
Eliminating water-holding containers where mosquitoes oviposit and develop (source reduction) can help manage urban disease-vector mosquitoes. Source reduction requires residents to be knowledgeable of effective practices and motivated to implement them. We tested relationships between demographics, resident knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP), and mosquito infestation by administering larval mosquito surveys and KAP questionnaires in Washington, DC. Respondents who reported practicing source reduction had lower numbers of pupae-positive containers and Culex pipiens-positive containers, but not Aedes albopictus-positive containers or water-holding containers, in their yards. When controlling for numbers of water-holding containers in statistical models, residents who reported source reduction had lower numbers of A. albopictus-positive containers in addition to numbers of pupae-positive containers and C. pipiens-positive containers. These results suggest that while active container reduction may be effective at reducing C. pipiens and overall pupal production, it may be offset by other resident activities that add containers to yards, and that source reduction that involves mosquito habitat management without outright container removal can also be effective at reducing A. albopictus. Source reduction was related to respondent knowledge of mosquitoes and, in particular, specific knowledge of mosquito development, which both varied with demographics alongside respondent motivation to control mosquitoes. Respondents from high socioeconomic status households reported greater knowledge but lower motivation than respondents from middle and low socioeconomic-status households. We conclude that mosquito-related education will help promote community-based container management as part of integrated mosquito management programs, particularly in middle and low socioeconomic status neighborhoods with lower knowledge and high motivation. PMID:23377982
Dowling, Zara; Armbruster, Peter; LaDeau, Shannon L; DeCotiis, Mark; Mottley, Jihana; Leisnham, Paul T
Full Text Available Studies that use the Iowa Gambling Task and its age-appropriate versions as indices of affective decision-making during childhood and adolescence have demonstrated significant individual differences in scores. Our study investigates the association between general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status and its effect on the development of affective decision-making in preschoolers by using a computerised version of the Children’s Gambling Task (CGT. We administered the CGT and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS to 137 Brazilian children between the ages of 3 and 5 years old to assess their general intellectual functioning. We also used the Brazilian Criterion of Economic Classification (CCEB to assess their socioeconomic status. Age differences between 3-and 4-year-olds, but not between 4-and 5-year-olds, confirmed the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo (2004, indicating the rapid development of affective decision-making during the preschool period. Both 4- and 5-year-olds performed significantly above chance on blocks 3, 4 and 5 of the CGT, whereas 3-year-olds’ mean scores did not differ from chance. We found that general reasoning ability was not related to affective decision-making. On the other hand, our findings showed that children with high socioeconomic status (SES performed better on the last block of the CGT in comparison to children with low SES. We also found that more children from the high SES group performed better in comparison to children from the low SES group, which indicates that children from the former group seem more likely to use the information about the gain/loss aspects of the decks to efficiently choose cards from the advantageous deck throughout the task.
The prospects for survival of children in low and middle income countries are linked to their families socio-economic status (SES), of which income is only one component. Developing a comprehensive measure of SES is required. Informed by clinical experience, a 15-item instrument was designed in Guatemala to categorize SES by five levels in each item. Almost 75% of families attending the Unidad Nacional de Oncología Pediátrica were in the lowest three of six categories, providing a framework for stratified financial and nutritional support. The measure of SES offers an opportunity for examining associations with health outcomes throughout Latin America. PMID:24753054
De Pernillo, M; Rivas, S; Fuentes, L; Antillon, F; Barr, R D
Objective: Excess direct medical costs of severe obesity are by far higher than of moderate obesity. At the same time, severely obese adults with low socioeconomic status (SES) may be expected to have higher excess costs than those with higher SES, e.g. due to more comorbidities. This study compares excess costs of severe obesity among German adults across different SES groups. Methods: In a subsample (N=947) of the KORA-Survey S4 1999/2001 (a cross-sectional health survey in the Augsburg reg...
Thomas von Lengerke; Jürgen John; Andreas Mielck; Kora, Study Group
OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general practice. METHODS: We enrolled 184 general practices and 5260 hypertensive patients. The general practitioners reported information about BP and diagnosis of diabetes. Information about education, income, antihypertensive drug treatment and other co-morbidity was retrieved from relevant registers from Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP
Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M
Objective: Excess direct medical costs of severe obesity are by far higher than of moderate obesity. At the same time, severely obese adults with low socioeconomic status (SES) may be expected to have higher excess costs than those with higher SES, e.g. due to more comorbidities. This study compares excess costs of severe obesity among German adults across different SES groups.Methods: In a subsample (N=947) of the KORA-Survey S4 1999/2001 (a cross-sectional health survey in the Augsburg re...
Von Lengerke, T.; John, J.; Mielck, A.; Kora, Study Group
This paper investigates the relationship between socio-economic status and emotional well-being of orphans in Mangaung, South Africa. Five hundred orphans aged 7-11 years participated in the cross-sectional study between 2009 and 2012. Data was collected by trained fieldworkers, who conducted face-to-face interviews and questionnaires with the orphans, their teachers and caregivers, and the heads of the households where the orphans resided. The caregivers, children and teachers all completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in order to measure the orphans' mental health, while heads of household provided information about socio-economic indicators. STATA version 12 was used to perform multivariate data analyses to identify socio-economic factors associated with the mental health of orphans. Food security, access to medical services and a male caregiver were factors associated with better emotional well-being of orphans, whereas other variables such as household asset index and monthly household expenditure were not linked with the orphans' mental health. Two of the three variables (food security and access to medical services) associated with better emotional well-being of orphans are also government interventions to assist orphans. Further research is needed to determine whether other government programs also impact the emotional well-being of orphans. PMID:24968757
Pappin, Michele; Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Motsaathebe
The impact of secondary prevention initiatives on survival in higher-risk socioeconomically disadvantaged patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may depend on behavioral adaptive responsiveness, uptake, and adherence to healthier lifestyles. From December 1999 to February 2003, 1,801 patients in Ontario, Canada were interviewed regarding their lifestyle behaviors at 30 days after their index AMI hospitalization. Data were obtained using self-reported surveys, medical chart abstraction, and administrative data linkage. Multivariate analyses were adjusted for baseline sociodemographic, cardiac risk severity, and co-morbid conditions. Socioeconomically disadvantaged patients had greater cardiac risk severity at baseline than did their wealthier better-educated counterparts. Compared with lower-income patients, patients with higher incomes were less likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for highest vs lowest income tertiles 0.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21 to 0.63, p <0.001), more likely to participate in exercise (adjusted OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.85, p = 0.02), and more likely to decrease or discontinue alcohol use (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.34, p = 0.06). The relation between education and lifestyle behaviors was less pronounced for education than for income. After adjustment for baseline factors, patients who acknowledged participation in regular physical exercise at 1 month had a significantly lower long-term mortality than those who did not. In conclusion, socioeconomically disadvantaged patients were sicker at baseline and less behaviorally responsive to embarking on healthy lifestyle changes after AMI than were those of higher socioeconomic status. PMID:19064009
Chan, Raymond H M; Gordon, Neil F; Chong, Alice; Alter, David A
There is limited research on participation context in studies of physical activity correlates during adolescence. Using an ecological approach, this study explored the association of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), weight status, and physical education enjoyment with participation in organized and unorganized physical activity contexts in a…
Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Ahmed, Rashid; Farnoush, Michelle
One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668
Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Disinfection by-products in drinking water are chemical contaminants that have been associated with cancer and other adverse effects. Exposure occurs from consumption of tap water, inhalation and dermal absorption. Methods We determined the relationship between socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in 1271 controls from a multicentric bladder cancer case-control study in Spain. Information on lifetime drinking water sources, swimming pool attendance, showering-bathing practices, and socioeconomic status (education, income was collected through personal interviews. Results The most highly educated subjects consumed less tap water (57% and more bottled water (33% than illiterate subjects (69% and 17% respectively, p-value = 0.003. These differences became wider in recent time periods. The time spent bathing or showering was positively correlated with attained educational level (p Conclusions The most highly educated subjects were less exposed to chlorination by-products through ingestion but more exposed through dermal contact and inhalation in pools and showers/baths. Health risk perceptions and economic capacity may affect patterns of water consumption that can result in differences in exposure to water contaminants.
Home food inventories of Oaxacan Mexican-American and African-American families of low-socioeconomic status living in an urban area in New Jersey with at least one child under the age of 12 were conducted using Universal Product Code scanning. The African-American and Oaxacan household food supplies were compared with a sample of White households, also with at least one child under the age of 12, not of low-socioeconomic status. Nutrient Adequacy Ratios for total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, sugar, dietary fiber, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron were used to quantify the adequacy of household food supplies per 2000 cal. The food supplies of the White households had significantly more calcium, vitamin A, and sugar and less total fat than the other two samples. The home food supplies of African-American households contained significantly less vitamin C than White and Oaxacan households. Compared to both other samples, Oaxacan household food supplies were lower in protein, sodium, and iron. Per 2000 cal, African-American households had the lowest supply of nutrients recommended to be maximized (i.e., vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron, protein, and dietary fiber) and highest supply of nutrients to be minimized (i.e., total fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar). Overall household food quality scores were lowest for the African-American sample with no differences between Oaxacan and White household food supply quality scores. PMID:20079787
Schefske, Scott D; Bellows, Anne C; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Cuite, Cara L; Rapport, Holly; Vivar, Teresa; Hallman, William K
Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans on the 29th of August 2005 and displaced virtually the entire population of the city. Soon after, observers predicted the city would become whiter and wealthier as a result of selective return migration, although challenges related to sampling and data collection in a post-disaster environment have hampered evaluation of these hypotheses. In this article, we investigate return to the city by displaced residents over a period of approximately 14 months following the storm, describing overall return rates and examining differences in return rates by race and socioeconomic status. We use unique data from a representative sample of pre-Katrina New Orleans residents collected in the Displaced New Orleans Residents Pilot Survey. We find that black residents returned to the city at a much slower pace than white residents even after controlling for socioeconomic status and demographic characteristics. However, the racial disparity disappears after controlling for housing damage. We conclude that blacks tended to live in areas that experienced greater flooding and hence suffered more severe housing damage which, in turn, led to their delayed return to the city. The full-scale survey of displaced residents being fielded in 2009-2010 will show whether the repopulation of the city was selective over a longer period. PMID:20440381
Fussell, Elizabeth; Sastry, Narayan; Vanlandingham, Mark
Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bully...
Jansen Pauline W; Verlinden Marina; Berkel Anke Dommisse-van; Mieloo Cathelijne; van der Ende Jan; Veenstra René; Verhulst Frank C; Jansen Wilma; Tiemeier Henning
Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting CSHCN's receiving needed specialty care among different socioeconomic levels. Previous literature has shown that Socioeconomic Status (SES) is a significant factor in CHSHCN receiving access to healthcare. Other literature has shown that factors of insurance, family size, race/ethnicity and sex also have effects on these children's receipt of care. However, this literature does not address whether ...
Bae Sejong; Fulda Kimberly G; Lykens Kristine A; Singh Karan P
Full Text Available This study carries out empirical researches among Mainland Chinese high school students to explore the impactof parent’s socioeconomic status on perceived parental pressure and test anxiety. The discoveries of the studyinclude: perceived parental pressure has significant impact on test anxiety; parents’ occupations, parents’ incomeand mother’s education have significant impact on perceived parental pressure; parents’ occupations, parents’income and mother’s education have significant impact on test anxiety. There are sufficient evidences to supportthe notion that the ethic stressing family glory and material success can be a major source of perceived parentalpressure and test anxiety in China. Another finding of the study is that there may exist a mediation relationshipamong parent’s socioeconomic status, perceived parental pressure, and test anxiety. By controlling perceivedparental pressure, the mediator variable, the impact of parent’s socioeconomic status on test anxiety can begreatly reduced.
"nBackground: To investigate the association between socio-economic status and obesity in non-menopause women aged 15-49 years in Tehran, Iran."nMethods: This study was based on Iran National Health Survey conducted in 1999. Obesity is defined as a Body Mass Index over ?30. Constructed area (per-person), educational level and job are considered as factors indicating the socioeconomic status. The results have been adjusted for age and mental health using univariate an...
Mohammad, K.; Golestan, B.; Majdzadeh, R.; Chaman, R.; Nedjat, S.; Karimloo, M.
South America exhibits some of the higher rates of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobactericeae worldwide. This continent includes 12 independent countries with huge socioeconomic differences, where the ample access to antimicrobials, including counterfeit ones, coexists with ineffective health systems and sanitation problems, favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant strains. This work presents a literature review concerning the evolution and current status of antimicrobial resistance threats found among Enterobacteriaceae in South America. Resistance to ?-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides was emphasized along with description of key epidemiological studies that highlight the success of specific resistance determinants in different parts of the continent. In addition, a discussion regarding political and socioeconomic factors possibly related to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains in clinical settings and at the community is presented. Finally, in order to assess the possible sources of resistant bacteria, we compile the current knowledge about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates in South American' food, food-producing animals and off-hospitals environments. By addressing that intensive intercontinental commerce and tourism neutralizes the protective effect of geographic barriers, we provide arguments reinforcing that globally integrated efforts are needed to decelerate the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains. PMID:24618111
Bonelli, Raquel Regina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Picão, Renata Cristina
Our objective was to examine the influence of adult and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) on attained adult food intake patterns. We used data from a 20- to 22-y follow-up study of 1904 Danish teenagers. The baseline survey was conducted partly in 1983 and partly in 1985 and the follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. Dietary data were collected at follow-up using a 195-item FFQ. Food patterns were derived from principal component analysis. Two food patterns labeled "traditional-western food pattern" and "green food pattern" were identified. In men, adult SES was inversely associated with adherence to the traditional-western food pattern. High adherence to the green food pattern was positively related to high adult SES in both sexes. Among women, those with high SES in childhood had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low childhood SES, regardless of adult SES. Among men, those with high adult SES had higher green food pattern factor scores than those with low adult SES, regardless of childhood SES. In conclusion, socioeconomic position is important for the development of adult food intake patterns. However, childhood SES seems more important for adult female food intake patterns, whereas adult SES seems more important for adult male food intake patterns.
Hare-Bruun, Helle; Togo, Per
Full Text Available The prevalence of HIV-related oral lesions may vary according to socioeconomic status and antiretroviral therapy, among other factors. This study's intent was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic indicators, CD4+ counts and HIV-related oral lesions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. A retrospective epidemiological analysis was performed of the medical records of HIV-positive patients that attended the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro between 1997 and 2004. Gender, age, mode of HIV transmission, level of education, monthly familial income, CD4+ counts and HIV-related oral lesions were assessed. For statistical analysis, the Chi-square test was used with a level of significance of 5%. 254 medical records were reviewed: 83 women and 171 men. Monthly familial income below 2 minimum wages was associated with a higher prevalence of pseudomembranous candidiasis (p = 0.024, while income above 10 minimum wages was associated with a higher prevalence of salivary gland disease (p = 0.021. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower CD4+ counts (p = 0.017. In this study, an association was noted between socioeconomic status, immune suppression and prevalence of oral lesions. However, further studies are warranted using other socioeconomic variables in order to better assess this relationship.
Cesar Werneck Noce
Little is known about racial differences in borderline personality disorder (BPD) that may influence etiology, phenomenology, and treatment of women with BPD. A total of 83 women with BPD participated in this cross-sectional study: n = 41 white and n = 42 African-American women. Structured interviews were used to assess Axis I and II disorders, and a series of interviews and questionnaires captured internalizing and externalizing symptoms. The white women with BPD reported more severe internalizing symptoms, whereas the African-American women reported more severe externalizing symptoms. Except for the association between race and number of suicide attempts, the relationship between race and internalizing/externalizing symptoms was mediated by socioeconomic status. In conclusion, African-American women with BPD may present with more severe symptoms of lack of anger control and fewer suicidal behaviors than those of white women with BPD, raising the possibility that they are misdiagnosed and receive treatments that are not optimal for BPD. PMID:24284636
De Genna, Natacha M; Feske, Ulrike
The inverse relation between socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has been posited to be partially due to exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to stress. Stress elicits hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation (e.g., increased cortisol secretion), which may contribute to subsequent blood pressure (BP) elevation. Univariate associations among SES, cortisol secretion, and aggregated change scores to stressors (i.e., video game and forehead cold) for systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were assessed in a sample of 24 African American males (M age = 18.8, +/- 2.7 years). Circadian variability of cortisol level was taken into account by partialling out collection time. Family SES was inversely related to initial cortisol level (partial r = -.46, p CVD via BP and cortisol reactivity to stress, but prospective studies are needed to clarify whether such is the case. PMID:12434943
Kapuku, Gaston L; Treiber, Frank A; Davis, Harry C
Full Text Available Background:The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Iranian aged 25-64 estimated to be about 7.7%.The aim of current study was the assessment of socioeconomic status of diabetic patients and their complications.Methods:A cross sectional study was conducted on type 2 diabetic patients with complications in four major teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS during July 2009 to March 2010. All patients (530 were interviewed through a questionnaire with 85% response rate (450 patients. Skilled nurses were assigned as responsible for data collection. Collected data analyzed by Exact Fisher and ?2 tests using SPSS version 11.5.Results: The majority of patients had experienced one or more complications. Findings revealed that 50%, 33.6% and 16.4% of the patients suffered from one, two, and three complications of type 2 diabetes, respectively. Patients with cardiovascular complications included 22.2%, with both cardiovascular and eye complications (12.7%, and with cardiovascular, eye and foot ulcer together 14% of the respondents. Frequency of complications demonstrated significant relation with sex,age,educational level,type of occupation, duration of diabetes (P<0.001 and social class (P=0.002.The majority of patients (54.2% belonged to low income group.Conclusion: It seems patients with low socioeconomic status face more challenges in their social environment together with less psychological support. Health care systems are responsible to empower them to control their illness and feel a better life to live.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Delayed motherhood is a common phenomenon in the developed world, where the age at frst delivery is around 30 years. In Chile the National Institute of Statistics established that this age has remained around 23 years for more than two decades. Motherhood postponement may be modulated by [...] socioeconomic status. Aim: To determine whether the age at frst delivery is higher in a private clinic compared to a public hospital. Patients and Methods: Two cohorts of primiparous women delivering in 1998 and 2008 in the public hospital San Borja Arriarán (HSBA) and a private setting Clínica Las Condes (CLC), were analyzed. Results: The age of all delivering women was significantly lower in HSBA than in CLC in both study periods (26.3 ± 0.8 and 25.7 ± 0.9 compared to 31.6 ± 0.1 and 32.7 ± 0.1 years, respectively). Likewise, the frequency of adolescent pregnancy was significantly higher in HSBA than CLC in both study periods (38.8 and 42.2% compared to 1.7 and 1.6% respectively). The age at frst delivery was significantly lower in both periods in HSBA (21.8 and 21.3 years compared to 28.6 and 30.6 years, respectively). Excluding primiparous women of less than 20 years, the difference in age was smaller, but remained still significant (24.6 and 24.2 versus 29.9 and 31.0 years, respectively). Conclusions: In Santiago, the postponement of motherhood is more marked among women of high socioeconomic status.
ARIEL, FUENTES; CRISTIAN, JESAM; LUIGI, DEVOTO; BLANCA, ANGARITA; ANDREA, GALLEGUILLOS; ANDREA, TORRES; ANTONIO, MACKENNA.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and diminished health status are common in adults with diabetes, but few studies have investigated associations with socio-economic environment. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the relationship between neighborhood-level SES and health status and depression. Methods Individual-level data on 1010 participants at baseline in Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes, a trial of long-term weight loss among adults with type 2 diabetes, were linked to neighborhood-level SES (% living below poverty from the 2000 US Census (tracts. Dependent variables included depression (Beck Inventory, and health status (Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36 scale. Multi-level regression models were used to account simultaneously for individual-level age, sex, race, education, personal yearly income and neighborhood-level SES. Results Overall, the % living in poverty in the participants' neighborhoods varied, mean = 11% (range 0-67%. Compared to their counterparts in the lowest tertile of neighborhood poverty (least poverty, those in the highest tertile (most poverty had significantly lower scores on the role-limitations(physical, role limitations(emotional, physical functioning, social functioning, mental health, and vitality sub-scales of the SF-36 scale. When evaluating SF-36 composite scores, those living in neighborhoods with more poverty had significantly lower scores on the physical health (?-coefficient [?] = -1.90 units, 95% CI: -3.40,-0.039, mental health (? = -2.92 units, -4.31,-1.53 and global health (? = -2.77 units, -4.21,-1.33 composite scores. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, lower neighborhood SES was significantly associated with poorer health status. Whether these associations might influence response to the Look AHEAD weight loss intervention requires further investigation.
Pi-Sunyer F Xavier
The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms…
Simpkins, Sandra D.; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Price, Chara D.; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth
This article investigates the role that parental socioeconomic status plays in forming the racial gap in home computer use among young school-age children. Descriptive statistics from time diary data of 6- to 11-year-olds in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Child Development Supplement, reveal that Black American children spend substantially…
Ono, Hiromi; Tsai, Hsin-Jen
The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…
Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and family structure with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A total of 1782 15-year-old Belgrade schoolchildren (47.5% boys and 52.5% girls) completed a questionnaire from the WHO study, "Health behavior of schoolchildren." Results:…
Vukovic, Dejana S.; Bjegovic, Vesna M.
This study carries out empirical researches among Mainland Chinese high school students to explore the impactof parent’s socioeconomic status on perceived parental pressure and test anxiety. The discoveries of the studyinclude: perceived parental pressure has significant impact on test anxiety; parents’ occupations, parents’ incomeand mother’s education have significant impact on perceived parental pressure; parents’ occupations, parents’income and mothe...
The study examined the effects of gender, socio-economic status and school location, on Nigerian students performance in Integrated Science. The method used for the study was a three variable analysis of variance experimental design consisting of three independent variables at two levels each and one dependent variable. Six hundred junior…
Okoye, N. S.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between age, ethnic group, socioeconomic status, and sex, and the development of an awareness of the social and racial significance of language dialects. Eighty children from first and fifth grades served as subjects. The subjects were presented with four tasks: (1) a discrimination task of…
Knapp, Margaret O.
Purpose: The effect of a morphological awareness intervention on the morphological awareness and literacy skills of students from low socioeconomic status homes was investigated. Method: A 9-week intervention designed to increase awareness of affixes and the relations between base words and their inflected and derived forms was conducted with…
Apel, Kenn; Brimo, Danielle; Diehm, Emily; Apel, Lynda
Research Findings: Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort, this study investigates whether socioeconomic status (SES) moderates the association between center-based early childhood education (ECE) and English proficiency at kindergarten entry for 1st- and 2nd-generation Hispanic…
Bumgarner, Erin; Lin, Meiko
This report presents data showing that the socioeconomic status of Mexican immigrants in the United States fell sharply behind that of the total native-born population during the 1980s and also declined relative to that of Mexican Americans. Data from the 1980 and 1990 censuses demonstrate that during the 1980s, the earnings and per capita income…
Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L.
This exploratory qualitative study investigates the effects of socio-economic status on parental involvement in public primary schools in Turkey. The study aims to examine how teachers in these schools present the scope of current parental involvement, to what factors teachers ascribe the barriers to parental involvement, and whether…
Bellibas, Mehmet Sukru; Gumus, Sedat
This study examined the socioeconomic status (SES), collegiate involvement, and social consciousness of low-income college students (LICSs) and higher-income college students (HICSs) in Taiwan. The study analyzed 1,453 LICSs and 1,453 HICSs from 156 colleges in Taiwan. The results showed that the two student groups exhibited different SESs and…
Abstract Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices) and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity) cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES districts in Istanbul. Participants 510 random...
Keskin Yasar; Sur Haydar; Kocaoglu Bike; Moschonis George; Dimitriou Maria; Manios Yannis; Hayran Osman
Full Text Available Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.
The aim of this study was to estimate the contributions of ethnic group and socioeconomic status as social determinants related to disability and disease activity in Chilean Mapuche and non-Mapuche patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Descriptive cross-sectional study with a stratified hospital-based sample of 189 patients in treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. We assessed disability as categorical variable with the Health Assessment Questionnaire, disease activity with the Disease Activity Score instrument, and socioeconomic status with a standard questionnaire used by the Chilean government. Measures of association, stratified analyses and a multiple logistic regression model were used to analyze the data using the Stata 12.1 software package. Low socioeconomic status (annual income below US$ 7,200) is associated with disability (OR 3.87 CI 1.68-9.20) and Mapuche ethnic identity also contributes to disability (OR 2.48, CI 1.09-5.89). Relevant but not statistically significant in multivariable models were variables such as age, gender and place of residence. RA patients with a low socioeconomic status have almost three times the odds of having a moderate to high disability, independent of their ethnic group, gender or place of residence. Therefore, healthcare efforts should be aimed at promoting early diagnosis and prompt treatment among populations with high levels of poverty, which in the region of the Araucanía means primarily indigenous rural areas. PMID:25178741
Alarcón, Ana M; Muñoz, Sergio; Kaufman, Jay S; Martínez, Carlos; Riedemann, Pablo; Kaliski, Sonia
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual socioeconomic status (SES has been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases in developed countries, but the association between individual SES and metabolic syndrome (MetS is still unclear in China. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between individual SES and MetS in China. Methods A cross-sectional study of 10054 community residents was performed from May to August 2007 using multistage stratified random sampling. SES was assessed in terms of education, personal monthly income, and household monthly income. The association between SES and MetS was determined by logistic regression models. Results After the adjustments regarding age, marital status, smoking, drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, and community type, odds ratios (ORs for MetS of individuals with education level of 7~12 years and >12 years were 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75 to 0.99 and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.62 to 0.91 respectively compared with those with education level of Conclusions Gender had an influence on the association between individual SES and MetS. Lower education and household monthly income level were associated with higher risk of MetS among community residents in women, while such association was not significant in men.
We investigated prospectively the risk of lung cancer in relation to socio-economic status (SES) in 22,387 middle-aged individuals who attended a screening program in the city of Malmö, Sweden between 1974 and 1992. We also examined the relationship between SES and histologic subtype in smokers. By 2003, a total of 550 lung cancer cases had been identified. Relative risks (RR) were calculated with adjustment for age, current smoking, inhalation habits and marital status at baseline in the low SES group compared to high SES group. Among smokers, the RR (95% confidence interval (CI)) for lung cancer in the low SES group of men was 1.39 (1.11-1.73), and women 1.56 (1.04-2.34). Also among smokers, low SES was associated with an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma in men; RR 1.89 (1.16-2.81) and women; RR 7.10 (1.63-30.86), and with an increased risk of mesothelioma in men RR 9.97 (1.29-76.96). We conclude that low SES groups run an increased risk of lung cancer despite accounting for smoking habits. Furthermore, low SES was positively associated with squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma. Our results suggest that the association between low SES and lung cancer could be mediated by unaccounted for smoking exposure, lifestyle or occupational hazards. PMID:16337709
Ekberg-Aronsson, Marie; Nilsson, Peter M; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Pehrsson, Kerstin; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this population-based longitudinal study was to examine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and anti-asthmatic treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) among young Danish adult asthmatics, and to investigate whether these associations were consistent over time. METHODS: We extracted data on prescription drug use, education, and income in 97 665 users of anti-asthmatic drugs, aged 18-44 years, identified in Statistics Denmark during 1997-2005. Individual information on education and income was used as measures of SES. Education was categorised into basic school/high school, vocational training, and higher education, and income was categorised into low, middle, and high income. Associations between ICS use and SES were estimated by logistic regression models. RESULTS: High levels of education and income were independently associated with ICS use, education demonstrating the strongest association. Using basic school/high school and low income as baselines, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ICS use for higher education were 1.46 (95% CI 1.40-1.51) and 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.14) for high income. Higher education was a nearly constant factor associated with ICS use throughout the observation period, but high income did not demonstrate any association before 2001 with increasing ORs observed each year hereafter. All associations became more pronounced when restricting to 35-44 year-olds. CONCLUSION: High levels of SES were positively associated with ICS use in young adult asthmatics. To encourage ICS use, special attention should be paid to asthmatics with low educational level and low income. Further studies are needed to elucidate underlying mechanisms for this socioeconomic inequality.
Davidsen, Jesper RØmhild; SØndergaard, Jens
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) and stimulation provided in the home environment are influential factors in aspects of child well-being including motor development. Little is known regarding the influence of SES on specific aspects of the home environment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ava [...] ilability of affordances in the home to promote infant motor development and family SES. METHOD : The sample consisted of 300 families with infants aged 3 to 18 months. SES was assessed according to family socioeconomic class, income and parental level of education. To evaluate motor affordances found at home, the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS) was used. The AHEMD-IS was designed to assess dimensions of the home environment including Physical Space (outside and inside space), Daily Activities and Play Materials (fine-motor and gross-motor toys). RESULTS: SES indicators significantly influenced the availability of Physical Space and Play Materials. The Physical Space dimension was influenced by family economic class and income. The Play Materials dimension was influenced by all SES indicators. Daily Activities were not influenced by any of the SES indicators. Daily activities and play material were influenced by the infant's age. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that SES indicators are influential with regard to the provision of motor affordances in the home environment for infants. However, daily activities, which represent an aspect of the environment that is highly dependent on parental generation of situations that are conducive to motor skill development, are independent of family SES.
Teresa C. B., Freitas; Carl, Gabbard; Priscila, Caçola; Maria I. L., Montebelo; Denise C. C., Santos.
Full Text Available Objective: To compare sub-optimal birth weight (2,500 to 2,999 g term newborns to appropriate for gestational age (birth weight ? 3,000 g term newborns, regarding maternal data and newborn morbidity and mortality. Methods: Single term newborns, appropriate for gestational age from a high socioeconomic population (n = 1,242 with birth weight ranging from 2,500 to 2,999 g (Group I were compared to 4,907 newborns with birth weight ? than 3,000 g (Group II. Maternal and newborn characteristics were compared between the groups. The Mann-Whitney test, ?2 test and multivariate analysis were used. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Rresults: The frequency of sub-optimal birth weight newborns in the population studied was 20.2%. There was a significant association between sub-optimal birth weight and maternal weight before pregnancy and body mass index, maternal weight gain, height, smoking habit and hypertension. Newborns’ 1-minute Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia and hospital stay were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05. A significant relationship could not be established with the 5-minute Apgar score and pulmonary hypertension in both groups. Neonatal mortality did not differ between the groups. Cconclusions: Socioeconomic status was not a risk factor for sub-optimal birth weight in the studied population. Genetic and environmental factors were associated to sub-optimal weight and neonatal diseases. According to these data, this group of newborns should receive special attention from the health team.
Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the Prosthetic status and prosthetic needs in relation to socio-economic among the Municipal employees of Mysore city. Settings and Design: The study was cross sectional and conducted on the employees of Reader1 Mysore City Corporation. Materials and methods: All the available employees (1187 of Mysore city Corporation during the study period were considered for the study. WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997 and a preformed questionnaire were used to collect the required data. Modified Kuppuswamy scale with readjustment of the per capita income was used for classifying the individuals into different Socioeconomic status (SES categories. Data was collected by a single, trained and calibrated examiner (dentist using mouth mirror and CPI probe under natural day light. Data analysis was done using SPSS windows version 10. Comparison of the prosthetic status and needs between different SES categories was done using cross tabs and contingency co-efficient. Results: 6.1% of the subjects in the study had prosthesis of some kind. Prosthesis of some kind was present in 24.7% of the subjects in the upper middle SES category and none of the subjects in the lower SES category had prosthesis. The prosthetic need in the study population was 45.7%. About 67.9% of the subjects in the lower SES category needed prosthesis of some kind. The prosthetic need was 52.9% in the upper lower and 6% in the upper SES category. Conclusion: The study found a direct relationship between socio-economic status and prosthetic status and inverse relation between socio-economic status and prosthetic need.
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado que, niveles desfavorables de lípidos séricos en la infancia son predictores del desarrollo de lesiones en la adultez. Se evaluó el perfil lipídico de 297 preescolares venezolanos (4-7 años) para establecer comparaciones según el nivel socioeconómico (NSE), me [...] dido por Graffar modificado. Se hicieron dos grupos: NSE alto (n=103) y NSE bajo (n=194). El estado nutricional antropométrico se evaluó mediante el indicador peso/talla (P/T), adoptando los puntos de corte del NCHS/OMS. El perfil lipídico se determinó por métodos bioquímicos colorimétricos y se calcularon las relaciones de riesgo aterogénico. Según el estado nutricional se encontró 5,8% y 14,9% de déficit; 78,6% y 70,1% de normalidad; 15,5% y 14,9% de exceso en el NSE alto y el NSE bajo, respectivamente. Los valores promedio del perfil lipídico fueron: Triglicéridos (TG): 0,66± 0,27 y 0,76± 0,31 mmol/L, Colesterol Total (CT): 3,61± 0,65 y 2,98± 0,71 mmol/L, HDL-C: 1,04± 0,18 y 0,62± 0,16 mmol/L, LDL-C: 2,27± 0,61 y 2,01± 0,71 mmol/L, CT/HDL-C: 3,5± 0,78 y 5,0± 1,5. LDL-C/HDL-C: 2,0± 0,71 y 3,4± 1,4; con diferencias significativas entre los grupos en NSE alto y bajo, respectivamente. Se encontró asociación significativa (p Abstract in english Epidemiological studies have shown that unfavorable serum lipids levels in childhood are predictors of development of atherosclerosis lesions in adulthood. We assessed the lipid profile of 297 Venezuelan preschool children (4-7 years old) from two socioeconomic levels in order to compare them by thi [...] s characteristic. Their social level was determined according to modified Graffar method, and two groups were obtained: high socioeconomic status (HSES, n=103) and low socioeconomic status (LSES, n=194). Nutritional anthropometric evaluation was performed by weight to height, and NCHS/OMS cut-off point was used. Lipid profile was determined by colorimetric biochemical methods and atherogenic risks factors were calculated. Underweight for HSES was 5.8% and for LSES: 14.9%, while normal status was 78.6% and 70.1%, and overweight was 15.5% and 14.9%, respectively. Mean values for triglycerides were 0.66± 0.27and 0.76± 0.31 mmol/L, total cholesterol (TC): 3.61± 0.65 and 2.98± 0.71 mmol/L, HDL-C: 1.04± 0.18 and 0.62± 0.16 mmol/L, LDL-C: 2.27± 0.61 and 2.01± 0.71 mmol/L, TC/HDL-C: 3.5± 0.78 and 5.0± 1.5; LDL-C/HDL-C: 2.0± 0.71 and 3.4± 1.4 with significant differences between HSES and LSES as shown respectively. A significant association was found (p
Emma, Velásquez; María Adela, Barón; Liseti, Solano; María, Páez; Daisy, Llovera; Zulay, Portillo.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Food insecurity implies a limited ability to secure adequate and safe food or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways.The nutrition transition in Iran is taking place in the context of rapid demographic change and urbanization in spite of underweight, obesity and overweight increased, especially among women. It is usually expected that food-insecure people have an inadequate food intake, less body fat, and body weight. However, several studies in developed countries have shown a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among food-insecure household members, especially women. Under weight and overweight or obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in the developed countries and is assuming to become a serious health problem in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the association between food insecurity and socio-economic factors in households and body mass index among urban women in Dezful in 2008.Materials and Methods: A total of 400 household were randomly selected by two stage sampling from different areas in Dezful. Heights and weights of all women were measured based on standard protocols, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. BMI status was defined based on cut-off values recommended by NIH( under weight = BMI<18.5, normal weight 18.5< BMI< 25, overweight 25?BMI<30 and obesity BMI?30"nWomen provided detailed demographic and food insecurity information via a face- to- face interview. Information on food insecurity was collected using the instrument originally developed by USDA. All analysis was conducted using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The prevalence of household food insecurity was %37.6 and 42.8% of the women were overweight, and 12% obese, respectively. Results showed that, BMI was positively associated with food insecurity, womens age and family size and inversely associated with , race and economic status (p <0.05.Conclusion: It is evident that household food insecurity, overweight and obesity coexist in Dezful. Women age, family size, race and economic status were recognized as associated factors with food insecurity but other factors didnt show significant relationship. There is lack of published information regarding food insecurity and some factors affecting with body weight status; therefore, it is necessary to perform such studies in other regions too.
A R Dorosty
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers are at high risk of obesity, yet the aetiology of obesity in this group remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the perceived personal, social and physical environmental factors associated with resilience to obesity among mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Survey data were provided by a cohort of 1840 women aged 18-46 years with dependent children (aged 0-18 years from 40 urban and 40 rural socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods across Victoria, Australia. Mothers responded to a number of questions relating to personal, social and environmental influences on their physical activity and eating habits. Mothers' weight status was classified as healthy weight (BMI: 18.5-24.99, overweight (BMI: 25-29.99 or obese (BMI: 30+. Results Mothers' weight status was bivariably associated with factors from all three domains (personal, social and physical environmental. In a multivariable model, mothers' perceived ability to make time for healthy eating (OR = 1.34 and physical activity (OR = 1.11 despite family commitments, and the frequency with which families ate healthy low-fat foods with mothers (OR = 1.28 remained significantly positively associated with healthy weight status. The frequency with which families encouraged eating healthy low-fat foods remained negatively associated (OR = 0.81 with weight status; ie greater encouragement was associated with less healthy weight status. Conclusions Drawing on the characteristics of mothers resilient to obesity might assist in developing intervention strategies to help other mothers in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods to manage their weight. Such strategies might focus on planning for and prioritising time for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and including family members in and encouraging family mealtimes.
The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development. PMID:15083654
DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive
The goals of this study were to (i) determine how factors commonly implicated in smoking cessation processes influenced smoking cessation in low socio-economic status (SES) women and (ii) elucidate the pathways through which these factors may lead to quitting smoking. Secondary analysis was conducted on data from 644 women smokers aged 18-45 years who had participated in an earlier experimental evaluation of a smoking cessation program, were still smokers at the 2-month post-intervention survey and completed an interview 6 months later. Path analysis (LISREL 8) was used to test a conceptual model in which (i) factors considered as precursors to quitting (motivation, self-efficacy, confidence, action and intention to quit) directly predicted subsequent quitting and (ii) health concerns, social pressure to quit and daily stress influenced quitting indirectly through their effects on the precursor factors and (iii) mediated the effects of background characteristics (race, education, single motherhood, pregnancy and exposure to the earlier smoking cessation intervention) on quitting. Overall, results supported this conceptual model and its applicability to low-SES women smokers and indicated significant pathways among specific factors. In particular, (i) only plans to quit, confidence and social pressure to quit directly predicted quitting; (ii) both health concerns and social pressure increased motivation to quit and (iii) the negative effect of daily stress on quitting was mediated through decreased self-efficacy. PMID:17182971
Manfredi, Clara; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen S; Dolecek, Therese A
Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014. Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.
Subhash Singh Parihar
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.
The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding. PMID:21073770
Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas
Young blacks receiving dialysis have an increased risk of death compared with whites in the United States. Factors influencing this disparity among the young adult dialysis population have not been well explored. Our study examined the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and racial differences in mortality in United States young adults receiving dialysis. We merged US Renal Data System patient-level data from 11,027 black and white patients ages 18-30 years old initiating dialysis between 2006 and 2009 with US Census data to obtain neighborhood poverty information for each patient. We defined low SES neighborhoods as those neighborhoods in U.S. Census zip codes with ?20% of residents living below the federal poverty level and quantified race differences in mortality risk by level of neighborhood SES. Among patients residing in low SES neighborhoods, blacks had greater mortality than whites after adjusting for baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, rurality, and access to care factors. This difference in mortality between blacks and whites was significantly attenuated in higher SES neighborhoods. In the United States, survival between young adult blacks and whites receiving dialysis differs by neighborhood SES. Additional studies are needed to identify modifiable factors contributing to the greater mortality among young adult black dialysis patients residing in low SES neighborhoods. PMID:24925723
Johns, Tanya S; Estrella, Michelle M; Crews, Deidra C; Appel, Lawrence J; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Ephraim, Patti L; Cook, Courtney; Boulware, L Ebony
Previous studies show that diet quality varies by socioeconomic gradient. We compared the influence of individual- and area-level socioeconomic characteristics on food choice behavior and dietary nutrient intakes in a cross-sectional survey. Daily nutrient intakes were calculated from a food frequency questionnaire. Participants comprised 4007 people (1915 men, 2092 women) aged 35 to 74 years. Socioeconomic measures included the area-based deprivation NZDep2001, gross household income, educat...
Metcalf, Patricia A.; Scragg, Robert R. K.; Jackson, Rod T.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social relations have repeatedly been found to be an important determinant of health. However, it is unclear whether the association between social relations and health is consistent throughout different status groups. It is likely that health effects of social relations vary in different status groups, as stated in the hypothesis of differential vulnerability. In this analysis we explore whether socioeconomic status (SES moderates the association between social relations and health. Methods In the baseline examination of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, conducted in a dense populated Western German region (N = 4,814, response rate 56%, SES was measured by income and education. Social relations were classified by using both structural as well as functional measures. The Social Integration Index was used as a structural measure, whilst functional aspects were assessed by emotional and instrumental support. Health was indicated by self-rated health (1 item and a short version of the CES-D scale measuring the frequency of depressive symptoms. Based on logistic regression models we calculated the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI which indicates existing moderator effects. Results Our findings show highest odds ratios (ORs for both poor self-rated health and more frequent depressive symptoms when respondents have a low SES as well as inappropriate social relations. For example, respondents with low income and a low level of social integration have an OR for a high depression score of 2.85 (95% CI 2.32-4.49, compared to an OR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.12-1.86 amongst those with a low income but a high level of social integration and an OR of 1.72 (95% CI 1.45-2.03 amongst respondents with high income but a low level of social integration. As reference group those reporting high income and a high level of social integration were used. Conclusions The analyses indicate that the association of social relations and subjective health differs across SES groups as we find moderating effects of SES. However, results are inconsistent as nearly all RERI scores are positive but do not reach a significant level. Also moderating effects vary between women and men and depending on the indicators of SES and social relations used. Thus, the hypothesis of differential vulnerability can only partially be supported. In terms of practical implications, psychosocial and health interventions aiming towards the enhancement of social relations should especially consider the situation of the socially deprived.
Background: Nepal is a developing country. Lack of sustainability of water supply and sanitation services are always considered as major issue in developing countries that accounts for high prevalence of waterborne diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, typhoid, and jaundice. In addition, socioeconomic status such as; education, income and occupation are also the bottle-necks in developing countries, like Nepal, which might be the other potential influential factors associated with p...
This research investigates the merits of the “social causation” and “health selection” explanations for associations between socioeconomic status and self-reported overall health, musculoskeletal health and depression. Using data that include information about individuals’ SES and health from childhood through late adulthood, I employ structural equation models that account for errors in measured variables and that allow for explicit tests of various hypotheses about how SES and hea...
Warren, John Robert
The paper attempts to study the socio-economic status and levels of living of different types of labour’ households in Prakasam district. A multi stage random sampling method is used to select 150 labour households. For the study Prakasam district is selected purposively on the basis of highest percentage of households depended on non- farm activities. Three villages are selected from the three revenue divisions on the above criteria. A proportionate sampling technique ...
Kishore Babu Karri; Veronica, G. K. S.
The authors examined the associations of social support with socioeconomic status (SES) and with mortality, as well as how SES differences in social support might account for SES differences in mortality. Analyses were based on 9,333 participants from the British Whitehall II Study cohort, a longitudinal cohort established in 1985 among London-based civil servants who were 35-55 years of age at baseline. SES was assessed using participant's employment grades at baseline. Social support was as...
Stringhini, Silvia; Berkman, Lisa; Dugravot, Aline; Ferrie, Jane; Marmot, Michael; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-manoux, Archana
Aim: To study the socio-economic status, horse feeding and management adopted by horse owners of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: Primary data was collected through specially structured proforma by personal interview method from the horse owners of Hanumangarh (50), Churu (42), Jhunjhunu (30) and Jalore (40) districts of Rajasthan, India. Results: The district (Churu and Jhunjhunu) is mostly rain fed, Hanumangarh is canal-irrigated whereas Jalore is tube well irrigated. Majority of responden...
Bala, P. A.; Dedar, R. K.; Legha, R. A.; Yash Pal
Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES) on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7–12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by ...
Hongxiang Guo; Wenjie Yang; Ying Cao; Jian Li,; Johannes Siegrist
Objective: To assess the Prosthetic status and prosthetic needs in relation to socio-economic among the Municipal employees of Mysore city. Settings and Design: The study was cross sectional and conducted on the employees of Reader1 Mysore City Corporation. Materials and methods: All the available employees (1187) of Mysore city Corporation during the study period were considered for the study. WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997) and a preformed questionnaire were used to collect the requi...
Background . Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES) and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design . For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods . With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alas...
Dilley, Julia A.; Erin Peterson; Matthew Bobo; Pickle, Kathryn E.; Kristen Rohde
Direct and indirect precursors to parents' harsh discipline responses to hypothetical vignettes about child misbehavior were studied with data from 978 parents (59% mothers; 82% European American and 16% African American) of 585 kindergarten-aged children. SEM analyses showed that parents' beliefs about spanking and child aggression and family stress mediated a negative relation between socioeconomic status and discipline. In turn, perception of the child and cognitive–emotional processes (...
Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Zelli, Arnaldo; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.
This study examines the potential racial disparity in postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms among a cohort of non-Hispanic white and African American women after taking into consideration the influence of socioeconomic status (SES). Participants (N = 299) were recruited from maternity clinics serving rural counties, with over-sampling of low SES and African Americans. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was administered 1 and 6 months postpartum, and subjective SES scale at 6 month...
Dolbier, Christyn L.; Rush, Taylor E.; Sahadeo, Latoya S.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Thorp, John
Dunn RA, Sharkey JR, Lotade-Manje J, Bouhlal Y, Nayga RM Jr. Socio-economic status, racial composition and the affordability of fresh fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods of a large rural region in Texas.
Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate how distance to hospital and socioeconomic status (SES) influence the use of secondary health care (SHC) when taking comorbidity into account. Design and setting. A register-based study in Östergötland County. Subjects. The adult population of Östergötland County. Main outcome measures. Odds of SHC use in the population and rates of SHC use by patients were studied after taking into account comorbidity level assigned using the Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) Case-Mix System. The baseline for analysis of SES was individuals with the lowest education level (level 1) and the lowest income (1st quartile). Results. The study showed both positive and negative association between SES and use of SHC. The risk of incurring SHC costs was 12% higher for individuals with education level 1. Individuals with income in the 2nd quartile had a 4% higher risk of incurring SHC costs but a 17% lower risk of emergency department visits. Individuals with income in the 4th quartilehad 9% lower risk of hospitalization. The risk of using SHC services for the population was not associated with distance to hospital. Patients living over 40 km from hospital and patients with higher SES had lower use of SHC services. Conclusions. It was found that distance to hospital and SES influence SHC use after adjusting for comorbidity level, age, and gender. These results suggest that GPs and health care managers should pay a higher degree of attention to this when planning primary care services in order to minimize the potentially redundant use of SHC.
Zielinski, Andrzej; Borgquist, Lars
This study examined whether the distribution of tobacco use and related psychosocial risk factors among youth in urban India vary by socioeconomic status (SES). Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of students enrolled in the 6th and 8th grades in 32 schools in Delhi and Chennai (N = 11,642). The survey was conducted in 2004, before the implementation of a program designed to prevent and reduce tobacco use (MYTRI). Mixed-effect regression models were used (a) to determine the prevalence of tobacco use among private (higher SES) and government (lower SES) school students, (b) to investigate whether certain psychosocial factors were associated with increased tobacco use, and (c) to determine how these factors varied by school type. Ever-use of multiple forms of tobacco (e.g., gutkha, bidis, and cigarettes) was more prevalent among government school students than private school students. After adjusting for city, gender, grade, and age, we found the prevalence rate for ever-use of any tobacco product to be 18.9% for government school students, compared with 12.2% for private school students (pself-efficacy, and reasons not to use tobacco. Social susceptibility to chewing tobacco and social susceptibility to smoking were strong correlates of current tobacco use among government school students. Exposure to tobacco advertising was also a strong correlate of current tobacco use for government school students but not private school students. In two large cities of India, students attending government schools are using many forms of tobacco at higher rates than private school students. The psychosocial risk profile of government school students suggests they are more vulnerable to initiation and use and to outside influences that encourage use. PMID:18188751
Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa H; Perry, Cheryl L; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K Srinath
Background/objectives:Children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. We described country-specific dietary patterns among children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS study and assessed the association of dietary patterns with an additive SES indicator.Subjects/Methods:Children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Principal component analysis was applied to identify dietary country-specific patterns. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess their association with SES. Results:Two to four dietary patterns were identified in the participating regions. The existence of a 'processed' pattern was found in the eight regions. Also, a 'healthy' pattern was identified in seven of the eight regions. In addition, region-specific patterns were identified, reflecting the existing gastronomic and cultural differences in Europe. The 'processed' pattern was significantly inversely associated with theSES additive indicator in all countries except Sweden, whereas the 'healthy' pattern was positively associated with SES in the Belgian, Estonian, German and Hungarian regions, but was not significant in the Italian, Spanish and Swedish regions.Conclusions:A 'processed' pattern and a 'healthy' pattern were found in most of the participating countries in the IDEFICS study, with comparable food item profiles. The results showed a strong inverse association of SES with the 'processed' pattern, suggesting that children of parents with lower SES may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. Therefore, special focus should be given to parents and their children from lower SES levels when developing healthy eating promotion strategies
Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin
Factors resulting in high risk for cardiovascular disease have been well studied in high income countries, but have been less well researched in low/middle income countries. This is despite robust theoretical evidence of environmental transitions in such countries which could result in biological adaptations that lead to increased hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk. Data from the South African Birth to Twenty cohort, Bone Health sub-sample (n = 358, 47% female), were used to model associations between household socioeconomic status (SES) in infancy, household/neighbourhood SES at age 16 years, and systolic blood pressure (multivariate linear regression) and risk for systolic pre-hypertension (binary logistic regression). Bivariate analyses revealed household/neighbourhood SES measures that were significantly associated with increased systolic blood pressure. These significant associations included improved household sanitation in infancy/16 years, caregiver owning the house in infancy and being in a higher tertile (higher SES) of indices measuring school problems/environment or neighbourhood services/problems/crime at 16 years of age. Multivariate analyses adjusted for sex, maternal age, birth weight, parity, smoking, term birth, height/body mass index at 16 years. In adjusted analyses, only one SES variable remained significant for females: those in the middle tertile of the crime prevention index had higher systolic blood pressure (? = 3.52, SE = 1.61) compared with the highest tertile (i.e. those with the highest crime prevention). In adjusted analyses, no SES variables were significantly associated with the systolic blood pressure of boys, or with the risk of systolic pre-hypertension in either sex. The lack of association between SES and systolic blood pressure/systolic pre-hypertension at age 16 years is consistent with other studies showing an equalization of adolescent health inequalities. Further testing of the association between SES and systolic blood pressure would be recommended in adulthood to see whether the lack of association persists. PMID:22490826
Griffiths, Paula L; Sheppard, Zoë A; Johnson, William; Cameron, Noël; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A
Full Text Available Abstract Background As longevity increases, cases of myocardial infarction (MI are likely to be more. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a major global health problem reaching epidemic proportions in the Indian subcontinent, also among low socio-economic status (SES and thin individuals. Objectives The present study was undertaken to elicit risk factors for MI among low SES Southern Indians and to find out its association with body mass index (BMI. Materials and methods A case-control study of patients with MI matched against healthy control subjects was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Standard methods were followed to elicit risk factors and BMI. Chi-square and Fishers exact test for categorical versus categorical, to show relationship with risk factors were analyzed. Results A total of 949 patients (male (M = 692 and post menopausal female (F = 257 and 611 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. In our study, BMI was below 23 in 48.2% of patients and below 21 in 22.5%. The risk of developing MI was significantly more in males (odds ratio (OR = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (C.I. = 2.69-4.13, among females with post-menopausal duration (PMD of more than or equal to 3 years (OR = 9.27, 95% C.I. = 6.36-13.50 and in those with BMI less than 23 with one or other risk factors (P = 0.002, OR = 1.38, 95% C.I. = 1.13-1.70. Conclusion BMI cannot be considered as a lone independent risk factor, as the study population had low BMI but had one or more modifiable risk factors. It would be advisable to keep BMI at least 21 kg/m2 for screening program. Health education on life style modification and programs to diagnose and control diabetes and hypertension have to be initiated at community level in order to reduce the occurrence.
Full Text Available When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009 that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provides preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child’s name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms, but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams. Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child’s name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children’s early literacy skills and school readiness.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies compared the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parents' reports on family socioeconomic status (SES. However, none of these studies analyzed whether the degree of concordance varies by different levels of household financial stress. This research examines whether the degree of concordance between adolescents' and parent reports for the three traditional SES measures (parental education, parental occupation and household income varied with parent-reported household financial stress and relative standard of living. Methods 2,593 adolescents with a mean age of 13 years, and one of their corresponding parents from the Taiwan Longitudinal Youth Project conducted in 2000 were analyzed. Consistency of adolescents' and parents' reports on parental educational attainment, parental occupation and household income were examined by parent-reported household financial stress and relative standard of living. Results Parent-reported SES variables are closely associated with family financial stress. For all levels of household financial stress, the degree of concordance between adolescent's and parent's reports are highest for parental education (? ranging from 0.87 to 0.71 followed by parental occupation (? ranging from 0.50 to 0.34 and household income (? ranging from 0.43 to 0.31. Concordance for father's education and parental occupation decreases with higher parent-reported financial stress. This phenomenon was less significant for parent-reported relative standard of living. Conclusions Though the agreement between adolescents' and parents' reports on the three SES measures is generally judged to be good in most cases, using adolescents reports for family SES may still be biased if analysis is not stratified by family financial stress.
Studies that use the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and its age-appropriate versions as indices of affective decision-making during childhood and adolescence have demonstrated significant individual differences in scores. Our study investigated the association between general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status (SES) and its effect on the development of affective decision-making in preschoolers by using a computerized version of the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). We administered the CGT and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS) to 137 Brazilian children between the ages of 3 and 5 years old to assess their general intellectual functioning. We also used the Brazilian Criterion of Economic Classification (CCEB) to assess their SES. Age differences between 3- and 4-years-old, but not between 4- and 5-years-old, confirmed the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo (2004), indicating the rapid development of affective decision-making during the preschool period. Both 4- and 5-years-old performed significantly above chance on blocks 3, 4, and 5 of the CGT, whereas 3-years-old mean scores did not differ from chance. We found that general intellectual functioning was not related to affective decision-making. On the other hand, our findings showed that children with high SES performed better on the last block of the CGT in comparison to children with low SES, which indicates that children from the former group seem more likely to use the information about the gain/loss aspects of the decks to efficiently choose cards from the advantageous deck throughout the task. PMID:23760222
Mata, Fernanda; Sallum, Isabela; Miranda, Débora M; Bechara, Antoine; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a duração de sono na adolescência em diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODO: Foram investigados 863 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em duas escolas de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas por meio de questionários para identificação de informações sobre os hábitos [...] de sono e nível socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: A duração média de sono nos dias da semana foi de 8,83(1,87) horas e a prevalência de adolescentes com duração de sono de oito ou menos horas diárias foi de 39,0% nos dias com aula. Adolescentes da classe baixa apresentaram menor duração do sono (p = 0,043). Na análise ajustada, a idade, o nível socioeconômico e o hábito de tirar a sesta foram os principais fatores associados a poucas horas de sono. Os participantes de 18 a 19 anos apresentaram maior prevalência de poucas horas de sono em comparação aos de 10 a 11 anos (PR = 4,78; CI95%: 1,98-11,53), assim como os adolescentes da classe alta em comparação com a classe baixa (PR = 1,48; CI95%: 1,20-1,83). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram associações entre o nível socioeconômico e os hábitos de sono de adolescentes. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status. METHOD: We investigated 863 adolescents from 10 to 19 years in two schools in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Sleep habits data and socioeconomic status were obtained by questionnaires. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration [...] on days of the week was 8.83(1.87) hours and the prevalence of adolescents with eight or fewer hours/day was 39.0% on school days (p = 0.043). On adjusted analysis, age, socioeconomic status and taking a nap habit were the main factors associated with few hours of sleep. Older students (aged 18 to 19 years) showed higher prevalence of few hours of sleep when compared to younger students (10 to 11 years) (RP = 4.78; IC95%: 1.98-11.53), as well as for upper class adolescents when compared to those with lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Results showed the association between socioeconomic status and adolescents' sleep/wake habits.
Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite, Bernardo; Érico Felden, Pereira; Fernando Mazzilli, Louzada; Vânia, D' Almeida.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a duração de sono na adolescência em diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. MÉTODO: Foram investigados 863 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em duas escolas de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas por meio de questionários para identificação de informações sobre os hábitos de sono e nível socioeconômico. RESULTADOS: A duração média de sono nos dias da semana foi de 8,83(1,87 horas e a prevalência de adolescentes com duração de sono de oito ou menos horas diárias foi de 39,0% nos dias com aula. Adolescentes da classe baixa apresentaram menor duração do sono (p = 0,043. Na análise ajustada, a idade, o nível socioeconômico e o hábito de tirar a sesta foram os principais fatores associados a poucas horas de sono. Os participantes de 18 a 19 anos apresentaram maior prevalência de poucas horas de sono em comparação aos de 10 a 11 anos (PR = 4,78; CI95%: 1,98-11,53, assim como os adolescentes da classe alta em comparação com a classe baixa (PR = 1,48; CI95%: 1,20-1,83. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram associações entre o nível socioeconômico e os hábitos de sono de adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sleep duration in adolescents of different socioeconomic status. METHOD: We investigated 863 adolescents from 10 to 19 years in two schools in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Sleep habits data and socioeconomic status were obtained by questionnaires. RESULTS: Mean sleep duration on days of the week was 8.83(1.87 hours and the prevalence of adolescents with eight or fewer hours/day was 39.0% on school days (p = 0.043. On adjusted analysis, age, socioeconomic status and taking a nap habit were the main factors associated with few hours of sleep. Older students (aged 18 to 19 years showed higher prevalence of few hours of sleep when compared to younger students (10 to 11 years (RP = 4.78; IC95%: 1.98-11.53, as well as for upper class adolescents when compared to those with lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Results showed the association between socioeconomic status and adolescents' sleep/wake habits.
Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite Bernardo
Life expectancy was well known to associate with lifestyle habits, socioeconomic condition, and three health-related dimensions (physical, mental and social health status). However, the causal effect relationship among these variables remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the causal relationships among health and life conditions, socioeconomic status, dietary and lifestyle habits and three health-related dimensions in elderly urban dwel...
Yoshinori Fujiwara; Naoko Sakurai; Suwen Yang; Sugako Kurimori; Motoyuki Yuasa; Tanji Hoshi
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status is a known risk factor for disability pension, and is also associated with health problems. To what degree health problems can explain the increased risk of disability pension award associated with low socioeconomic status is not known. Methods Information on 15,067 participants in the Hordaland Health Study was linked to a comprehensive national registry on disability pension awards. Level of education was used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the association between socioeconomic status and rates of disability pension award, before and after adjusting for a wide range of somatic and mental health factors. The proportion of the difference in disability pension between socioeconomic groups explained by health was then calculated. Results Unadjusted odds ratios for disability pension was 4.60 (95% CI: 3.34-6.33 for the group with elementary school only (9 years of education and 2.03 (95% CI 1.49-2.77 for the group with high school (12 years of education when compared to the group with higher education (more than 12 years. When adjusting for somatic and mental health, odds ratios were reduced to 3.87 (2.73-5.47 and 1.81 (1.31-2.52. This corresponds to health explaining only a marginal proportion of the increased level of disability pension in the groups with lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion There is a socioeconomic gradient in disability pension similar to the well known socioeconomic gradient in health. However, health accounts for little of the socioeconomic gradient in disability pension. Future studies of socioeconomic gradients in disability pension should focus on explanatory factors beyond health.
Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes—asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction—at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics—INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000 2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project.
Bard, D.; Laurent, O.; Filleul, L.; Havard, S.; Deguen, S.; Segala, C.; Pedrono, G.; Rivière, E.; Schillinger, C.; Rouïl, L.; Arveiler, D.; Eilstein, D.
Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes-asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction-at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics-INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000-2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze risk factors for overweight among adolescents grouped in three different socioeconomic levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1779 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years, grouped according to socioeconomic status (low, middle, and high. Parents reported their own anthropometric data and the adolescents had their anthropometric data taken by trained researchers, and completed three questionnaires. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 16.7%, 23.8%, and 26.3% in low, middle and high socioeconomic status, respectively (P= 0.001. In all socioeconomic status, parent's overweight was associated with adolescent overweight (all POBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores de risco para o sobrepeso entre adolescentes agrupados em três níveis econômicos diferentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que incluiu 1779 adolescentes com idade de 11-17 anos, agrupados de acordo com a condição econômica (baixo, médio e alto. Os pais reportaram seus próprios dados antropométricos e os adolescentes tiveram seus dados antropométricos aferidos por avaliadores treinados, e também responderam a três questionários. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 16.7%, 23.8% e 26.3% nas classes econonômicas baixa, média e alta, respectivamente (P=0.001. Em todas as condições econômicas, o sobrepeso dos pais foi associado com o sobrepeso dos filhos (P<0.05. Os estudantes de classes econômicas média e alta (RP=2.00 de escolas privadas foram associados com o sobrepeso, e estudantes de baixo nível sócio-econômico com comportamento sedentário (RP = 2,25 e alta ingestão de frituras (PR = 2.35. CONCLUSÃO: Em cada nível socioeconômico o sobrepeso é associado com diferentes fatores de risco de diferente formas, exceto para pais com sobrepeso.
Rômulo Araújo Fernandes
Full Text Available This study explored the differences in the senior Turkish preservice elementary science teachers’ conceptions of learning science by gender and socio-economic status (SES. The Conceptions of Learning Science (COLS questionnaire was adapted into Turkish and administered to 379 preservice elementary science teachers from seven universities in different regions of Turkey. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was performed to explore the differences. According to results, males and females differed on their mean scores on ‘memorizing’ and ‘testing’ dimensions of COLS questionnaire. While males had higher scores on ‘memorizing’ and ‘testing’ dimensions of COLS questionnaire than females, males and females had similar scores on ‘calculate and practice’, ‘increase of knowledge’ , ‘applying’ , and ‘understanding and seeing in a new way’ dimensions of COLS questionnaire. Mean scores on dimensions of COLS questionnaire were not significantly different with respect to SES. In addition, the results pointed out that there was no significant interaction between gender and SES.
The principle objective of this study was to assess the association between socio-economic status (SES) and oral health-related behaviours in Korean adolescents aged 13-18, using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). The secondary objective was to assess the influences of other factors (pocket money, school type, family structure and psychological factors) on this association. Cross-sectional data were from the national 2007 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Oral health-related behaviours included health-enhancing behaviours (frequency of toothbrushing and dental visits) and health-compromising behaviours (smoking and frequency of intake of soft drinks and confections). Logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. To assess the influence of other factors, additional models adjusting for sex, school grade and each of the other factors were compared to the initial model, which adjusted for sex and school grade only. We found that family affluence had a linear association with health-enhancing behaviours and a roughly U-shaped association with health-compromising behaviours. After adjusting for a number of variables, the linear association with health-enhancing behaviours persisted. The U-shaped association with health-compromising behaviours remained but was partly attenuated and flattened. In addition, we found a marked influence of school type and family structure and pocket money on the association between FAS and oral health-compromising behaviours. The findings indicate that the health-enhancing behaviours of adolescents were strongly associated with family affluence, but the health-compromising behaviours were more strongly linked to factors other than family affluence. However, it is difficult to determine which factors contribute most in relation to family affluence because of other confounding factors, such as the education system, peer group, youth culture, part-time work and advertising. Therefore, further studies are needed to assess factors that interact with family SES to better understand the association between the SES and the oral health-compromising behaviours of adolescents. PMID:20359807
Jung, Se-Hwan; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Ryu, Jae-In; Watt, Richard G
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the socioeconomic status (SES of the community of residence has a substantial association with infant birth weight. We used multilevel models to examine associations of birth weight with family- and community-level SES in the Cape Cod Family Health Study. Data were collected retrospectively on births to women between 1969 and 1983 living on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The sample included siblings born in different residences with differing community-level SES. Methods We used cross-classified models to account for multiple levels of correlation in a non-hierarchical data structure. We accounted for clustering at family- and community-levels. Models included extensive individual- and family-level covariates. SES variables of interest were maternal education; paternal occupation; percent adults living in poverty; percent adults with a four year college degree; community mean family income; and percent adult unemployment. Results Residual correlation was detected at the family- but not the community-level. Substantial effects sizes were observed for family-level SES while smaller magnitudes were observed for community-level SES. Overall, higher SES corresponded to increased birth weight though neither family- nor community-level variables had significant associations with the outcome. In a model applied to a reduced sample that included a single child per family, enforcing a hierarchical data structure, paternal occupation was found to have a significant association with birth weight (p = 0.033. Larger effect sizes for community SES appeared in models applied to the full sample that contained limited covariates, such as those typically found on birth certificates. Conclusions Cross-classified models allowed us to include more than one child per family even when families moved between births. There was evidence of mild associations between family SES and birth weight. Stronger associations between paternal occupation and birth weight were observed in models applied to reduced samples with hierarchical data structures, illustrating consequences of excluding observations from the cross-classified analysis. Models with limited covariates showed associations of birth weight with community SES. In models adjusting for a complete set of individual- and family-level covariates, community SES was not as important.
Full Text Available Smoking is the most common cause of prema-ture cardiovascular disease in women, but con-temporary data is lacking. We sought to inves-tigate the differences between female smokers and nonsmokers in the US. Methods: Using a registry of almost 19,000 women who attended free public heart screenings sponsored by Sis-ter to Sister between 2008 and 2009 in 17 large US cities, we compared the means for lipid val-ues, cardiometabolic measures, and differences in sociodemographic information between smok-ers and nonsmokers. Secondary outcomes were age and race-adjusted odds for obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, a non-HDL > 160 mg/dl, and a serum glucose ? 126 mg/dl between smoking and nonsmoking women. Results: The final sample included 18,892 women (49.8 ± 14.3 years, 37% black, and 32% white, 14% Hispanic, with 1,216 (6.4% current smokers. Smokers were younger than non-smokers (45.6 ± 13.0 vs 50.1 ± 14.4 years, p < 0.001, with lower HDL levels (55.5 ± 17.4 vs 58.6 ± 17.4, p < 0.001, and higher triglycerides (148.8 ± 103.7 vs 145.5 ± 93, p = 0.4082. There were no significant differences in LDL between smokers versus nonsmokers. There were more black and white women in the smoking group. Smoking women were more likely to meet criteria for the metabolic syndrome (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.00 - 1.49 and have a non-HDL > 160 mg/dl (OR 1.19; 1.01 - 1.39. Insurance and income data showed a sig-nificant inverse relationship between smoking prevalence and increasing household income. Conclusions: In this richly diverse sample of women, female smokers were younger and of lower socioeconomic status than nonsmokers with significant differences in cardiometabolic risk factors.
Jennifer L. Jarvie
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES is known to be positively associated with breast cancer risk but its relationship with mammographic density, a marker of susceptibility to breast cancer, is unclear. This study aims to investigate whether mammographic density varies by SES and to identify the underlying anthropometric, lifestyle and reproductive factors leading to such variation. Methods In a cross-sectional study of mammographic density in 487 pre-menopausal women, SES was assessed from questionnaire data using highest achieved level of formal education, quintiles of Census-derived Townsend scores and urban/rural classification of place of residence. Mammographic density was measured on digitised films using a computer-assisted method. Linear regression models were fitted to assess the association between SES variables and mammographic density, adjusting for correlated variables. Results In unadjusted models, percent density was positively associated with SES, with an absolute difference in percent density of 6.3% (95% CI 1.6%, 10.5% between highest and lowest educational categories, and of 6.6% (95% CI -0.7%, 12.9% between highest and lowest Townsend quintiles. These associations were mainly driven by strong negative associations between these SES variables and lucent area and were attenuated upon adjustment for body mass index (BMI. There was little evidence that reproductive factors explained this association. SES was not associated with the amount of dense tissue in the breast before or after BMI adjustment. The effect of education on percent density persisted after adjustment for Townsend score. Mammographic measures did not vary according to urban/rural place of residence. Conclusions The observed SES gradients in percent density paralleled known SES gradients in breast cancer risk. Although consistent with the hypothesis that percent density may be a mediator of the SES differentials in breast cancer risk, the SES gradients in percent density were mainly driven by the negative association between SES and BMI. Nevertheless, as density affects the sensitivity of screen-film mammography, the higher percent density found among high SES women would imply that these women have a higher risk of developing cancer but a lower likelihood of having it detected earlier.
Moss Sue M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The associations between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in adults have been studied although studies did not always document a relationship. The aim of this multicenter observational study was to determine the association between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in the elderly, in the context of a public health system providing universal free care to the whole population. Methods A total of 651 patients aged ?65 years hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia through the emergency departments of five Spanish public hospitals were recruited and followed up between May 2005 and January 2007. The primary outcomes studied were: length of stay, intensive care unit admission, overall mortality and readmission. Socioeconomic status was measured using both individual and community data: occupation [categorized in six social groups (I, II, III, IVa, IVb and V], educational level (? primary level or ? secondary level and disposable family income of the municipality or district of residence [>12,500 € (high municipality family income and ?12,500 € (low municipality family income]. The six social groups were further categorized as upper/middle social class (groups I-IVb and lower class (group V. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. OR and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. All statistical tests were two tailed and statistical significance was established as p Results 17.7% of patients lived in a municipality or district with a high municipality family income and 63.6% were upper/middle social class (I-IVb. Only 15.7% of patients had a secondary education. The adjusted analysis showed no association between pneumonia outcomes and social class, educational level or municipality family income. However, length of stay increased significantly in patients in whom the factors, living alone and being a smoker or ex-smoker coincided (p Conclusions We measured socioeconomic status using both individual and community data and found no association between social class, educational level or municipality family income and the variables of pneumonia outcomes. The lack of differences between social classes supports the provision of universal, equitable health care by the public health system.
BackgroundAge, gender and socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with the use of prescription drugs, even after adjustment for multimorbidity. General practitioners have a holistic and patient-centred perspective and our hypothesis is that this may reflect on the prescription of drugs. In Sweden the patient may seek secondary care without a letter of referral and the liability of the prescription of drugs accompanies the patient, which makes it suitable for this type of research. In this study we examine the odds of having prescription drug use in the population and the rates of prescription drugs among patients, issued in primary health care, according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level.MethodData were collected on all individuals above 20 years of age in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The John Hopkins ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for multimorbidity level. Odds ratio (OR) of having prescription drugs issued in primary health care in the population and rates of prescription drug use among patients in primary health care, stated as incidence rate ratio (IRR), according to age, gender and socioeconomic status were calculated and adjusted for multimorbidity.ResultsAfter adjustment for multimorbidity, individuals 80 years or older had higher odds ratio (OR 3.37 (CI 95% 3.22-3.52)) and incidence rate ratio (IRR 6.24 (CI 95% 5.79-6.72)) for prescription drug use. Male individuals had a lower odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 0.66 (CI 95% 0.64-0.69)), but among patients males had a slightly higher incidence rate of drug use (IRR 1.06 (CI 95% 1.04-1.09)). Individuals with the highest income had the lowest odds ratio of having prescription drugs and individuals with the second lowest income had the highest odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 1.10 (CI 95% 1.07-1.13)). Individuals with the highest education had the lowest odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 0.61 (CI 95% 0.54-0.67)).ConclusionAge, gender and socioeconomic status are associated with large differences in the use of prescribed drugs in primary health care, even after adjustment for multimorbidity level. PMID:25421269
Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik; Beckman, Anders; Sundquist, Jan; Halling, Anders
BackgroundAge, gender and socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with the use of prescription drugs, even after adjustment for multimorbidity. General practitioners have a holistic and patient-centred perspective and our hypothesis is that this may reflect on the prescription of drugs. In Sweden the patient may seek secondary care without a letter of referral and the liability of the prescription of drugs accompanies the patient, which makes it suitable for this type of research. In this study we examine the odds of having prescription drug use in the population and the rates of prescription drugs among patients, issued in primary health care, according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level.MethodData were collected on all individuals above 20 years of age in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The John Hopkins ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for multimorbidity level. Odds ratio (OR) of having prescription drugs issued inprimary health care in the population and rates of prescription drug use among patients in primary health care, stated as incidence rate ratio (IRR), according to age, gender and socioeconomic status were calculated and adjusted for multimorbidity.ResultsAfter adjustment for multimorbidity, individuals 80 years or older had higher odds ratio (OR 3.37 (CI 95% 3.22-3.52)) and incidence rate ratio (IRR 6.24 (CI 95% 5.79-6.72)) for prescription drug use. Male individuals had a lower odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 0.66 (CI 95% 0.64-0.69)), but among patients males had a slightly higher incidence rate of drug use (IRR 1.06 (CI 95% 1.04-1.09)). Individuals with the highest income had the lowest odds ratio of having prescription drugs and individuals with the second lowest income had the highest odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 1.10 (CI 95% 1.07-1.13)). Individuals with the highest education had the lowest odds ratio of having prescription drugs (OR 0.61 (CI 95% 0.54-0.67)).ConclusionAge, gender and socioeconomic status are associated with large differences in the use of prescribed drugs in primary health care, even after adjustment for multimorbidity level.
Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik
The aim of this doctoral thesis is to contribute to the debate on the importance of diet and disease in explaining the mortality decline and the general literature of the long-term effects of early life conditions. Using individual-level data from Southern Sweden for 1813 to 1968, this work measures the impacts of grain prices during the foetal stage and infant mortality rates during the year of birth on mortality over the full life course, as well as on female socioeconomic status attainment...
The objective of this study was to describe motor coordination (CoM) levels, in addition to the infl uence of age, socioeconomic status (SES), sex and subcutaneous adiposity on the CoM of Peruvian children aged six to eleven years. The sample size was 4007 children (n=1889 females; n=2118 males) from several schools in the metropolitan area of Lima, Peru. CoM was assessed with the KTK (Kiphard and Schilling, 1974) test battery that includes 4 tests: balancing backward (BB), hopping on one leg...
Teixeira Seabra, Andre? F.; Ingrid Salazar Távara; Natalia Enciso Sarria; Liz Caballero Cartagena; Alcibiades Bustamante Valdivia; Rui Manuel Garganta da Silva; José António Ribeiro Maia
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral health and health literacy are associated which diseases, medication, self- reported health/oral health and socioeconomic factors in a group of people ranging from 50 to 80 years of age. Materials and methods: The study consisted of 61 patients, 27 men (52-78 years; M=61.6 years) and 34 women (51-80 years; M=61.0 years). They had oral examination including dentition status by DMFT (decayed, missed, filled teeth), plaque index, g...
Near-daily intake of acute symptomatic medication for frequent headache increases the risk for medication-overuse headache (MOH). Chronic headache (CH) and MOH prevalences are inversely related to socioeconomic position (SEP). It is not known how SEP influences the health status of people with these headaches. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of CH in Denmark; possible associations between CH and education, work status, and income; and the health status of people with CH across socioeconomic strata. A total of 129,150 individuals aged ?16years were invited to the 2010 Danish National Health Survey. Data on SEP indicators and purchases of prescription drugs in 2009 were retrieved from national registers. Respondents with headache ?15days per month over 3months were classified as having CH. Those with concurrent over-the-counter analgesic intake of ?15days per month or prescription medication overuse (?20 or ?30 defined daily doses per month depending on the drug or drugs) were classified as having MOH. Associations between headache and SEP were analyzed by logistic regression, and associations between headache and health status scores, by linear regression. Physical and mental health composite scores (SF-12) were summarized per headache group, stratified by SEP, and compared to the sample mean. Analyses were adjusted for stratified sampling and nonresponse. The response rate was 53.1%. CH prevalence was 3.3% with 53.0% of cases having concurrent medication overuse (MOH prevalence 1.8%). CH was more prevalent among those individuals with low SEP. Health status scores were significantly lower among persons with CH in all SEP categories. The burden of CH can be reduced by preventing and treating MOH.
Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte
Full Text Available A descriptive non-experimental approach was applied to investigate and describe the prevalence of factors influencing the health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting as a dissertation for a doctorate degree. For the purpose of this article the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting are described. The study only included economically active persons < 21 ^ 50 years. The objective was to determine the relationship between the health status and the socio-economic status of economically active Coloured people in an urban area as defined. The objectives set for the study were reached through a cross sectional study. The hypothesis, an association between the health status and the socio-economic status of the Coloured people of an urban area in the Western Cape was tested using the chi square statistical test. A purposeful stratified sample of 353 participants was drawn from the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were well represented in the suburbs. Statistical associations on a 95% confidence interval were shown between the socio-economic status (i.e. educational level, income and occupation social habits, diet, and money available for food, exercise and the health status of the respondents. Recommendations were made based on the scientific evidence obtained through the study.
The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and the suspected autism spectrum disorder (ASD) status of 18-month-old toddlers was investigated using a population-based sample in Japan, which has a universal healthcare system and a mandatory health checkup system for toddlers. Questionnaires including SES measurements and modified…
This report describes major demographic and socioeconomic changes in New York's Hispanic population in the 1990s. Data come from the Current Population Surveys and the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census of Population and Housing. Despite some gains, New York Hispanics were not significantly better off in 2000 than in 1990. New York City's Hispanic…
Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L.
Identification of modifiable factors and mediators linked to low and heavy birth weight is crucial in reducing infant mortality and health care expenditure. The present paper explores the associations of socio-demographic factors and immigrant status of parents with adverse pregnancy outcomes in Hong Kong. The analysis compares very low birth weight (VLBW: educational attainment of the father, low occupational class, public housing and single motherhood are strongly related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Regarding immigrant status, women born in South and South-East Asia exhibit consistently higher odds of a compromised outcome. Women born in Hong Kong have significantly higher chances of LBW births while Mainland Chinese and parents from developed countries face higher odds of HBW births. The study identifies high-risk groups such as teenage, older and single mothers, South-East Asians and couples of low socioeconomic profile. Implementation of policies supporting these groups would be beneficial. PMID:23790003
Verropoulou, Georgia; Basten, Stuart
Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days), medium (4-14 days) and long (>14 days) spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations) and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal"). Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds ratios (OR)) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2) and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16) times for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, respectively, while the similar changes varied from 0.79 to 2.8 for the other absence outcomes. General health explained some of the social gradient. Work factors and personal factors did not. Conclusions The social gradient in sickness absence was different for absences of different duration and patterns. It was strongest for absences of medium length and "abnormal" absence. The social gradient was not explained by other factors.
Kristensen, Trine RØnde; Jensen, Signe Marie
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%. Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days, medium (4-14 days and long (>14 days spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal". Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters. Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR or odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2 and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16 times for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, respectively, while the similar changes varied from 0.79 to 2.8 for the other absence outcomes. General health explained some of the social gradient. Work factors and personal factors did not. Conclusions The social gradient in sickness absence was different for absences of different duration and patterns. It was strongest for absences of medium length and "abnormal" absence. The social gradient was not explained by other factors.
Full Text Available Differences in IQ have been offered as an explanation for socioeconomic gradients in morbidity and mortality. Previous research has largely relied on linking education and conscription testing data with later life health. As this early life testing was used to determine a person’s academic path it is difficult to disentangle the effects of IQ from education. This study used IQ and socioeconomic status (SES data collected concurrently in mid-life from men who did not experience IQ-test-driven career path direction in early life. If IQ is associated with SES generally then multiple domains of IQ it will be associated with all components of SES. In a subsample of men aged 35 - 80 (n = 287 from the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study, we evaluated relationships between each of four domains of cognitive ability (IQ domains: fluid (Gf; crystallised (Gc; visual/spatial (Gv and processing speed (Gs. SES was measured as standardized education, income, occupational prestige and deprivation score. Age-adjusted linear regression was used to test each SES-z-score individually against each IQ domain. Then all four SES measures were included in a single model for each IQ domain. This study found that a panel of standard IQ tests were positively associated with attained education but not with income or area-level deprivation score. Two IQ abilities, Gf and Gc, were also associated with occupational prestige score. These associations suggest that lesser levels of health associated with lower socioeconomic status is not accounted for by a lesser innate ability and that intervention may be possible.
Shona J. Kelly
Full Text Available "nBackground: To investigate the association between socio-economic status and obesity in non-menopause women aged 15-49 years in Tehran, Iran."nMethods: This study was based on Iran National Health Survey conducted in 1999. Obesity is defined as a Body Mass Index over ?30. Constructed area (per-person, educational level and job are considered as factors indicating the socioeconomic status. The results have been adjusted for age and mental health using univariate and multiple logistic regression. "nResults: A total number of 2859 non-menopause women aged 15-49 yr from urban areas of Tehran have been studied. The prevalence of obesity and overweight were 16.4% and 28.4% respectively. Women aged 30-49 yr had greater risk of obesity (adjusted OR=2.53, 95%CI: 1.99-3.20. Comparing with students, homemakers and employees were at higher risk of obesity (adjusted OR= 4.33, 95%CI: 2.47-7.76, adjusted OR= 2.82, 95%CI: 1.41-5.63 respectively. Those with >= 12 yr of education had lower risk of obesity compared to illiterate women (adjusted OR=.57, 95%CI: 0.38-0.86."nConclusion: The role of social factors is dominant over economic factor on obesity. This fact should be considered as one of the most important research priorities in future researches.
Abstract Background Potential links between eczema and obstructive pulmonary diseases have been postulated. Previously we have reported the prevalence of upper and lower respiratory diseases and the relation to environmental and socio-economic factors in a randomly selected adult population in southern Sweden using a postal questionnaire. In the present study we wanted to analyse the prevalence of eczema and its relation to socio-economic status, heredity factors and e...
Nyberg Per; Göran Löfdahl Claes; Nihlén Ulf; Montnemery Peter; Svensson Åke
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AIM: To evaluate oral health-related quality of life of preschool children of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, and associate it with socioeconomic profile of households. METHODS: The sample consisted of 229 preschool children between 3 and 5 years and the dmft (decayed, missing due to caries, fill [...] ed teeth) index was adopted for assessment children's dental caries in accordance with the standards recommended by the World Health Organization. Questionnaires were used for evaluation oral health-related quality of life (Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale) and socioeconomic profile of parents or guardians of the preschool children. Statistical analysis was performed descriptively by relative and absolute frequencies and by Spearman's correlation and Kruskal-Wallis test (p
Angela, Xavier; Fábio Silva de, Carvalho; Roosevelt da Silva, Bastos; Magali de Lourdes, Caldana; José Roberto de Magalhães, Bastos.
The energy expenditure of lower (group 1) and upper socioeconomic group females (group 2) from a marginal community in Guatemala City was determined by using the doubly labelled water method. Energy expenditure values were 1925 +/- 66 (mean, SEM) kcal/d (group 1) and 2253 +/- 145 kcal/d group 2 (p less than 0.03). About half of this difference can be attributed to size
Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with 397 mothers or guardians of young children. Respondents were grouped according to their socio-economic situation, using scores. The condition of the bed nets was evaluated during a home visit. Results Socio-economic factors of wellbeing were negatively associated with bed net use, such as living in a stone house (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.48, running water in the house (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.92, shower/flush toilet in the house (OR 0.39/0.34, 95% CI 0.21–0.75/0.16–0.73, ownership of a freezer (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.67. In contrast, similar factors were positively associated with a good maintenance condition of the bed nets: higher monthly income (OR 5.64, 95% CI 2.41–13.19 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.19 – 5.45. Conclusion Among the poorest families in Lambaréné the coverage with untreated nets (UTNs is the highest, but the condition of these UTNs is the worst. To achieve a broad implementation of ITNs in Lambaréné, there is an urgent need for educational programmes as well as need-tailored marketing strategies for ITNs.
Borchert Lea B
Full Text Available Previous studies show that diet quality varies by socioeconomic gradient. We compared the influence of individual- and area-level socioeconomic characteristics on food choice behavior and dietary nutrient intakes in a cross-sectional survey. Daily nutrient intakes were calculated from a food frequency questionnaire. Participants comprised 4007 people (1915 men, 2092 women aged 35 to 74 years. Socioeconomic measures included the area-based deprivation NZDep2001, gross household income, education level and the occupation-based New Zealand Socioeconomic Index (NZSEI96. Results: Nutrients expressed as their percentage contribution to total energy intakes and adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity, showed that intakes of cholesterol were higher in the lower income groups, and fibre, alcohol and calcium were lower compared to the highest income group. Similarly adjusted nutrients expressed as their contribution to total energy intakes showed lower alcohol intakes in the lower NZDep2001 classes compared to the highest NZDep2001 class. Lower fruit, cheese, wine, and spirit servings were found in both the lower income and NZDep2001 groups. Lower vegetables, milk and cereal servings were found in the lowest income group compared with the highest. Higher chicken, eggs and bread servings were found in the lowest NZDep2001 group compared to the highest NZDep2001 group. Few statistically significant associations were observed with the NZSEI96 or education. Conclusion: Income was more strongly associated with nutrient intakes and NZDep2001 with food group selections. Lower fruit, cheese, wine and spirit servings in the lower SES strata showed independent associations with income and NZDep2001. However, NZDep2001 and income appear to be measuring different elements of dietary intakes and food group servings, with income being associated with lower vegetable, milk and cereal servings, and increased dietary cholesterol and lower fibre, and calcium intakes and NZDep2001 with increased chicken, eggs and bread servings. More in depth, research into area-level determinants of diet is warranted.
Patricia A. Metcalf
The fundamental characteristics of the inputs of the education system which would execute production, adapt to the scientific and technological innovations, and raise skilled and qualified individuals who are required for business life should be known. Therefore, the aim of this study is to reveal the profiles of students at vocational high schools which is one of the main components of higher education system. This study is a socio-economic profile study which is a horizontal social sciences...
Nartgu?n, S?enay Sezgin; Yu?ksel, Engin
This paper investigates whether the socioeconomic status of the head of government helps explain fiscal performance. Applying sociological research that attributes differences in people's ways of thinking and acting to their relative standing within society, we test whether the social status of German prime ministers can help explain differences in fiscal performance among the German Laender. Our empirical findings show that the tenures of prime ministers from a poorer socioeconomic backgroun...
Hayo, Bernd; Neumeier, Florian
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate groups of patients with a relatively homogenous health status to evaluate the degree to which use of the Australian hospital system is affected by socio-economic status, locational accessibility to services and patient payment classification. Method Records of all deaths occurring in Western Australia from 1997 to 2000 inclusive were extracted from the WA mortality register and linked to records from the hospital morbidity data system (HMDS via the WA Data Linkage System. Adjusted incidence rate ratios of hospitalisation in the last, second and third years prior to death were modelled separately for five underlying causes of death. Results The independent effects of socioeconomic status on hospital utilisation differed markedly across cause of death. Locational accessibility was generally not an independent predictor of utilisation except in those dying from ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer. Private patient status did not globally affect utilisation across all causes of death, but was associated with significantly decreased utilisation three years prior to death for those who died of colorectal, lung or breast cancer, and increased utilisation in the last year of life in those who died of colorectal cancer or cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion It appears that the Australian hospital system may not be equitable since equal need did not equate to equal utilisation. Further it would appear that horizontal equity, as measured by equal utilisation for equal need, varies by disease. This implies that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach to further improvements in equity may be over simplistic. Thus initiatives beyond Medicare should be devised and evaluated in relation to specific areas of service provision.
Holman C D'Arcy J
Full Text Available Introduction: HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individual's absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional baseline survey assessing different types of stigma and key socioeconomic characteristics was administered to 1674 PWID and 1349 community members living in physical proximity throughout the 32 communes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. We created four stigma scales, including HIV-related and drug-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members. We then used ecologic Spearman's correlation, ordinary least-squares regression and multi-level generalized estimating equations to examine community-level inequality associations, individual-level SES associations and multi-level SES associations with different types of stigma, respectively. Results: There was little urban–rural difference in stigma among communes. Higher income inequality was marginally associated with drug-related stigma reported by community members (p=0.087, and higher education inequality was significantly associated with higher HIV-related stigma reported by both PWID and community members (p<0.05. For individuals, higher education was significantly associated with lower stigma (HIV and drug related reported by both PWID and community members. Part-time employed PWID reported more experiences and perceptions of drug-related stigma, while conversely unemployed community members reported enacting lower drug-related stigma. Multi-level analysis revealed that the relationship between education inequality and HIV-related stigma is superseded by the effect of individual-level education. Conclusions: The results of the study confirm that socioeconomic factors at both the individual level and community level affect different types of stigma in different ways. Attention should be paid to these differences when planning structural or educational interventions to reduce stigma, and additional research should investigate the mechanisms with which SES and inequality affect social relationships and, in turn, stigma.
There is a great variability in licit prescription drug use in the population and among patients. Factors other than purely medical ones have proven to be of importance for the prescribing of licit drugs. For example, individuals with a high age, female gender and low socioeconomic status are more likely to use licit prescription drugs. However, these results have not been adjusted for multi-morbidity level. In this study we investigate the odds of using licit prescription drugs among individuals in the population and the rate of licit prescription drug use among patients depending on gender, age and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multi-morbidity level.
Thorell, Kristine; Skoog, Jessica
The present research work intent to study the impact of socio-economic status on personality and life style of pupil teachers (B.Ed.) trainee on the basis of gender. Hence the researchers aim at to find out the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on the Personality of male and female pupil teachers and to study the life style of pupil teachers according to gender. Researchers selecting 1000 samples out of total population on the basis random sampling techniques with the help...
Sanjeet Kumar Tiwari; Jubraj Khamari; Parvinder Hanspal; Mirza Mahmood Baig
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economic status but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band – a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a breast-feeding (b personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. Methods Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. Results Study sample: 1360 women divided across the CTVBs – at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude – that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. Conclusion CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion.
Full Text Available Abstract Non-communicable diseases account for more than 50% of deaths in adults aged 15–59 years in most low income countries. Depression and diabetes carry an enormous public health burden, making the identification of risk factors for these disorders an important strategy. While socio-economic inequalities in chronic diseases and their risk factors have been studied extensively in high-income countries, very few studies have investigated social inequalities in chronic disease risk factors in low or middle-income countries. Documenting chronic disease risk factors is important for understanding disease burdens in poorer countries and for targeting specific populations for the most effective interventions. The aim of this review is to systematically map the evidence for the association of socio-economic status with diabetes and depression comorbidity in low and middle income countries. The objective is to identify whether there is any evidence on the direction of the relationship: do co-morbidities have an impact on socio-economic status or vice versa and whether the prevalence of diabetes combined with depression is associated with socio-economic status factors within the general population. To date no other study has reviewed the evidence for the extent and nature of this relationship. By systematically mapping the evidence in the broader sense we can identify the policy and interventions implications of existing research, highlight the gaps in knowledge and suggest future research. Only 14 studies were found to analyse the associations between depression and diabetes comorbidity and socio-economic status. Studies show some evidence that the occurrence of depression among people with diabetes is associated with lower socio-economic status. The small evidence base that considers diabetes and depression in low and middle income countries is out of step with the scale of the burden of disease.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes survey. Road distances to the nearest service were calculated for each respondent using a GIS. Difficulty was related to geographic distance, health status and car ownership using logistic generalized linear models. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used to explore the spatial non-stationarity in the results. Results Respondent long term illness, reported bad health and non-car ownership were found to be significant predictors of difficulty in accessing GPs and hospitals. Geographic distance was not a significant predictor of difficulty in accessing hospitals but was for GPs. GWR identified the spatial (local variation in these global relationships indicating locations where the predictive strength of the independent variables was higher or lower than the global trend. The impacts of bad health and non-car ownership on the difficulties experienced in accessing health services varied spatially across the study area, whilst the impacts of geographic distance did not. Conclusions Difficulty in accessing different health facilities was found to be significantly related to health status and car ownership, whilst the impact of geographic distance depends on the service in question. GWR showed how these relationships were varied across the study area. This study demonstrates that the notion of access is a multi-dimensional concept, whose composition varies with location, according to the facility being considered and the health and socio-economic status of the individual concerned.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight increased among Filipino mothers and offspring from 1994 to 2005 however, a higher rate of increase among mothers resulted in a prevalence 4 times higher than that among offspring in 2005. Our aim was to explore the differential effects of changing income, assets, maternal education, and urbanicity on dietary behaviors of mothers and offspring that may affect overweight risk. Methods The study included a cohort of Filipino offspring and their mothers participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey at four time points from 1994 (n = 1,885 pairs to 2005 (n = 1,349 pairs. The effect of socioeconomic factors and urbanicity, on dietary behaviors including energy adequacy, percent fat and carbohydrates were examined using longitudinal random-effects regression models. Results Mothers and offspring were consistently more likely to consume more calories relative to basal needs as well as a higher percent of calories from fat and a lower percent from carbohydrates with higher socioeconomic status and urbanization. Despite the substantially higher rates of overweight among mothers compared to offspring, offspring consumed a significantly more obesogenic diet than mothers experiencing the same increases in wealth and urbanicity. Conclusion Family-based interventions should be developed to counteract the shift towards a more obesogenic diet observed for both Filipino mothers and offspring.
Full Text Available Utilizing resilience theory and original research conducted on fifty academically resilient low socioeconomic status students of color, this article presents specific objectives and values institutions of higher learning can adopt and emphasize to increase the retention and graduation of their most statistically at-risk students. Major findings and suggestions include: constantly build students’ self-efficacy; help students realistically appraise their own strengths and weaknesses; encourage help seeking tendencies; and provide clear linkages between academic success and future economic security. According to a recent report from National Center for Education Statistics, by the year 2022, White and Asian students will increase their attendance on college campuses by 7%, whereas the rate will be 26% for African American students and 27% for Hispanics, two groups with disproportionately higher poverty rates (Hussar & Bailey, 2014. These students will continue to make up larger and larger percentages of students on college campuses nationwide. While these can be viewed as positive and exciting forecasts, they bring with them new sets of challenges. Given the changing racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic demographics of the United States, as well as shifts in expectations as to who seeks a college degree, a majority of institutions of higher education are struggling with one essential question: How do we retain and graduate greater numbers of ethnic minorities and students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds? The consequences of not meeting this challenge can be viewed on both a macro and micro level. From a societal perspective, unemployment rates, reliance on public social service agencies, incarceration rates, and America’s place in the global hierarchy are all either directly or indirectly linked with the successful education of working class and poor students, many of whom are ethnic minorities. On a more local level, as more and more first generation college students enter colleges across the country (Jehangir, 2010, institutions are increasingly recognizing the value of effectively meeting their needs (Bastedo & Gumport, 2003, for if they don’t, current and future enrollment targets may not be met. Furthermore, those with the most influence over the potential success of these students, college faculty, already acknowledge the need for, and desire, effective ways of meeting their needs (Erisman & Looney 2007. The difficulties colleges face in effectively teaching and graduating lower socioeconomic status students, often from ethnic minority backgrounds, continues to be a pressing issue. However, the issue is not a new one. Back in the early 1970s K. Patricia Cross (1971 famously talked specifically of the inability of colleges to adjust to the needs of the changing student bodies of the time. Since then, the numbers of poorer and first generation college students have only increased. Furthermore, many noted researchers in the field still acknowledge that not enough is known about how low socioeconomic college students experience and manage college life (Pascarella, Pierson, Wolniak, & Terenzini, 2004; Pike & Kuh, 2005. The rest of this paper will further define and explore the parameters of these issues and then utilize original research on academically resilient students to provide specific approaches faculty can adopt to increase the degree of resilience and persistence among first generation college students. These suggestions will be categorized and explained, then justified through related research literature.
Erik E. Morales
Cross-sectional studies suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the U.S.-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For most classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (p<0.001). Yet, socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood residents had fewer fast food and non-fast food restaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities. PMID:25280107
Richardson, Andrea S; Meyer, Katie A; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lewis, Cora E; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Direct and indirect precursors to parents' harsh discipline responses to hypothetical vignettes about child misbehavior were studied with data from 978 parents (59% mothers; 82% European American and 16% African American) of 585 kindergarten-aged children. SEM analyses showed that parents' beliefs about spanking and child aggression and family stress mediated a negative relation between socioeconomic status and discipline. In turn, perception of the child and cognitive-emotional processes (hostile attributions, emotional upset, worry about child's future, available alternative disciplinary strategies, and available preventive strategies) mediated the effect of stress on discipline. Similar relations between ethnicity and discipline were found (African Americans reported harsher discipline), especially among low-income parents. Societally based experiences may lead some parents to rely on accessible and coherent goals in their discipline, whereas others are more reactive. PMID:11025931
Pinderhughes, E E; Dodge, K A; Bates, J E; Pettit, G S; Zelli, A
The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES) in New Jersey (NJ), a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologists and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic) radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques
Low level chronic exposure to toxicants is associated with a range of adverse health effects. Understanding the various factors that influence the chemical burden of an individual is of critical importance to public health strategies. We investigated the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and bio-monitored chemical concentration in five cross-sectional waves of the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We utilised adjusted linear regression models to investigate the association between 179 toxicants and the poverty income ratio (PIR) for five NHANES waves. We then selected a subset of chemicals associated with PIR in 3 or more NHANES waves and investigated potential mediating factors using structural equation modelling. PIR was associated with 18 chemicals in 3 or more NHANES waves. Higher SES individuals had higher burdens of serum and urinary mercury, arsenic, caesium, thallium, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid, mono(carboxyoctyl) phthalate and benzophenone-3. Inverse associations were noted between PIR and serum and urinary lead and cadmium, antimony, bisphenol A and three phthalates (mono-benzyl, mono-isobutyl, mono-n-butyl). Key mediators included fish and shellfish consumption for the PIR, mercury, arsenic, thallium and perfluorononanoic acid associations. Sunscreen use was an important mediator in the benzophenone-3/PIR relationship. The association between PIR and cadmium or lead was partially mediated by smoking, occupation and diet. These results provide a comprehensive analysis of exposure patterns as a function of socioeconomic status in US adults, providing important information to guide future public health remediation measures to decrease toxicant and disease burdens within society. PMID:23892225
Tyrrell, Jessica; Melzer, David; Henley, William; Galloway, Tamara S; Osborne, Nicholas J
This study assessed how socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, and birth weight interacted to predict differential patterns of body mass index (BMI) growth among U.S. children born in the early 1990s. Three BMI growth trajectories emerged--one above the 50th percentile across the age range of 5 to 14, one in which children rapidly became…
Danner, Fred W.; Toland, Michael D.
This study aimed to investigate how well gender, socio-economic status of family, and socio-cultural influences (perceived parents' achievement goals, and perceived teachers' achievement goals) predict middle school students' task value beliefs in science. Background Characteristics Survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning…
Kahraman, Nurcan; Sungur-Vural, Semra
In this study the effects of learning approaches, locus of control (LOC), socio-economic status and self-efficacy on undergraduate students in North Cyprus was investigated. Four questionnaires were administered on 99 students in order to collect data regarding the learning approaches, LOC, self-efficacy and demographic factors. High cumulative…
Suphi, Nilgun; Yaratan, Huseyin
A variety of factors are associated with students' achievement in secondary school physics, including cohort size--the total number of students studying Physics in the school--and socioeconomic status. Earlier studies also showed boys achieving better in Physics, while more recent research has shown better results for girls. Statistical…
Geelan, David; Louden, William; Wildy, Helen
Health-related behaviors [physical activity (PA), nutritional quality of breakfast and sleep]; personal variables (self-esteem, attitudes to PA and gender) and socioeconomic status (SES) (school SES and parental education), were examined in relation to literacy and numeracy scores of 824 grade 3-7 children. Participants completed a questionnaire,…
O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Mugridge, Anna C.
When bilingual children enter formal reading education, host language proficiency becomes increasingly important. This study investigated the relation between socioeconomic status (SES), maternal language use, reading input, and vocabulary in a sample of 111 six-year-old children of first- and second-generation Turkish immigrant parents in the…
Prevoo, Mariëlle J. L.; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; Emmen, Rosanneke A. G.; Yeniad, Nihal; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus; Linting, Mariëlle
The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…
Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel
Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES) predicts coronary heart disease independently of the traditional risk factors included in the Framingham risk score. However, it is unknown whether changes in Framingham risk score variables over time explain the association between SES and coronary heart disease. We examined this question given its relevance to risk assessment in clinical decision making. Methods The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities stu...
Tancredi Daniel J; Winters Paul C; Franks Peter; Fiscella Kevin A
This research examines student information and communication technology (ICT) literacy and its relationships to a student's socio-economic status (SES), gender, and ethnicity of middle school students. We recruited 5,990 students from 13 school districts across the state of Florida. Student participants completed the Student Tool for Technology…
Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Liu, Feng; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.
This study analyzes the effects of individual characteristics, socioeconomic status, and political engagement among Chinese university students with respect to their attainment of student leadership roles. The study investigated 10,930 students from elite Chinese universities. The results showed that female and only-child students were more likely…
Wu, Ching-Ling; Bao, Wei
Numerous studies have shown that married women and men experience the lowest mortality. Legal marital status, however, does not necessarily reflect today's social reality because individuals are classified as never married, widowed, or divorced even when they are living with a partner. Denmark is one of the forerunners of developments in…
Full Text Available Abstract Background In diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and microvascular complications. We evaluated cigarette smoking in people with diabetes mellitus in a socio-economically deprived area. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of people registered with diabetes mellitus at 29 general practices in inner London. Responses were analysed for 1,899 (64% respondents out of 2,983 eligible. Results There were 1,899 respondents of whom 968 (51% had never smoked, 296 (16% were current smokers and 582 (31% were ex-smokers. Smoking was more frequent in white Europeans (men 22%, women 20%, than in African Caribbeans (men 15%, women 10% or Africans (men 8%, women 2%. Smoking prevalence decreased with age. Smokers were more likely to be living in rented accommodation (odds ratio, OR 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 2.74. After adjusting for confounding, current smokers had lower SF-36 scores than subjects who had never smoked (mean difference in physical functioning score -5.6, 95% confidence interval -10.0 to -1.2; general health -6.1, -9.7 to -2.5. Current smokers were less likely to have attended a hospital diabetic clinic in the last year (OR 0.59, 0.44 to 0.79, and their hypertension was less likely to be treated (OR 0.47, 0.30 to 0.74. Conclusions Compared with non-smokers, smokers had lower socio-economic status and worse health status, but were less likely to be referred to hospital or treated for their hypertension. People with diabetes who smoke can be regarded as a vulnerable group who need more intensive support and treatment.
Full Text Available The fundamental characteristics of the inputs of the education system which would execute production, adapt to the scientific and technological innovations, and raise skilled and qualified individuals who are required for business life should be known. Therefore, the aim of this study is to reveal the profiles of students at vocational high schools which is one of the main components of higher education system. This study is a socio-economic profile study which is a horizontal social sciences research. The purpose of the data collected in the research is two fold. While first is to introduce the results of the micro and study, the second is to reveal the data that may be an issue for many vertical studies. Accommodating the very limited analysis of the data, the very general profile is presented. To the research; 49.31% of the students graduated from college. The percentage of the students whose family live in downtown is 55.17%, 55,17 % of the students’ family live in city, whose family have social security is 85.17%, who has scholarship is 55.86%, who have part-time job is 23.10%, and who have his/her own car is 6.92%. This study is a resource for implementing contemporary and modern education at Ahi Evran University Kaman Vocational High School. In addition, this study is a database of the students for the administrators of the high school.
?enay Sezgin NARTGÜN
The relationships between ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have not been well characterised in most Asian populations. We therefore studied the influence of ethnicity and SES on HRQoL in a multi-ethnic urban Asian population, adjusting for the influence of other known determinants of HRQoL. In a disproportionately stratified, cross-sectional, population-based survey, Chinese, Malay and Indian subjects in Singapore completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) HRQoL measure and were assessed to determine demographic, socio-economic, psychosocial and other characteristics. Multiple linear regression models were used to study the influence of ethnicity and SES on SF-36 scores while adjusting for the influence of other determinants of HRQoL. The survey participation rate was 92.8%. Ethnic differences in HRQoL were present for all 8 SF-36 scales (pMalays and Indians surveyed. These ethnic groups also differed in several known determinants of HRQoL (e.g., Chinese had more years of education and Indians had more chronic medical conditions). After adjusting for the influence of these factors, ethnicity and SES independently influenced HRQoL, with mean differences in SF-36 scores due to ethnicity ranging from 1.4 to 13.1 points. Educational level and housing type (markers of SES) were also associated with SF-36 scores (0.5-0.6 point increase per year of education and 3.5-4.0 point increase with better housing type, respectively). Better HRQoL was also associated with better family support, and poorer HRQoL with acute and chronic medical conditions and sick days. The study concludes that ethnicity and SES are associated with clinically important differences in HRQoL in a multi-ethnic, urban Asian population. PMID:12639592
Thumboo, Julian; Fong, Kok Yong; Machin, David; Chan, Siew Pang; Soh, Chang Heok; Leong, Keng Hong; Feng, Pao Hsii; Thio, Szu tien; Boey, Mee Leng
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find the prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Materials and Methods: A total of 813 children aged 2-6 years were screened for the present study from randomly selected three kindergarten schools each from Government, Government aided, and private managements. Clinical examination was done inside the respective schools. At the time of examination, a proforma was filled for each child comprising of DFS index. The questionnaire by Winter et al. was modified and used in this study. The completed proformas were statistically analyzed to find if any correlation existed between the nursing caries to the feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Results: Duration of breastfeeding increases the number of children with nursing caries and the mean DFS. There is a strong and significant relationship between the severity of nursing caries and the degree of feeding abuse. Children from low socioeconomic status have increased early childhood caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of nursing caries was 19.2% in Davangere preschool population. Nursing caries were more in children who were taking a feeding bottle to bed at night and were increasingly seen in large families and lower socioeconomic groups.
To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidt. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age-adjusted odds ratio in male subjects was 1.9 (0.9, 3.9) but this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, a lower socio-economic class, categorised either by occupational or educational level, was an additional risk factor for diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese who had known risk factors for glucose intolerance. These subjects should have increased priority for health education and regular diabetes screening. Our findings further emphasise the complex relationships between societal affluence, personal income and educational level
BACKGROUND: There is insufficient knowledge of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the very young. OBJECTIVES: This nationwide study sought to examine age-stratified OHCA characteristics and the role of parental socioeconomic differences and its contribution to mortality in the young population. METHODS: All OHCA patients in Denmark, ?21 years of age, were identified from 2001 to 2010. The population was divided into infants (<1 year); pre-school children (1-5 years); school children (6-15 years); and high school adolescents/young adults (16-21 years). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between pre-hospital factors and study endpoints: return of spontaneous circulation and survival. RESULTS: A total of 459 individuals were included. Overall incidence of OHCA was 3.3 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The incidence rates for infants, pre-school children, school children and high school adolescents were 11.5, 3.5, 1.3 and 5.3 per 100,000 inhabitants. Overall bystander CPR rate was 48.8%, and for age groups: 55.4%, 41.2%, 44.9% and 63.0%, respectively. Overall 30-day survival rate was 8.1%, and for age groups: 1.4%, 4.5%, 16.1% and 9.3%, respectively. High parental education was associated with improved survival after OHCA (OR 3.48, CI 1.27-9.41). Significant crude difference in survival (OR 3.18, CI 1.22-8.34) between high household incomes vs. low household incomes was found. CONCLUSION: OHCA incidences and survival rates varied significantly between age groups. High parental education was found to be associated with improved survival after OHCA.
Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads
Full Text Available Adi Lahat,1 Yehudith Assouline-Dayan,1 Lior H Katz,1 Herma H Fidder2 1Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands Background and aim: The sex of the physician performing the endoscopic procedure is one of the parameters influencing patient satisfaction. Our aim was to characterize patients’ preferences according to their sex, socioeconomic status, and religious beliefs and according to procedure-related variables. Methods: All patients undergoing an endoscopic procedure at Sheba Hospital between April 2012 and September 2012 were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their sex, ethnic background, socioeconomic status, religious practice, and preference for an endoscopist of a specific sex. Questionnaires were included for analysis only when more than 95% of the items were addressed. Results: A total of 1,009 patients agreed to complete the questionnaires; of these 946 (94% [59% male] were eligible for inclusion. Most patients (675 [70%] expressed no preference for sex of the endoscopist, while 234 patients (25% preferred a same-sex endoscopist, and only 55 (6% preferred an other-sex endoscopist. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that in female patients, lower education (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28, non-Jewish religion (OR = 4.86, orthodox religious practice (OR = 2.28, African or Asian ethnic origin (OR = 2.44, scheduled for colonoscopy (OR = 1.90, and no previous endoscopy experience (OR = 1.88 were all associated with a preference for a same-sex endoscopist. Conclusion: One-quarter of patients preferred the physician performing their examination to be of particular sex. Most of these patients preferred a same-sex endoscopist. Education level, intensity of religious practice, ethnic origin, and type of endoscopic examination were associated with a preference for a same-sex endoscopist. Addressing patients’ preferences may improve the atmosphere in the clinical environment, reduce stress, and facilitate better treatment and adherence to endoscopic surveillance programs. Keywords: endoscopy, patients’ satisfaction, compliance, patient’s preference
Full Text Available Background . Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design . For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods . With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alaska's 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, we used stratified analysis and logistic regression models to describe the current use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT (including iq'mik, a unique Alaska Native SLT product among the 3 populations of interest. Results . “Population segments” were created with combinations of responses for Alaska Native race, SES and community type. We identified the highest prevalence and highest proportion of tobacco users for each type of tobacco by “segment.” For cigarette smoking, while the largest proportion (nearly one-third of the state's smokers are non-Native, high SES and live in urban settings, this group also has lower smoking prevalence than most other groups. Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents had both high smoking prevalence (48% and represented a large proportion of the state's smokers (nearly 10%. Patterns were similar for SLT, with non-Native high-SES urban residents making up the largest proportion of users despite lower prevalence, and Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents having high prevalence and making up a large proportion of users. For iq'mik use, Alaska Native people in rural settings were both the highest prevalence and proportion of users. Conclusion . While Alaska Native race, low SES status and community of residence can be considered alone when developing tobacco control interventions, creating “population segments” based on combinations of factors may be helpful for tailoring effective tobacco control strategies and messaging. Other countries or states may use a similar approach for describing and prioritizing populations.
Julia A. Dilley
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent effect of physical workload and childhood socioeconomic status (CSES) on low back pain (LBP) and LBP-related sickness absence among female health care workers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The role of physical workload on LBP independently from CSES is still subject to controversy. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 1661 female social and health care workers responding to a questionnaire in 2004, 2005, and 2006. We collected information on CSES (parental occupation), physical workload, and LBP-prevalence (no LBP, subchronic LBP, and frequent LBP), and LBP-related sickness absence. The participants were categorized into 5 groups according to CSES (I = highest, V = lowest). Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Irrespective of CSES, high physical workload increased the odds ratio (OR) of future subchronic LBP (OR = 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.61-2.57) and frequent LBP (OR = 2.20; 95% CI, 1.65-3.00), but not LBP-related sickness absence. The odds of subchronic LBP were lower in CSES groups II (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.93) and III (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.86) referencing CSES group I, irrespective of physical workload. The odds of short-term LBP-related sickness absence were higher in CSES groups III (OR = 2.78; 95% CI, 1.41-5.47) and IV (OR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.11-4.27) referencing CSES group I, irrespective of physical workload. We found no interaction between physical workload and CSES. CONCLUSION: Physical workload and CSES are independently associated with future LBP within a group with similar occupational status. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A.
JØrgensen, Marie Birk; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten
The principal aim of the study was to examine how the natural tendency to shift attention toward or away from social stress stimuli during a restful state, relates to the magnitude of cortisol elicited in response to a stressful context. It also assessed whether any relationship that did emerge between attentional biases and cortisol responsivity would be associated with the childhood socioeconomic status (SES). Twenty-five healthy normal controls rested for 45min during which time they completed an adaptation of Posner's attentional orienting paradigm comprising social stress words as cues. Immediately following, participants were exposed to a public stressful speech task adapted from the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results indicated that a rapid attentional engagement in the direction of social stress words prior to stress exposure related to a pronounced cortisol response to the stress task, while a slow attentional engagement toward social stress words was related to a weak cortisol response to the stress task. It was also found that fast engagers of social stress information displayed lower self-esteem than slow engagers. Groups did not differ in terms of their reported past SES. These findings demonstrate that attentional biases for social stress stimuli at rest predict the magnitude of cortisol likely to be elicited in response to a subsequent stressor. A natural tendency to rapidly shift attention toward social stress-related information may be the driving force behind cortisol reactivity when handling psychological forms of stress, independent of the early SES environment. PMID:19854001
Pilgrim, Kamala; Marin, Marie-France; Lupien, Sonia J
Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of multiple indicators of Socio-economic Status (SES on Congestive Heart Failure (CHF related readmission. Methods A prospective study consisting of 315 patients without the history of admission due to CHF was carried out in Tehran during 2010 and 2011. They were classified into quartiles based on their SES applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and followed up for one year. Using stratified Cox regression analysis, Hazard Ratios (HRs were computed to assess the impact of SES on the readmission due to CHF. Results During the 12 months follow-up, 122 (40% were readmitted at least once. HR of lowest SES patients vs. the highest SES patients (the fourth versus first quartile was 2.66 (95% CI= 1.51–4.66. Variables including abnormal ejection fraction (<40%, poor physical activity, poor drug adherence, and hypertension were also identified as significant independent predictors of readmission. Conclusion The results showed low SES is a significant contributing factor to increased readmission due to CHF. It seems that the outcome of CHF depends on the SES of patients even after adjusting for some of main intermediate factors.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) may influence cancer characteristics and behavior in several aspects. We analyzed PCa characteristics and behavior among low income uninsured men, and compare them to high income patients with health insurance in a developing country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retr [...] ospective case-control study was performed on 934 patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy between March, 1999 and July, 2009. Patients were divided in two groups, according to their SES. In group 1 (n=380), all had low income, low educational levels and couldn't afford medical insurance. In group 2 (n=554), all had higher income, higher education and had medical insurance. RESULTS: Patients from group 1 were older, had higher Gleason scores, higher rates of seminal vesicle and bladder neck involvement. The Kaplan Meier disease-free survival curve demonstrated that after a follow-up of four years, about 50% of uninsured patients had biochemical recurrence, versus 21% of insured patients (Log rank test: p
Victor, Srougi; Alberto A., Antunes; Sabrina, T; , Reis; Marcos F., Dall' Oglio; Adriano J., Nesrallah; Kátia R. M., Leite; Miguel, Srougi.
Full Text Available The paper attempts to study the socio-economic status and levels of living of different types of labour’ households in Prakasam district. A multi stage random sampling method is used to select 150 labour households. For the study Prakasam district is selected purposively on the basis of highest percentage of households depended on non- farm activities. Three villages are selected from the three revenue divisions on the above criteria. A proportionate sampling technique will be employed to select 50 labour households each village, altogether 150 samples are selected for this study. The empirical evidence of the study clearly shows that the Standard of Living Index very low for majority of painting labours and construction labours. The Estimated Index of Standard of living for labour households belonging to Construction labour households is 39 per cent and where as it is 47 per cent for labour household belonging to self employed labours. Nearly 82 per cent of the painting labour, 70 per cent of the construction labour classes have lowest standard of living. Index of deprivation reveals that around 40 per cent of the total sample labour households are most deprived state for the selected social indicators and 26.67 per cent are moderately deprived state, 27.33 per cent are in less deprived state where as only 5.33 per cent of the total sample households were not deprived state.
Kishore Babu Karri
Full Text Available IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the California Health Interview Survey 2003, we estimated the prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight, combined as a single measure (AROW, body mass index ?85th percentile. We used logistic regression models to examine associations between AROW and risk factors.ResultsTwenty-nine percent of California adolescents were AROW. The prevalence of AROW differed significantly by sex and race. Boys were more likely than girls to be AROW (33% vs 25%. American Indians/Pacific Islanders/others (39% were at highest risk, followed by Hispanics (37%, blacks (35%, whites (23%, and Asians (15%. For boys, older age, Hispanic or American Indian/Pacific Islander/other race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and longer residence in the United States were significantly associated with AROW. For girls, Hispanic or black race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and poor dietary habits were significantly associated with AROW.ConclusionThe high prevalence of AROW among California adolescents in most racial/ethnic groups indicates the need for culturally specific and appropriate interventions to prevent and treat overweight.
Joel Gittelsohn, PhD
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES may influence cancer characteristics and behavior in several aspects. We analyzed PCa characteristics and behavior among low income uninsured men, and compare them to high income patients with health insurance in a developing country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was performed on 934 patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy between March, 1999 and July, 2009. Patients were divided in two groups, according to their SES. In group 1 (n=380, all had low income, low educational levels and couldn't afford medical insurance. In group 2 (n=554, all had higher income, higher education and had medical insurance. RESULTS: Patients from group 1 were older, had higher Gleason scores, higher rates of seminal vesicle and bladder neck involvement. The Kaplan Meier disease-free survival curve demonstrated that after a follow-up of four years, about 50% of uninsured patients had biochemical recurrence, versus 21% of insured patients (Log rank test: p < 0.001. A multivariate Cox regression analysis for the risk of disease recurrence demonstrated that only PSA levels, Gleason score, seminal vesicle involvement and SES were statistically significant variables. Patients with a low SES presented 1.8 times the risk of recurrence as compared to patients with a high SES. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low SES were older, presented more aggressive PCa characteristics and a high rate of disease recurrence. A low SES constituted an independent predictor for disease recurrence.
The relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health changes as a society develops. In developed countries, high SES is associated with better health, but in developing countries, high SES is associated with poorer health. However, measuring SES is difficult in countries like India, where the traditional class and caste system are interwoven and complex. The current study explored the relationship between subjective and objective indices of SES and between SES and the metabolic syndrome among Asian Indians residing in Mumbai, India. Participants were a subset of young adults (N = 112, median age 19 years, 24% male) who were part of larger study assessing psychosocial correlates of the metabolic syndrome. SES was assessed through objective (father's education) and subjective (SES ladder) indices. Data indicated that high subjective SES was correlated with fasting blood sugar (r = .28, P < .003), and father's education was correlated with high cholesterol (r = .32, P < .005). Subjective and objective indices of SES were also correlated with each other (r = .24, P < .04). These data reiterate that the link between SES and health is obvious from an early age, regardless of the measures used to assess SES. Given the complexity of assessing SES in developing countries, objective subjective indices should be used in assessing SES. PMID:18646356
Suchday, Sonia; Chhabra, Rosy; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Almeida, Maureen
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The decline in cardiovascular mortality in Denmark during the 1980s has been greatest in the highest socioeconomic groups of the population. This study examines whether the increased social inequality in cardiovascular mortality has been accompanied by a different trend in cardiovascular risk factors in different educational groups. DESIGN: Data from three cross sectional WHO MONICA surveys conducted in 1982-84, 1987, and 1991-92, were analysed to estimate trends in biological (weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure, and serum lipids) and behavioural (smoking, physical activity during leisure, and eating habits) risk factors in relation to educational status. SETTING: County of Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 6695 Danish men and women of ages 30, 40, 50, and 60 years. MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking decreased during the study but only in the most educated groups. In fact, the prevalence of heavy smoking increased in the least educated women. There wasno significant interaction for the remaining biological and behavioural risk factors between time of examination and educational level, indicating that the trend was the same in the different educational groups. However, a summary index based on seven cardiovascular risk factors improved, and this development was only seen in the most educated men and women. CONCLUSION: The difference between educational groups in prevalence of smoking increased during the 1980s, and this accounted for widening of an existing social difference in the total cardiovascular risk.
Osler, M; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik
This study assessed characteristics of women who exclusively breast feed infants during the first 4 months and women who introduce early supplementation of foods in India. Data were obtained from interviews with 75 randomly selected mothers. 73.3% of mothers were 20-30 years old. 49.3% of birth weights were under 45 kg. 20% were under 145 cm in length. 55 mothers (73.3%) received prenatal care. 26 mothers were informed about breast feeding. 76% of mothers resumed full household and/or professional work within 45 days of delivery. 61.3% of births were males. 97.3% were normal vaginal deliveries. 98.7% roomed with their mother after delivery. 62.7% were breast fed within the first day of life. The rest were breast fed by the 3rd day. 51.3% were started on supplementary feeding within 6 weeks. 72% were started on supplementary feeding within 2 months. Duration of exclusive breast feeding was unrelated to maternal education or nutrition, socioeconomic status, family support, motivation for breast feeding, birth order, or gender of the infant. The most common reason for early food supplementation was insufficient breast milk (49.4%). 6 of 13 mothers related work resumption as the reason for artificial feeding. Most mothers used cow or buffalo milk. Most used bottles, and few had proper hygiene. Most diluted the supplements with water. PMID:9707884
Aggarwal, A; Arora, S; Patwari, A K
Some individuals, despite facing recurrent, severe adversities in life such as low socioeconomic status (SES), are nonetheless able to maintain good physical health. This article explores why these individuals deviate from the expected association of low SES with poor health, and outlines a "shift-and-persist" model to explain the psychobiological mechanisms involved. This model proposes that in the midst of adversity, some children find role models who teach them to trust others, better regulate their emotions, and focus on their futures. Over a lifetime, these low SES children develop an approach to life that prioritizes shifting oneself (accepting stress for what it is and adapting the self to it) in combination with persisting (enduring life with strength by holding on to meaning and optimism). This combination of shift-and-persist strategies mitigates sympathetic-nervous-system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical responses to the barrage of stressors that low SES individuals confront. This tendency vectors individuals off the trajectory to chronic disease by forestalling pathogenic sequelae of stress reactivity, like insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and systemic inflammation. We outline evidence for the model, and argue that efforts to identify resilience-promoting processes are important in this economic climate, given limited resources for improving the financial circumstances of disadvantaged individuals. PMID:23144651
Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Esta revisão teve os seguintes objetivos: descrever e discutir concepções teóricas acerca do constructo status socioeconômico (SSE) e argumentar no sentido de seu papel vital na pesquisa psicológica; apresentar e analisar procedimentos empregados para medir SSE e tendências em sua utilização; rever [...] e discutir a utilização de medidas de SSE na literatura psicológica brasileira. A posição relativa de indivíduos, famílias e grupos em uma determinada hierarquia (freqüentemente convertida em um escore produzido por uma escala) é o que tem sido freqüentemente chamado de status socioeconômico. Os principais indicadores de SSE são discutidos em relação a suas vantagens e desvantagens. Uma avaliação sistemática de artigos da base de dados PsycARTICLES foi conduzida e revelou que a percentagem de artigos publicados anualmente que empregou o status socioeconômico aumentou sistemática e substancialmente de 1988 a 2000. No entanto, SSE é consistentemente mais aplicado em certas áreas de pesquisa do que em outras (e.g., psicologia do desenvolvimento, clínica e social). Uma análise de conteúdo do uso do SSE em artigos publicados de 1981 até 2001 em três periódicos de psicologia brasileiros qualificados foi realizada. O principal resultado dessa análise é de que medidas confiáveis de SSE não são comumente utilizadas na literatura psicológica brasileira. Os resultados das revisões e análises são discutidos em termos de implicações para o aprimoramento da literatura psicológica com relação a essa variável (SSE), especialmente no Brasil. Abstract in english This review has several objectives: To describe and discuss theoretical conceptions of the construct of socioeconomic status (SES) and to argue for its vital role in psychological research; to present and analyze procedures employed to measure SES and trends in their utilization; and to review and d [...] iscuss the use of SES measures in Brazilian psychological literature. The relative position of individuals, families, and groups in a given hierarchy (frequently converted into a score produced by a scale) is what has usually been called SES. The main indicators and procedures used to measure SES are discussed in regard to its advantages and disadvantages. A review of the literature offers evidence of the importance of the SES in different psychological processes. A systematic evaluation of articles from the PsycARTICLES database was conducted and revealed that the percentage of articles published annually that employed socioeconomic status increased steadily and substantially from 1988 through 2000 and that SES has been consistently applied more in some research areas (e.g., developmental, clinical, social psychology). A content analysis of the use of SES in articles published from 1981 through 2001 in three prominent Brazilian psychology journals was conducted showing that reliable SES measures are not commonly used in the Brazilian psychological literature. The results of these reviews and analyses are discussed in terms of their implications for further progress of psychological literature, especially in Brazil, with regard SES.
Rodolfo de Castro, Ribas Jr.; Maria Lucia Seidl de, Moura; Isabela Dias, Soares; Alessandra Aparecida do Nascimento, Gomes; Marc H., Bornstein.
Full Text Available This review has several objectives: To describe and discuss theoretical conceptions of the construct of socioeconomic status (SES and to argue for its vital role in psychological research; to present and analyze procedures employed to measure SES and trends in their utilization; and to review and discuss the use of SES measures in Brazilian psychological literature. The relative position of individuals, families, and groups in a given hierarchy (frequently converted into a score produced by a scale is what has usually been called SES. The main indicators and procedures used to measure SES are discussed in regard to its advantages and disadvantages. A review of the literature offers evidence of the importance of the SES in different psychological processes. A systematic evaluation of articles from the PsycARTICLES database was conducted and revealed that the percentage of articles published annually that employed socioeconomic status increased steadily and substantially from 1988 through 2000 and that SES has been consistently applied more in some research areas (e.g., developmental, clinical, social psychology. A content analysis of the use of SES in articles published from 1981 through 2001 in three prominent Brazilian psychology journals was conducted showing that reliable SES measures are not commonly used in the Brazilian psychological literature. The results of these reviews and analyses are discussed in terms of their implications for further progress of psychological literature, especially in Brazil, with regard SES.Esta revisão teve os seguintes objetivos: descrever e discutir concepções teóricas acerca do constructo status socioeconômico (SSE e argumentar no sentido de seu papel vital na pesquisa psicológica; apresentar e analisar procedimentos empregados para medir SSE e tendências em sua utilização; rever e discutir a utilização de medidas de SSE na literatura psicológica brasileira. A posição relativa de indivíduos, famílias e grupos em uma determinada hierarquia (freqüentemente convertida em um escore produzido por uma escala é o que tem sido freqüentemente chamado de status socioeconômico. Os principais indicadores de SSE são discutidos em relação a suas vantagens e desvantagens. Uma avaliação sistemática de artigos da base de dados PsycARTICLES foi conduzida e revelou que a percentagem de artigos publicados anualmente que empregou o status socioeconômico aumentou sistemática e substancialmente de 1988 a 2000. No entanto, SSE é consistentemente mais aplicado em certas áreas de pesquisa do que em outras (e.g., psicologia do desenvolvimento, clínica e social. Uma análise de conteúdo do uso do SSE em artigos publicados de 1981 até 2001 em três periódicos de psicologia brasileiros qualificados foi realizada. O principal resultado dessa análise é de que medidas confiáveis de SSE não são comumente utilizadas na literatura psicológica brasileira. Os resultados das revisões e análises são discutidos em termos de implicações para o aprimoramento da literatura psicológica com relação a essa variável (SSE, especialmente no Brasil.
Rodolfo de Castro Ribas Jr.
We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relations...
Blignaut, James N.; Sharma, Gyan P.; Esler, Karen J.
Full Text Available The present research work intent to study the impact of socio-economic status on personality and life style of pupil teachers (B.Ed. trainee on the basis of gender. Hence the researchers aim at to find out the impact of socio-economic status (SES on the Personality of male and female pupil teachers and to study the life style of pupil teachers according to gender. Researchers selecting 1000 samples out of total population on the basis random sampling techniques with the help of standardized tools collected data and on the basis of normative survey method analysis and interpretation with required statistical technique like Mean, Standard Deviation, Critical Ratio, Degree of Freedom, Coefficient of Correlation, and ANOVA tested the hypotheses find out the purposive findings to focus on proper suggestive suggestion towards conclusion.
Sanjeet Kumar Tiwari
Due to the importance of initial schooling in the later reading and writing learning development, in this descriptive research, it is identified the maturity level of children literacy who attend the grade transition in three educational institutions in different socio-economic statuses of Barranquilla. The evaluation was conducted to 62 children (the entire population of the study). This was based, in one hand, on the maturity model in the application of ABC Filho L. Test, which assesses the...
PRISCILA SIERRA; KATHERINE VEGA; JULIETH BECERRA; MYRIAM ORTIZ PADILLA; YARELIS CASSIANI
Objective?We examined whether neonatal risks and maternal scaffolding (i.e., task changes and flexibility) during a 16-month post-term play interaction moderated the association between socioeconomic status (SES), visual-spatial processing and emerging working memory assessed at 24 months post-term among 75 toddlers born preterm or low birth weight.?Method?SES and neonatal risk data were collected at hospital discharge and mother–child play interactions were observed at 16-month post-...
Dilworth-bart, Janean E.; Poehlmann, Julie A.; Miller, Kyle E.; Hilgendorf, Amy E.
Background: There is a great variability in licit prescription drug use in the population and among patients. Factors other than purely medical ones have proven to be of importance for the prescribing of licit drugs. For example, individuals with a high age, female gender and low socioeconomic status are more likely to use licit prescription drugs. However, these results have not been adjusted for multi-morbidity level. In this study we investigate the odds of using licit prescription drugs a...
Thorell Kristine; Skoog Jessica; Zielinski Andrzej; Borgquist Lars; Halling Anders
Abstract Background Increases in the prevalence of child and adolescent obesity have accelerated since the mid 1980s. Socio-economic status (SES)-adiposity relationships appear less clear in adolescence than childhood, and evidence on whether increasing obesity is itself patterned according to SES is inconsistent. Increasing prevalence may have increased the tolerance, and reduced recognition of, or concern about, obesity. The aim of this study is to report the prevalence of ...
West Patrick; Sweeting Helen; Young Robert
The current study focuses on the impact of parent’s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child’s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance- based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample comprised 10 students from Year Two, 10 students from Year Three, 10 students from Year Four and 10 students from Year Five. Those were the high achievement students identified based...
Vellymalay, Suresh Kumar N.
This study explores the relation between household socioeconomic status (SES) and participation in urban and periurban agriculture (UPA) in three West African cities. We used a structured questionnaire to survey 700 randomly selected households: 250 in Kano, Nigeria, 250 in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, and 200 in Sikasso, Mali. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied on household asset variables to create an index of assets which was used as a proxy for household SES. The results showed...
Dossa, Luc; Buerkert, Andreas; Schlecht, Eva
Full Text Available Abstract Background The district resource allocation formula in Malawi was recently reviewed to include stunting as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status. In many countries where the concept of need has been incorporated in resource allocation, composite indicators of socioeconomic status have been used. In the Malawi case, it is important to ascertain whether there are differences between using single variable or composite indicators of socioeconomic status in allocations made to districts, holding all other factors in the resource allocation formula constant. Methods Principal components analysis was used to calculate asset indices for all districts from variables that capture living standards using data from the Malawi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006. These were normalized and used to weight district populations. District proportions of national population weighted by both the simple and composite indicators were then calculated for all districts and compared. District allocations were also calculated using the two approaches and compared. Results The two types of indicators are highly correlated, with a spearman rank correlation coefficient of 0.97 at the 1% level of significance. For 21 out of the 26 districts included in the study, proportions of national population weighted by the simple indicator are higher by an average of 0.6 percentage points. For the remaining 5 districts, district proportions of national population weighted by the composite indicator are higher by an average of 2 percentage points. Though the average percentage point differences are low and the actual allocations using both approaches highly correlated (? of 0.96, differences in actual allocations exceed 10% for 8 districts and have an average of 4.2% for the remaining 17. For 21 districts allocations based on the single variable indicator are higher. Conclusions Variations in district allocations made using either the simple or composite indicators of socioeconomic status are not statistically different to recommend one over the other. However, the single variable indicator is favourable for its ease of computation.
More research is needed on the socio-environmental determinants of obesity in lower- and middle-income countries. We used generalized estimating equations to evaluate the cross-sectional effect of urban residence and multiple individual-level indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) on the odds of overweight or central adiposity in a birth cohort of young adult (mean age 21.5 y) Filipino males (n = 987) and females (n = 819) enrolled in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Overw...
Dahly, Darren L.; Gordon-larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Adair, Linda S.
Abstract Background The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Methods A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The s...
Paula Janice S; Cg, Leite Isabel; Almeida Anderso B; Mb, Ambrosano Glaucia; Pereira Antônio C; Mialhe Fábio L
Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES), urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference), blo...
Delisle Hélène; Agueh Victoire; Fayomi Benjamin; Sodjinou Roger
The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), activity level, some health-related anthropometric variables, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status (SES) of 7-11 year old boys in the city of Ardabil, Iran. Of 21 253 school boys aged 7-11 years, 766 participated in this study using the cluster sampling method. Subjects underwent standard anthropometry. One-mile test was used to evaluate V.O2 max. BMI cut-off points were used to identify weight status. Child's ...
Samad Esmaeilzadeh; Hassan-Ali Kalantari; Babak Nakhostin-Roohi
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are well-established socio-economic differences in the prevalence of smoking in the UK, but conventional socio-economic measures may not capture the range and degree of these associations. We have used a commercial geodemographic profiling system, Mosaic, to explore associations with smoking prevalence in a large primary care dataset and to establish whether this tool provides new insights into socio-economic determinants of smoking. Methods We analysed anonymised data on over 2 million patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN database, linked via patients' postcodes to Mosaic classifications (11 groups and 61 types and quintiles of Townsend Index of Multiple Deprivation. Patients' current smoking status was identified using Read Codes, and logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the available measures of socioeconomic status and smoking prevalence. Results As anticipated, smoking prevalence increased with increasing deprivation according to the Townsend Index (age and sex adjusted OR for highest vs lowest quintile 2.96, 95% CI 2.92-2.99. There were more marked differences in prevalence across Mosaic groups (OR for group G vs group A 4.41, 95% CI 4.33-4.49. Across the 61 Mosaic types, smoking prevalence varied from 8.6% to 42.7%. Mosaic types with high smoking prevalence were characterised by relative deprivation, but also more specifically by single-parent households living in public rented accommodation in areas with little community support, having no access to a car, few qualifications and high TV viewing behaviour. Conclusion Conventional socio-economic measures may underplay social disparities in smoking prevalence. Newer classification systems, such as Mosaic, encompass a wider range of demographic, lifestyle and behaviour data, and are valuable in identifying characteristics of groups of heavy smokers which might be used to tailor cessation interventions.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe motor coordination (CoM levels, in addition to the infl uence of age, socioeconomic status (SES, sex and subcutaneous adiposity on the CoM of Peruvian children aged six to eleven years. The sample size was 4007 children (n=1889 females; n=2118 males from several schools in the metropolitan area of Lima, Peru. CoM was assessed with the KTK (Kiphard and Schilling, 1974 test battery that includes 4 tests: balancing backward (BB, hopping on one leg (HO, jumping sideways (JS and shifting platforms (SP. Subcutaneous adiposity included the sum of several skinfolds: triceps, subscapular and calf. Socioeconomic status (SES was evaluated according to the physical location of each school (type of neighborhood. Exploratory, descriptive and inferential statistical analyses (ANOVA II as well as regression linear models were performed using SPSS 15. Signifi cant increases in mean values of CoM were observed in both sexes and across age. Children with high adiposity exhibited lower performance in all tests. Boys outperformed girls. High SES has a greater infl uence only on HO, and a low SES proved relevant to BB performance. It can be concluded that CoM is highly specifi c to each gender. Body fat levels have a negative infl uence on each coordination test, as well as on overall coordination. SES does not seem to be a conclusive predictor of motor coordination in children. resumo Caracterizar el nivel de la coordinación motora (CoM y determinar la infl uencia de la edad, sexo, estatus socioeconómico y de la adiposidad subcutánea en la CoM de escolares peruanos de seis a los once años de edad. El tamaño de la muestra comprendió a 4,007 niños (mujeres= 1889; varones= 2118 de escuelas del área metropolitana de Lima, Perú. La CoM fue determinado a través de la batería de pruebas KTK (Kiphard y Schilling, 1974 que comprende cuatro pruebas: equilibrio a la retaguardia (ER, saltos laterales (SL, saltos monopedales (SM y transposición lateral (TL. La adiposidad subcutánea fue establecida a partir de la suma de los pliegues cutáneos del tríceps, subescapular y pantorrilla. El estatuto socioeconómico (ESE fue evaluado según la localización física de cada escuela (tipo de vecindad. Los análisis estadísticos exploratorios, descriptivos e inferenciales (ANOVA II así como modelos lineales de regresión fueron realizados en SPSS 15. Existen incrementos signifi cativos de valores medios de las pruebas de KTK en ambos sexos y a lo largo de la edad. Los niños con adiposidad elevada presentan rendimientos inferiores en todas las pruebas. Los niños superan a las niñas. El ESE alto presenta una infl uencia mayor sólo en la prueba de SM, y el ESE bajo ha demostrado ser relevante en la ejecución de ER. Conclusiones - La CoM es altamente específi ca a cada género. El nivel de adiposidad presenta una infl uencia negativa en cada prueba de coordinación, también en la coordinación total. El ESE no parece ser un predictor concluyente de la coordinación motora en niños.
André F. Teixeira Seabra
In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N=727 men; mean age 55, SD=2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [?=0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478
Franz, Carol E; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P; Panizzon, Matthew S; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES. Results Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Conclusions Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship.
A total number of 11,635 screening packs were distributed to 5-10 year-old children in 136 schools in Cambridgeshire to investigate the associations between levels of parental concern (none/minor/strong), socioeconomic status and the risk of having Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). The variables for investigating associations and possible confounders were extracted for analysis, including parental concern question score, SES, age of the child, sex, maternal age at birth, paternal age at birth, mother's age of leaving education, father's age of leaving education, birth order and the number of children in the family. The SES, age of the child, sex and mother's age at leaving education were associated with parental concern. Parents with higher SES reported higher levels of concern (Chi-square=11.8; p=0.02). However, a higher SES was not associated with the risk of having ASC (p=0.50). After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of children meeting ASC criteria whose parents had reported strong parental concern were 8.5 times (odds ratio: 8.5; 95%CI: 4.5, 16.2; p<0.001) the odds of children having ASC whose parents reported minor concern. No child met ASC criteria where parents expressed no concerns. Parents with higher social class express more concerns than those from lower social classes. However, the concerns reported by parents in higher SES did not appear to be specific for ASC as there was no relationship between ASC and SES. PMID:25262013
Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol
Full Text Available Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7–12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a standardized question, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children. Multivariate logistic regression was applied, adjusting for age, gender, grade, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. It was found that high school-related stress and low family SES were associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms, respectively. The effect of school-related stress was particularly strong in low SES group. In adolescents with both high stress at school and low SES, the odds ratio was 9.18 (95% confidence interval = 6.53–12.89 compared to the reference group (low stress at school and high SES. A significant synergistic interaction effect was observed (synergy index = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.56–3.32. The findings indicated that perceived school-related stress, in terms of effort-reward imbalance, was related to depressive symptoms in this sample of Chinese adolescents. The strong interaction with family SES suggests that health promoting efforts in school settings should be targeted specifically at these socially deprived groups.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children in households of lower socioeconomic status (SES are more likely to be overweight/obese. We aimed to determine if home physical activity (PA environments differed by SES and to explore home environment mediators of the relation of family SES to children’s PA and sedentary behavior. Methods Participants were 715 children aged 6 to 11 from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids (NIK Study. Household SES was examined using highest educational attainment and income. Home environment was measured by parent report on a survey. Outcomes were child’s accelerometer-measured PA and parent-reported screen time. Mediation analyses were conducted for home environment factors that varied by SES. Results Children from lower income households had greater media access in their bedrooms (TV 52% vs. 14%, DVD player 39% vs. 14%, video games 21% vs. 9% but lower access to portable play equipment (bikes 85% vs. 98%, jump ropes 69% vs. 83% compared to higher income children. Lower SES families had more restrictive rules about PA (2.5 vs. 2.0. Across SES, children watched TV/DVDs with parents/siblings more often than they engaged in PA with them. Parents of lower SES watched TV/DVDs with their children more often (3.1 vs. 2.5?days/week. Neither total daily and home-based MVPA nor sedentary time differed by SES. Children’s daily screen time varied from 1.7 hours/day in high SES to 2.4 in low SES families. Media in the bedroom was related to screen time, and screen time with parents was a mediator of the SES--screen time relationship. Conclusions Lower SES home environments provided more opportunities for sedentary behavior and fewer for PA. Removing electronic media from children’s bedrooms has the potential to reduce disparities in chronic disease risk.
Tandon Pooja S
Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs and other electroencephalographic (EEG evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc. and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc. may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in two matched-samples of fourteen lower-SES and higher-SES adolescents. ERP and EEG activation were measured during a task probing selective attention to sequences of tones. Pre- and post-task salivary cortisol and self-reported emotional states were also measured. At similar performance level, the higher-SES group showed a greater ERP differentiation between attended (relevant and unattended (irrelevant tones than the lower-SES group. EEG power analysis revealed a cross-over interaction, specifically, lower-SES adolescents showed significantly higher theta power when ignoring rather than attending to tones, whereas, higher-SES adolescents showed the opposite pattern. Significant theta asymmetry differences were also found at midfrontal electrodes indicating left hypo-activity in lower-SES adolescents. The attended vs. unattended difference in right midfrontal theta increased with individual SES rank, and (independently from SES with lower cortisol task reactivity and higher boredom. Results suggest lower-SES children used additional compensatory resources to monitor/control response inhibition to distracters, perceiving also more mental effort, as compared to higher-SES counterparts. Nevertheless, stress, boredom and other task-related perceived states were unrelated to SES. Ruling out presumed confounds, this study confirms the midfrontal mechanisms responsible for the SES effects on selective attention reported previously and here reflect genuine cognitive differences.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05. Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05. The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives It has been shown that socioeconomic status (SES is associated with adherence to treatment of patients with several chronic diseases. However, there is a controversy regarding the impact of SES on adherence among patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Thus, we sought to perform a systematic review of the evidence regarding the association of SES with adherence to treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods We searched the PubMed database to identify studies concerning SES and HIV/AIDS and collected data regarding the association between various determinants of SES (income, education, occupation and adherence. Findings We initially identified 116 potentially relevant articles and reviewed in detail 17 original studies, which contained data that were helpful in evaluating the association between SES and adherence to treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. No original research study has specifically focused on the possible association between SES and adherence to treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Among the reviewed studies that examined the impact of income and education on adherence to antiretroviral treatment, only half and less than a third, respectively, found a statistically significant association between these main determinants of SES and adherence of patients infected with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion Our systematic review of the available evidence does not provide conclusive support for existence of a clear association between SES and adherence among patients infected with HIV/AIDS. There seemed to be a positive trend among components of SES (income, education, occupation and adherence to antiretroviral treatment in many of the reviewed studies, however most of the studies did not establish a statistically significant association between determinants of SES and adherence.
Zarkadoulia Efstathia A
Full Text Available The study of socioeconomic status (SES and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research.
RajeevD S Raizada
Summary Background Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Methods We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (cohort study); investigation of the effect of working hours or overtime work; incident diabetes as an outcome; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and international open-access data archives. Effect estimates from published and unpublished data from 222?120 men and women from the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. Findings During 1·7 million person-years at risk, 4963 individuals developed diabetes (incidence 29 per 10?000 person-years). The minimally adjusted summary risk ratio for long (?55 h per week) compared with standard working hours (35–40 h) was 1·07 (95% CI 0·89–1·27, difference in incidence three cases per 10?000 person-years) with significant heterogeneity in study-specific estimates (I2=53%, p=0·0016). In an analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, the association between long working hours and diabetes was evident in the low socioeconomic status group (risk ratio 1·29, 95% CI 1·06–1·57, difference in incidence 13 per 10?000 person-years, I2=0%, p=0·4662), but was null in the high socioeconomic status group (1·00, 95% CI 0·80–1·25, incidence difference zero per 10?000 person-years, I2=15%, p=0·2464). The association in the low socioeconomic status group was robust to adjustment for age, sex, obesity, and physical activity, and remained after exclusion of shift workers. Interpretation In this meta-analysis, the link between longer working hours and type 2 diabetes was apparent only in individuals in the low socioeconomic status groups. Funding Medical Research Council, European Union New and Emerging Risks in Occupational Safety and Health research programme, Finnish Work Environment Fund, Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Research, German Social Accident Insurance, Danish National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Academy of Finland, Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment (Netherlands), Economic and Social Research Council, US National Institutes of Health, and British Heart Foundation. PMID:25262544
Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Nyberg, Solja T; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Brunner, Eric J; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Jokela, Markus
Individual variation in nutritional status has direct implications for fitness and thus is crucial in shaping patterns of life-history variation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to measure in natural populations, especially in humans. Here, we used longitudinal data on individual life-histories and annual crop yield variation collected from pre-industrial Finnish populations experiencing natural mortality and fertility to test the validity of first birth interval (FBI; time between marriage and first birth) as a surrogate measure of nutritional status. We evaluated whether women with different socio-economic groups differ in length of FBI, whether women of poorer socio-economic status and experiencing lower crop yields conceive slower following marriage, and whether shorter FBI is associated with higher lifetime breeding success. We found that poorer women had longer FBI and reduced probability of giving birth in months with low food availability, while the FBI of richer women was not affected by variation in food availability. Women with shorter FBI achieved higher lifetime breeding success and a faster reproductive rate. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show a direct relationship between environmental conditions and speed of childbirth following marriage, highlighting the value of FBI as an indicator of nutritional status when direct data are lacking. PMID:24285194
Nenko, Ilona; Hayward, Adam D; Lummaa, Virpi
Various twin studies revealed that the influence of genetic factors on psychological diseases or behavior is more expressed in socio?economically advantaged environments. Other studies predominantly show an inverse relation between socio?economic status (SES) and childhood obesity in western developed countries. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the FTO gene interacts with the socio?economic status (SES) on childhood obesity in a subsample of the IDEFICS cohort (N=4406). A structural equation model (SEM) is applied with the latent constructs obesity, dietary habits, physical activity and fitness habits, and parental SES to estimate the main effects of the latter three variables and a FTO polymorphism on obesity. Further, a multiple group SEM is used to explore whether an interaction effect between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 within the FTO gene and SES exists. Overall model fit was inconsistent (RMSEA=0.05; CFI=0.79). Significant main effects are shown for SES (standardized ?s=?0.057), the FTO homozygous risk genotype AA (?s=0.177) and physical activity and fitness habits (?s=?0.113). The explained variance of obesity is about 9%. The multiple group SEM shows that SES and FTO interact in their effect on childhood obesity (??2=7.3, df=2, p=0.03) insofar as children carrying the protective TT genotype are more susceptible to a favorable social environment.
Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Frauke
Relação entre níveis de fenilalanina, inteligência e condição socioeconômica de pacientes com fenilcetonúria / Relationships between phenylalanine levels, intelligence and socioeconomic status of patients with phenylketonuria
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Avaliar inteligência e relação com concentrações sanguíneas de fenilalanina e condição socioeconômica de fenilcetonúricos entre 6 e 12 anos em tratamento. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e três crianças, classificadas por níveis de fenilalanina e condição socioeconômica, realizaram Wechsler Intelligenc [...] e Scale for Children. Utilizou-se o programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) para analisar níveis de fenilalanina; testes ANOVA para avaliar quociente de inteligência (QI) e níveis de fenilalanina; e regressão logística ordinal para avaliar chances de melhor desempenho em QI. RESULTADOS: Classificaram-se entre limítrofe e nível muito superior em QI total, 90,5% das crianças; em QI verbal, 96,8%; em QI de execução, 92,1%. Tiveram avaliação socioeconômica entre níveis baixo e médio superior, 98,4% das famílias. As chances de apresentar QI superior e médio foram 4,29 vezes maiores nas crianças com controle adequado e 4,03 vezes maiores nas de níveis socioeconômicos melhores. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento preveniu o retardo mental em 90,5% dos pacientes. O controle dos níveis de fenilalanina e melhor nível socioeconômico se associaram aos melhores desempenhos em QI. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To assess intelligence and its relationship with blood phenylalanine concentrations and socioeconomic status in patients with phenylketonuria after 6 to 12 years of treatment. METHODS: Sixty-three children were classified according to phenylalanine levels and socioeconomic status and ass [...] essed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze phenylalanine; ANOVA was used to analyze intelligence quotients (IQ) and phenylalanine levels; and ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze the likelihood of higher IQ. RESULTS: The overall IQ scores of 90.5% of the children were within a range from borderline intellectual deficiency to very high intelligence; for verbal IQ this proportion was 96.8% and 92.1% had performance IQ scores within this band. The categories from low to upper-medium socioeconomic status contained 98.4% of patients' families. The likelihood of having medium to high IQ was 4.29 times greater for children with good phenylalanine control and 4.03 greater for those from higher socioeconomic strata. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment prevented mental retardation in 90.5% of the patients. Control of phenylalanine levels and higher socioeconomic status were associated with higher IQ scores.
Isabel Pimenta Spínola, Castro; Juliana Martins, Borges; Heloísa Alves, Chagas; Jacqueline, Tibúrcio; Ana Lúcia Pimenta, Starling; Marcos José Burle de, Aguiar.
Full Text Available In this study, efforts have been made to investigate the level of awareness in science and technology among selected adults in Lagos metropolis. A total of one hundred and twenty-five adults, seventy-eight males and forty-seven females randomly selected, formed the population sample. One composite questionnaire containing a hundred questions on different science areas vis-à-vis: health science, local food science, management and control of home hazards, gadgetry science, environmental science and basic facts in science and technology was the major instrument for collection of raw data. A supplementary interview schedule was drawn up based on the questionnaire and used for clarification of opinions. Both instruments were validated by experts. The data obtained were analyzed using ranking, percentage, correlation and chi-square computations. The major findings were that: all adults, irrespective of their socio-economic class need one form of science and technology or the other for self-realization; the nature of adult science and technology need for self-awareness is not related to one’s occupation and socio-economic status; there is a general desirability among adults of all classes to learn those aspects of science and technology they are deficient in; the majority of adults showed preference for distance education, that is learning through television, radio and newspapers to a more effective teacher-learner interaction or face-to-face learning process. A clarion call has therefore been made for the commencement of adult science and technology education in an informal setting, with the existing adult education centres expanded to accommodate this all important scheme for national development.
Key words: Cognitive potentials; Socio-economic status; Nigerian adults; Science; Technology; Population sample
Résumé: Dans cette étude, des efforts ont été faits pour enquêter sur le niveau de la sensibilisation en science et technologie chez les adultes sélectionnés dans la métropole de Lagos. Une somme de 125 adultes, 78 hommes et 47 femmes sélectionnées au hasard, ont formé l'échantillon de population de cette étude. Un questionnaire contenant une centaine de questions sur des différents domaines scientifiques, y compris la science de la santé, la science de l'alimentation locale, la gestion et le contrôle des dangers à la maison, la science des gadgets, la science de l'environnement et des faits de base en sciences et technologie ont été l'instrument majeur pour collectionner des données de première main. Un calendrier d'entrevue supplémentaire a été établi sur la base du questionnaire et utilisé pour la clarification des opinions. Ces deux instruments ont été validés par des experts. Les données obtenues ont été analysées en utilisant le classement, le pourcentage, la corrélation et le chi-carré calculs. Les conclusions principales étaient les suivantes: tous les adultes, indépendamment de leur classe socio-économique, ont besoin d'une forme de science et technologie pour la réalisation de soi; le besoin de conscience de soi des adultes n'est pas lié à sa profession ou son statut socio-économique; il y a un désir général chez les adultes de toutes les classes pour apprendre des aspects de la science et technologie dans lesquels ils sont déficients; la majorité des adultes a montré leur préférence pour l'enseignement à distance, c'est- à-dire l'apprentissage à travers la télévision, la radio et les journaux, à une interaction plus efficace de l'enseignant-apprenant ou un processus d'apprentissage face-à-face. Un appel a donc été fait pour le commencement de l'éducation en science et technologie des adultes dans un cadre informel, avec les centres existants d'éducation des adultes agrandis afin d'accueillir ce dispositif important pour le développement national.
Mots clés: Potentiels cognitifs; Statutx socio-
M. U. Ojuah
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective this study was to investigate the influence of clinical conditions, socioeconomic status, home environment, subjective perceptions of parents and schoolchildren about general and oral health on schoolchildren's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. Methods A sample of 515 schoolchildren, aged 12 years was randomly selected by conglomerate analysis from public and private schools in the city of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The schoolchildren were clinically examined for presence of caries lesions (DMFT and dmft index, dental trauma, enamel defects, periodontal status (presence/absence of bleeding, dental treatment and orthodontic treatment needs (DAI. The SiC index was calculated. The participants were asked to complete the Brazilian version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 and a questionnaire about home environment. Questions were asked about the presence of general diseases and children's self-perception of their general and oral health status. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to their parents inquiring about their socioeconomic status (family income, parents' education level, home ownership and perceptions about the general and oral health of their school-aged children. The chi-square test was used for comparisons between proportions. Poisson's regression was used for multivariate analysis with adjustment for variances. Results Univariate analysis revealed that school type, monthly family income, mother's education, family structure, number of siblings, use of cigarettes, alcohol and drugs in the family, parents' perception of oral health of schoolchildren, schoolchildren's self perception their general and oral health, orthodontic treatment needs were significantly associated with poor OHRQoL (p Conclusions It was concluded that the clinical, socioeconomic and home environment factors evaluated exerted a negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life of schoolchildren, demonstrating the importance of health managers addressing all these factors when planning oral health promotion interventions for this population.
Paula Janice S
Studies suggest that students have difficulty connecting science to their own lives (Lee & Fradd, 1998; Aikenhead, 1996). This difficulty results in a decline in students' attitudes toward science, leading to low science achievement. These factors result in fewer students interested in careers related to science, specifically for urban, minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that a ten day informal learning immersion science camp had on the participants, both urban, low-socioeconomic status middle school students and teacher-leaders. The students were incoming seventh grade students involved in a community-based scholar program designed to recruit and support socioeconomically disadvantaged, academically talented students. The teacher-leaders were professional educators working toward an advanced degree. This ten day camp included seven visits to different sites and complementary classroom-based activities. The purpose of the camp was to immerse the students in informal learning environments that affect their daily lives. Students and teacher-leaders visited facilities that provide public utility services (i.e. power plant, sewage treatment facility, and water company), zoo, large commercial cave system, planetarium, university based electrooptics and nanotechnology center, and forest and arboretum. These site visits were supported by activities that were provided by teacher-leaders. A model used as a framework for studying learning in the context of this ten day camp as Falk and Dierking's (2000) Contextual Model for Learning. This model described three basic intersecting elements that contributed to learning within the given context. The three contexts (personal, sociocultural, and physical) intersect affecting the learning that takes place. A mixed methodology design was employed to determine the impact of the camp on students' content knowledge and attitudes toward science. Qualitative data were collected to determine the impact of the camp on teacher-leaders' content knowledge and pedagogy. A variety of data sources were used including data collected before, during, and immediately following the camp as well as data collected several months after the conclusion of the camp. Results of the study indicated that both students and teacher-leaders were positively impacted by their experience at the camp. Data from the content assessments, interviews, and student journals indicate that students' content knowledge was enhanced and expanded through the learning of factual knowledge as well as understanding of the importance of broad scientific processes. Through their new experiences, students developed an awareness of the natural world and a foundation for future learning. Students also developed an awareness of science as it applies to their own lives. Data from students' letters to themselves, student interviews, and parent focus groups indicated that students' attitudes toward science were positively impacted through development of an increased resource appreciation, positive social experiences, and experiential sharing with others. Teacher-leader experiences with the camp also had positive results. Teacher-leaders entered the camp with a variety of unique personal contexts, and in spite of this variability each reported that this was a value-added experience for their teaching. These personal contexts helped to enhance the sociocultural context which provided a rich environment to support teacher-leader learning. Among the pedagogical impacts, teacher-leaders expressed enhanced teaching capacity through acquisition of: new classroom activities; new connections among science content; new stories and experiences to share with future classes; and new contexts for situating the understanding of science principles. Along with the positive impacts, teacher-leaders also identified and articulated several barriers to implementing site visits in their own classrooms. This camp is unique in that it is an immersion experience within informal learning contexts where seven sites were visited with
Votaw, Nikki L.
Full Text Available Post-secondary education is often seen as an important factor for individual success and is positively correlated with factors ranging from income to happiness. Unfortunately, access to higher-education varies greatly in the United States. In this paper, I examine the relationship between socioeconomic status and the post-secondary plans of current high-school students and recent high-school graduates. Through in-depth interviews, I explore the relationship between students’ socioeconomic backgrounds and their educational aspirations of students from Bay City School District in Michigan, USA. I conclude that both cultural and economic factors combine to influence the range of decisions that students make, not simply about whether or not to pursue post-secondary education, but also about how and where to pursue that education.
Brian J. Thomas
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between urbanicity and adolescent health is a critical issue for which little empirical evidence has been reported. Although an association has been suggested, a dichotomous rural versus urban comparison may not succeed in identifying differences between adolescent contexts. This study aims to assess the influence of locality size on risk behaviors in a national sample of young Mexicans living in low-income households, while considering the moderating effect of socioeconomic status (SES. Methods This is a secondary analysis of three national surveys of low-income households in Mexico in different settings: rural, semi-urban and urban areas. We analyzed risk behaviors in 15-21-year-olds and their potential relation to urbanicity. The risk behaviors explored were: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual initiation and condom use. The adolescents' localities of residence were classified according to the number of inhabitants in each locality. We used a logistical model to identify an association between locality size and risk behaviors, including an interaction term with SES. Results The final sample included 17,974 adolescents from 704 localities in Mexico. Locality size was associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, showing a similar effect throughout all SES levels: the larger the size of the locality, the lower the risk of consuming tobacco or alcohol compared with rural settings. The effect of locality size on sexual behavior was more complex. The odds of adolescent condom use were higher in larger localities only among adolescents in the lowest SES levels. We found no statically significant association between locality size and sexual initiation. Conclusions The results suggest that in this sample of adolescents from low-income areas in Mexico, risk behaviors are related to locality size (number of inhabitants. Furthermore, for condom use, this relation is moderated by SES. Such heterogeneity suggests the need for more detailed analyses of both the effects of urbanicity on behavior, and the responses--which are also heterogeneous--required to address this situation.
Gutiérrez Juan Pablo
Full Text Available Aim: To study the socio-economic status, horse feeding and management adopted by horse owners of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: Primary data was collected through specially structured proforma by personal interview method from the horse owners of Hanumangarh (50, Churu (42, Jhunjhunu (30 and Jalore (40 districts of Rajasthan, India. Results: The district (Churu and Jhunjhunu is mostly rain fed, Hanumangarh is canal-irrigated whereas Jalore is tube well irrigated. Majority of respondents engaged in horse rearing were of other backward class (OBC & general category. Literacy (% among the horse owners was more than 80% in Hanumangarh and Jhunjhunu districts, whereas it was less than 50% in Churu and Jalore districts. Majority of the respondents were maintaining other livestock along with the horses. The average dry roughages provided were 4.82±0.22, 8.143±0.348, 5.267±0.69 and 6.105±0.196kg per horse in Hanumangarh, Churu, Jhunjhunu and Jalore, respectively. The average concentrate offered was 2.81±0.138, 2.452±0.145, 2.933±0.160 and 1.950±0.200kg per horse in Hanumangarh, Churu, Jhunjhunu and Jalore, respectively. It was observed that horse owners were providing green fodder, dry roughages and concentrate depending up on the availability/production of these items in that region. Majority of horse owners were allowing covering of estrus mares between 3rd and 5th day of estrus. Paucity of quality stallions for covering the mares was observed throughout the area surveyed. The respondents had to pay between Rs. 1100/- to 5100/- as covering fee with no guarantee of conception. Most of mares were rebred during foal heat and majority of the respondents were not aware about the symptoms of estrus mare. Vaccination, insurance and use of disinfectants were not adopted in the study indicating the least awareness among the horse owners about the importance of vaccination, insurance and disinfectants. Conclusion: Horses were being maintained for ceremonial purposes and breeding, their feeding in terms of fodder (green & dry and concentrate were observed area specific and were fulfilling the minimum nutrient requirements. There was paucity of true to breed stallions in the areas studied. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 470-475
P. A. Bala
Background: Recently it has been documented that sedentary behaviour (SB) is a risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mortality, independent of level of physical activity. It is important to understand the determinants of sedentary behaviours, in particular the role of the neighbourhood, since health behaviour may be shaped by the contextual characteristics. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of small area socioeconomic deprivation (neighbourhood SES) on SB, independent of individuals’ characteristics. Furthermore to examine the cross level interaction between individual and neighbourhood SES in relation to sedentary behaviour, to show whether the effect differ among individuals of different SES. Methods: The study was based on a random sample of 49,806 adults aged 16 + who answered a questionnaire in 2010, including SB. This was combined with data on SES from national registers used at the individual level and aggregated within small neighbourhoods created to suit our investigation.This was done by use of Geographical Information System (GIS). A multilevel logistic regression including cross level interaction was performed. Results: 72 % of respondents from low SES neighbourhoods were sedentary during leisure time, corresponding to 60 % in high SES neighbourhoods. Decreasing neighbourhood SES was associated with larger OR being sedentary (OR 1.45 (1.35-1.54)), after adjusting for individual characteristics. The interaction analysis showed that individuals of low SES, being unemployed, early retired and retired, have a higher likelihood of sedentary behaviour if living in high SES neighbourhoods. Conclusions: Neighbourhood SES contribute to unhealthy behaviour. Low SES individuals living in high SES neighbourhoods are particularly at risk of unhealthy behaviour.Our findings demonstrate the importance of politicians and planners to understand health behaviour within a context.
Storgaard, Rikke Lynge; Hansen, Henning Sten
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la relación entre dos dimensiones de crianza (crianza positiva y control negativo del comportamiento) y factores psicosociales infantiles (auto-valía y problemas de conducta). Se investigó (a) si el nivel socioeconómico moderaba la relación entre crianza y el [...] funcionamiento psicosocial del niño, (b) si la crianza actuaba como mediador en la relación entre nivel socioeconómico y el funcionamiento psicosocial, por último, (c) si existían efectos de interacción entre crianza positiva y control negativo del comportamiento. La información fue obtenida de 591 niños peruanos y sus familias en zonas urbanas de Lima Metropolitana. Se utilizó Análisis de Regresión Múltiple Jerárquica con el fin de investigar los efectos directos e indirectos (mediación y moderación). Los resultados revelaron un efecto mediador de crianza positiva y control negativo del comportamiento en la relación entre el nivel socioeconómico y la auto-valía. Se discuten implicaciones sobre el importante rol desempeñado por el contexto. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between two dimensions of parenting (Positive Parenting and Negative Behavioral Control) and child psychosocial functioning, such as self-worth and problem behavior. We investigated (a) whether socioeconomic status moderates the relationship betw [...] een parenting and child psychosocial outcomes, (b) whether parenting mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in a Peruvian context and finally, (c) whether there are interaction effects between positive parenting and negative behavioral control. Information was gathered on 591 Peruvian children and their families from the normal population in urban zones of Metropolitan Lima. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate direct and indirect effects (mediation and moderation). Results revealed a significant mediation effect of positive parenting and negative behavioral control in the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-worth. Implications about the role played by context are discussed.
Denisse L., Manrique Millones; Pol, Ghesquière; Karla, Van Leeuwen.
For this report, conference proceedings, patents and other types of literature have been collected to present an account of the current status of uranium enrichment by way of chemical exchange reactions. The report further presents a new concept along with the relevant process strategy developed by the authors. The principal process of the new concept is a chemical exchange process with crown ethers, complexed or free, playing an important part in the reactions. The authors also describe their experiments carried out for establishing suitable chemical systems. (orig./PW)
Full Text Available Objetivos: Relacionar perímetro abdominal y condición socioeconómica con presión arterial (PA en comunidad urbana de Concepción. Métodos: Se midió el perímetro abdominal (PeA de 8472 residentes mayores de 15 años de edad, proporcionados por edad, género y nivel socioeconómico. La PA fue medida con normas estandarizadas, realizando dos visitas en diferentes días, la segunda si la PA era mayor de 140/90 mm Hg. Los Pe A se distribuyeron en cuartiles, relacionando cada cuartil con los respectivos promedios de presión sistólica y diastólica y se establecieron coeficientes de correlación lineal mediante "r" de Pearson entre PeA y PA. Además, se estableció la frecuencia de cada cuartil de Pe A por nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: Los Pea tuvieron la siguiente distribución (cm: 1er cuartil, 96. La prevalencia de hipertensión para niveles socioeconómicos alto, medio y bajo fue 17,9%, 19,5% y 24,5%, respectivamente. La PA promedio (mmHg en hombres y en mujeres del 1er cuartil de PeA fue 112 y 109; en el 2º cuartil 118 y 118; en el 3er cuartil 123 y 122 y en el 4º cuartil 129 y 129, respectivamente. Los coeficientes de correlación entre PeA y presión sistólica y presión diastólica resultaron significativos en ambos géneros: r = 0,343, pAim: To correlate abdominal circumference (AC and socio-economic status with blood pressure( BP in an urban community of Concepción, Chile Methods: AC was measured in 8472 subjects above 15years of age, stratified by age, gender and socio-economic status. BP was measured by standard procedures, with a repeat recording when the initial valué was > 140/90mmHg. BP was compared in quartiles of abdominal circumference and according to socio-economic status. Pearson "r" was used to correlate BP and AC Results: Cut points for quartiles of AC were 78, 87, and 96 cm. Prevalence of hypertension in high, médium and low socio-economic status was 17.9%, 19.5% and 24.5%, respectively Mean systolic BP was 112 - 109 mmHg (males - females in the first AC quartile, 118 - 118, 123-122 and 129-129 in the second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively. A significant correlation between AC and BP (systolic and diastolic was observed in both genders (r 0.345 and 0.281 for males and females, respectively, p<0.00001. 22% of low socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile compared to 28.8% in the 4th quartile. In contrast 38.9% of high socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile while 15.5% did so in the 4th quartile (p<0001. Conclusion: A positive correlation ofAC and blood pressure was shown in both genders. A greater AC in low socio-economic subjects maybe related to a higher prevalence of hypertension in this group.
Eduardo Fasce H
Drawing on the Women's Health Effects Study, a community sample of women (N = 309) who recently left an abusive partner, this study examines patterns of cumulative abuse experiences over the life course, their socioeconomic correlates, and associations with a range of health outcomes. Latent class analysis identified four groups of women with differing cumulative abuse profiles: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Dominant, Child Abuse and IPV, All Forms, and All Forms Extreme. We find a relationship pattern between cumulative abuse and socioeconomic circumstances, and significantly worse health outcomes among women with the All Forms Extreme profile. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25576314
Davies, Lorraine; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Willson, Andrea; Varcoe, Colleen; Wuest, Judith; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Scott-Storey, Kelly
Full Text Available Abstract Background Potential links between eczema and obstructive pulmonary diseases have been postulated. Previously we have reported the prevalence of upper and lower respiratory diseases and the relation to environmental and socio-economic factors in a randomly selected adult population in southern Sweden using a postal questionnaire. In the present study we wanted to analyse the prevalence of eczema and its relation to socio-economic status, heredity factors and environmental factors in an adult population. Methods Self-reported eczema, upper and lower respiratory symptoms, asthma and Chronic Bronchitis Emphysema (CBE were examined in 12,071 adults, aged 20–59 years, living in southern Sweden by using a postal questionnaire. There were comparable numbers of males and females in all age groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis (forward conditional was applied to estimate the association between the proposed risk factors (heredity, self-reported asthma and CBE, nasal symptoms, socio-economic group, environmental factors, age, gender and smoking habits and self-reported eczema. Results The response rate was 70.1%. In all, 1240 subjects (14.6% stated that they had eczema. In all age cohorts self-reported eczema was more frequently reported by women than by men (p Conclusions In this epidemiological study we see that self-reported eczema is a common disease in an adult population especially among women. Eczema seems to be linked to environment factors, obstructive pulmonary diseases and rhinitis.
Full Text Available The current study focuses on the impact of parent’s socioeconomic status on parental involvement in their child’s education at home. Forty Indian students studying in one the best performance- based National Type Tamil Schools in the state of Kedah, Malaysia were chosen based on purposive sampling. The sample comprised 10 students from Year Two, 10 students from Year Three, 10 students from Year Four and 10 students from Year Five. Those were the high achievement students identified based on the previous final year school examination results. Questionnaires were used by the researcher to obtain quantitative data related to the parent’s socioeconomic background and their involvement strategies in their children’s education at home from the students’ parent. In addition, in-depth interviews with twenty students, that is, five students from each Year were conducted to gather information on their parent’s involvement. The findings of this study indicate that most parents are from a higher socioeconomic background and they show a high degree of involvement in most of the involvement strategies at home to ensure their child’s educational success. Moreover, the economic and academic capital among the middle-class parents serve to enhance their understanding and knowledge on the actual values that need to be placed on their child’s education. As a result, these children gain in terms of good skills, behaviour and values, all of which are crucial to their academic success.
Suresh Kumar N Vellymalay
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1 construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2 estimate concentration indices (CI to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3 perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa.
Utilizes language data from the 1940 Census Public Law Sample to measure the socioeconomic impact of a foreign mother tongue by comparing second-generation Germans who grew up speaking German and English, respectively. Results show that the disadvantages of a foreign mother tongue proved to be negligible for this group. (GR)
Kamphoefner, Walter D.
At every five-yearly census, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) recalculates both the SEIFA (Socio-economic Indexes for Areas) indexes and also recalibrates the borders and sizes of the geographic areas from which these SEIFA measurements are derived. Further, over time, the composition of geographic areas may change, due to urban renewal…
Lim, Patrick; Karmel, Tom
The extent to which school neighbourhood affects teachers' work commitment is poorly known. In the current study, we investigated whether school neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics predicted teachers' organizational and professional commitment. Primary school teachers (n?=?1042) responded to surveys in 2000-2001 (baseline) and…
Linnansaari-Rajalin, Terhi; Kivimäki, Mika; Ervasti, Jenni; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna
This study aimed to explore the structural contributions of socioeconomic status (SES), comorbidity, and activity limitation to the healthy life expectancy (HALE) of Japanese suburban elderly. A questionnaire survey was distributed to all residents aged 65 years and older in Tama City, Tokyo, in 2001; a follow-up study was conducted in 2004; and individual vital status data from the municipal residents' registry were tracked until 2007. In all, 7,905 respondents were included for analysis. Data analysis was performed by structural equation modeling (SEM). The data were well fit by the models, and HALE was found to be well explained by SES, comorbidity, and activity limitation (R (2) = .59 for men and R (2) = .71 for women). In conclusion, elderly people with higher SES were more likely to live longer with good self-rated health, via living with less chronic diseases and better performance in daily living activities, especially for elderly women. PMID:24652922
Yang, Suwen; Hoshi, Tanji; Wang, Shuo; Nakayama, Naoko; Kong, Fanlei
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys conducted in parallel by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2004-05. Results Current asthma prevalence was higher for Indigenous than non-Indigenous people in every age group. After adjusting for age and sex, main language and place of residence were significantly associated with asthma prevalence in both populations. Traditional SES variables such as education, income and employment status were significantly associated with asthma in the non-Indigenous but not the Indigenous population. For example, age-and sex-adjusted relative odds of asthma among those who did not complete Year 10 (versus those who did was 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.0-1.5 in the non-Indigenous population versus 1.0 (95% CI 0.8-1.3 in the Indigenous population. Conclusions The socioeconomic patterning of asthma among Indigenous Australians is much less pronounced than for other chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and contrasts with asthma patterns in the non-Indigenous population. This may be due in part to the episodic nature of asthma, and the well-known challenges in diagnosing it, especially among people with limited health literacy and/or limited access to health care, both of which are more likely in the Indigenous population. It may also reflect the importance of exposures occurring across the socioeconomic spectrum among Indigenous Australians, such as racism, and discrimination, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence.
This study explored the association of socioeconomic status with individuals' perception of their body image (BI) and body weight (BW) among adults in a sub-urban Nigerian population. The cross-sectional sample comprised 1521 residents (775 males and 746 females) of the town of Nnewi. Perceived BI was assessed using figural representations of different sizes for males and females. Perceived BW was determined by presenting participants with BW category options to choose from. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from objectively measured BW and height using standardized procedures. Actual BW categories were derived from participants' BMIs using WHO criteria. Perceived BI and BW differed from actual BW among unskilled and non-tertiary males (p<0.001) and female (p<0.001 to p<0.04) in all BW categories whereas these variables differed (p<0.001) among skilled and tertiary males and females in normal weight, overweight and obese categories. Perceived BW differed (p<0.001) from actual BW among unskilled and non-tertiary males in underweight, overweight and obese categories whereas these variables differed (p<0.001) among unskilled and non-tertiary females, skilled and tertiary males and females in overweight and obese categories. Underweight 'unskilled' and 'non-tertiary' males perceived their BI to be different from their actual BW (p<0.001). Overweight and obese 'skilled' and 'unskilled', and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary', males and females perceived their BI and BW to be different from their actual BW (p<0.001). Significant differences in perceived BI existed between 'skilled' and 'unskilled' (p<0.001), and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary' (p=0.005), overweight males, and between 'skilled' and 'unskilled' (p<0.001), and 'tertiary' and 'non-tertiary' (p=0.008), normal-weight females. The 'skilled' participants had a lower risk of perceiving a larger BI (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.41-0.64; p<0.001) and larger BW (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.96; p=0.03) than the 'unskilled' participants. The 'tertiary' participants had a lower risk of perceiving a larger BI (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.40-0.63; p<0.001) and larger BW (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.95; p=0.02) than the 'non-tertiary' participants. After adjusting for possible confounders, all the risks became insignificant except for perception of BI by the 'skilled' participants (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.99; p=0.04). Individuals in the different occupational and educational categories perceived their BI differently but their BW similarly. Given the same BMI, age, perceived ideal BI and sex, only occupation is found to be associated with perception of BI. PMID:23721833
Maruf, Fatai A; Akinpelu, Aderonke O; Udoji, Nwannedimma V
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a great variability in licit prescription drug use in the population and among patients. Factors other than purely medical ones have proven to be of importance for the prescribing of licit drugs. For example, individuals with a high age, female gender and low socioeconomic status are more likely to use licit prescription drugs. However, these results have not been adjusted for multi-morbidity level. In this study we investigate the odds of using licit prescription drugs among individuals in the population and the rate of licit prescription drug use among patients depending on gender, age and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multi-morbidity level. Methods The study was carried out on the total population aged 20?years or older in Östergötland county with about 400 000 inhabitants in year 2006. The Johns Hopkins ACG Case-mix was used as a proxy for the individual level of multi-morbidity in the population to which we have related the odds ratio for individuals and incidence rate ratio (IRR for patients of using licit prescription drugs, defined daily doses (DDDs and total costs of licit prescription drugs after adjusting for age, gender and socioeconomic factors (educational and income level. Results After adjustment for multi-morbidity level male individuals had less than half the odds of using licit prescription drugs (OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.40-0.42 compared to female individuals. Among the patients, males had higher total costs (IRR 1.14 (95% CI 1.13-1.15. Individuals above 80?years had nine times the odds of using licit prescription drugs (OR 9.09 (95% CI 8.33-10.00 despite adjustment for multi-morbidity. Patients in the highest education and income level had the lowest DDDs (IRR 0.78 (95% CI 0.76-0.80, IRR 0.73 (95% CI 0.71-0.74 after adjustment for multi-morbidity level. Conclusions This paper shows that there is a great variability in licit prescription drug use associated with gender, age and socioeconomic status, which is not dependent on level of multi-morbidity.
Full Text Available Due to the importance of initial schooling in the later reading and writing learning development, in this descriptive research, it is identified the maturity level of children literacy who attend the grade transition in three educational institutions in different socio-economic statuses of Barranquilla. The evaluation was conducted to 62 children (the entire population of the study. This was based, in one hand, on the maturity model in the application of ABC Filho L. Test, which assesses the maturity by means of 8 subtests that reference the necessary components for the acquisition of reading and writing. On the other hand, and from a constructivist perspective, it was appreciated the approach and recognition that children show while they face literacy through the application of a technique called “Hypothesis Testing” based on Teberosky and Ferreiro’s theoretical assumptions. The results indicate that half of the study population is at a medium level of literacy maturity and, between the third and fourth level of alphabetic writing system acquisition. In these results, children of institutions of middle and high socio-economic status predominated (45%.
Aflatoxin M1 (AF M1), a hydroxylated metabolite of AF B1, is an important toxin that can contaminate the milk of lactating mothers. A correlation study was conducted to determine the relationship between AF M1 content of breast milk, dietary exposure to AF B1 and socioeconomic status of lactating mothers in the three Senatorial districts of Ogun State, Nigeria. Equal amounts of breast milk (20 ml) and food rations (40 kg) obtained from 50 volunteer lactating mothers and eighty-two frequently consumed food commodities in the preceding month were used for the study. The level of contamination of the foods by AF B1 was low (0.16-0.33 ?g/kg) and differed significantly (pmilk was contaminated with AF M1 (3.49-35 ng/l) and 16% exceeded the EU limit of 25 ng/l while a 100% occurrence risk was recorded in Ogun Central Senatorial district. The socioeconomic status of the mothers also significantly influenced their dietary exposure and exposure risk of the sucklings to AF M1. PMID:23462105
Adejumo, Oloyede; Atanda, Olusegun; Raiola, Assunta; Somorin, Yinka; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Ritieni, Alberto
Full Text Available Studies show that the association between socio-economic status (SES and self-rated health (SRH varies in different countries, however there are not many country-comparisons that examine this relationship over time. The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of three SES measures on SRH in 29 countries according to findings in European Social Surveys (2002–2008, in order to study how socio-economic inequalities can vary our subjective state of health. In line with previous studies, income inequalities seem to be greater not only in Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian countries, but especially in Eastern European countries. The impact of education is greater in Southern countries, and this effect is similar in Eastern and Scandinavian countries, although occupational status does not produce significant differences in southern countries. This study shows the general relevance of socio-educational factors on SRH. Individual economic conditions are obviously a basic factor contributing to a good state of health, but education could be even more relevant to preserve it. In this sense, policies should not only aim at reducing income inequalities, but should also further the education of people who are in risk of social exclusion.
Aim: To examine young people’s main motive for pre-drinking in the United Kingdom, how much they drink on an event-specific night out, and whether motives or socioeconomic status (particularly their income level) explain the alcohol quantities they drink. Methods: Multilevel logit and poisson models were used on a survey of 628 people (aged 18-35) conducted on-site in 26 bars, clubs and pubs in four cities and towns. Results: Young males drink on average 9.8 and females 7.4 standard units of alcohol before a night out. Saving money is the most prevalent motive for pre-drinking. Although lower income levels cannot explain whether a young person will pre-drink on an event-specific night out, young people’s income level and their motives explain the quantities they consume. Lower-earning males who pre-drank to save money consumed larger quantities of alcohol at home and lower-earning females also pre-drank larger quantities either because they wanted to get out of control or because they wanted to be social. Conclusions: Prevention strategies likely to be effective in reducing the alcohol quantities that young people pre-drink should take into account both socioeconomic status and motives for pre-drinking.
Østergaard, Jeanette; Andrade, Stefan Bastholm
Niveles de actividad física de la población colombiana: desigualdades por sexo y condición socioeconómica / Physical activity levels among Colombian adults: Inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Las desigualdades en los niveles de actividad física son evidentes a nivel mundial. En Colombia, uno de los países más desiguales de Latinoamérica, la información es limitada; por tal razón, es imperativo conocer las disparidades en actividad física en el país para orientar el diseño d [...] e programas y políticas públicas encaminadas a promoverla. Objetivos. Estimar las prevalencias del cumplimiento de recomendaciones sobre actividad física y sus factores asociados, identificar desigualdades por sexo y condición socioeconómica en el cumplimiento de estas recomendaciones en el año 2010 y evaluar la tendencia de las prevalencias de actividad física en un período de cinco años. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un análisis secundario de la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional, 2005-2010. La muestra total incluyó 27.243 adultos. Los niveles de actividad física se midieron con el cuestionario internacional de actividad física. La condición socioeconómica se midió por el nivel del Sisbén. Resultados. La prevalencia del cumplimiento de las recomendaciones de actividad física en todos los dominios fue menor entre las mujeres. Los adultos de menor nivel socioeconómico tuvieron la menor prevalencia en "tiempo libre" y la mayor en "uso de la bicicleta como medio de transporte". Los factores asociados con el cumplimiento de las recomendaciones difirieron según el sexo y el dominio de actividad física. Las variables individuales y del hogar explicaron 13,6 % de las desigualdades por sexo y 23,2 % de las desigualdades por nivel socioeconómico. En un período de cinco años la prevalencia de "actividad física en el tiempo libre" disminuyó y aumentó en "caminar como medio de transporte". Conclusiones. Son preocupantes las bajas prevalencias de cumplimiento de las recomendaciones sobre actividad física en el tiempo libre en las mujeres y las personas de menor nivel socioeconómico. En futuras intervenciones para incrementar los niveles de actividad física deberán considerarse las desigualdades por sexo y condición socioeconómica, así como sus factores asociados. Abstract in english Introduction: Worldwide studies show inequalities in physical activity levels related to socio-demographic characteristics. In Colombia, among the countries in Latin America with the highest inequality, the evidence related to inequalities in physical activity is limited. It is imperative to identif [...] y disparities in physical activity in the country, to guide the design of public policies aimed at promoting physical activity. Objectives: 1) To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of meeting physical activity recommendations; 2) to assess inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status in meeting physical activity recommendations, and 3) to assess the trends in physical activity prevalence within a five-year period. Materials and methods: A secondary analysis of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey was conducted. The sample included 27,243 adults. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure leisure time and transport domains. Socioeconomic status was measured by the Sisben level. Results: Compared to men, women were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations in all domains. Compared to adults from high socioeconomic-status households, low socioeconomic-status adults had a lower prevalence of meeting physical activity recommendations during leisure time and the highest prevalence of using a bicycle for transport. The factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations differed by gender and physical activity domain. Household and individual variables explained 13.6% of the inequalities observed by gender, and 23.2% of the inequalities by socioeconomic status. In a five-year period, the prevalence of physical activity in leisure time decreased, while the physical activity of walking for transport increased and biking for transport did not change. Conclu
Silvia, González; Óscar, Lozano; Andrea, Ramírez.
Purpose. We investigated acute endophthalmitis incidence following cataract surgery vis-a-vis the current technological and postoperative care changes in higher and lower socioeconomic categories of patients in South India. Methods. In a retrospective case control study, we analyzed 62 cases of acute endophthalmitis and 5 controls for each endophthalmitis case from 46,095 cataract surgeries done between years 1993 and 1998. The time period covered the transition of surgical technique and afte...
Taraprasad Das; Anjli Hussain; Thomas Naduvilath; Savitri Sharma; Subhadra Jalali; Majji, Ajit B.
Neighborhood characteristics, such as healthy food availability, have been associated with consumption of healthy food. Little is known about the influence of the local food environment on other dietary choices, such as the decision to consume organic food. We analyzed the associations between organic produce consumption and demographic, socioeconomic and neighborhood characteristics in 4,064 participants aged 53–94 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using log-binomial regression ...
Curl, Cynthia L.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Joel D.; Moore, Kari; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Diez-roux, Ana V.
Full Text Available Olatunde Aremu School of Health, Sport, and Bioscience, Health Studies Field, University of East London, London, United Kingdom Background: Contraceptives are one of the most cost effective public health interventions. An understanding of the factors influencing users' preferences for contraceptives sources, in addition to their preferred methods of contraception, is an important factor in increasing contraceptive uptake. This study investigates the effect of women’s contextual and individual socioeconomic positions on their preference for contraceptive sources among current users in Nigeria. Methods: A multilevel modeling analysis was conducted using the most recent 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years old. The analysis included 1,834 ever married women from 888 communities across the 36 states of the federation, including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. Three outcome variables, private, public, and informal provisions of contraceptive sources, were considered in the modeling. Results: There was variability in women's preferences for providers across communities. The result shows that change in variance accounted for about 31% and 19% in the odds of women's preferences for both private and public providers across communities. Younger age and being from the richest households are strongly associated with preference for both private and public providers. Living in rural areas and economically deprived neighborhoods were the community level determinants of women's preferences. Conclusion: This study documents the independent association of contextual socioeconomic characteristics and individual level socioeconomic factors with women's preferences for contraceptive commodity providers in Nigeria. Initiatives that seek to improve modern contraceptive uptake should jointly consider users’ preferences for sources of these commodities in addition to their preference for contraceptive type.Keywords: abortion, contraceptive, multilevel choice, Nigeria, preference, socioeconomic disadvantaged
Full Text Available We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI, the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.
James N. Blignaut
This paper describes the status of the pilot system on the distributed database for advanced nuclear materials named Data-Free-Way. Trials of utilization of the system focused on the issues relating to fusion materials are mentioned. A relational database management system was utilized to unify useful data of material properties into the distributed database. The other software such as operating system, network utilities, etc. were also incorporated. To make retrieval rationally and promptly, a menu for selecting data items was expanded for the system. High-temperature tensile properties of type 316 stainless steel irradiated in various reactors were analyzed. The results indicated that correlation between postirradiation total elongation versus amounts of displacement damage was better than that between postirradiation total elongation versus helium accumulation in the alloys. Furthermore, correlation coefficients of the data between those two variables were better at higher temperature ranges. ((orig.))
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the level of motor abilities of 7-9-year-old girls and boys in relation to the socioeconomic status of their families . Material and Methods: The research was conducted in 12 primary schools in two regions of Poland namely of Warmia & Mazury and Pomorskie voivodeship, on the total of 1205 pupils (584 boys and 621 girls aged 7-9. Selected economic factors such as the type of school (public or private, monthly income per household member, and the number of children in a given family were accepted as the independent variables. The factors behind social status included the place of residence and parents’ educational background. In order to determine the level of motor abilities, 13 motor tests were applied. Results: The research revealed that motor tests such as 1 and 3 min. Burpee test and medicine ball throws (forward and backward appeared to show the biggest differences in the level of motor abilities of the children whose social and economic status varied. The results of these tests as well as those of the shuttle run were significantly higher for the girls from the families of high social status than for the boys of low social status. Social status to a greater extent than economic one differentiated the tested motor abilities, especially in the case of the girls from families marked by high social status, who scored better than boys. The exception is the skipping with clapping of hands – 8 s trial, which differentiated only the tested categories of economic status, especially when referred to the girls. Conclusions: Owing to the small number of significant differences between high and low social and economic status in both sex groups in the motor tests applied, it can be assumed that in the less developed, agriculture and tourism-oriented areas there has occurred blurring of the differences in the level of children’s motor abilities depending on their social and economic status.
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status is known to influence the prevalence, severity and mortality of obstructive lung diseases, but it is uncertain whether it affects the use of diagnostic spirometry in patients initiating treatment for these conditions. The objective of this paper was to examine a possible association between education, income, labour market affiliation, cohabitation status and having spirometry performed when initiating medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study. Danish national registers were linked, retrieving data on prescriptions, spirometry testing, socioeconomic and demographic variables in all first time users of medication targeting obstructive lung disease in 2008. RESULTS: A total of 37,734 persons were included and approximately half of the cohort had spirometry performed. Among medication users under 65 years of age, being unemployed was significantly associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed, the strongest association was seen in men (OR = 0.82, CI = 0.73-0.91). Medium income was associated with increased odds of having spirometry performed in men (OR = 1.18, CI = 1.06-1.30) and high educational level (>12 years) was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed in women (OR = 0.86, CI = 0.78-0.94). Cohabitation status was not associated with having spirometry performed. Among medication users over 65 years of age, living alone was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed among men (OR = 0.78, CI = 0.69-0.88). CONCLUSION: Social inequity in spirometry testing among patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease was confirmed in this study. Increased focus on spirometry testing among elderly men living alone, among the unemployed and among women with higher education is required when initiating medication.
Koefoed, Mette M; SØndergaard, Jens
Prevention of waterborne illness is of great concern all over the world. Waterborne diseases represent significant burden of diseases in the globe. Nearly 4% of diseases are attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene, and approximately 2.2 million people die every year due to diarrheal diseases worldwide. This study was carried out to find association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age groups and gender with prevalence of water borne diseases in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A research questionnaire was designed with questions related to demographic data, drinking water data and prevalence of water borne disease. The research questionnaire was interviewed to different respondents above 18 years of age randomly selected from different settings of Rawalpindi and Islamabad belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Data was analysed by employing cross tabulation and chi-square test with help of statistical software. The more frequent age group (47%) was 30 to 45 years. Proportion of diarrhea in females and males of middle age group were calculated as 36.11 % and 11.11 %, respectively. The second more frequent reported disease was jaundice with 15.9% of the target population being males and 16.7% females. Diarrhea was observed to be the major waterborne disease constituting 41 % of the population with poor hygiene practices. The hygienic practices were significantly associated with waterborne diseases (P = <0.001). Waterborne diseases were also, associat). Waterborne diseases were also, associated with financial status (P=0.02) and literacy rate (p=0.03). The current study concludes that improvement in the hygienic conditions and hygienic practices will playa pivotal role to prevent faeco-oral infections and reduce the waterborne disease burden. In targeted areas due to poor economic conditions, the population failed to achieve better hygienic practices and therefore there is a need to strengthen water filtration system and awareness of hygienic routine practices in these areas. (author)
Abstract Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs) surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes surve...
Brunsdon Chris; Comber Alexis J; Radburn Robert
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES is an important determinant of population health. Explanatory approaches on how SES determines health have so far included numerous factors, amongst them psychosocial factors such as social relationships. However, it is unclear whether social relationships can help explain socioeconomic differences in general subjective health. Do different aspects of social relationships contribute differently to the explanation? Based on a cohort study of middle and older aged residents (45 to 75 years from the Ruhr Area in Germany our study tries to clarify the matter. Methods For the analyses data from the population-based prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study is used. As indicators of SES education, equivalent household income and occupational status were employed. Social relations were assessed by including structural as well as functional aspects. Structural aspects were estimated by the Social Integration Index (SII and functional aspects were measured by availability of emotional and instrumental support. Data on general subjective health status was available for both baseline examination (2000–2003 and a 5-year follow-up (2006–2008. The sample consists of 4,146 men and women. Four logistic regression models were calculated: in the first model we controlled for age and subjective health at baseline, while in models 2 and 3, either functional or structural aspects of social relationships were introduced separately. Model 4 then included all variables. As former studies indicated different health effects of SES and social relations in men and women, analyses were conducted with the overall sample as well as for each gender alone. Results Prospective associations of SES and subjective health were reduced after introducing social relationships into the regression models. Percentage reductions between 2% and 30% were observed in the overall sample when all aspects of social relations were included. The percentage reductions were strongest in the lowest SES group. Gender specific analyses revealed mediating effects of social relationships in women and men. The magnitude of mediating effects varied depending on the indicators of SES and social relations. Conclusions Social relationships substantially contribute to the explanation of SES differences in subjective health. Interventions for improving social relations which especially focus on socially deprived groups are likely to help reducing socioeconomic disparities in health.
Estrato Socioeconómico y Habilidades Cognitivas en Niños Escolarizados: Variables Predictoras y Mediadoras / Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Skills in School-Age Children: Predicting and Mediating Variables
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito del estudio fue analizar el efecto del estrato socioeconómico (ESE) y de la edad sobre el desempeño en tareas de lenguaje, atención y memoria de niños escolarizados y examinar las variables socioeconómicas que predicen su ejecución. Se seleccionó una muestra intencionada de 228 niños ar [...] gentinos de 8 a 11 años de edad de dos ESE (bajo y medio). Se empleó análisis multivariado de varianza y análisis de regresión jerárquica. Los resultados indicaron un efecto significativo del ESE y de la edad sobre las tareas cognitivas evaluadas. De las variables socioeconómicas analizadas, el nivel de instrucción de la madre (NIM) fue el principal predictor del desempeño cognitivo del niño. Además, el NIM explicó un porcentaje de la varianza del desempeño obtenido por el niño, aun después de controlar su edad y nivel de lenguaje comprensivo. Se discuten los resultados en función de la influencia del ESE sobre el desempeño cognitivo y de los posibles factores predictores y mediadores de esta asociación. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and age on school-age children's performance in language, attention, and memory tasks and to examine the socioeconomic variables that predict their execution. An intentional sample of 228 Argentinean children aged 8-11 y [...] ears from two SES (low and medium) was used. Multivariate analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis were employed. Results revealed a significant effect of SES and age on the cognitive functions studied. Based on the socioeconomic variables analyzed, maternal instruction level (MIL) was found to be the main predictor of the child's cognitive performance. In addition, MIL explained a percentage of variance in the child's performance, even after controlling for the child's age and receptive language level. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of SES on cognitive performance and the possible predicting and mediating factors of this association.
Vanessa, Arán Filippetti.
Estrato Socioeconómico y Habilidades Cognitivas en Niños Escolarizados: Variables Predictoras y Mediadoras Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Skills in School-Age Children: Predicting and Mediating Variables
Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue analizar el efecto del estrato socioeconómico (ESE y de la edad sobre el desempeño en tareas de lenguaje, atención y memoria de niños escolarizados y examinar las variables socioeconómicas que predicen su ejecución. Se seleccionó una muestra intencionada de 228 niños argentinos de 8 a 11 años de edad de dos ESE (bajo y medio. Se empleó análisis multivariado de varianza y análisis de regresión jerárquica. Los resultados indicaron un efecto significativo del ESE y de la edad sobre las tareas cognitivas evaluadas. De las variables socioeconómicas analizadas, el nivel de instrucción de la madre (NIM fue el principal predictor del desempeño cognitivo del niño. Además, el NIM explicó un porcentaje de la varianza del desempeño obtenido por el niño, aun después de controlar su edad y nivel de lenguaje comprensivo. Se discuten los resultados en función de la influencia del ESE sobre el desempeño cognitivo y de los posibles factores predictores y mediadores de esta asociación.The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of socioeconomic status (SES and age on school-age children's performance in language, attention, and memory tasks and to examine the socioeconomic variables that predict their execution. An intentional sample of 228 Argentinean children aged 8-11 years from two SES (low and medium was used. Multivariate analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis were employed. Results revealed a significant effect of SES and age on the cognitive functions studied. Based on the socioeconomic variables analyzed, maternal instruction level (MIL was found to be the main predictor of the child's cognitive performance. In addition, MIL explained a percentage of variance in the child's performance, even after controlling for the child's age and receptive language level. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of SES on cognitive performance and the possible predicting and mediating factors of this association.
Vanessa Arán Filippetti
Objectives. To evaluate the socio-economic correlates of overweight and obesity among Inuit undergoing rapid cultural changes. Study design. A cross-sectional health survey of 2,592 Inuit adults from 36 communities in the Canadian Arctic. Methods. Main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, respectively) and as characteristics were similar, groups were combined into an at-risk BMI category (BMI>25 kg/m2). Logistic regression was used to ...
Natalia Zienczuk; Egeland, Grace M.
Abstract Background In diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and microvascular complications. We evaluated cigarette smoking in people with diabetes mellitus in a socio-economically deprived area. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of people registered with diabetes mellitus at 29 general practices in inner London. Responses were analysed for 1,899 (64%) respondents out of 2,983 eligible.<...
Jec, Sedgwick; Mc, Gulliford; Aj, Pearce
Caregiver mental health is widely considered to be an important factor influencing children's asthma symptoms. The present study aimed to examine key factors that contribute to caregiver mental health in pediatric asthma with a Chinese sample. Two hundred participants reported their family socioeconomic status (SES), proneness to shame, asthma symptoms control of their child, family functioning, and their depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggested that low family SES, low family functioning, and a high level of shame proneness were associated with high levels of anxiety and depression for caregivers. Family functioning mediated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver mental health and also moderated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver depression. This study highlights the importance of reducing experience of shame and enhancing family functioning in families affected by pediatric asthma. PMID:25201057
Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli; Zhang, Xuxia; Wang, Yuyin
Alcohol sales in Stockholm County decreased by 18 per cent from 1976 to 1981. The socioeconomic status of inpatients treated for alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, alcohol intoxication, liver cirrhosis, and pancreatitis was studied by linking data from the National Housing and Population Censuses in 1975 and 1980 with the inpatient care registers for 1976 and 1981. In both years, all rates were highest for people outside the labor market and lowest among white collar employees. The employment rate for those aged 25-44 years and treated in 1981 for alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, and alcohol intoxication--already low in 1975--had drifted further downward by 1980. Total rates of inpatient treatment for alcohol-related diagnoses generally declined but the gap between blue collar workers and white collar workers widened. We conclude that the goal for national alcohol policy, suggested by the WHO--a reduction of per capita consumption--should be combined with additional measures that will reach all social groups.
Romelsjö, A; Diderichsen, Finn
The present article systematically reviews the current status of neonatal research in India by examining the research articles published by Indian authors in the last 10 years. It also enlists the major challenges and proposes a few potential solutions to improve the status of neonatal research in the country. The systematic review of 574 eligible articles indicates that majority of the studies were observational in nature, facility-based, and primarily investigator-driven with no external funding, had small sample size, and were published in journals with low impact factor. Only a few select government and non-government academic institutions contributed to most studies. The major challenges include shortage of faculty, no provision for dedicated research time, inadequate knowledge/skills in research methods, lack of funding opportunities, limited access to literature, non-existence of research administrative cell, inappropriately low perks to research staff, and poor support for data management and statistical analysis. The recently revised guidelines on clinical trials involving drugs have further increased the researcher's dilemma. The potential solutions are to increase the faculty strength in medical colleges, allow dedicated research time to them, appoint dedicated research cadre with emoluments at par with clinical faculty, initiate formal training in research methods, create nationwide free portal for access to literature, facilitate development of good protocols through technical guidance at all stages, make the process of funding quick and transparent, and to promote collaborative trans-disciplinary research. Experts from different domains should come together and formulate evidence based research priorities. Regulatory mechanisms should be kept proportionate to plausible risks of research, and detailed ethical guidelines for research in children should be formulated. And last but not least, harnessing postgraduate thesis potential to answer simple and relevant clinical questions in a methodologically rigorous way is the need of the hour. PMID:25223863
Gupta, Shuchita; Chaurasia, Suman; Sankar, M Jeeva; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K; Agarwal, Ramesh
Full Text Available Life expectancy was well known to associate with lifestyle habits, socioeconomic condition, and three health-related dimensions (physical, mental and social health status. However, the causal effect relationship among these variables remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the causal relationships among health and life conditions, socioeconomic status, dietary and lifestyle habits and three health-related dimensions in elderly urban dwellers in Tokyo, Japan. Of 16,462 eligible elderly individuals aged 65 years and older, 13,195 participants responded to the questionnaire survey conducted in September 2001 (a response rate of 80.2%. A follow-up survey was conducted in September 2004 and a total of 8162 survivors were followed until the end of August 2007 through the municipal resident's registry. Exploratory factor analysis defined five latent variables based on the 13 observed variables. From a cross-lagged effects variation model using structural equation modeling, causal relationships were analyzed using longitudinal data obtained at the 2001 and 2004 survey and the number of survival days between 2004 and 2007. After estimating a best-fit model, we discovered that health and life conditions were not determined by current dietary and lifestyle habits, which many studies showed. However, the conditions were more directly affected by three health-related dimensions three years earlier, and indirectly affected by educational attainment and previous annual income as well. The current model suggests that it might be of great importance for elderly individuals to emphasize the maintenance of psychological well being, physical activity, social communication and participation, as well as income, rather than focusing on improvements in diet and health-related lifestyles per se.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Consistent with global trends, the prevalence of obesity is increasing among Norwegian adults. This study aimed to investigate individual trends in BMI (kg/m2 by age, gender, and socio-economic status over an 11-year period. Methods A cohort of 1169 adults (n = 581 men; n = 588 women self-reported BMI during a general health interview twice administered in two regions in Norway. Results Average BMI increased significantly from 23.7 (SD = 3.4 to 25.4 (SD = 3.8, with equivalent increases for both genders. Proportion of obesity (BMI ? 30 increased from 4% to 11% for women and 5% to 13% for men. Of those already classified as overweight or obese in 1990, 68% had gained additional weight 10 years later, by an average increase of 2.6 BMI units. The greatest amount of weight gain occurred for the youngest adults (aged 20–29 years. Age-adjusted general linear models revealed that in 1990, women with a lower level of education had a significantly greater BMI than more educated women. In both 1990 and 2001, rural men with the highest level of household income had a greater BMI than rural men earning less income. Weight gain occurred across all education and income brackets, with no differential associations between SES strata and changes in BMI for either gender or region. Conclusion Results demonstrated significant yet gender-equivalent increases in BMI over an 11-year period within this cohort of Norwegian adults. Whereas socio-economic status exerted minimal influence on changes in BMI over time, young adulthood appeared to be a critical time period at which accelerated weight gain occurred.
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los últimos años, se ha incrementado notoriamente el estudio sobre las funciones ejecutivas prefrontales en niños de edad escolar. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar la influencia de la edad y del estrato socioeconómico (ESE) en el desempeño de tareas ejecutivas y conocer cuáles son las [...] variables socioeconómicas que predicen una mejor ejecución. Participaron 254 niños de 7 a 12 años de edad de diferentes estratos socioeconómicos de la ciudad de Santa Fe, Argentina. Se utilizó una batería de pruebas ejecutivas sensibles a la función prefrontal. Los resultados obtenidos señalan un efecto significativo de la edad y del ESE sobre las funciones ejecutivas estudiadas. Los diferentes dominios del constructo siguen una trayectoria diferente según el desarrollo y el efecto del ESE. Además, en todas las funciones ejecutivas se evidencia un patrón de funcionamiento cognitivo inferior en los niños de estrato socioeconómico bajo (ESB). Finalmente, se encontró que, de las variables incluidas en el análisis, solo el nivel educativo de la madre y las condiciones de alojamiento de la familia se asocian al funcionamiento ejecutivo de los niños. Se discuten los resultados en función de la influencia que ejerce la maduración cerebral y las variables ambientales en el funcionamiento ejecutivo. Abstract in english Lately, the study of prefrontal executive functions in grade scholars has noticeably increased. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of age and socioeconomic status (SES) on executive tasks performance and to analyze those socioeconomic variables that predict a better execution. A s [...] ample of 254 children aged between 7 and 12 years from the city of Santa Fe, Argentina and belonging to different socioeconomic status were tested. A battery of executive functions sensitive to prefrontal function was used to obtain the results. These indicate a significant influence of age and SES on executive functions. The cognitive patterns follow a different path according to the development and SES effect. Besides, it is revealed a pattern of low cognitive functioning in low-SES children in all executive functions. Finally, from the variables included in this study, it was found that only the educational level of the mother and the housing conditions are associated to the children's executive function. The results are discussed in terms of the influence of the cerebral maturation and the environmental variables in the executive functioning.
VANESSA, ARÁN FILIPPETTI.
The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economic status. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants…
Raju, P. Mohan; Asfaw, Abebech
Hassan district of Karnataka (India) plays an important role of providing processing grade potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) during September to December months when there is real dearth of such potatoes in the country. However, shallow soils, low soil carbon, inadequate irrigation water (126% cropping intensity in study area) and heat stress have been bothering farmers of this area for a long time. In addition, severe late blight infestations during recent years have played havoc for Potato farmers, dragging average potato productivity in the area to sub seven tonne/ hectare levels. Current study was carried out to analyse socio-economics of potato farmers in Hassan district of Karnataka so that policy makers and development agencies take right decisions towards upliftment of potato farmers of this area. District wise annual compound growth rates (ACGRs) of potato area, production and productivity were estimated for the period during 1999-00 to 2009-10. During this period, potato area in Hassan district expanded at 11.5% ACGR, the corresponding production and productivity figures decelerated by 2 and 12%, respectively. The study of various socio-economic factors revealed that the sampled households were deprived of even the basic household necessities such as food security (33% total and 65% landless labourer respondents), personal water connection (72% respondents) and toilets (68% respondents). Potato contract farming arrangements between potato farmers and the leading contractor, PepsiCo India were also studied. This article recommends enhanced emphasis of Indian government on irrigation development under various rural development schemes and consolidation of land holdings in order to facilitate farm mechanization and improved agricultural profitability. (author)
Obesidade e sobrepeso em adolescentes: relação com atividade física, aptidão física, maturação biológica e "status" socioeconômico / Obesity and overweight in adolescents: relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, biological maturity and socioeconomic status
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo relaciona atividade física (AF), aptidão física (AptF), maturação biológica e "status" socioe-conômico (ESE) com as prevalências de risco ponderal de adolescentes. Foi desenvolvido no Concelho de Santo Tirso, região norte de Portugal e amostrou 961 alunos (463 meninos e 498 meninas) com [...] idades variando entre os 11 e os 18 anos. O índice de massa corporal foi utilizado para estabelecer o "status" ponderal com base nos pontos de corte propostos por COLE et al. A AF foi avaliada através do questionário de Baecke e a AptF com quatro testes da bateria Fitnessgram. O ESE foi estimado a partir do acesso aos escalões atribuídos pela Ação Social Escolar e a maturação biológica a partir do "offset" maturacional. A análise estatística foi efetuada nos "softwares" Pepi versão 4.0 e SPSS 18.0. O nível de significância foi mantido em 5%. Seis por cento dos alunos eram obesos e 19,5% tinham sobrepeso; meninos e meninas têm prevalências semelhantes de sobrepeso e obesidade. Os níveis médios de AF foram baixos a moderados independentemente do sexo ou "status" ponderal. Os meninos eram mais ativos que as meninas (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to relate physical activity, physical fitness, maturation and socioeconomic status with the prevalence of ponderal risk in adolescents. This was a transversal study made in the Council of Santo Tirso in the north of Portugal. The sample consisted of 961students (463 boys an [...] d 498 girls), aged 11 to 18. Body mass index was used to establish ponderal status based on the cut points from COLE et al. Physical activity was evaluated by Baecke's questionnaire and physical fitness with four tests from Fitnessgram battery. Socioeconomic status was ranked according to the grades assigned by state school subsidies, while biological maturation estimation was based on maturational offset. Software programs Pepi version 4.0 and SPSS 18.0 were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was kept in 5%. Six percent of the target students were obese and 19.5% had overweight. The prevalences of overweight and obesity were similar between genders. The medium levels of physical activity were low or moderate, independent of gender or ponderal status. Boys were more active than girls (p
Cláudia, Figueiredo; Daniel, Santos; Michele, Souza; André, Seabra; José, Maia.
Asociación de hábitos alimentarios y estado nutricional con el nivel socioeconómico en adultos mayores que asisten a un Programa Municipal / Association of dietary habits and nutritional status with socioeconomic status of older adults attending a Municipal Program
Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La población de adultos mayores se viene incrementando en el país y su problemática es compleja. Es un grupo de riesgo, con problemas de salud y nutrición causados por una serie de factores, entre ellos los socioeconómicos. Objetivos: Determinar la asociación de los hábitos alimentario [...] s y estado nutricional con el nivel socioeconómico (NSE) de los adultos mayores que asisten a un Programa Municipal. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Lugar: Programa Municipal del Adulto Mayor en cuatro distritos de Lima Metropolitana. Participantes: Personas mayores de 60 años de ambos sexos. Intervenciones: Se determinó el peso y la talla (por altura de rodilla) a 115 personas mayores de 60 años que asistían constantemente al Programa Municipal. Se les aplicó una encuesta sobre hábitos alimentarios y otra para establecer el nivel socioeconómico, ambas previamente validadas. Principales medidas de resultados: Estado nutricional según índice de masa corporal, hábitos alimentarios adecuados según recomendaciones y nivel socioeconómico según categorías de la Escala de Graffar. Resultados: Se encontró una prevalencia de sobrepeso (42,6%) y obesidad (19,1%). Más de 60% presentó hábitos alimentarios inadecuados respecto al consumo de carnes (65,2%), lácteos (78,3%), menestras (87,8%), frutas y verduras (64,3%). Los adultos mayores se ubicaron principalmente en el NSE medio bajo (37%) y en el NSE medio medio (33%). El estado nutricional no tuvo una asociación estadísticamente significativa con el NSE (p=0,629), mientras que para los hábitos alimentarios, se observó asociación con el NSE respecto al consumo de carnes (p=0,003), cereales y tubérculos (p=0,038) y de frutas y verduras (p=0,001). Conclusiones: En nuestros sujetos de estudio se evidenció asociación entre los hábitos alimentarios con el NSE, pero no así para con el estado nutricional. Abstract in english Background: The population of older adults has been increasing in the country. Addressing their problems is complex. They are considered a risk group, with health and nutrition problems related to socioeconomic and other factors. Objectives: To determine the association of dietary habits and nutriti [...] onal status with socioeconomic status (SES) in older adults attending a Municipal Program. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional association study. Setting: Municipal Program for Older Adults of 4 districts in Metropolitan Lima, Peru. Participants: Adults of both sexes 60 years or over. Interventions: Weight and height were determined, and previously validated surveys on dietary habits and socioeconomic status were applied to 115 subjects who constantly attended a Municipal Program. Main outcome measures: Nutritional status according to body mass index, adequacy of eating habits according to recommendations, and socioeconomic status by Graffar's scale. Results: Overweight and obesity prevalence were respectively 42.6% and 19.1%. Over 60% had inadequate dietary habits regarding meat (65.2%), dairy (78.3%), beans (87.8%), fruits and vegetables (64.3%). Older adults were located mainly on the medium-low SES (37%) and medium-medium SES (33%). Nutritional status was not significantly associated with SES (p = 0.629). Dietary habits were significantly associated (P
Fiorella, Sánchez-Ruiz; Flor, De la Cruz-Mendoza; María, Cereceda-Bujaico; Sissy, Espinoza-Bernardo.
The session on Socioeconomic Evaluations consisted of the following seven papers: (1) Socioeconomic Considerations in Nuclear Waste Management; (2) High-Level Radioactive Waste - the Social Decision; (3) Role of Impact Assessment in Program Planning - A Social Science Perspective; (4) Social and Demographic Impacts Associated with Large-Scale Resource Developments - Implications for Nuclear Waste Repositories; (5) Economic and Fiscal Impacts of Large-Scale Development Projects - Implications for Nuclear Waste Repositories; (6) Socioeconomic Analyses of the Proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project; and (7) Existing Institutional Arrangements and Fiscal Incentives for Siting Publicly Sensitive Facilities
Obesidade e sobrepeso em adolescentes: relação com atividade física, aptidão física, maturação biológica e "status" socioeconômico Obesity and overweight in adolescents: relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, biological maturity and socioeconomic status
Full Text Available Este estudo relaciona atividade física (AF, aptidão física (AptF, maturação biológica e "status" socioe-conômico (ESE com as prevalências de risco ponderal de adolescentes. Foi desenvolvido no Concelho de Santo Tirso, região norte de Portugal e amostrou 961 alunos (463 meninos e 498 meninas com idades variando entre os 11 e os 18 anos. O índice de massa corporal foi utilizado para estabelecer o "status" ponderal com base nos pontos de corte propostos por COLE et al. A AF foi avaliada através do questionário de Baecke e a AptF com quatro testes da bateria Fitnessgram. O ESE foi estimado a partir do acesso aos escalões atribuídos pela Ação Social Escolar e a maturação biológica a partir do "offset" maturacional. A análise estatística foi efetuada nos "softwares" Pepi versão 4.0 e SPSS 18.0. O nível de significância foi mantido em 5%. Seis por cento dos alunos eram obesos e 19,5% tinham sobrepeso; meninos e meninas têm prevalências semelhantes de sobrepeso e obesidade. Os níveis médios de AF foram baixos a moderados independentemente do sexo ou "status" ponderal. Os meninos eram mais ativos que as meninas (p The aim of this study was to relate physical activity, physical fitness, maturation and socioeconomic status with the prevalence of ponderal risk in adolescents. This was a transversal study made in the Council of Santo Tirso in the north of Portugal. The sample consisted of 961students (463 boys and 498 girls, aged 11 to 18. Body mass index was used to establish ponderal status based on the cut points from COLE et al. Physical activity was evaluated by Baecke's questionnaire and physical fitness with four tests from Fitnessgram battery. Socioeconomic status was ranked according to the grades assigned by state school subsidies, while biological maturation estimation was based on maturational offset. Software programs Pepi version 4.0 and SPSS 18.0 were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was kept in 5%. Six percent of the target students were obese and 19.5% had overweight. The prevalences of overweight and obesity were similar between genders. The medium levels of physical activity were low or moderate, independent of gender or ponderal status. Boys were more active than girls (p < 0.001 but no significant differences were found between the students with obesity and overweight and normoponderal ones. On what concerns physical fitness, a high percentage of students (above 50% were considered inapt and failed the tests. Students suffering from overweight and obesity were clearly more inapt. Students with more advanced maturational offset as well as the youngest ones were more likely to present overweight and obesity but no meaningful relationship was found between socioeconomic position and ponderal status. We concluded that young students from S. Tirso had high prevalences of obesity and overweight, were relatively inactive and largely physically unfit.
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to report on socioeconomic inequality in childhood malnutrition in the developing world, to provide evidence for an association between socioeconomic inequality and the average level of malnutrition, and to draw attention to different patterns of socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition. METHODS: Both stunting and wasting were measured using new WHO child growth standards. Socioeconomic status was estimated by principal component analysis using a s...
Poel, E.; Hosseinpoor, A. R.; Speybroeck, N.; Ourti, T. G. M.; Vega, J.
Abstracts Background With regards to equity, the objective for health care systems is “equal access for equal needs”. We examined associations of predisposing, enabling and need factors with health facility utilization in areas with high HIV prevalence and few people being aware of their HIV status. Methods The data is from a population-based survey among adults aged 15years or older conducted in 2003. The current study is based on a subset of this data of a...
Zyaambo Cosmas; Siziya Seter; Fylkesnes Knut
In a gigantic step towards establishing Jordan's nuclear power program, Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) is building the first nuclear research and test reactor in the Kingdom. The new reactor will serve as the focal point for Jordan Center for Nuclear Research (JCNR), a comprehensive state of the art nuclear center not only for Jordan but for the whole region, the center will include in addition to the reactor a radioisotopes production plant, a nuclear fuel fabrication plant, a cold neutron source (CNS), a radioactive waste treatment facility, and education and training center. The JRTR reactor is the only research reactor new build worldwide in 2010, it is a 5 MW light water open pool multipurpose reactor, The reactor core is composed of 18 fuel assemblies, MTR plate type, with 19.75% enriched uranium silicide (U3Si2) in an aluminum matrix. It is reflected on all sides by beryllium and graphite blocks. Reactor power is upgradable to 10 MW with a maximum thermal flux of 1.45x1014 cm-2s-1. The reactor reactivity is controlled by four Hafnium Control Absorber Rods (CAR). Jordan Center for Nuclear Research is located in Ramtha city, it is owned by Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC), and is contracted to Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Daewoo E and C. The JCNR project is a 56 months EPC fixed price contract for the design engineering, construction, and commissioning the JCNR reactor, andn, and commissioning the JCNR reactor, and other nuclear facilities. The project presents many challenges for both the owner and the contractor, being the first nuclear reactor for Jordan, and the first nuclear export for Korea. The driving forces, present status and the way ahead will be presented in this paper. (author)
BackgroundIn recent years, adolescents¿ food habits have become a major source of concern, and substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to influence adolescents to consume more fruit and vegetables and less sweets and soft drink. Particular attention has been devoted to the social gradient in food habits, aiming to reduce dietary inequality. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated trends in teenagers¿ food habits, or investigated how dietary inequalities develop.MethodsWe used Norwegian cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001, 2005 and 2009. Food habits were identified by students¿ consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar rich soft drink. Socio-economic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data.ResultsThe analyses indicated an overall positive trend in food habits among adolescents in Norway. Students were more likely to consume fruit (OR 1.76, CI 1.61-1.92) and vegetables (OR 1.51, CI 1.37-1.66) daily in 2005 as compared to 2001, and were less likely to consume sweets (OR 0.58, CI 0.51-0.66 resp. OR 0.77, CI 0.67-0.90) and soft drink (OR 0.55, CI 0.49-0.62 resp. OR 0.84, CI 0.73-0.96) daily when comparing, respectively, 2005 with 2001 and 2009 with 2005. Across all survey years, students with higher SES were more likely to eat fruit (OR 1.47, CI 1.32-1.65) and vegetables (OR 1.40, CI 1.24-1.58) daily than did students with lower SES. Our analyses indicated that the socio-economic differences were stable in the period 2002 - 2010, with uniform improvement in fruit and vegetable consumption across all SES levels. No significant associations between SES and intake of sweets and sugar-added soft drink were found.ConclusionThe study identifies an overall improvement in diet among adolescents over a period characterized by onset of as well as ongoing initiatives targeting young people¿s food habits. However, the observed socio-economic gradient in fruit and vegetable consumption remained unchanged. PMID:25252935
Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun
Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (<1% of the cohort). Women consuming folic acid supplements above the upper level had significantly higher RBCF and plasma folate concentrations. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and B6 deficiency was very low. A quarter of the women had suboptimal folate status in the first trimester of pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies. PMID:25386981
Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Estimar la asociación entre la percepción del índice de masa corporal (IMC) y las variables socioeconómicas en adultos de México. Material y métodos. Se estudiaron 32052 adultos que participaron en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006. Se estimó la percepción incorrecta del IMC c [...] lasificando la percepción del entrevistado sobre su peso en categorías de IMC y comparándola con la que le correspondía de acuerdo con la medición real de su peso y estatura. El nivel socioeconómico se evaluó mediante los activos en los hogares. Se estimaron modelos de regresión logística y multinomial por género y categoría de IMC. Resultados. Las mujeres y hombres adultos subestiman su categoría de IMC. La probabilidad de tener una percepción correcta es menor que la probabilidad de obtener un resultado correcto sólo por azar. Los individuos con mayor nivel de escolaridad y socioeconómico tienen mayor probabilidad de percibir correctamente su IMC, particularmente en personas con sobrepeso. Conclusiones. Dado que una correcta percepción del peso se ha asociado con mayor búsqueda de su control y que nuestros resultados muestran que la población estudiada subestima su IMC, las intervenciones que provean información sobre definiciones y consecuencias del sobrepeso y la obesidad y que promuevan el monitoreo del peso corporal pueden ser benéficas. Abstract in english Objective. To estimate the association between perceived body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic variables in adults in Mexico. Materials and methods. We studied 32052 adults from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006. We estimated BMI misperception by comparing the respondent's w [...] eight perception (as categories of BMI) with the corresponding category according to measured weight and height. Misperception was defined as respondent's perception of a BMI category different from their actual category. Socioeconomic status was assessed using household assets. Logistic and multinomial regression models by gender and BMI category were estimated. Results. Adult women and men highly underestimate their BMI category. We found that the probability of a correct classification was lower than the probability of getting a correct result by chance alone. Better educated and more affluent individuals are more likely to have a correct perception of their weight status, particularly among overweight adults. Conclusions. Given that a correct perception of weight has been associated with an increased search of weight control and that our results show that the studied population underestimated their BMI, interventions providing definitions and consequences of overweight and obesity and encouraging the population to monitor their weight could be beneficial.
M, Arantxa Colchero; Yanink, Caro-Vega; Martha, Kaufer-Horwitz.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Estimar la asociación entre la percepción del índice de masa corporal (IMC) y las variables socioeconómicas en adultos de México. Material y métodos. Se estudiaron 32052 adultos que participaron en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006. Se estimó la percepción incorrecta del IMC c [...] lasificando la percepción del entrevistado sobre su peso en categorías de IMC y comparándola con la que le correspondía de acuerdo con la medición real de su peso y estatura. El nivel socioeconómico se evaluó mediante los activos en los hogares. Se estimaron modelos de regresión logística y multinomial por género y categoría de IMC. Resultados. Las mujeres y hombres adultos subestiman su categoría de IMC. La probabilidad de tener una percepción correcta es menor que la probabilidad de obtener un resultado correcto sólo por azar. Los individuos con mayor nivel de escolaridad y socioeconómico tienen mayor probabilidad de percibir correctamente su IMC, particularmente en personas con sobrepeso. Conclusiones. Dado que una correcta percepción del peso se ha asociado con mayor búsqueda de su control y que nuestros resultados muestran que la población estudiada subestima su IMC, las intervenciones que provean información sobre definiciones y consecuencias del sobrepeso y la obesidad y que promuevan el monitoreo del peso corporal pueden ser benéficas. Abstract in english Objective. To estimate the association between perceived body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic variables in adults in Mexico. Materials and methods. We studied 32052 adults from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006. We estimated BMI misperception by comparing the respondent's w [...] eight perception (as categories of BMI) with the corresponding category according to measured weight and height. Misperception was defined as respondent's perception of a BMI category different from their actual category. Socioeconomic status was assessed using household assets. Logistic and multinomial regression models by gender and BMI category were estimated. Results. Adult women and men highly underestimate their BMI category. We found that the probability of a correct classification was lower than the probability of getting a correct result by chance alone. Better educated and more affluent individuals are more likely to have a correct perception of their weight status, particularly among overweight adults. Conclusions. Given that a correct perception of weight has been associated with an increased search of weight control and that our results show that the studied population underestimated their BMI, interventions providing definitions and consequences of overweight and obesity and encouraging the population to monitor their weight could be beneficial.
M, Arantxa Colchero; Yanink, Caro-Vega; Martha, Kaufer-Horwitz.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little has been known regarding the relationship between ocular chemical injury and victims’ medical expenditure, income loss and socio-economic status changes. So we conduct this retrospective cross-sectional study in patients with ocular chemical burns in East China. Methods Fifty-six patients were enrolled and required to complete a self-report questionnaire consisting of the following contents: entire expenditure on medical treatment; the victims’ personal and household per capita income, and income loss caused by the injury; and the changes of socioeconomic status as well. Results The median expense of medical treatment was CNY 40,000 (approximately US$5,900. The medical expenditure rose significantly with increased injury severity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased frequency of surgery. More than half victims (51.8?%, 29/56 paid all or the majority of medical expense by themselves. The expense of only 5 victims was mainly paid by medical insurance, accounting for less than ten percent (8.9?%, 5/56. The victims’ personal and household per capita income both decreased significantly after the injury, with the median reduction being CNY 24,000 and CNY 7,800 (approximately US$3600 and US$1200 per year respectively. The reduction amplitude of personal and household per capita income rose with increased injury severity and prolonged time of care required. The injury caused emotional depression or anxiety in 76.8?% (43/56 victims, and the relationship with their relatives got worse in 51.9?% (29/56 patients. Moreover, only 21.4?% (12/56 patients felt that the whole society gave them care and concern after the injury, whereas 46.4?% (26/56 and 28.6?% (16/56 felt indifference or discrimination from society as a whole (X2?=?16.916, P?=?0.028. Conclusions The medical expense was a huge economic burden to most victims of ocular chemical burns, and personal and household per capita income of the victims decreased significantly after injury, both of which had a close relationship with the injury severity. Formal legislation was urgently needed to compel the employer to purchase injury or medical insurance and provide more compulsory protection to the population working in high risk occupations. In addition, psychological counseling and instruction shouldn’t be neglected in the aid and treatment of victims.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: É importante conhecer os fatores associados à odontalgia para proporcionar uma adequada intervenção e atenção a este significante problema dos serviços de saúde. O objetivo do estudo foi conhecer a prevalência de odontalgia como motivo de última consulta odontológica de ad [...] olescentes de 15 anos e verificar sua associação com fatores socioeconômicos, variáveis comportamentais e saúde bucal. MÉTODO: A amostra probabilística contou com 592 alunos de 10 escolas estaduais. A variável odontalgia foi avaliada por questionário aplicado em ambiente escolar. O exame clínico bucal foi realizado segundo critérios da Organização Mundial de Saúde e as demais variáveis foram investigadas utilizando questionários autoaplicáveis. Os dados foram tabulados no Excel e a associação entre as variáveis foram avaliadas utilizando Odds Ratio. RESULTADOS: Do total de 592 participantes, 33,44% dos adolescentes relataram a dor de origem dentária como motivo da última consulta odontológica. Após análise estatística, a odontalgia foi associada à baixa renda (p = 0,04), ao maior número de pessoas residentes no mesmo domicílio (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Knowing factors associated with dental pain is important to provide adequate intervention and attention to this major health care problem. This study aimed at understanding the prevalence of dental pain as reason for the latest dental appointment among 15-year old adolesce [...] nts and at checking its association with socioeconomic factors, behavioral variables and oral health. METHOD: The probabilistic sample was made up of 592 students of 10 state schools. Dental pain variable was evaluated by questionnaires applied at the school. Clinical oral exam was performed according to World Health Organization's criteria and remaining variables were investigated by self-applicable questionnaires. Data were classified by the Excel program and Odds Ratio was used to associate variables. RESULTS: From 592 participants, 33.44% have reported dental pain as reason for their latest dental appointment. After statistical analysis, dental pain was associated with low income (p = 0.04), higher number of people living in the same home (p
Luale Leão, Ferreira; Gustavo Antônio Martins, Brandão; Gustavo, Garcia; Ludmila da Silva Tavares, Costa; Gláucia Maria Bovi, Ambrosano; Rosana de Fátima, Possobon.
The energy debate is evolving into discussions of how to select options capable of meeting long-range social goals and how to apply the appropriate weight to the various perceptions that underlie individual opinions. The causal relationships linking personal status and attitudes is examined to see if there is a correlation between economic well-being and enthusiasm for a no-growth economy. The affluent U.S. college-educated, primarily concerned with self-actualization, show an inversion of Maslow's hierarchy of needs compared to people in developing countries. They are also in a position to express and promote theories for no-risk technology. The author suggests that these theorists be required to submit the same detailed support for their theories as is required for new energy facilities. The theory class is noted for acting upon faith rather than evidence; for ideas rather than workable plans.
The complete IMS verification system for primary and auxiliary seismic together with that of radionuclide, hydroacoustic and infrasound is plotted on a global map and Africa in particular showing its status. IMS situation in East and Southern Africa is included
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish M.I. Saldaña y Hernández, R. Gómez, J.M. Pat, J.D. Álvarez, J. Pérez, y C.F. Ortiz. 2013. Nivel socioeconómico y tecnológico de los productores de flor de corte en Tabasco, México. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):5-15. La floricultura en Tabasco, México, forma parte de un plan de diversificación para incremen [...] tar ingresos agrícolas con expectativas alentadoras. Para conocer aspectos socioeconómicos y técnico-productivos del sector, se aplicaron encuestas a productores a partir de información oficial, para generar un padrón de floricultores. Los indicadores socioeconómicos y tecnológicos utilizados, demostraron que el 38% de los productores corresponden a un nivel socioeconómico alto, 69% cuentan con tres a más de 10 años de experiencia en sus cultivos, son propietarios de su tierra 66% y tienen niveles de escolaridad superiores al promedio nacional. La mayoría de los productores no dependen exclusivamente de los ingresos de esta actividad. El promedio de ingreso por superficie cultivada es de $ 936.33 USD ha-1 año-1. El nivel tecnológico y manejo de las plantaciones es muy variado entre las unidades de producción. Los rendimientos y calidad de la producción son susceptibles de mejora a través del manejo oportuno de malezas, riego y drenaje. Las enfermedades y plagas no son limitantes por el momento. Sólo se comercializa el 11% de la producción, por lo que se requiere desarrollar el mercado nacional e internacional. No obstante, la infraestructura hidráulica, productiva y de poscosecha es insuficiente para desarrollar la actividad con miras a la exportación. Abstract in english M.I. Saldaña y Hernández, R. Gómez, J.M. Pat, J.D. Álvarez, J. Pérez, and C.F. Ortiz. 2013. The socioeconomic and technical status of cut flower producers in Tabasco, México. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):5-15. Floriculture in Tabasco, Mexico is part of a diversification and increasing agricultural income, [...] which has the potential for outstanding growth. To determine the socioeconomic status as well as the technical advancement of this sector, surveys were conducted of cut flower producers and combined with official statistics. Socioeconomic and technological indicators showed that 38% of the producers had a high standard of living and 69% of farmers had three or more years of experience in flower cultivation. Most farmers owned their land (66%), and their educational attainment was above the national average. Most of the producers did not depend exclusively on their revenues from flowers. The average income for a cultivated area was $936.33 USD ha-1 y r¹.The technological level and management of the plantations was very different among farms. The yield and quality of the production could be improved through improved handling of weeds, watering and drainage. Plant diseases and pests are not restricting growth at this time. Currently, only 11% of the production is marketed, which means that a national and international market needs to be developed. In addition, it was found that the infrastructure for watering, production and post-harvest is insufficient to develop the activity for the export market.
María I, Saldaña y Hernández; Regino, Gómez; Juan M, Pat; José D, Álvarez; Julián, Pérez; Carlos F, Ortiz.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, activity level, some health-related anthropometric variables, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status (SES of 7-11 year old boys in the city of Ardabil, Iran. Of 21 253 school boys aged 7-11 years, 766 participated in this study using the cluster sampling method. Subjects underwent standard anthropometry. One-mile test was used to evaluate ·VO2max. BMI cut-off points were used to identify weight status. Child’s TV watching and video playing daily time (TVVPT was taken for sedentary behaviour evaluation. SES and activity level were measured by standard questionnaires. Of all participants, 8.9?0(N=68 of students had CRF lower than normal and 58.6?0(N=449 of them had inadequate physical activity. There was a significant adverse relationship between ·VO2max and body mass index (BMI, waist to height ratio (WHtR, waist circumference (WC, and fat mass (FM (p<0.05. A significant direct association between SES and both FM and TVVPT was observed (p<0.05. Significantly lower physical activity and ·VO2max, and higher TVVPT were observed in the obese boys than their counterparts (p<0.05. The results of this study indicated a significant relationship between CRF and physical activity, and health-related anthropometric variables in a selected sample of 7-11 year boys. Moreover, the obese subjects had not only lower physical activity but also longer sedentary behaviour time than their counterparts.
Estado nutricional, medidas antropométricas, nivel socioeconómico y actividad física en universitarios brasileños Nutritional status, anthropometrical measurements, socio-economic status, and physical activity in Brazilian university students
Full Text Available Introducción: La actividad física y una alimentación adecuada ejercen un papel esencial al perfeccionamiento de la salud y al control de enfermedades. Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido determinar el estado nutricional a través de medidas antropométricas, nivel socioeconómico, enfermedades más comunes y tipo de actividad física, además del consumo alimentario y el lugar donde son realizadas las comidas de los estudiantes de Graduación en Nutrición de la UFPE. Material y métodos: La muestra se ha constituido de 68 alumnas del Curso de Nutrición, de distintos períodos escolares y con edades entre 18 y 27 años. El proceso de selección de la muestra ha sido por conveniencia. Las estudiantes han participado voluntariamente y han contestado a tres cuestionarios, respectivamente, sobre el nivel socioeconómico (renta familiar y posibles enfermedades que padecían, medidas de los pliegues cutáneos y tipo de actividad física practicada; registro de los alimentos consumidos y lugar donde las comidas eran realizadas. El análisis estadístico se ha realizado a través de frecuencias absolutas, porcentuales, promedios y desvío estándar. El margen de error utilizado en los tests empleados ha sido de 5%. Resultados: En cuanto a los rendimientos, han predominado los superiores a tres sueldos mínimos (86%, los padres tienen un papel determinante en el costeo del estudio (46%, seguido del padre (24%, madre (9%, marido (4%, otros responsables (10%; el 7% no han dado información. Las enfermedades más comunes eran: rinitis alérgica, amigdalitis, insomnio y constipación intestinal. El peso, estatura, el índice de masa corporal y la relación cintura cadera de las estudiantes seguían los patrones normales. La circunferencia abdominal ha variado en solo 2,57 cm entre los grupos etarios investigados. En cuanto a la práctica de actividades físicas, el 68% eran sedentarias, el 20% practicaban actividad leve y el 13% moderada. Sobre el lugar de realización de las comidas, el desayuno, en su mayoría (76%, era realizado en casa, seguido de la cena (56%. Mientras que el almuerzo (41% y la merienda 1 (34%, en la Universidad. Entre las alumnas que no han informado del lugar en el que hacían las comidas ha habido un porcentaje mayor para las grandes y menor para las pequeñas comidas. Los tipos principales de comidas consumidas han sido desayuno, almuerzo y cena (98%. Para las pequeñas comidas, los valores han sido: merienda 1 (54%, merienda 2 (61%, merienda 3 (45%. El análisis del consumo alimentario por tres días ha revelado ingestión de energía con déficit del 21% en relación a lo recomendado (p Introduction: The physical activity and adequate food plays a key role in improving health and the control of diseases. Objective: This paper aims at determining the nutritional state through antropometric measures, socioeconomic level, the most common illnesses and type of physical activity, beyond food consumption and the place where meals are taken, of under-graduate students of the Nutrition course in UFPE. Methods: The sample is constituted of 68 female students, of different periods and at ages between 18 and 27 years old. The process of selection of the sample was for convenience. The students voluntarily participated and answered three questionnaires, respectively, on their socioeconomic level (income of the family and possible illnesses they had, measures of the cutaneous folds and type of practiced physical activity; register of consumed foods and local where the meals were carried. Statistical analysis was performed by absolute frequency, percentage, average and standard deviation. The margin of error used in the testing employees was 5%. Results: In relation to the incomes, they had predominated above three minimum wages (86%, the parents have a predominant role in the expenditure of their study (46%, followed by the father (24%, mother (9%, husband (4%, other responsible ones (10%; 7% did not give information. The most common illnesses were: allergic rinite, tonsilitis, sleeple
F. Martins Bion
Estado nutricional, medidas antropométricas, nivel socioeconómico y actividad física en universitarios brasileños / Nutritional status, anthropometrical measurements, socio-economic status, and physical activity in Brazilian university students
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La actividad física y una alimentación adecuada ejercen un papel esencial al perfeccionamiento de la salud y al control de enfermedades. Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido determinar el estado nutricional a través de medidas antropométricas, nivel socioeconómico, enfermedade [...] s más comunes y tipo de actividad física, además del consumo alimentario y el lugar donde son realizadas las comidas de los estudiantes de Graduación en Nutrición de la UFPE. Material y métodos: La muestra se ha constituido de 68 alumnas del Curso de Nutrición, de distintos períodos escolares y con edades entre 18 y 27 años. El proceso de selección de la muestra ha sido por conveniencia. Las estudiantes han participado voluntariamente y han contestado a tres cuestionarios, respectivamente, sobre el nivel socioeconómico (renta familiar) y posibles enfermedades que padecían, medidas de los pliegues cutáneos y tipo de actividad física practicada; registro de los alimentos consumidos y lugar donde las comidas eran realizadas. El análisis estadístico se ha realizado a través de frecuencias absolutas, porcentuales, promedios y desvío estándar. El margen de error utilizado en los tests empleados ha sido de 5%. Resultados: En cuanto a los rendimientos, han predominado los superiores a tres sueldos mínimos (86%), los padres tienen un papel determinante en el costeo del estudio (46%), seguido del padre (24%), madre (9%), marido (4%), otros responsables (10%); el 7% no han dado información. Las enfermedades más comunes eran: rinitis alérgica, amigdalitis, insomnio y constipación intestinal. El peso, estatura, el índice de masa corporal y la relación cintura cadera de las estudiantes seguían los patrones normales. La circunferencia abdominal ha variado en solo 2,57 cm entre los grupos etarios investigados. En cuanto a la práctica de actividades físicas, el 68% eran sedentarias, el 20% practicaban actividad leve y el 13% moderada. Sobre el lugar de realización de las comidas, el desayuno, en su mayoría (76%), era realizado en casa, seguido de la cena (56%). Mientras que el almuerzo (41%) y la merienda 1 (34%), en la Universidad. Entre las alumnas que no han informado del lugar en el que hacían las comidas ha habido un porcentaje mayor para las grandes y menor para las pequeñas comidas. Los tipos principales de comidas consumidas han sido desayuno, almuerzo y cena (98%). Para las pequeñas comidas, los valores han sido: merienda 1 (54%), merienda 2 (61%), merienda 3 (45%). El análisis del consumo alimentario por tres días ha revelado ingestión de energía con déficit del 21% en relación a lo recomendado (p Abstract in english Introduction: The physical activity and adequate food plays a key role in improving health and the control of diseases. Objective: This paper aims at determining the nutritional state through antropometric measures, socioeconomic level, the most common illnesses and type of physical activity, beyond [...] food consumption and the place where meals are taken, of under-graduate students of the Nutrition course in UFPE. Methods: The sample is constituted of 68 female students, of different periods and at ages between 18 and 27 years old. The process of selection of the sample was for convenience. The students voluntarily participated and answered three questionnaires, respectively, on their socioeconomic level (income of the family) and possible illnesses they had, measures of the cutaneous folds and type of practiced physical activity; register of consumed foods and local where the meals were carried. Statistical analysis was performed by absolute frequency, percentage, average and standard deviation. The margin of error used in the testing employees was 5%. Results: In relation to the incomes, they had predominated above three minimum wages (86%), the parents have a predominant role in the expenditure of their study (46%), followed by the father (24%), mother (9%), husband (4%), other responsible o
F., Martins Bion; M. H. de, Castro Chagas; G. de, Santana Muniz; L. G., Oliveira de Sousa.
This natural experiment examines the effect of a public bicycle share program on cognitions and investigates the moderating influence of socioeconomic status on this effect. Two cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted. Intention and self-efficacy to use the public bicycle share program were assessed by questionnaire. A difference-in-differences approach was adopted using logistic regression analyses. A significant effect of the public bicycle share program was observed on intention (exposure × time; odds ratio = 3.41; 95% confidence interval: 1.50-7.73) and self-efficacy (exposure; odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval: 1.28-2.01). A positive effect on intention was observed among individuals with low income (exposure × time; odds ratio = 27.85; 95% confidence interval: 2.51-309.25). Implementing a public bicycle share program is associated with increases in intention and self-efficacy for public bicycle share use, although some social inequalities persist. PMID:25104776
Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Gauvin, Lise; Fuller, Daniel; Drouin, Louis
The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort in the study's Fortaleza, Brazil, catchment area has a population of approximately 82 300 inhabitants. Most of the households (87%) have access to clean water, 98% have electricity, and 69% have access to improved toilet/sanitation. Most childbirths occur at the hospital, and the under-5 mortality rate is 20 per 1000 live births. The MAL-ED case-control study population, identified through the Institute for the Promotion of Nutrition and Human Development (IPREDE), serves 600 000 inhabitants from areas totaling about 42% of the city of Fortaleza. IPREDE receives referrals from throughout the state of Ceará for infant nutrition, and provides services including teaching activities and the training of graduate students and health professionals, while supporting research projects on child nutrition and health. In this article, we describe the geographic, demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and environmental status of the MAL-ED cohort and case-control study populations in Fortaleza, Brazil. PMID:25305299
Lima, Aldo A M; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Soares, Alberto M; Filho, José Q; de Sousa, Francisco; Abreu, Cláudia B; Bindá, Alexandre; Lima, Ila; Quetz, Josiane; Moraes, Milena; Maciel, Bruna; Costa, Hilda; Leite, Alvaro M; Lima, Noélia L; Mota, Francisco S; Di Moura, Alessandra; Scharf, Rebecca; Barrett, Leah; Guerrant, Richard L
Full Text Available Background: Infant health inequalities responsible for high infant sicknesses and deaths in our setting could depend to a large extend on maternal inequalities like socioeconomic class (SEC, age and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Objective: To look at maternal inequalities (SEC, Age and HIV, to predict well-being of neonates during infancy. Methods: Subjects were selected using systematic random sampling. Maternal education, occupation, age and HIV status were obtained using a questionnaire; their SEC was derived using the Oyedeji’s model. Gestational age (GA of the neonates was estimated from their mother’s last menstrual period, obstetric ultrasound scan reports or the Dubowitz criteria; and birthweight (BW was determined using the basinet weighing scale, which has a sensitivity of 50 grams. Results: Ninety mother-neonatal pairs were enrolled, 47 (52.2% neonates were males and 43 (47.8% females. Most of the neonates were term 66 (73.3% and of normal BW 75 (83.4%. A significant association existed between maternal variables and the likely hood of the subjects being less healthy during infancy (?2 = 126.528, p
Baba Usman Ahmadu
Elección de carrera en estudiantes de nivel socioeconómico bajo de universidades chilenas altamente selectivas / Career choice among low socioeconomic-status newcomers in highly selective chilean universities
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar y describir, de manera comprensiva, aquellos factores asociados a la elección de carrera en estudiantes de nivel socioeconómico bajo, que cursan primer año en universidades altamente selectivas de la Región Metropolitana, y detectar potenciale [...] s semejanzas y diferencias entre quienes acceden por ingreso regular (PSU) y quienes lo hacen mediante programas de acción afirmativa. Desde una aproximación cualitativa, la investigación recurrió a la teoría sociocognitiva de desarrollo de carrera, con la finalidad de comprender de manera integrada este proceso de elección. Se llevaron a cabo entrevistas grupales semiestructuradas y se realizó un análisis de contenido categorial temático de los datos. Los resultados se agrupan en tres categorías: factores personales, contextuales y de agencia. Finalmente, se presentan algunas conclusiones y proyecciones para futuros estudios. Abstract in english This research aimed to identify and describe the factors associated with career choice among low socioeconomic-status newcomers enrolled in highly selective universities at the Metropolitan Region of Chile. In addition, it sought to detect similarities and differences among students entering through [...] regular admission (PSU) versus affirmative programs. From a qualitative approach, the research is based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory and included semi-structured group interviews and thematic content analysis. Results are classified into three categories: personal, contextual and agency. Finally, the document presents findings and forecasts for future studies.
Evelyn, Carrasco; Claudia, Zúñiga; Jacqueline, Espinoza.
Full Text Available Objective: To examine association between maternal socio-cultural status, as indicated by maternal Income, education and polygamy with severity of pre–eclampsia."nMaterials and Methods: This study was carried out in Primary Health Centers in Katsina, Adamawa and Borno States. A total of two groups of subjects were selected for the study, with 50 Subjects in each group. Group A - pregnant non hypertensive women; Group B women with pre-eclampsia. Blood pressure was measured in a sitting position with sphygmomanometer after at least 10 minutes of rest. A semi structured questionnaire was administered to each respondent. P value? 0.05 was accepted as significant difference. "nResults: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure BP was significantly different. (167.60±2.75 and 107.48±8.01 Vs. 116.70±0.98 and 76.80±8.67 in group B Vs. group A respectively, P<0.05."nIn Socio–cultural background significant correlation exists between pre–eclampsia and age at first marriage (P= 0.01. There also exists a correlation between age and number of marriages (P= 0.05. Age, parity, history of hypertension and number of marriages are negatively and significantly correlated with pre– eclampsia."nConclusion: This study found that seclusion and polygamy are not risk factors for developing pre-eclampsia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infants born late preterm (34?+?0 to 36?+?6?weeks GA (gestational age are known to have higher neonatal morbidity than term (37?+?0 to 41?+?6?weeks GA infants. There is emerging evidence that these risks may not be homogenous within the term cohort and may be higher in early term (37?+?0 to 38?+?6?weeks GA. These risks may also be affected by socioeconomic status, a risk factor for preterm birth. Methods A retrospective population based cohort of infants born at 34 to 41?weeks of GA was assembled; individual and area-level income was used to develop three socioeconomic (SES groups. Neonatal morbidity was grouped into respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, other respiratory disorders, other complications of prematurity, admission to a Level II/III nursery and receipt of phototherapy. Regression models were constructed to examine the relationship of GA and SES to neonatal morbidity while controlling for other perinatal variables. Results The cohort contained 25 312 infants of whom 6.1% (n?=?1524 were born preterm and 32.4% (n?=?8203 were of low SES. Using 39/40?weeks GA as the reference group there was a decrease in neonatal morbidity at each week of gestation. The odds ratios remained significantly higher at 37?weeks for RDS or other respiratory disorders, and at 38?weeks for all other outcomes. SES had an independent effect, increasing morbidity with odds ratios ranging from 1.2–1.5 for all outcomes except for the RDS group, where it was not significant. Conclusions The risks of morbidity fell throughout late preterm and early term gestation for both respiratory and non-respiratory morbidity. Low SES was associated with an independent increased risk. Recognition that the morbidities associated with prematurity continue into early term gestation and are further compounded by SES is important to develop strategies for improving care of early term infants, avoiding iatrogenic complications and prioritizing public health interventions.
Ruth Chelsea A
Research in social epidemiology and medical sociology has consistently shown that people in lower socioeconomic status groups experience poorer health and live shorter lives than those in higher status groups. However, investigations of such differentials among people aged 65 and over is still comparatively rare. In this issue of the journal Huisman et al report on the results of their analyses of socioeconomic status (housing tenure, education) and mortality among older people. These were ba...
Omega-3 fatty acids are important for several neuronal and cognitive functions. Altered omega-3 fatty acid status has been implicated in reduced resistance to stress and mood disorders. We therefore evaluated the effects of repeated restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days) on adult rats fed omega-3 deficient, control or omega-3 enriched diets from conception. We measured body weight, plasma corticosterone and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptors and correlated these data with emotional and depr...
Hennebelle, Marie; Balasse, Laure; Latour, Alize?e; Champeil-potokar, Gaelle; Denis, Ste?phanie; Lavialle, Monique; Gisquet-verrier, Pascale; Denis, Isabelle; Vancassel, Sylvie
Short overview of the status and problems of automation of nuclear experiments in the Kyiv Institute for Nuclear Research. Possible basic components for creation a typical acquisition systems of multi-parameter experiments on IBM PC and 'bottleneck' there are analyzed. The idea of universal synchronous buffer is proposed for solving the problem and creating high-effective low-cost acquisition systems. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 figs
The objective of this study was to investigate the association exposure to violence, drugs and alcohol has in shaping the psychosocial and behavioral profiles of Mexican American adolescents of low socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 881 Mexican-American adolescents described their exposure to violence, drugs, and alcohol, while their parents responded to a questionnaire about their children?'s behavioral, emotional, and social problems. Participant information was extracted from electronic record databases maintained in six university-based clinics in El Paso, Texas on the U.S. side of the border with Mexico. A total of 463 (52.6%) adolescents reported they had not been exposed to violence, alcohol, or drugs. The remaining 418 (47.4%) adolescents indicated only a single category of exposure: violence (25.1%), alcohol (24.9%), or drugs (8.6%). In addition, some adolescents reported combined exposure to violence and alcohol (13.4%), alcohol and drugs (14.6%), or violence, alcohol, and drugs (13.4%). The association between combined exposure to violence, drugs, and/or alcohol and the psychosocial and behavioral profiles of these Mexican-American adolescents showed an increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems. Little is known about the mental health of Mexican Americans who are exposed to alcohol, violence, and drugs, especially adolescents living in poverty in neighborhoods along the U.S.-Mexico border, who are at a high risk for these exposures. These findings highlight the risks associated with adolescent exposure to violence, drugs, and alcohol and the need for effective interventions within this subgroup of Mexican-American youth and their families. PMID:24652396
Peinado, Jesus; Theresa Villanos, Maria; Singh, Namrata; Leiner, Marie
Objectives To help guide universal influenza vaccination efforts in the United States, it is important to know which demographic groups are currently at highest risk of costly complications of influenza infection. Few studies have examined the relationship between hospitalization with influenza and either socioeconomic status (SES) or sex. We examined associations between census tract-level SES and sex and incidence of influenza-related hospitalizations among adults. Design Descriptive analysis of data collected by active population-based surveillance for persons >18 years old hospitalized with laboratory confirmed influenza during the 2007–2008 through 2010–2011 influenza seasons. Case residential addresses were geocoded and linked to data from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey to obtain census-tract level (neighborhood) SES measures. Census-tract level SES variables included measures of poverty, education, crowding, primary language, and median income. Four levels were created for each. Setting New Haven, County, Connecticut. Sample Entire New Haven County population >18 years old. Main Outcome Measures Age-adjusted incidence of influenza hospitalizations and relative risk by sex and by each of five SES measures. Results Crude and age-adjusted incidence progressively increased with decreasing neighborhood SES for each measure both overall and for each influenza season. Female incidence was higher than male for each age group, and female age-adjusted incidence was higher for each SES level and influenza season. Conclusions Female sex and lower neighborhood SES were independently and consistently associated with higher incidence of hospitalization of adults with influenza. If this is more broadly the case, these findings have implications for future influenza vaccination efforts. Analysis using census tract SES measures can provide additional perspective on health disparities. PMID:24382111
Tam, Karman; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Hadler, James L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES predicts coronary heart disease independently of the traditional risk factors included in the Framingham risk score. However, it is unknown whether changes in Framingham risk score variables over time explain the association between SES and coronary heart disease. We examined this question given its relevance to risk assessment in clinical decision making. Methods The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study data (initiated in 1987 with 10-years follow-up of 15,495 adults aged 45-64 years in four Southern and Mid-Western communities were used. SES was assessed at baseline, dichotomized as low SES (defined as low education and/or low income or not. The time dependent variables - smoking, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and use of blood pressure lowering medication - were assessed every three years. Ten-year incidence of coronary heart disease was based on EKG and cardiac enzyme criteria, or adjudicated death certificate data. Cox survival analyses examined the contribution of SES to heart disease risk independent of baseline Framingham risk score, without and with further adjustment for the time dependent variables. Results Adjusting for baseline Framingham risk score, low SES was associated with an increased coronary heart disease risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.53; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.27 to1.85. After further adjustment for the time dependent variables, the SES effect remained significant (HR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.19 to1.74. Conclusion Using Framingham Risk Score alone under estimated the coronary heart disease risk in low SES persons. This bias was not eliminated by subsequent changes in Framingham risk score variables.
Tancredi Daniel J
Hypertension (HTN) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are lifestyle interrelated diseases of global significance. Interestingly, the prevalence of these diseases in Africa and indeed Nigeria seems to be on the increase. This study, therefore, investigated the socioeconomic status (based on income, education and occupational activity) of 400 subjects (52% female and 48% male) aged 20 years and above who were sampled randomly among the newly diagnosed HTN and/or T2D cases at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, North-West Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the subjects. From the result obtained, most of the respondents who live in towns or city suffer from either HTN or T2D while more town dwellers (28%) suffer from a combination of both diseases. It was also discovered that most respondents who suffer from HTN and from a combination of HTN and T2D belong to the old generation (60-79 years). There is higher prevalence rate of diabetes among the respondents who had no formal education or attended only basic Arabic schools. Most respondents who earn good income (NGN50,000-NGN100,000 and above NGN100,000) suffer HTN, T2D and a combination of both diseases. Those engaged in heavy occupational activities had the lowest prevalence of the disease compared with those of light or moderate occupational activities. These data will be found useful in planning intervention healthcare preventive programs especially on public enlightenment workshops and seminars to educate the populace on the importance of lifestyle modification, healthy diet and regular exercises. PMID:25560354
Okoduwa, Stanley Irobekhian Reuben; Umar, Ismaila Alhaji; Ibrahim, Sani; Bello, Fatima; Ndidi, Uche Samuel
Full Text Available Este estudo longitudinal investigou a contribuição de fatores psicossociais para o desempenho em leitura de crianças. Participaram 59 mães e seus filhos aos 4 meses, 2, 5-6 e 9-11 anos. Correlacionou-se o desempenho em leitura das crianças a variáveis psicossociais. Encontrou-se correlações negativas entre morbidade psiquiátrica materna na primeira infância e leitura de palavras irregulares e entre o número de familiares que residiam com a criança aos 2 e 5-6 anos e o desempenho na leitura de palavras. A renda familiar aos 2 anos correlacionou-se positivamente com compreensão textual. Entretanto, apenas o número de familiares que residiam com a criança foi preditor do desempenho em leitura de palavras. Conclui-se que o desempenho em leitura relaciona-se a fatores psicossociais.This longitudinal study investigated the impact of psychosocial factors on reading performance of children with low socioeconomic status. Fifty nine mothers and their children at 4 months, 2, 5-6 and 9-11 years of age participated. The children's reading performance was correlated with psychosocial variables. Negative correlations were found between maternal psychiatric morbidity in early childhood and reading of irregular words, and between the number of family members living with the child at 2 and 5-6 years and word reading performance. Family income at 2 years correlated positively with reading comprehension. However, only the number of family members who lived with the child was a predictor of reading performance. The results indicate that reading performance is related to psychosocial factors.
Luciane da Rosa Piccolo
This report is a result of the Concerted Action Reconciling Gamebird Hunting and Biodiversity (REGHAB, hereafter), within the V Framework Program of the European Union. We will address here the objectives of the first workpackage in that project, dealing with socio-economic, cultural and biological variation of gamebird hunting in Europe. On this report, we have centred the information on Galliforms, the main gamebird species in Europe, although some information will be provide...
Marti?nez-padilla, Jesu?s; Vin?uela, Javier; Villafuerte, Rafael
Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. Results The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Conclusions Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender, discerning between real and perceived experiences of discrimination and considering potentially moderating factors such as coping strategy and internalization of racial stereotypes are important issues to address in future Canadian racial inequalities research of this kind.
Abstract Background Asthma is more common among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australian adults, but little is known about socioeconomic patterning of asthma within the Indigenous population, or whether it is similar to the non-Indigenous population. Methods I analysed weighted data on self-reported current diagnosed asthma and a range of socio-economic and demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nati...